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0 HR550 Human Resources and Business Workflow HR550 R/3 System Release 45B 13.11.1999
0 HR550 Human Resources and Business Workflow HR550 R/3 System Release 45B 13.11.1999
0 HR550 Human Resources and Business Workflow HR550 R/3 System Release 45B 13.11.1999

0

0 HR550 Human Resources and Business Workflow HR550 R/3 System Release 45B 13.11.1999

HR550 Human Resources and Business Workflow

HR550

R/3 System

Release 45B

13.11.1999

0 HR550 Human Resources and Business Workflow HR550 R/3 System Release 45B 13.11.1999
HR550 Human Resources and Business Workflow HR550HR550 Human Human Resources Resources and and Business Business
HR550 Human Resources and Business Workflow
HR550HR550
Human Human Resources Resources and and
Business Business Workflow Workflow
 SAP AG 1999

R/3

Release 4.0

July 1998

50026165

Copyright Copyright 1998 SAP AG. All rights reserved. Neither this training manual nor any part
Copyright
Copyright 1998 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
Neither this training manual nor any part thereof may
be copied or reproduced in any form or by any means,
or translated into another language, without the prior
consent of SAP AG. The information contained in this
document is subject to change and supplement
without prior notice.
All rights reserved.
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 SAP AG
Trademarks

SAP and the SAP logo are registered trademarks of SAP AG.

MS-DOS and EXCEL are registered trademarks of Microsoft.

OS/2, CICS, MVS, ACF/VTAM, VSE, AIX, OS/400 and AS/400 are registered trademarks of IBM.

X Window System is a registered trademark of MIT University.

SINIX, UTM and BS2000 are registered trademarks of Siemens.

UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T.

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DECnet, DECstation, DECsystem, VAXstation and VMS are registered trademarks of DEC.

Ethernet is a registered trademark of the Xerox Corporation.

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INFORMIX-OnLine and INFORMIX-ESQL/C are registered trademarks of the INFORMIX Corporation.

R/3 Integration Model SD SD FI FI Sales Sales & & Financial Financial Distribution Distribution
R/3 Integration Model
SD SD
FI FI
Sales Sales & &
Financial Financial
Distribution Distribution
Accounting Accounting
MM MM
CO CO
Materials Materials
Controlling Controlling
Mgmt Mgmt
PP PP
AA AA
Production Production
Asset Asset
Planning Planning
Accounting Accounting
R/3 R/3
PS PS
QM QM
Client/Server Client/Server
Project Project
Quality Quality
System System
Mgmt Mgmt
PM PM
ABAP ABAP
WF WF
Plant Plant
Workflow Workflow
Maintenance Maintenance
HR HR
IS IS
Human Human
Industry Industry
Resources Resources
Solutions Solutions
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 SAP AG
Human Resources (1) Level 2 Level 3 HR510 2 days Personnel Development HR505 3 days
Human Resources (1)
Level 2
Level 3
HR510
2 days
Personnel Development
HR505
3 days
HR515
3 days
Organizational
Training and Event
Management
Management
HR305
3 days
HR306
2 days
HR520
2 days
Configuration of
Configuration of
Shift- and Workforce
Master Data
Time Recording
Planning
HR315
3 days
HR310/311
4 days
Recruitment
(see
Time Evaluation
HR050
5 days
HR2)
Human Resources
HR307
2 days
Configuration of HR
AC270
3 days
Administration &
Travel Management
Security
HR350
5 days
HR540
3 days
Programming in HR
Compensation
HR530
3 days
HR325
2 days
Technical Topics in HR
Benefits Administration
HR550
2 days
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CA500
2 days
Human Resources &
CATS Cross-Application
Business Workflow
Time Sheets
 SAP AG
Human Resources (2) Level 2 Level 3 Level 3 (Germany only) HR390 2 days HR305
Human Resources (2)
Level 2
Level 3
Level 3
(Germany only)
HR390
2 days
HR305
3 days
Introduction to Payroll
Configuration of Master
Data
HR400
5
days
Payroll Configuration
HR801
2 days
HR4xx
3
days
Net Payroll Essentials
Country-Specific
(Germany only)
Payroll
HR050
5 days
Human Resources
HR700/HR7xx 3 days
HR651
3 days
Payroll Reporting
Construction Industry
(Germany only)
? days
HR601
HR490
4
days
Incentive Wages
Public Sector
(Germany only)
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 SAP AG
Course Prerequisites  HR050 - Human Resources R  SAP AG
Course Prerequisites
 HR050 - Human Resources
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 SAP AG
Target Audience  Participants:  Project team  Consultants  Duration:  2 days R
Target Audience
 Participants:
 Project team
 Consultants
 Duration:
 2 days
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 SAP AG
Notes to the user

The training materials are not teach-yourself programs. They complement the course instructor's explanations. On the sheets, there is space for you to write down additional information.

Introduction: Contents  Course objectives  Course content  Main business scenario  Course introduction
Introduction: Contents
 Course objectives
 Course content
 Main business scenario
 Course introduction
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 SAP AG
Course Objectives This course provides you with information on:  The most important terms and
Course Objectives
This course provides you with information on:
 The most important terms and concepts
in SAP Business Workflow
 The Human Resource (HR) context in which
SAP Business Workflow is used
 Workflow examples from HR
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 SAP AG
Course Content Preface Unit 1 Introduction Unit 4 Workflow in HR Unit 2 Organizational Plan
Course Content
Preface
Unit 1
Introduction
Unit 4
Workflow in HR
Unit 2
Organizational Plan
Unit 5
Workflow Reporting
Unit 3
Process Structure
Exercises
Solutions
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 SAP AG
Main Business Scenario  You want to implement SAP Business Workflow to support business processes
Main Business Scenario
 You want to implement SAP Business
Workflow to support business processes at
your enterprise
 You require an overview of the basic
concepts, and are interested in the
advantages for and effects on Human
Resources
 You are particularly interested in Human
Resource processes that can be improved by
workflow
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 SAP AG
Introduction: Objectives At the conclusion of this unit, you will understand  The fundamental principle
Introduction: Objectives
At the conclusion of this unit, you will understand
 The fundamental principle on which
SAP Business Workflow is based
 How workflow can help your enterprise
to work more efficiently
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 SAP AG
What is Workflow? R  SAP AG  Please think about this question for a
What is Workflow?
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 SAP AG
 Please think about this question for a moment before turning to the next page.

If you want, you can note your ideas down on this page:

Workflow in One Sentence Successful workflow management means providing employees at the appropriate time with
Workflow in One Sentence
Successful workflow management means
providing employees at the appropriate time
with suitable tasks and relevant information
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 SAP AG
 SAP provides you with the tools and templates you require.
Where is Workflow Used? Workflow simplifies processes That consist of a series of activities In
Where is Workflow Used?
Workflow simplifies processes
That consist of a series of activities
In which more than one person is involved
That are executed time and time again in exactly
the same way
That require a high level of coordination
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 SAP AG
Why Workflow? Workflow was developed to  Shorten lead times  Automate business processes 
Why Workflow?
Workflow was developed to
 Shorten lead times
 Automate business processes
 Reduce costs
 Transfer responsibility from one person to another
 Accelerate the flow of information
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 SAP AG
Continuous Business Engineering  Workflow supports the implementation of business processes  Workflow links
Continuous Business Engineering
 Workflow supports the implementation of
business processes
 Workflow links functions that are structurally
separate
 Workflow helps expose weaknesses within
processes
 Workflow is flexible and enables you to adapt
processes swiftly to new conditions
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 SAP AG
 The employee finds his or her E-mails and tasks - which are referred to

The employee finds his or her E-mails and tasks - which are referred to as work items - in an integrated inbox.

By double clicking on a work item, the employee immediately accesses the appropriate R/3 screen, which already contains the relevant data.

The employee receives additional information, such as notes written by colleagues, together with the work item.

Excel sheets or Word documents, for example, can be integrated. They are directly accessible.

=> Changes of work media, i.e. from computer activities to working with pen and paper, are avoided.

Workflow Helps Management  Business processes are checked and controlled  Automatic notification if deadlines
Workflow Helps Management
 Business processes are checked
and controlled
 Automatic notification if deadlines
are exceeded
 Analyses using the Workflow
Information System
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 SAP AG
 The manager is supported by the workflow manager. Work is distributed automatically to the
appropriate employees in accordance with previously defined rules.

Various tools facilitate the swift creation of analyses of and statistics on processing times, completed tasks, agents included in processes, and so on.

Workflow is More Than Just  Document management and display  E-mail and groupware 
Workflow is More Than Just
 Document management and display
 E-mail and groupware
 Data distribution using different systems (EDI / ALE)
 Management of screen processes
 Management of temporary data
 Management of unique processes
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 SAP AG
Planning In In which which areas areas is is SAP SAP Business Business Workflow Workflow
Planning
In In which which areas areas is is SAP SAP
Business Business Workflow Workflow implemented? implemented?
Increasing Increasing complexity complexity
Workflows to
Workflows to
Workflows to
optimize the flow
control individual
control
of information
activities
complex processes
Exception/
error handling
Approval procedures
Automatic
system activities
Deadline monitoring
Automatic help
Process transparency
Cross-applicational
processes
 SAP AG
Flow of information Doc. processing  Decisions:
Flow of information Doc. processing  Decisions:
Flow of information Doc. processing  Decisions:

Flow of information

Flow of information Doc. processing  Decisions:

Doc. processing

Decisions:

What are the aims of an SAP Business Workflow implementation? There are a number of reasons for deciding to implement workflow. Once the business objectives have been defined, a team of technical and business experts must be created to carry out the project.

Which role is played by each individual team member?

Which resources are required to initiate and successfully conclude the project?

Will the team members require training for their tasks? How much training will they need?

How much time is available to carry out the project?

Introduction: Summary In this unit, you have learned  What SAP means by workflow 
Introduction: Summary
In this unit, you have learned
 What SAP means by workflow
 About the advantages of Business
Engineering with workflow
 Why Human Resources is relevant
to workflow
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 SAP AG
Organizational Plan: Contents  Bases of organizational management  Use of simple maintenance  Prerequisites
Organizational Plan: Contents
 Bases of organizational management
 Use of simple maintenance
 Prerequisites for workflow
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 SAP AG
Organizational Plan: Objectives At the conclusion of this unit, you will  Understand the methods
Organizational Plan: Objectives
At the conclusion of this unit, you will
 Understand the methods used in
organizational management
 Understand the meaning of
organizational units, jobs,
positions, and tasks
 Be able to use simple maintenance
 Be familiar with the interface between
organizational management and
workflow
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 SAP AG
Organizational Plan: Business Scenario  SAP Business Workflow will be implemented at your enterprise. Your
Organizational Plan: Business Scenario
 SAP Business Workflow will be
implemented at your enterprise. Your
task is to ensure that the Human Resource
department meets the implementation
prerequisites.
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 SAP AG
Section 1: Bases of Organizational Management R  SAP AG
Section 1: Bases of Organizational Management
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 SAP AG
Methods - Object-Based Design Organizational management is based on creating and using organizational objects, and
Methods - Object-Based Design
Organizational management is based on creating
and using organizational objects, and relating
them to each other
 Manages
 Describes
 Reports to
 Is subordinate to
 etc
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 SAP AG

Organizational management is based on the idea of representing each element within an organization as a separate object with its own, individual characteristics. Such objects are created and maintained individually. They are then linked to each other by relationships (see above) to form a network that is flexible enough to facilitate personnel planning, forecasts, and evaluations.

Elements of an Organizational Plan The relationships between the basic object types give rise to
Elements of an Organizational Plan
The relationships between the basic object types
give rise to the following main blocks
Marketing Marketing
Sales Mexico Mexico
Reg Reg Sls Sls Mgr Mgr
 Organizational structure
Reg Reg Sls Sls Mgr Mgr
 Reporting structure
Reg Reg Sls Sls Mgr Mgr
 Staff assignments
Admin.Assist. Admin.Assist.
 Job index
Sales Europe Europe
Reg Reg Sls Sls Mgr Mgr
Reg Reg Sls Sls Mgr Mgr
 Work center index
Sales US US
Reg Reg Sls Sls Mgr Mgr
 Task catalog
Reg Reg Sls Sls Mgr Mgr
Admin.Assist. Admin.Assist.
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Admin.Assist. Admin.Assist.
 SAP AG
 The organizational plan provides a way of representing the Human Resource environment at your
enterprise as a structure. It is both dynamic and complete. All information is fully integrated but
maintained in separate infotypes. You can decide to create an organizational plan for your entire
enterprise, or just a small section or department.

The organizational structure constitutes the hierarchy that exists among the various organizational entities at your enterprise. You create an organizational structure by creating and maintaining organizational units, which you then relate to each other.

The reporting structure identifies the chain of command, or authority structure, that exists at your enterprise. You create a reporting structure by creating and maintaining positions.

Staff assignments constitute the assignment of positions to organizational units, and the relationships between positions and persons. You create staff assignments by copying a position from a job, assigning the position to an organizational unit, and assigning a holder to the position.

The job index contains the various jobs at your enterprise. You create a job index by creating and maintaining jobs.

The work center index contains the various work centers at your enterprise. You create a work center index by creating and maintaining work centers.

The task catalog contains the tasks performed by the employees at your enterprise. The catalog can also identify sets of tasks that are routinely performed together. You create a task catalog by creating and maintaining tasks and then, if necessary, relating them to each other.

Object Types Organizational management is based on using objects and relationships. There are five basic
Object Types
Organizational management is based on using
objects and relationships. There are five basic object types,
each with its own object type code
Object types
Object type codes
 Organizational units
O
 Jobs
C
 Positions
S
 Tasks
T
 Work centers
A
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 SAP AG
Organizational Units Executive Board Organizational units describe the various business units at your enterprise. HR
Organizational Units
Executive Board
Organizational units
describe the various
business units at your
enterprise.
HR
Finance
Several organizational
units with
corresponding
relationships constitute
an organizational
structure.
Benefits
Payroll
A/P
A/R
Audit
Examples:
 By function
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 By geographical region
 By business process
 SAP AG
 Organizational units can be defined loosely in accordance with functional or regional criteria, or
more specifically as special project groups, depending on your enterprise.

Organizational units must be related to each other in an organizational plan. These relationships give rise to the hierarchical structure of your enterprise.

Example:

In the above example, the HR organizational unit is superior to its two subordinate objects, Payroll and Benefits.

Jobs Jobs are general Examples: classifications of  Head of Department tasks performed  Buyer
Jobs
Jobs are general
Examples:
classifications of
 Head of Department
tasks performed
 Buyer
by employees
 Secretary
Secretary
Buyer
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Head of Department
 SAP AG
 Each job is a unique description of a job at your enterprise. When jobs are created, their tasks and
requirements are taken into consideration.

Jobs are used in the following components:

Job and Position Description

Shift Planning

Personnel Cost Planning

Career and Succession Planning

Note:

Your job descriptions should be as general as possible and as detailed as necessary.

Positions  Positions are specific to Positions are the your enterprise concrete representation  More
Positions
 Positions are specific to
Positions are the
your enterprise
concrete representation
 More than one position can
of jobs. They are held
be based on the same job
by individuals at your
enterprise.
 Each position typically
represents one employee,
but may be partially filled
by more than one
Job:
Head of
Dept.
Position:
HoD: HR
Position:
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HoD: Purchasing
Position:
HoD: Sales
 SAP AG
 Once you have created a job, you must define the number of positions required at your enterprise.

A position inherits the job’s tasks, and can also be assigned its own additional tasks.

Positions can be 100% staffed, partially staffed, or vacant.

Example:

Jobs are not staffed by employees. That is the role of positions. If jobs must be performed by more than one person, more than one position must be created to meet this requirement. A position can also be shared by more than one employee, each of them assigned in part to the position. For example, one employee can be 60% assigned, and another 40% assigned to the same position.

 Tasks can be considered as  Workflow elements used to monitor cross-applicational processes 

Tasks can be considered as

Workflow elements used to monitor cross-applicational processes

Human Resource tools used to describe positions and jobs (this will be discussed further)

As far as HR is concerned, tasks are individual duties and responsibilities that must be undertaken by employees.

All tasks are included in a task catalog. The task catalog lists all of the tasks that exist in a particular period. If task groups have been defined, the catalog also illustrates how the various tasks are linked to each other.

If you intend to relate tasks with positions, you must first relate the tasks that are common to all positions with the appropriate job. If you then create positions using jobs, the tasks are assigned automatically to the positions. This method saves you lots of time and energy because individual tasks do not have to be related with individual positions.

Note:

If you assign the same tasks to different jobs, you can apply different weightings. This provides you with more information when analyzing job descriptions.

Work Centers  Restrictions Work centers describe the  Health examination physical locations where requirements
Work Centers
 Restrictions
Work centers describe the
 Health examination
physical locations where
requirements
tasks are performed
 Examples:
 Word processing,
21st floor
 Welding,
central plant
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 SAP AG
 Work centers describe specific physical locations where work is performed. They are equipped for
this purpose.

A work center can be a general location, such as a branch office in Philadelphia or subsidiary in Singapore, or a precisely defined location, such as a specific work center with specific equipment in a specific building. This kind of work center definition is useful in a factory or plant, for example.

Several positions can share one work center. For example, the reception work center can be assigned to two positions held be employees assigned to different shifts.

Once you have created work centers, you can describe their characteristics. For example, you can assign restrictions such as this work center is not suitable for physically challenged persons, or determine that specific health examinations must be carried out on a regular basis.

Note:

If you also want to use a work center in Logistics, its characteristics specific to production are assigned within the Logistics application component.

Additional Object Types Once you have created your organizational plan using the five basic object
Additional Object Types
Once you have created your organizational plan using
the five basic object types, you can create additional
object types to complete the representation of
your enterprise
 Cost center
 Person
Cost center
 Qualifications
 User
Qualifications
 Business event type
etc
. .
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Person
 SAP AG
Relationships Between Basic Object Types  Organizational units O C Job  Jobs C S
Relationships Between Basic Object Types
 Organizational units
O
C
Job
 Jobs
C
S
S
 Positions
S
S
Position
Position
 Tasks
T
Position
 Work centers
A
O
Org. unit
S
O
Org. unit
Position
S Position
C Job
T
T
S
Position
Task
Task
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S
S
Position
Position
 SAP AG

The relationships between basic object types are defined in the standard system and should not be changed.

Each standard relationship has a three-digit code. The customer namespace is from AAA to ZZZ.

Relationships between objects are reciprocal. If a job describes a position, for example, then the position is described by the job. When you assign a relationship, the system automatically creates its inverse relationship. This enables you to carry out reporting from either perspective.

Relationships Between Organizational Units An organizational unit “reports to” another organizational unit Example:
Relationships Between Organizational Units
An organizational unit “reports to” another organizational unit
Example: finance “reports to” administration
An organizational unit “is the line manager of” other
organizational units
Example: the executive board “is the line manager of” administration,
production, and sales
Relationship
Board
A/B 002
Administration
Production
Sales
Finance
Controlling
HR
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 SAP AG
Relationship Between Jobs and Positions The job “describes” the position. The position “is described by”
Relationship Between Jobs and Positions
The job “describes” the position.
The position “is described by” the job.
Relationship
Administrative assistant
A/B 007
for marketing department
Administrative assistant
for executive board
Job:
administrative
assistant
Administrative assistant
for research department
 SAP AG
Relationship Between Organizational Unit and Position Positions are linked to organizational units by relationships
Relationship Between Organizational Unit
and Position
Positions are linked
to organizational
units by relationships
Relationship
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A/B 003
 SAP AG
 Positions must be linked to an organizational unit. However, if you want to view the position hierarchy,
you must create a reporting structure by relating positions to each other.

An organizational unit can incorporate one or more positions. A position belongs to an organizational unit.

Example:

The organizational unit "Personnel" incorporates the positions "Head of Department" and "Secretary". The position "Secretary" belongs to the organizational unit "Personnel".

 The relationships between positions form the reporting structure, which can be evaluated independently of

The relationships between positions form the reporting structure, which can be evaluated independently of the organizational structure.

Note:

It is a good idea to create a reporting structure if it differs from the hierarchical structure of the departments at your enterprise.

Relationship to Person and R/3 User The holder relationship assigns a person or user to
Relationship to Person and R/3 User
The holder relationship assigns a person or user
to a position
Person
Holder
relationship
Position
User
 SAP AG
 There are two ways of assigning a user to a position:

The user is related directly with the position. This method must be used if Human Resources has not been implemented.

The user is maintained in infotype 0105 "Communication" of HR master data. By relating the person with a position, the user is related with the position automatically.

The position-user-relationship is used by workflow for the distribution of work items.

 You can enhance the existing data model in Customizing. For example, you can define

You can enhance the existing data model in Customizing. For example, you can define new relationships between object types.

Infotypes Object characteristics are maintained in infotypes  Object  Organizational unit, position, job 
Infotypes
Object characteristics are maintained in infotypes
 Object
 Organizational unit, position,
job
 Relationships
 belongs to, reports to
Main
Main
characteristics
characteristics
Examples Examples
 Description
 General text
 Work schedule
 Planned working hours
Additional
Additional
 Cost planning
 Cost elements
characteristics
characteristics
 Address
 First address, second address
 SAP AG
 Objects consist of three components:

The first component is the ID number, a short and long text defining the existence of the object.

The second component is the structural relationship or relationships between the object and other objects.

The third component is the object characteristics.

Relationships are a descriptive and functional link between objects. For example:

A person is the holder of a position

A position belongs to an organizational unit

An organizational unit is assigned to a cost center in CO

Some infotypes can only be assigned to certain objects. For example, the Vacancy infotype is only allowed for positions, and the Restrictions infotype is only allowed for work centers. Not all infotypes are mandatory. However, they can contain important, detailed information on objects.

 You can maintain any number of plan versions. One of these plan versions represents

You can maintain any number of plan versions. One of these plan versions represents the active organizational plan, and is flagged as the active integration plan version.

Plan versions exist independently of each other. They can be created as copies of the original plan, which you then change and re-evaluate without modifying the valid plan.

Each new plan version is assigned a unique, two-character, alphanumeric identification code.

You can determine the current plan version for each individual session, or generally using the user parameters (POP).

Examples of organizational structure scenarios:

Restructuring

Downsizing

Expansion

Outsourcing

Methods - Additional Planning Aids In Organizational Management, information is always assigned a status and
Methods - Additional Planning Aids
In Organizational Management, information is always
assigned a status and a validity period.
Time constraints are used to determine rules on
how long the information exists.
Status
Validity period
Time constraint
Jan. 1999
Planned
1
Submitted
Active
Time
Rejected
Approved
Dec. 2002
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31
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 The status indicator enables you to optimize your planning process. Objects in plan versions can pass
through a planning cycle that finally activates or rejects them.

The validity period enables you to determine, for example, that a position only exists for a specific length of time. If an object is delimited, its relationships and characteristics are also delimited automatically.

Time constraints enable you to control system reactions in accordance with the requirements of your enterprise. If you want a position to report to more than one superior, for example, you can adjust the time constraint so that more than one relationship is allowed.

The following time constraint classes are available:

The information must be available for the entire duration of an object's existence, and it

0:

cannot be changed.

1:

be changed.

The information must be available for the entire duration of an object's existence, but it can

2:

The information is optional, but can only exist once within any period.

3:

The information is optional, and more than one record can exist simultaneously within any

period.

Methods - Planning Organizational Management enables you to get a clear picture of your organization
Methods - Planning
Organizational Management enables you to get a clear
picture of your organization in the past, present,
and future. Using this information, you can prepare for
and react to future HR requirements and changes.
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Present
Future
 SAP AG
 An enterprise’s organizational structure is displayed on the left side of the graphic as it currently exists.
Using the Organizational Management application component, any type of enterprise restructuring or
reorganization can be planned and then reproduced in the system.
Section 2: Simple Maintenance R  SAP AG
Section 2: Simple Maintenance
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 SAP AG
Features of Simple Maintenance Tree structure Initial screens Views Board Manufacturing Organizational HR Overall
Features of Simple Maintenance
Tree structure
Initial screens
Views
Board
Manufacturing
Organizational
HR
Overall view
Production
plan
view
Marketing
SAP Business
Sales: USA
HR
Workflow
users
Sales: Europe
users
Account
Enter notification of absence
Notification of
Sales: Mexico
absence created
assignment
Approve notification of absence
Approved
Rejected
Set flag
Revise notification of absence ?
HR
Set
No
Yes
Delete notification of
Revise notification of
absence
absence
Deleted
Revised
Planning
Resubmit for approval?
N
o
Yes
Complete
workflow
Administration
Workflow
Characteristics
completed
Finance
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 SAP AG
 Simple maintenance uses a tree structure, which enables you to quickly and easily create a basic
framework for your organizational plan.

When you use simple maintenance, different initial screens enable you to access different functions.

The Organizational Plan window enables you to

Create and maintain your organizational structure

Add jobs and positions to the organizational structure

Assign tasks to jobs and positions

Create a reporting structure

In the Account Assignment window, you assign cost centers to your organizational units and positions.

In the Characteristics window, you can assign the most important information to your objects.

Simple maintenance is intended for workflow users and HR users, which means you have a choice of two views. The overall view enables users to access all functions required by workflow. The HR view restricts access to the areas relevant to Human Resources.

 If you want to create an organizational plan in Simple Maintenance, the first step

If you want to create an organizational plan in Simple Maintenance, the first step is to create a root organizational unit. You can then create all of the subordinate organizational units.

You can create organizational units and jobs in any order. However, they must exist before you can create their positions.

Tasks are assigned on the basis of jobs and positions.

You assign cost centers to organizational units and positions.

In the final step, you assign holders to positions, not to jobs.

Step 1: Create the Root Organizational Unit Executive Board Organizational unit Abbr. Executive Name Executive
Step 1: Create the Root Organizational Unit
Executive
Board
Organizational unit
Abbr.
Executive
Name
Executive Board
Validity period
04.01.1998 to
12.31.9999
R
 SAP AG
 If you want to create a new organizational plan, you start by creating a root organizational unit. This is
the highest unit within an organizational structure, such as the Executive Board. You then build the
organizational structure below the root organizational unit, that is, downwards.

The date entered on the initial screen is used as the default validity period for all of the objects and relationships you create.

Step 2: Create Additional Organizational Units Executive Board Human Manufacturing Sales Finance Resources and
Step 2: Create Additional Organizational Units
Executive
Board
Human
Manufacturing
Sales
Finance
Resources
and Production
and Marketing
Validity period for
organizational unit
Board
Executive Board
04.01.1998
- 12.31.9999
Name
Abbr.
Relationship
Manufac.
Manufacturing and Production
Marketing
Marketing and Sales
04.01.1998
- 12.31.9999
HR
Human Resources
R
Finance
Finance
 SAP AG
 Starting from the root organizational unit, you create additional subordinate organizational units. In the
above example, the Executive Board is the superordinate object, and the Manufacturing and Production,
Marketing and Sales, Human Resources, and Finance departments are the subordinate objects.

If you create organizational units in Simple Maintenance, the system determines the appropriate relationship depending on where you place the organizational unit in the structure. The relationship record is created automatically.

Step 2: Edit the Organizational Structure Executive Board Human Manufacturing Marketing Finance Resources and
Step 2: Edit the Organizational Structure
Executive
Board
Human
Manufacturing
Marketing
Finance
Resources
and Production
and Sales
Personnel Dev.
You can make changes
Payroll
to the individual
organizational units
Recruitment
within your
organizational structure
R
 SAP AG
 If you want to change the assignment of an organizational unit within the organizational structure, you
can move it. Moving an organizational unit changes the relationships between the organizational units.
In other words, you change relationship infotype records by delimiting the current record and creating a
new one.

If you want to change the short or long text, use the Rename function.

The following functions are also available:

Delete objects and relationships

Delimit objects and relationships

Determine the sequence of organizational units

You can display or hide further information such as the object abbreviation, validity period, and ID.

Step 3: Create Jobs Administrative assistant Staff assignments Validity period 04.01.1998 - 12.31.9999
Step 3: Create Jobs
Administrative
assistant
Staff
assignments
Validity period
04.01.1998
- 12.31.9999
Abbreviation
Admin Assist.
Name
Administrative Assistant
R
 SAP AG
 You create jobs in the Staff Assignments window.
Step 4: Create Positions Organizational unit u Sales: Mexico Choose defining job Abbr. Admin Assist
Step 4: Create Positions
Organizational unit
u
Sales: Mexico
Choose defining job
Abbr.
Admin Assist
Create job
Name
Administrative Assistant
Position
Abbr.
Admin Assist
Name
Administrative Assistant
Administrative assistant
Number of required positions
3
for sales: Mexico
Validity period of positions
04.01.1998
to
12.31.9999
R
 SAP AG
 A fundamental concept in Organizational Management is that all positions must be related with a
job.This enables a position to inherit the attributes of the job, which considerably reduces the amount of
time required for data entry.

Once a job has been created, it can be used as a template for positions. The system automatically creates the relationship records between the positions and jobs. The name of the job is used as the default name of the position.

You can create more than one position at the same time. The same name is assigned to all of the positions created this way.

Unlike jobs, positions are assigned directly to organizational units.

Step 4: Edit Positions Marketing and Sales Existing positions can be changed and Sales: USA
Step 4: Edit Positions
Marketing and Sales
Existing positions
can be changed and
Sales: USA
assigned additional
+
characteristics
Chief
Sales: Mexico
-
position
Defining
Regional Sales Manager (Manager)
relationships
Administrative Assistant Mexico
Regional Sales Manager
Administrative Assistant Mexico
Administrative Assistant Mexico
Administrative
Assistant
Sales: Europe
+
R
 SAP AG
 A chief position is a position designated as the leader of a particular organizational unit. You are not
obliged to designate chief positions. If you decide to designate chief positions, the system creates a
relationship between the organizational unit and position.

The following functions are available:

Rename

Move

Delete and delimit objects and relationships

Determine the order of positions

Note:

Designating a position as the chief position is for information purposes only. Chief positions can be evaluated in Structural Graphics. If you want to create a reporting structure, you must access Detail Maintenance or use the reporting structure function within Simple Maintenance.

Tip:

If you intend to create a reporting structure for your positions, you must define the chief position in the reporting structure.

Step 4: Create Reporting Structure Positions are related with each other to form a reporting
Step 4: Create Reporting Structure
Positions are related
with each other to form
a reporting structure
R
 SAP AG
 You can relate positions with each other to create a reporting structure.

The reporting structure can be created within an organizational unit or across a number of organizational units.

Step 5: Assign Tasks Position Job Task Organizational unit Administrative Task assistant, sales: Mexico Task
Step 5: Assign Tasks
Position
Job
Task
Organizational unit
Administrative
Task
assistant,
sales: Mexico
Task
Task
Task
Task
WF WF
HR HR
R
Task catalog
 SAP AG
 For the purposes of Human Resource Management, tasks are individual duties and responsibilities
carried out by employees.

All tasks are included in a task catalog. You can create individual tasks, or task groups. Individual tasks are single activities, such as 'answer telephone calls', 'create departmental budget', 'check equipment' and so on. Task groups describe activities that are regularly performed together.

The tasks assigned to a job are inherited by its position. The task profile enables you to display all of the tasks assigned to a position.

If necessary, you can assign a weighting to your tasks. Weightings enable you to enter recommended time divisions for a job. For example, the job of secretary could be subdivided as follows: word processing 75%; answering the telephone 10%; filing 10%; organizing business trips 5%.

Special tasks are used for workflow. They represent executable activities in the R/3 System, such as entering an employee's payroll data. They always relate to an SAP business object.

If necessary, tasks can also be assigned directly to users.

Step 6: Assign Cost Center Cost center: executive Executive board Board Cost center: admin./HR Administration
Step 6: Assign Cost Center
Cost center:
executive
Executive
board
Board
Cost center:
admin./HR
Administration
Sales
Production
Human
Finance
Resources
Cost center:
Cost center:
production
sales
R
Cost center:
finance
 SAP AG
 You assign cost centers to your organizational units. Subordinate organizational units automatically
inherit the cost center assigned to the superordinate organizational unit unless you maintain different
cost centers specifically for them.

The cost center assignment is also inherited by the positions and, therefore, by all of the employees assigned to this organizational unit.

In exceptional circumstances, a cost center can be assigned directly to a position.

Note:

If integration with HR master data is active, the cost center is only ever maintained using the organizational plan.

Step 7: Assign Holders Position Administrative Assistant A person is Mexico an employee already entered
Step 7: Assign Holders
Position
Administrative Assistant
A person is
Mexico
an employee
already entered
Holder
in the system
Type
P
Person
Name
7777
Lisa Thompson
A user can be
assigned using
Position
Simple
Maintenance
Staffing percentage
100.00
%
Validity period
10.01.1998
-
12.31.9999
R
 SAP AG
 Positions can be staffed by persons or users.

Information on the person object type is maintained in HR master data. Persons are employees at the organization.

R/3 users, on the other hand, are not necessarily employees. Users are specific individuals who are authorized to access the R/3 System. These persons can staff positions without being employees. This assignment is relevant to workflow.

Step 7: Assign Staffing Percentages to Holders 40 hrs. 40 hrs. 100% staffed 12 hrs.
Step 7: Assign Staffing Percentages to Holders
40 hrs.
40 hrs.
100% staffed
12 hrs.
20
hrs
100% = 20 hrs.
30% = 12 hrs.
20 20 hrs. hrs.
40 hrs.
20 hrs.
100% = 20 hrs.
70% =
28 28 hrs. hrs.
R
Position is
Position is
40 hrs.
“overstaffed” “overstaffed”
 SAP AG
 Persons can staff a position in full or in part, depending on the number of working hours assigned to the
position and the work capacity of the person.

The staffing percentage refers to the percentage of the person’s work capacity that is assigned to a position.

If the percentage of a person’s work capacity exceeds the requirements of the position, the position is overstaffed. If the working hours required by the position are not provided by one or more persons, the position is understaffed.

Master Data Integration Job is Person defined by Position occupies Org. unit belongs to Cost
Master Data Integration
Job
is
Person
defined
by
Position
occupies
Org. unit
belongs to
Cost center
assignment
Cost Center
 SAP AG
 When an employee is assigned to a position, it automatically determines the employee's assignment to
an organizational unit, job, and cost center in infotype 0001 Organizational Assignment of master data.
Organizational Management Integration Points Organizational Management interfaces with the following components:
Organizational Management Integration Points
Organizational Management interfaces
with the following components:
Recruitment
Capacity Planning
Shift Planning
Training and Event
Personnel
Organizational
Management
Development
Management
Master Data
Workflow
Personnel Cost
R
HRIS
Planning
 SAP AG

The Organizational Management application component is an integral part of the R/3 System.

For example, you must create an organizational plan in Organizational Management before using the Personnel Cost Planning application component. The Personnel Cost Planning application component is a planning tool used to project personnel costs on the basis of existing and planned organizational units.

Shift Planning is used to schedule the optimum number of appropriately qualified personnel on the basis of job requirements.

Capacity Planning - which is a Logistics application component - is used to schedule persons on the basis of their availability and qualifications to complete work for specific work centers.

Training and Event Management enables enterprises to organize and schedule training events and conventions. Employees and organizational units, for example, can be booked as internal attendees.

Personnel Development enables you to plan and execute training and job-related activities on the basis of your enterprise's personnel requirements and your employees' training needs and aspirations. Such activities help to promote the personnel development of individual employees.

The organizational assignment of an employee is derived from his or her situation within the organizational plan and related cost center assignment.

The Human Resources Information System (HRIS) enables you to perform simplified reporting for employee data in the organizational plan.

Vacant positions in the organizational plan trigger the recruitment process.

Organizational Plan: Summary  You now understand the importance of organizational units, positions, jobs, and
Organizational Plan: Summary
 You now understand the importance
of organizational units, positions, jobs,
and tasks.
 You know how these objects are related
with each other in the organizational plan,
and you can use Simple Maintenance.
R
 SAP AG
The Process Structure  Architecture of SAP Business Workflow  The integrated inbox  Definition
The Process Structure
 Architecture of SAP Business
Workflow
 The integrated inbox
 Definition of workflow
R
 SAP AG
Process Structure: Objectives At the conclusion of this unit, you will understand  The basic
Process Structure: Objectives
At the conclusion of this unit, you will understand
 The basic terms used in SAP Business Workflow
 The connection between the organizational
plan and the process structure
R
 SAP AG
Process Structure: Business Scenario  You are the head of the project team responsible for
Process Structure: Business Scenario
 You are the head of the project team responsible
for implementing workflow at your enterprise .
For this reason, you need to understand the
workflow architecture.
R
 SAP AG
SAP Business Workflow Terminology Objects Agents Events Single-step Work items Roles tasks Inbox Multistep
SAP Business Workflow Terminology
Objects
Agents
Events
Single-step
Work items
Roles
tasks
Inbox
Multistep
Workflow
tasks
definition
 SAP AG

To help you understand the terminology used in workflow, please see the workflow glossary included in the online documentation.

Workflow Management Architecture Human Resources Person Job Org. unit Organizational Role Task Role level
Workflow Management Architecture
Human
Resources
Person
Job
Org. unit
Organizational
Role
Task
Role
level
Process level
WF definition
WF step
Data
Data
Business
Events
Attributes
Methods
Object
Object definition
Repository
R
 SAP AG
 SAP Business Workflow is characterized by its three-level architecture. The modular design of its
components provides the basis required for a high degree of flexibility.

The Business Object Repository is situated on the lowest level. It contains a definition of all of the business objects and their methods, attributes, and events that can be used in workflow definitions. R/3 functions, such as hiring employees, are accessible via business objects.

The order in which tasks are executed, and the rules used to determine how tasks are executed, are defined on the process level. Each task represents a step within workflow. Object data and information added during the process are forwarded from step to step, or are available to agents during the entire workflow procedure. Process control facilitates the sequential, parallel, alternative, and hierarchically nested execution of steps.

The organizational level provides information on responsibilities and the personnel structure of the enterprise. This ensures that tasks are forwarded to the right agents during runtime.

Workflow System Components Development Analysis, modeling and Process design definition tools and definition
Workflow System Components
Development
Analysis, modeling and
Process design
definition tools
and definition
Workflow
definition
Runtime
Instantiation,
process control
Workflow Manager
Runtime
Interface to
Integrated
user
inbox
 SAP AG

During runtime, the Workflow Manager starts and controls processes on the basis of the workflow definition, and provides the users with work items.

 The Work Item Manager  Evaluates conditions  Creates work items  Assigns agents

The Work Item Manager

Evaluates conditions

Creates work items

Assigns agents

Organizes binding

Processes events

Monitors deadlines

Synchronizes processing

Records the data history

Process management usually covers complex activities performed by more than one person at different times. The Workflow Manager can localize information effectively, assign tasks, create the required procedural logs, monitor deadlines, and so on. These activities are necessary, but do not add value to the process itself.

The Workflow Manager is completely reliable, available around the clock on every day of the year, and never sick or demotivated. What’s more, the Workflow Manager has an excellent memory. The knowledge that it acquires can be evaluated so that processes can be improved even further.

 SAP has grouped all of the most important business objects together in the Business

SAP has grouped all of the most important business objects together in the Business Object Repository (BOR), the design of which is object-oriented.

An object’s key gives it a unique identity.

Attributes constitute information on and the characteristics of an object. Attributes can be objects themselves. For example, the “employee group/subgroup” object type is referenced by the “employee” object type’s attribute of the same name.

Methods are the functions used to access an object. In actual fact, methods are simply customary R/3 functions in the form of dialogs, function modules, reports, and so on.

Events can be used to publicize an object’s change of status in the system.

Design and Process I Definition time Single- Single- step step Single-step task task task what?
Design and Process I
Definition time
Single-
Single-
step
step
Single-step
task
task
task
what?
Object type
Method
Method
R
Desktop
SAP
External
application
functions
applications
 SAP AG

Single-step tasks are defined on the basis of object types. Each single-step task consists of just one object method.

When a single-step task is defined, the object method is put in a business context. For example, it can be used to store the work item text that is subsequently written to the integrated inbox of the task’s agent.

Design and Process II Definition time Single- Single- step step task task Organizational who from?
Design and Process II
Definition time
Single- Single-
step
step
task
task
Organizational
who
from?
plan
what?
Object type
Method
Method
R
Desktop
SAP
External
application
functions
applications
 SAP AG

The possible agents of a task are determined by assigning a single-step task to an object in the organizational plan, such as a job.

Design and Process III Definition time Multistep task role Workflow Workflow Workflow Organizational who
Design and Process III
Definition time
Multistep task
role
Workflow
Workflow
Workflow
Organizational
who
definition
definition
definition
from?
plan
when?
in what order?
by when ?
Single-
Single-
step
step
Single-step
task
task
task
Organizational
who
from?
plan
what?
Object type
Method
Method
R
Desktop
SAP
External
application
functions
applications
 SAP AG

The workflow definition contains the business process. Single-step tasks constitute the most important elements of the workflow definition.

The workflow definition determines the agents responsible for a task with reference to the organizational plan.

Roles are used to determine responsible agents dynamically during workflow runtime. In this context, “dynamically” means depending on information that is not available until runtime.

Design and Process IV Triggering event Definition time Runtime Multistep task Workflow Workflow Workflow Workflow
Design and Process IV
Triggering event
Definition time
Runtime
Multistep task
Workflow
Workflow
Workflow
Workflow
Workflow
definition
definition
definition
Workflow Manager
role
when?
in what order?
by when?
Single-
Single-
step
step
Single-step
task
task
task
Organizational
who
from?
plan
what?
Object type
Method
Method
R
Desktop
SAP
External
application
functions
applications
 SAP AG

A workflow constitutes the instantiation of a multistep task.

Workflows can be started manually, or by one or more triggering events.

Design and Process V Triggering event Definition time Runtime Multistep task Workflow Workflow Workflow Workflow
Design and Process V
Triggering event
Definition time
Runtime
Multistep task
Workflow
Workflow
Workflow
Workflow
Workflow
definition
definition
definition
Workflow Manager
role
when?
Integrated
in what order?
inbox
by when ?
Single-
Single-
step
step
Single-step
Work item
Work item
Work item
task
task
task
Organizational
who
execute
from?
plan
Work Item Manager
display
what?
forward
Object type
Execution of
Execution of
object method
object method
Method
Method
Data-
R
base
Desktop
SAP
External
application
functions
applications
 SAP AG

Work items are the runtime representation of a single-step task.

They are assigned by the Workflow Manager to the agents responsible.

When an agent accepts a work item for processing, it disappears from the inboxes of other agents.

When a work item is executed, its object method is accessed.

 Organizational Management, which is part of the HR System, is one of the main

Organizational Management, which is part of the HR System, is one of the main elements of SAP Business Workflow.

It is used to define task profiles and assign jobs, positions, employees, and organizational units.

This assignment can be used to determine the possible agents of a workflow step automatically.

Possible and Responsible Agents Organizational plan Workflow definition Possible agents Responsible agents Workflow
Possible and Responsible Agents
Organizational plan
Workflow definition
Possible agents
Responsible agents
Workflow Manager
Actual agents
Selected agents
R
 SAP AG
 The employees who can be regarded as possible agents of a single-step task are determined in the
organizational plan when tasks are assigned. This gives rise to possible agents.

When a single-step task is included in a workflow definition, the responsible agents must be specified. This means that the agents responsible for a single-step task can differ from one workflow to another.

During workflow runtime, the Workflow Manager evaluates the current status of the organizational plan and determines where the groups of possible and responsible agents intersect. These are the selected agents, who receive a work item in their integrated inbox.

The actual agent is the agent who accepts the work item for processing.

Who Can Be A Responsible Agent? Workflow definition Organization Inbox Org. unit Prio Tasks Date
Who Can Be A Responsible Agent?
Workflow definition
Organization
Inbox
Org. unit
Prio
Tasks
Date
Job
1 Issue approval
6.1.1999
2 Submit order
6.4.1999
3 Check trip
6.9.1999
Position
Responsible
Task
Task
Task
agent
User
Role
The work item list is
created dynamically at
Expression
logon. Work items are
runtime versions of
R
tasks.
 SAP AG

Responsible agents

Organizational unit: all of the users assigned to the organizational unit via a position.

Job: all of the users who staff a position described by this job.

Position: the user or users who staff the position.

Users: you should try to avoid assigning a user directly because, for example, the assignment would need to be changed manually if the user were transferred.

Role: a role must have been defined already. The definition of a role contains the rules that give rise to an object within Organizational Management (job, position, user, organizational unit) when role resolution takes place. This object can then be used to determine the users.

Expression: this is a variable that defines an object within Organizational Management. During workflow, the variable is assigned a value. This enables the responsible agents to be determined dynamically.

When agents are determined in the workflow definition, it is also possible to exclude specific agents.

Roles and Role Resolution  Using a function Example: Determining a superior  Using an
Roles and Role Resolution
 Using a function
Example: Determining a superior
 Using an SAP organizational object
Example: Position in the shipping point
for office materials
 Using responsibilities
Example: The “trips to North
America” organizational unit is
responsible for flights booked to
Canada and the USA
R
 SAP AG
 If the group of responsible agents depends on information that is still unknown when the workflow is
defined, you can use roles to enter an extremely general definition of a workflow. The degree of
reusability increases.

During workflow runtime, the role is supplied with the data it requires to determine the responsible agents. For example, when an employee’s superior is determined, his or her personnel number is required.

SAP supplies you with a series of standard roles.

Change Management Using HR New  Modern companies are dynamic organizations Team Team with dynamic
Change Management Using HR
New
 Modern companies are
dynamic organizations
Team Team
with dynamic processes.
 SAP Business Workflow
uses one integrated
Internal Internal
change change
organizational model for all
applications.
 All organizational changes
are taken into account by
the Workflow Manager
Leave Leave
Sickness Sickness
automatically.
External External
projects projects
Leaving
Retirement
 SAP AG
Tasks - Definition 1 Process Process invoice invoice Calculate Calculate Release Release who? trip trip
Tasks - Definition 1
Process Process
invoice invoice
Calculate Calculate
Release Release
who?
trip trip costs costs
invoice invoice
what?
Task
Task
Task
Release Release
Process Process
absence absence
when?
correspondence correspondence
form form
Check Check leave leave
R
entitlement entitlement
 SAP AG

From an organizational perspective, tasks represent the central element of the workflow system.

Tasks assign organizational processes to the organizational structure.

Tasks determine who does the work, how the work must be done, and when the work must be completed.

Tasks - Definition 2 Single-step Single-step tasks tasks Standard Standard task task (TS) (TS) Object
Tasks - Definition 2
Single-step Single-step
tasks tasks
Standard Standard task task (TS) (TS)
Object method or
manual activity
Customer Customer task task (T) (T)
Multistep Multistep
tasks tasks
Workflow Workflow template template (WS) (WS)
time & client
Workflow definition
dependent
Workflow Workflow task task (WF) (WF)
R
 SAP AG
 Single-step tasks are workflow modules.

Customer tasks and workflow tasks are time and client dependent. They must have a validity date.

Standard tasks and workflow templates are time and client independent.

Single-Step Task: Examples  Post invoice  Release document  Change material master  Check
Single-Step Task: Examples
 Post invoice
 Release document
 Change material master
 Check routing
 Execute report
 Approve leave
 Phone customers
 …Who? What?
R
 SAP AG
 Standard tasks are single-step tasks supplied by SAP in its workflow templates.

Standard tasks are predefined for the SAP standard object types in the Business Object Repository. These objects are defined using several optional activities known as “methods”, which can be executed with reference to the object type.

A customer task is client dependent, which means that the task is only known to and accessible from the client in which it was defined. If you want to use a customer task in clients other than the one in which it was defined, you must use client copy or transport procedures.

SAP standard tasks are client independent and can be accessed by any client included in a particular R/3 System.

Therefore, customer tasks and standard tasks are single-step tasks that describe an enterprise procedure.

Single-Step Tasks Standard task Object type with Organizational  Who will be  What executes
Single-Step Tasks
Standard task
Object type with
Organizational
 Who will be
 What executes
object method
plan
responsible
the task?
for the task?
Features
Published
Texts
Events
event
 Work item text : title of work
 Terminating events
item in work list
 Long texts:
 Triggering events
Only if the single-step
 Description
task is not used in a
 Notification
workflow
 Missed deadlines
 SAP AG

A single-step task characterizes a processing activity that must be performed.

In a workflow environment, a single-step task is a process that starts a work step by transferring a requirement to the responsible application process, or that transfers the requirement to individual persons responsible for executing a work order.

A single-step task is assigned to a logical work unit within a multistep workflow definition of a specific work sequence. This can include different applications and employees from different departments.

The work item text is stored in the “Description” column of the integrated inbox.

The long text can be a task description, or a notification text for addressees/recipients when deadlines are missed.

The variable parts of the text are replaced automatically during runtime by the system accessing the attributes of the processed objects.

Work Item Text  A description of the work item in the integrated inbox 
Work Item Text
 A description of the work item in the integrated
inbox
 Replacement of variables by runtime values
_WI_Object_Id
_WI_Actual_Agent
_WI_Object_Id.Number _WI_Object_Id.Number
Maintain Maintain Work Work Item Item Text Text
Work Item Text
Absence notification no. & rejected
Assign text variable
R
 SAP AG

The work item text is defined on the task level (customer or standard task). It is used as a description to provide information on selected agents who receive work items in their integrated inbox.

The information defined for the work item text is displayed for each work item in the user’s work list.

Variable information fields can be defined for the work item text to supplement the appropriate fields with the current runtime data. For example, system information - such as the current date and time, or the user who initiated the workflow - can be entered in these variable fields to specify actual data for the executed task. This data is then displayed in the appropriate fields, which are displayed for the work item in the integrated inbox.

Single-Step Tasks: Long Text  General description, processing notes, information on environment, etc.  Text
Single-Step Tasks: Long Text
 General description, processing notes,
information on environment, etc.
 Text for completion
 Text for missed deadlines
 Add variables (even indirectly using object reference)
Example:
Employee &_WI_Object_ID.CreatedBy& has created an absence
notification using the number
&_WI_Object_ID.Number& on &_WI_Object_ID.CreateDate&.
Please decide on whether to issue approval.
R
 SAP AG
 Just like the work item text, the long text can contain additional information.

It provides the possible agent with detailed instructions on how to execute the appropriate work item.

Multistep Tasks Workflow Workflow task task Workflow Workflow template template  Reference to workflow definition
Multistep Tasks
Workflow Workflow task task
Workflow Workflow template template
 Reference to
workflow definition
 Specification of
 The graphical editor is the point
triggering events
of access for displaying or
 Definition of
changing the workflow definition
interface
(import and
export parameters)
 Assignment of
initial values
R
 SAP AG
 Basic data on the workflow task.

Triggering events are the events that start a workflow’s execution.

Binding characterizes the relevant data required for the workflow’s execution. It constitutes the link between the data required as input for executing a task, and the output resulting from the task that must be forwarded to subsequent steps within the workflow procedure.

Steps in Workflow Definition Workflow Workflow task task Workflow Workflow definition definition Step Step Workflow
Steps in Workflow Definition
Workflow Workflow task task
Workflow Workflow definition definition
Step Step
Workflow Workflow template template
 Reference to
 Activity (task
workflow definition
reference)
 Specification of
 Condition
triggering events
 Multiple condition
 Event creator
 Definition of
 Waiting for event
interface
 Process control
(import and
export parameters)
 Container operation
 User decision
 Assignment of
 Loop (until)
initial values
 Loop (during)
 Parallel section
 SAP AG
 You cannot access a workflow definition directly. Instead, you must always access the definition of a
workflow task or workflow template first.

Important: If you want to use an element for an object reference, it must be included in the workflow container.

Business processes in the R/3 System can be represented technically as a workflow definition. The starting point and basis of every workflow definition is the workflow task that you create as a customer, or the workflow template provided by SAP.

The workflow definition includes the following steps:

A workflow definition is modular and consists of single steps. When a step is created in a workflow definition, the step type must be specified first.

Some steps refer to business activities (activities and user decisions), while others are used for internal process control and monitoring (condition, multiple condition, loop, etc.)

The order in which steps are processed depends on the result of each previous step. The successors for all of the possible results of a step are determined in the workflow definition. The possible results of a step are usually derived from the functions on which it is based, and are available to the workflow definition.

Logical Diagram of a Workflow Definition Triggering events Activity Parallel User sections decision  IF
Logical Diagram of a Workflow Definition
Triggering
events
Activity
Parallel
User
sections
decision
IF
Loop
XOR
XOR
XOR
XOR
Activity with
deadline
 SAP AG
 Steps can be arranged in sequential or parallel processing. Each step is the decisive element of “its”
block. The operations contained in individual steps always affect the entire block in which the step is
contained.

Events in the workflow definition:

As illustrated by the graphic of event-controlled process chains, each step must be followed by at least one event.

Internal events:

Internal events describe the result of processing, or the status set by the end of the step. This determines the branch of the workflow definition that is executed next. These events are used for internal workflow process control. They have no effect on anything other than workflow.

Example:

Events after a condition or user decision

Start and end of a workflow

Published events:

These are used to make an object’s changes of status known to the entire system. They can also have an effect beyond workflow.

Example:

Terminating events for a customer task/standard task

Start and end of a workflow by triggering/terminating events Wait step, event creator

Workflow Definition: Graphical Editor Workflow Workflow definition definition Event Graphical editor:  Navigation
Workflow Definition: Graphical Editor
Workflow Workflow definition definition
Event
Graphical editor:
 Navigation and display area
Step
 Block-oriented modeling
 Top-down modeling possible
Block
 Special functions such as cut,
paste, move, copy
 Print: locally / R/3 spool / file
 Check and activate
 “Drag-and-drop” function
R
 SAP AG
 When a multistep task is processed, you create the workflow definition that is processed when the
multistep task is executed. The definition of the multistep task represents an “external link” (interface
for access, triggering events), whereas the workflow definition describes the actual introduction of a
business scenario as the consequence of related steps.

Steps, events, and operators are defined and displayed as a graphic in a network using the graphical editor, which is a workflow definition tool.

Steps, events, and operators are displayed as a graphic in a network. On the right side of the screen (navigation area), you see an overview of the workflow definition. On the left side of the screen (display area), you can access the workflow definition and then modify or define it in accordance with the actual business scenario.

The following icons are used on the graphical display screen:

Step: green rectangle with rounded corners

Internal events: red hexagons

Published events: red hexagons

Operators: white circles

Data Containers Role parameter container Event parameter Task container container Binding Binding Binding R
Data Containers
Role parameter
container
Event parameter
Task
container
container
Binding
Binding
Binding
R
Workflow container
 SAP AG
 Data containers are used to ensure the flow of information within workflow.
Integrated Inbox in R/3 Integrated Integrated inbox inbox Decide Process Received Received Type Type Description
Integrated Inbox in R/3
Integrated Integrated inbox inbox
Decide
Process
Received Received
Type Type
Description Description
Status Status
on on
WORK ITEM:
Dec. 5 1997
Ready
Release item 1705
Answer
Forward
WORK ITEM:
Dec. 6 1997
Ready
Check invoice 4711
MAIL: Meeting
Dec. 6 1997
Viewed
Dec. 7, 3 p.m. room 12
FAX: Project
Reply
Dec. 7 1997
Status - InCom
required
Exceptions
Resubmit
Ad hoc
workflow
R
 SAP AG

The contents of a work list are set up for specific users so that the displayed work list always corresponds to the activity profile, which can change in accordance with the employee’s organizational assignment. For this reason, the work list is not generated until the user accesses the integrated inbox.

The integrated inbox includes a variety of functions for processing work items. It enables them to be forwarded within defined responsibilities, or resubmitted. It enables substitutes to be created and activated. It also provides views of work items that have been assigned to other employees. Such views can be used by superiors as a means of checking the current situation.

Ad hoc processing via the integrated inbox is also supported.

You can supplement work items with attachments.

Application objects can be related with work items so that the next agent can also process the objects by clicking on them.

Work items can be processed directly using the integrated inbox. The appropriate applications are started directly by means of a double-click. They are then supplied with the data they require.

The fact that SAP Business Workflow is database-oriented means that a work item can be viewed and executed in the integrated inboxes of more than one employee with the same authorization. However, a work item can only be reserved for processing and executed by one employee at a time.

Mail and Work Items in Inbox Mail and work items in a list Process mail
Mail and Work Items in Inbox
Mail and work items in a list
Process mail
- Read
- Reply
- Delete
- Save
Integrated Integrated inbox inbox
- Forward
- Create attachments
Process work items
-
Display
-
Forward
-
Return
-
Execute
-
Set to complete
-
Change dates
R
-
Change priority
-
Create attachments
 SAP AG

The integrated inbox is a central point of reference for all activities used to access and process standard SAPoffice E-mail functions. Users defined in the R/3 System can send and receive E-mails internally and externally via the Internet.

Processing work items - You can access the work item display screen by double clicking on the text of a work item displayed in the work list of the integrated inbox.

You can forward a work item to another possible agent for him or her to process. You can only forward a work item to agents to whom the appropriate single-step task has been assigned (possible agents).

The “return” function releases a work item from its reserved status, which means it can be accessed once again by any of the selected agents. The status of the work item is reset to “ready”.

Set to complete - You can determine that the end of processing for a single-step task must be confirmed explicitly. Until such confirmation has been given, the work item can be executed several times or forwarded. This function is generally offered as a dialog box.

Work items of type D or N must always be confirmed explicitly. Once they have been executed, their status remains set to “in process” until it is changed to “complete”.

Alternative User Interfaces WebWeb client MAPI MAPI client R  SAP AG Java Java GUI
Alternative User Interfaces
WebWeb
client
MAPI
MAPI client
R
 SAP AG
Java
Java GUI
GUI
SAPgui SAPgui

You can use MAPI clients (such as MS Exchange, Outlook, cc: Mail) as an inbox for your work items.

The SAP MAPI Service Provider is included in the SAP presentation CD.

During runtime, work item notifications are written to your inbox. When you open a message, a mail window is displayed with two attachments. Double-click on the “execute” key. Once you have completed the SAP logon procedure for your SAP user ID, you directly access the SAP transaction used by this workflow step.

Configuration of Integrated Inbox Workflow Workflow Inbox Inbox (Workflow) (Workflow) Work item Edit Goto Extras
Configuration of Integrated Inbox
Workflow Workflow Inbox Inbox (Workflow) (Workflow)
Work item Edit
Goto
Extras
Settings Settings
Folder
System
Help
Configuration
Configuration
Standard
Office
Number of entries 6
Office unviewed
ST ST
EX EX
Description Description
AT AT
Received Received on on
Missed deadline
Incorrect
Fill out notification of absence
02.19.1998
Test configuration
Fill out complaint form #
02.19.1998
Change notification
02.19.1998
Order part no. p-3539
02.19.1998
Check customer order #7654
02.19.1998
Check customer order #7789
02.19.1998
R
 SAP AG
 You can configure your inbox to meet your requirements (for example, additional columns, field length,
order in which columns appear, etc.)
The Process Structure: Summary  Business object methods constitute the basis of single-step tasks. 
The Process Structure: Summary
 Business object methods constitute the
basis of single-step tasks.
 The workflow definition reflects the
business process using single-step
tasks.
 Agents are determined dynamically by the
Workflow Manager using the organizational
structure that is currently valid.
 The integrated inbox is the interface with
the agent.
R
 SAP AG