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March 1, 2012

A. Benoit-Lévy1 and G. Chardin2

1

UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014, Paris, France. e-mail: benoitl@iap.fr

2

CSNSM, Université Paris-Sud, CNRS-IN2P3, 91405 Orsay, France. e-mail: chardin@csnsm.in2p3.fr

March 1, 2012

ABSTRACT

The ΛCDM standard model, although an excellent parametrization of the present cosmological data, contains two as yet unobserved

components, dark matter and dark energy, that constitute more than 95% of the Universe. Faced with this unsatisfactory situation,

arXiv:1110.3054v2 [astro-ph.CO] 29 Feb 2012

we study an unconventional cosmology, the Dirac-Milne universe, a matter-antimatter symmetric cosmology, in which antimatter is

supposed to present a negative active gravitational mass. The main feature of this cosmology is the linear evolution of the scale factor

with time, which directly solves the age and horizon problems of a matter-dominated universe. We study the concordance of this

model to the cosmological test of type Ia supernovæ distance measurements and calculate the theoretical primordial abundances of

light elements for this cosmology. We also show that the acoustic scale of the cosmic microwave background naturally emerges at the

degree scale despite an open geometry.

Key words. Cosmology: theory - Cosmology: dark energy - primordial nucleosynthesis

ing particle. In particular, the Kerr-Newman “electron” has no

The inflation-based ΛCDM cosmological model represents a horizon, has automatically the g = 2 gyromagnetic ratio, and

great achievement in modern cosmology. Its predictions are in has a ring structure of radius equal to half the Compton ra-

good agreement with a wide varieties of observational cosmo- dius of the electron. In addition, this geometry has charge and

logical tests, ranging from big-bang nucleosynthesis and cosmic mass/energy reversal symmetries that strongly evoke the CP and

microwave background anisotropies to distances measurements T matter-antimatter symmetry (Chardin 1997, Chardin & Rax

using type Ia supernovæ. However, this success comes at an ex- 1992): when the non-singular interior of the ring is crossed, a

pensive cost as two poorly-understood components are required second R4 space is found where charge and mass change sign

in the theory to provide the concordance of the cosmological (Carter 1968). Therefore, starting from an electron of negative

model to the observations. These components are dark matter, charge and positive mass as measured in the first R4 space, we

whose density is estimated to be around ∼ 20% of the critical find in the second space a “positron” of positive charge and nega-

density, and dark energy, which accounts for as much as ∼ 75% tive mass. The relation of the Kerr-Newman geometry to Dirac’s

of the energy content of the Universe. equation and therefore to antimatter has been noted by some au-

The physical nature of dark energy remains to be elucidated thors (Arcos & Pereira 2004, Burinskii 2008).

but all the cosmological observations tend to indicate that it be- The introduction of negative masses is not a popular idea

haves in a similar way as a vacuum energy, characterized by an amongst physicists and here we do not attempt to demonstrate

equation of state p = −ρ, where pressure and density are equal in that antimatter has a negative active gravitational mass. We con-

absolute value but opposite. Dark energy therefore appears to be sider this question instead from a cosmological point of view,

responsible for the acceleration of the expansion of the Universe, by studying the properties of this alternative cosmology and de-

which tends to be confirmed notably by type Ia supernovæ dis- riving necessary conditions that this model must fulfill to com-

tance measurements. ply with observational tests. Nevertheless, it is important to re-

Faced with this uncomfortable situation where we under- call that an analogous system exists in condensed matter, where

stand less than 5% of our Universe, we study the unconventional electrons and holes in a semiconductor appear as quasiparticles

cosmology of a symmetric universe i.e. containing equal quan- with positive inertial mass, but where holes have an energy den-

tities of matter and antimatter, where antimatter is supposed to sity lower than the “vacuum” constituted by the semiconduc-

present a negative active gravitational mass. The main conse- tor in its ground state and antigravitate in a gravitational field

quence of this provoking hypothesis is that on large scales, above (Tsidil’kovskiĭ 1975).

the characteristic length of the matter-antimatter distribution, the The gravitational behavior of antimatter has yet to be investi-

expansion factor evolves linearly with time, which is reminiscent gated in laboratory experiments. Gravity experiments on antihy-

of the Milne cosmology (Milne 1933). drogen are under way (Drobychev et al. 2007, Pérez et al. 2008)

The main motivation for considering the possibility that an- and are expected to provide important insight into this behavior,

timatter is endowed with a negative active gravitational mass hopefully within the next decade.

is provided by the study of Carter (1968) of the Kerr-Newman The paper is organized as follows. In Sects. 2 and 3, we

geometry representing charged spinning black holes. As noted present some general properties of the Dirac-Milne universe.

initially by Carter, the Kerr-Newman geometry with the mass, Section 4 is devoted to the study of primordial nucleosynthesis

charge, and spin of an elementary particle such as an electron within the framework of the Dirac-Milne cosmology. In Sect. 5,

1

A. Benoit-Lévy and G. Chardin: Introducing the Dirac-Milne universe

we study the compliance of the model to type Ia supernovæ dis- signifies that any two given places in space were causally con-

tance measurements. In Sect. 6, we investigate the geometric im- nected in the past. The Dirac-Milne universe therefore does not

plications on CMB anisotropies and baryonic acoustic oscilla- have an horizon problem, which removes the main motivation

tions. for the introduction of inflation theories.

Therefore, the linear evolution of the scale factor and the

property that the space-time is flat and spatial sections are open

2. The Dirac-Milne universe naturally solves two major problems in standard cosmology

We consider a model in which space-time is endowed with a without requiring additional ingredients such as dark energy or

Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) metric, given by the for- inflation, and is an important motivation for studying in detail

mula such a cosmology.

Before presenting the properties of the Dirac-Milne universe

ds2 = dt2 − a(t)2 dχ2 + sink2 χdΩ2 , (1) and for the sake of clarity, we list the underlying hypothesis and

necessary constraints that have been assumed so far:

where sink = sin χ, χ, sinh χ according to the value k = 1, 0, −1

of the parameter k describing the spatial curvature, and a(t) is the

scale factor. For such a FRW metric, the time-time and space- 1. The existence of an efficient mechanism for matter and

space components of the Einstein tensor Gµν take the forms antimatter separation. We also assume that the Dirac-Milne

universe is composed of separated domains of matter and

antimatter. These universes have been abundantly studied

ȧ2 + k k + 2äa + ȧ2

G00 = 3 Gii = − . (2) in the context of inhomogeneous nucleosynthesis. Since

a2 a2 this universe is matter-antimatter symmetric, this system is

On scales larger than the characteristic size of the emulsion, the a percolation emulsion, meaning that the probability that a

presence of equal quantities of matter with positive mass and given domain extends to infinity is close to unity. It remains

antimatter with negative mass nullifies the stress-energy tensor unclear, however, whether there is an efficient mechanism

T µν . to produce such an emulsion. A fundamental parameter is

Using Einstein equation Gµν = 8πGT µν , we therefore have the typical size of this emulsion. We define it as the ratio of

the equivalence the volume V to the surface S separating the two phases:

L = V/S . At this stage of work, this characteristic size is a

T µν = 0 ⇔ a(t) ∝ t and k = −1. (3) free parameter, which is assumed here to be a constant, that

is constrained using primordial nucleosynthesis (cf Sect. 4).

The metric of the Dirac-Milne universe then reads

2. Antimatter has a negative active gravitational mass and there

ds2 = dt2 − t2 dχ2 + sinh2 χdΩ2 . (4) is a gravitational repulsion between matter and antimatter.

This hypothesis is a necessity to avoid contact between

As in the standard ΛCDM cosmology, the Dirac-Milne uni-

matter and antimatter after cosmological recombination.

verse has a distinctive geometry: while the standard ΛCDM

Indeed, it has been demonstrated (Ramani & Puget 1976,

model has a curved space-time and flat spatial sections, the

Cohen et al. 1998) that in the case of a symmetric universe,

Dirac-Milne universe has a flat space-time and negatively curved

where antimatter is assumed to have a positive gravitational

spatial sections.

mass, the global size of domains of matter and antimatter

The Friedmann equation for the Dirac-Milne universe reads

must be approximatively that of the observable universe.

a 2

0

Otherwise, annihilations at the frontiers of matter and

H 2 = H02 , (5) antimatter domains would generate a diffuse gamma ray

a

emission that would be in contradiction with observational

where a0 is the present value of the scale factor. Integrating this data.

equation enables one to compute the present age of the Universe

tU 3. One of the main interests of the Dirac-Milne universe con-

sists in providing a solution to the horizon problem without

1

tU = , (6) resorting to inflation. However, this in turn relies on the hy-

H0 pothesis that the contribution of radiation to the stress-energy

where H0 is the Hubble constant. It should be emphasized that tensor is negligible. If we attribute to radiation a positive con-

this is a strict equality, whereas in the standard ΛCDM model, tribution to the energy, the evolution of the universe will not

the age of the Universe is only approximatively equal to 1/H0 . It differ significantly from the standard evolution for all epochs

should also be noted that the linear evolution of the scale factor where the universe is radiation dominated, i.e. for redshifts

solves the age problem of the Universe (Chaboyer et al. 1998), above a few thousand. However, in the presence of equal

which was a prime concern before the introduction of dark en- quantities of particles with positive and negative masses, this

ergy, and does not affect the Dirac-Milne cosmology. might no longer be the case. A first step toward a full demon-

Using the metric in Eq. (1), the particle horizon, i.e., the dis- stration that the stress-energy tensor of radiation averages to

tance a photon can travel since the origin, is given by the limit zero can be deduced from the papers of Hoyle & Narlikar

(1964), in the case studied by Hawking (1965), where the

Z tU

dt0 particle masses are of both signs and in equal numbers. In

lim 0

, (7) this case, it can be shown that the stress-energy tensor of ra-

t0 →0 t0 a(t )

diation is of order 1/N compared to its value when all masses

which diverges logarithmically in the case of the Dirac-Milne are of the same sign, and where N is the number of mass car-

universe. This simple relation has profound implications as it riers (particles) in a Hubble horizon.

2

A. Benoit-Lévy and G. Chardin: Introducing the Dirac-Milne universe

Fig. 1. Age of the universe as a function of temperature for the Fig. 2. Comparison between expansion rates and weak reac-

Dirac-Milne universe (full line, red) and for the fiducial ΛCDM tion rates. The short-dashed green line represents the neutron-

cosmology (dashed line, blue). to-proton conversion rate. The two solid lines represent the ex-

pansion rate of the Dirac-Milne universe (red) and the standard

cosmology (blue). The long dashed lines represent the proton-

to-neutron conversion rates. Weak interactions decouple when

3. Some aspects of the thermal history of the these rates become lower than the expansion rate.

Dirac-Milne Universe

Some simple properties of the Dirac-Milne universe are common

to those of a purely linear cosmology studied in Lohiya et al.

and antinucleons. The maximum size of a domain of (anti)matter

(1998), Kaplinghat et al. (1999, 2000), and Sethi et al. (2005).

was controlled by the diffusion of neutrons. Aly (1974) found a

We briefly recall some of these properties.

maximum size of 7 × 10−4 cm at a temperature of T ∼ 330 MeV,

which was at this epoch the estimated temperature of the QGP

3.1. Time-temperature relation transition. This size was later found to differ from the minimum

size a domain should have in order to ensure a production of

Using Eq. (5), it is straightforward to obtain the relation between primordial helium compatible with observations (Combes et al.

the age of the Universe and the redshift, hence the temperature 1975, Aly 1978a).

1 T0 The situation is rather different in the Dirac-Milne universe

t= , (8) as the timescale of the QGP transition is much longer. Since the

H0 T temperature of the transition is estimated today to be around

where T 0 is the present temperature of the Universe, as mea- T ∼ 170 MeV (Schwarz 2003), it corresponds to an age of

sured by CMB experiments, T 0 = 2.725 ± 0.001 K (Fixsen & 6 × 105 sec in the Dirac-Milne universe, which is a factor ∼ 1010

Mather 2002). This relation between time and temperature is older than in the standard case. This implies that the maximum

valid throughout the whole history of the universe and implies size to which a domain could possibly grow (assuming the ex-

that the thermal history of the Dirac-Milne universe is drasti- istence of an efficient separation mechanism) is five orders of

cally modified from the evolution in the standard ΛCDM cos- magnitude higher. For this reason, the Dirac-Milne universe is

mology. Figure (1) represents the age of the Universe as a func- far more weakly constrained by observations than the Omnès

tion of the temperature for the Dirac-Milne and the ΛCDM mod- cosmology.

els. It can be seen that, at high temperatures, the Dirac-Milne

universe is much older than the corresponding ΛCDM cosmol- 3.2. Weak interaction decoupling

ogy. For instance, the traditional 1 MeV∼1 sec approximation

for the standard model becomes 1 MeV ∼ 3.3 years in the Dirac- A fundamental example of the modifications induced by a lin-

Milne cosmology. As noted in Lohiya et al. (1998), this dif- ear scale factor can be seen in the epoch of decoupling of the

ference has profound implications for big-bang nucleosynthesis weak interactions. This example was analyzed extensively in

calculations, and is discussed in section 4. Lohiya et al. (1998), so we only provide here the main results.

Another temperature of interest is the temperature of the In the standard model, weak decoupling occurs at a temperature

quark-gluon-plasma (QGP) transition. Omnès (1972) proposed T ∼ 1 MeV. In the Dirac-Milne universe, this decoupling hap-

that matter-antimatter separation occurred around that tempera- pens at a lower temperature of around T ∼ 80 keV, because of

ture, owing to a putative repulsive interaction between nucleons the slower variation and the lower value of the expansion rate.

3

A. Benoit-Lévy and G. Chardin: Introducing the Dirac-Milne universe

n ↔ p equilibrium. At low temperatures, this reaction is lim-

ited to the free neutron disintegration (green short-dashed line),

but at temperatures higher than 80 keV, the equilibrium between

proton and neutrons remains possible. The long-dashed line rep-

resent the proton conversion rate as a function of the tempera-

ture for the Dirac-Milne universe (red) and the standard cosmol-

ogy (blue). The analytical expressions for these reaction rates

come from Wagoner (1969) and Dicus et al. (1982). Weak inter-

actions decouple when the expansion rate becomes higher than

the p ↔ n rate. The small difference in the p ↔ n rate between

the two cosmologies is caused by a difference in the neutrino

background temperature. As the weak interactions decouple at

a temperature of T ∼ 80 keV, neutrinos indeed also decouple

from the photon background also at this temperature, but only

after the annihilation of most of the electron-positron pairs. This

implies, as noted in Lohiya et al. (1998), that the cosmic neu-

trino background should have a temperature equal to that of the

CMB. This constitutes a distinctive feature of the Dirac-Milne

universe.

4. Primordial nucleosynthesis

The primordial nucleosynthesis is a key success of the standard

model of cosmology. Theoretical predictions and observations Fig. 3. 4 He production rate for the Dirac-Milne (dashed red line).

are in good agreement for 4 He, 3 He, and D abundances, al- The rate drops abruptly when weak interactions decouple around

though some discrepancies exist for 7 Li (see Steigman (2007), T ∼ 80 keV. As a comparison, 4 He production rate for the stan-

Cyburt et al. (2008) for reviews of standard big-bang nucleosyn- dard BBN is also presented (dotted blue line).

thesis (SBBN)). Given the tremendous change in the timescale

(of a factor ∼ 108 at T = 1 MeV), important modifications then incorporated into helium nuclei. As the weak interactions

to the traditional BBN mechanism arise (Lohiya et al. 1998, are still efficient, some protons inverse-beta-decay to neutrons,

Kaplinghat et al. 1999, 2000). Primordial nucleosynthesis in the restoring the equilibrium value. Given the timescale of 40 years,

Dirac-Milne universe can be described as a two-step process: this very slow process ends up in an effective production of 4 He

first the thermal and homogeneous production of 4 He and 7 Li, nuclei. Fig. (3) present the production rate of 4 He in both the

and second, the production of D and 3 He, the latter being one of Dirac-Milne universe (dashed line) and the standard cosmology

the main novelties introduced by the matter-antimatter symme- (dotted line). We can discern the sharp decline in the production

try. rate when the weak interactions decouple, leading to the nearly

total disappearance of neutrons below T ∼ 80 keV. As a sim-

4.1. Thermal and homogeneous BBN ple argument illustrating how this mechanism leads to the right

amount of 4 He, we note that the product of the 4 He production

The age of the universe at a temperature of T ∼ 80 keV, be- rate with the Hubble time at production is roughly the same in

low which deuterium is able to survive its photodisintegration, the two models. The production rates of 4 He were obtained by

allowing the formation of 4 He nuclei, is about 40 years in the calculating the time derivative of the 4 He abundances.

Dirac-Milne universe. This extremely long timescale, relative to To compute the primordial abundances of the different light

the mean lifetime of the neutron, was initially considered as an elements, we solved the non-linear systems of first-order differ-

impossible obstacle to any kind of primordial helium production ential equations describing the network of the nuclear reactions

in a linear cosmology (Kaplinghat et al. 1999). However, it has

been pointed out (Lohiya et al. 1998, Kaplinghat et al. 2000) dYi X r

= fkl Yk Yl − firj Yi Y j , i = 1, Nisot , r = 1, Nreac , (10)

that 4 He production is possible but relies on a somewhat differ- dt r

ent mechanism than the standard one.

As discussed in the previous sections, weak interactions de- where Yi is the abundance of nuclide i, Nisot the number of nu-

couple in the Dirac-Milne universe at the low temperature of clides , Nreac the numbers of nuclear reactions included in the

T ∼ 80 keV. This implies that the neutron and proton popula- network, firj the rate of reaction i + j → k + l, and fklr the rate of

tions remain in thermal equilibrium until that temperature. The reaction k + l → i + j.

ratio of their densities is therefore regulated by the Boltzmann To ensure accurate results, it is necessary to include a large

factor number (over a hundred) of reactions. As the time interval dur-

n Q ing which BBN takes place is very long, some slow reactions

= exp − , (9) that are ineffective during SBBN must be integrated into the

p T nuclear reaction network for the Dirac-Milne universe (Lohiya

where Q = 1.29 MeV is the difference between the neutron and et al. 1998). Compared to previous studies of light element pro-

proton mass. duction in linear cosmology (Kaplinghat et al. 2000), we used

For temperatures of the order of T ∼ 80 keV, this number the nuclear reaction rates provided by Angulo et al. (1999), Coc

is a very small quantity (∼ 10−7 ) but a few neutrons neverthe- et al. (2000), Tang et al. (2003), Descouvemont et al. (2004), as

less combine with ambient protons to form deuterium, which is well as the usual rates of Wagoner (1969), Dicus et al. (1982),

4

A. Benoit-Lévy and G. Chardin: Introducing the Dirac-Milne universe

Fig. 4. 4 He (top) and 7 Li (bottom) theoretical abundances for the Fig. 5. Abundances of light elements obtained in the Milne uni-

Dirac-Milne universe as a function of the baryon density. Here verse with a baryon-to-photon ratio η = 8.8 × 10−9 . Both 4 He

η10 = 1010 η. Shaded areas correspond to the observational range. and 7 Li are produced at observationally compatible levels (see

Fig. 4), but D and 3 He are almost totally destroyed by the very

slow thermal nucleosynthesis.

Caughlan & Fowler (1988), Fukugita & Kajino (1990), Rauscher

et al. (1994), and Chen & Savage (1999).

The precise theoretical predictions for the primordial abun-

dances strongly depend – as in the standard model – on the bary- the baryonic density deduced by the BBN in the standard cos-

onic density. The final primordial abundances of 4 He and 7 Li as mology, which constitutes a strong motivation to postulate the

a function of the baryonic density, characterized by the ratio η existence of non-baryonic massive particles. In the Dirac-Milne

of the number of baryons to the number of photons (η = nb /nγ ), universe, however, the BBN predicts a baryonic density com-

are presented in Fig. (4). The shaded areas correspond to obser- parable to the matter density estimated by different techniques.

vational constraints (Olive & Skillman 2004, Ryan et al. 2000) There is therefore no compulsory need for non-baryonic dark

on the corresponding primordial abundances. The values of η matter in the Dirac-Milne universe.

such that ensure that the theoretical value of Y p is compatible We note, however, that this high value of the baryonic den-

with the observations lie in the range sity aggravates the so-called missing baryon problem (Fukugita

2004). In the standard cosmology, this problem is that only ap-

8.8 × 10−9 ≤ η ≤ 9.6 × 10−9 . (11) proximately half the baryons predicted by SBBN are observa-

tionally detected. The other half is currently believed to reside in

As can be seen in Fig. 4 there is, as in the standard model,

the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) (Bregman 2007).

no value of η that permits the compatibility of both 4 He and 7 Li

In the context of the Dirac-Milne universe, this WHIM would

with the model predictions. The lowest possible value of η yields

have to be the major source of baryons, although this possibil-

a lithium abundance of

ity remains to be investigated. We note that attempts to explain

7

Li the dynamical behavior of galaxies consisting primarily of cold

= 3.45 × 10−10 . (12) molecular (baryonic) gas instead of non-baryonic dark matter

H

have been performed in the past (Pfenniger et al. 1994) and these

Although this value is somewhat larger than the one in- scenarios would need to be revisited in the context of the Dirac-

ferred by observations, we note that it is smaller than the Milne model.

predicted value in standard cosmology calculations, namely Figure 5 presents the evolution of the primordial abundances

7

Li/H= (5.24+0.71

−0.67 ) × 10

−10

(Cyburt et al. 2008). The Dirac- for the light elements as a function of temperature for a bary-

Milne universe clearly does not solve the 7 Li problem, but nev- onic density of η = 8.8 × 10−9 . It can be seen that D and 3 He

ertheless alleviates it. are almost totally destroyed during the stage of thermal produc-

The value of the baryonic density inferred by the 4 He ob- tion of 4 He. This result was found to have severe consequences

servational constraint is almost 15 times higher than the value for linear cosmologies (Kaplinghat et al. 2000). Although this

usually admitted in the framework of standard cosmology. This is indeed the case for a regular linear cosmology without anti-

high baryonic density is an important feature of the Dirac-Milne matter domains, the presence of distinct domains of matter and

universe as it suppresses the need for non-baryonic dark matter. antimatter in the Dirac-Milne cosmology provides a natural sce-

Estimates of the dynamical mass in various structures all indi- nario for the production of D and 3 He during a second stage of

cate a matter density in the Universe that is much higher than nucleosynthesis.

5

A. Benoit-Lévy and G. Chardin: Introducing the Dirac-Milne universe

Studies of inhomogeneous big-bang nucleosynthesis as well

as primordial nucleosynthesis in the presence of both matter

and antimatter domains have been conducted since the late

70’s (Combes et al. 1975, Aly 1978a, Witten 1984, Alcock

et al. 1987, Applegate et al. 1987, Kurki-Suonio & Sihvola

2000, Rehm & Jedamzik 2001). It has been shown that matter-

antimatter annihilations at the frontiers of the domains can lead

to the production of D, 3 He, and T (later decaying as 3 He) mainly

through two channels of production: nucleodisruption ( p̄4 He and

4 ¯ reactions) and photodisintegration of 4 He nuclei. These

He4 He

studies provide us with the necessary material to compute the

amount of deuterium produced by these various mechanisms.

Our purpose in what follows is to demonstrate the possibility

of deuterium secondary production. We therefore consider that

the emulsion has a static behavior, in the sense that its comoving

size is assumed to remain constant. More precise studies inves-

tigating the dynamical behavior of the emulsion are beyond the

scope of this first paper and will be treated in upcoming studies.

Annihilations at the frontiers of a domain are driven by the

diffusion of nuclei towards the frontiers. The photodisintegration

of 4 He nuclei by energetic photons resulting from electromag-

netic cascades induced by the annihilation photons and nucle-

odisruption are two possible processes that could produce deu- Fig. 6. Comoving diffusion length (solid red line). The blue

terium. dashed line is the comoving thermalizing length of deuterium.

The main quantity to consider is the diffusion length. It rep- Comoving Hubble distance is also shown in green.

resents the average distance over which a (anti-)nucleus can dif-

fuse toward the frontier of the domain on a Hubble time. This

4.2.1. Annihilation rate

length gives an absolute lower bound to the size of the domains,

as any concentration of (anti)matter smaller than this diffusion In the most general case, the computation of the annihilation rate

length would be annihilated during a Hubble time. The diffusion is a difficult task (Aly 1978b). However, with our simplified ap-

length is given by Applegate et al. (1987) proach based on diffusion, the estimation of the annihilation rate

is rather straightforward. The annihilation rate is the number of

annihilations per unit of time and surface. The quantity of matter

p

Ldiff (T ) = 6D(T )tH (T ), (13)

(and antimatter) annihilated over a Hubble time per unit of sur-

where D is the diffusion coefficient and tH (T ) is the Hubble face is nb Ldiff , so that the annihilation rate is simply this quantity

time at temperature T. Using the diffusion coefficients given in divided by the Hubble time

Jedamzik & Rehm (2001) and Sihvola (2001), we computed the nb Ldiff

comoving diffusion length represented in Fig. 6. Ψ= . (15)

tH

We can distinguish three regimes of diffusion. The first

regime for T ≥ 1 MeV is regulated by neutron diffusion. Since This simple expression is found to be in good agreement with the

neutrons are neutral particles, their electromagnetic interactions one derived in Cohen et al. (1998). For simplicity, and following

with other charged particles are very weak. As the temperature previous studies of antimatter BBN (Kurki-Suonio & Sihvola

decreases, neutrons disintegrate and diffusion is then maintained 2000, Rehm & Jedamzik 2001), we made the hypothesis that

by protons, which being charged have a much lower diffusion co- hydrodynamic turbulence, which could be produced by energy

efficient, which causes a dip in the diffusion length around 100 release near the domain boundary, can be neglected.

keV. As the density decreases because of the expansion, the dif-

fusion length gradually increases until the temperature reaches

T ∼ 50 keV. At this temperature, the density is low enough for 4.2.2. Production by photodisintegration of 4 He nuclei

the mean distance between protons to be larger than the Debye The secondary production of light elements by 4 He photodisin-

length of electrons. Protons therefore do not behave as free par- tegration can occur in many scenarios and has been extensively

ticles but drag electrons along with them, ensuring charge neu- discussed in the literature. In the framework of standard cosmol-

trality. These electrons are themselves subject to Thomson drag ogy, this mechanism is known to produce D and 3 He nuclei (Ellis

(Peebles 1993) and thus limit the diffusion of protons (Jedamzik et al. 1992, Protheroe et al. 1995).

& Rehm 2001). The effective diffusion coefficient of protons is Proton-antiproton annihilations result in the production of

then neutral pions, which themselves decay to high-energy photons.

Depending on the temperature of the background and their en-

3T ergy, these photons can create e+ e− pairs on CMB-photons.

p =

Deff , (14)

2σT ργ These newly created pairs can also interact with CMB photons

and therefore lead to the creation of electromagnetic cascades

where σT is the Thomson cross-section and ργ , the photon en- (Ellis et al. 1992, Protheroe et al. 1995). These cascades stop

ergy density. when the energy of a photon becomes lower than the pair cre-

6

A. Benoit-Lévy and G. Chardin: Introducing the Dirac-Milne universe

4/3[ln(2Eγ /me ) + 1/2]−1 is the mean fractional energy loss by

Compton scattering (Protheroe et al. 1995). A similar formula

exists for 3 He. Figure 7 presents the results of this calculation.

When photodisintegration is most effective (around T ∼

100 eV), the mean free path of high energy photons relative to

these processes is longer than the diffusion length, implying that

D and 3 He nuclei produced by photodisintegration will be able

to survive and add to the overall light element production. More

precisely, one can estimate the temperature (or equivalently the

redshift) at which newly produced nuclei will not be annihilated

later on. It is then necessary to assume that there exists a red-

shift zend where matter and antimatter cease to annihilate. The

hypothesis of gravitational repulsion between matter and anti-

matter leads to this gravitational decoupling but the exact mech-

anism, which would be analogous to the separation of electrons

and holes in a gravitational field, still needs to be established. We

emphasize that this decoupling is a necessary condition for the

viability of the Dirac-Milne model. A theoretical determination

of zend appears to be possible by analogy with the electron-hole

system (Tsidil’kovskiĭ 1975), but we assume here that it is a free

parameter that will be later constrained by observations. We de-

zend

fine Ldiff (z) the comoving value, calculated at a redshift z, of the

diffusion length at redshift zend to be

Fig. 7. Quantity of D (solid green) and 3 He (dashed red) nuclei

produced by 4 He nuclei photodisintegration for one p p̄ annihi- 1+z

!

lation.

zend

Ldiff (z) = Ldiff (zend ) . (18)

1 + zend

Any nuclei produced at a distance from the domain boundary

ation threshold Epair = m2e /Eγ , where Eγ is the energy of a ther- smaller than this length will be annihilated by zend , whereas nu-

mal photon. Owing to the high number of thermal photons, the clei produced farther away will survive once annihilation stops.

threshold energy for pair creation is Emax ∼ m2e /22T (Ellis et al. We can then determine the redshift z∗ below which the mean free

1992). Photons with energy lower than Emax but higher than zend

path of high energy photons is longer than Ldiff (z∗ ), where z∗ is

Ec ∼ m2e /80T also undergo elastic scattering on background

photons (Svensson & Zdziarski 1990). The resulting spectrum then the redshift below which D and 3 He nuclei produced by

of cascaded photons can be parametrized by (Ellis et al. 1992, photodisintegration will add up to the final abundances.

Kurki-Suonio & Sihvola 2000) Multiplying Eq. (17) by the annihilation rate and integrat-

ph

ing between the times corresponding to z∗ and zend , we get ND ,

A(E/Ec )−1.5 , E < Ec

4

the number of D nuclei produced by photodisintegration of He

dnγ

= A(E/Ec )−5 , Ec < E < Emax ,

(16)

nuclei

dE cas 0,

E > Emax Z zend

ph 1 dz

ND = ND (z)Ψ(z)S (z) . (19)

where A = 3E0 Ec−2 /[7−(Ec /Emax )3 ] is a normalization constant, H0 z ∗ (1 + z)2

and E0 is the total energy injected.

Photodisintegration reactions (4 He(γ, p)3 H, 4 He(γ,n)3 He, We can get rid of the surface term S (z) by dividing eq. (19) by

and 4 He(γ,np)D) require photons with energies higher than the total number of baryons in the volume V, nb V, which yields

the respective threshold energies Q4 He(γ,np)D = 26.07 MeV, the final D abundance

Q4 He(γ,p)3 H = 19.81 MeV, and Q4 He(γ,n)3 He = 20.58 MeV (Cyburt T 1 Z zend

D 0

et al. 2003). The existence of these threshold energies implies = Ldiff (z)ND dz. (20)

H ph 1 keV L1keV z∗

that photodisintegration is a late process, as it becomes efficient

only when Emax becomes higher than one of the previous thresh- This expression depends only on two variables, zend , the redshift

old values. This happens at a temperature T ph ∼ 0.5 keV. of gravitational decoupling and L1keV , the comoving emulsion

High-energy photons responsible for 4 He photodisintegra- size at 1 keV. The values of the final D and 3 He abundances as a

tion mainly interact with ambient electrons by means of function of these two parameters are presented on Fig. 8.

Compton scattering or with ambient nuclei by means of the Electromagnetic cascades initiated by annihilation photons

Bethe-Heitler process (Jedamzik 2006). Taking this into ac- cause the injection of non-thermal energy into the background

count, the number of D nuclei produced per p p̄ annihilation is radiation. In the standard cosmology, these energy injections are

given by tightly constrained, most notably by the FIRAS measurements

(Fixsen et al. 1996). However, in the Dirac-Milne universe, ow-

nα σ4 He(γ,np)D (Eγ ) dnγ

Z Emax

ing to the low value of the expansion rate, the radiative processes

ND = dEγ , (17) that can thermalize virtually any energy injection (Danese & de

QD f (Eγ ) dEγ tot

Zotti 1977, Hu & Silk 1993) decouple at a lower redshift than in

where f (Eγ ) = n p σBH (Eγ , 1) + nα σBH (Eγ , 2) + k(Eγ )ne σKN (Eγ ), the standard case. The detailed calculation of the thermalization

σBH is the Bethe-Heitler process cross-section, σKN is of CMB distortions will be presented elsewhere, but the exclu-

the Compton scattering cross-section in the Klein-Nishina sion contour in the (zend − L1keV ) plane is shown in Fig. 8.

7

A. Benoit-Lévy and G. Chardin: Introducing the Dirac-Milne universe

domains, this situation changes.

Nuclei produced by nucleodisruption possess a kinetic en-

ergy ranging from a few MeV for nuclei to a few tens of MeV

for nucleons (Balestra et al. 1988). These newly produced nu-

clei thermalize by Coulomb scattering on ambient protons and

electrons. The thermalization length for D nuclei produced with

an energy E0 = 10 MeV is presented in Fig. 6 (blue dotted

line). This distance is always much smaller than the diffusion

length, implying that any D nucleus produced by nucleodisrup-

tion will finally return towards the annihilation zone and be de-

stroyed there. A possible way to produce a higher fraction of

deuterium by nucleodisruption would be to consider small do-

mains of (anti)matter within a larger domain of antimatter (mat-

ter). This situation occurs continually in an emulsion, which suf-

fers a redistribution of “domains” when bridges in the emul-

sion disappear by annihilation. If the dimension of the larger

domain is larger than the diffusion length, then an important

fraction of the D and 3 He produced by nucleodisruption could

survive. However, precise calculations of this production require

the knowledge of the statistical properties of the spatial distri-

bution of domains, which strongly depends of the separation

mechanism. This point should be investigated in future studies

of nucleosynthesis in the Dirac-Milne universe.

Fig. 8. D and 3 He final abundance as a function of the size of the

emulsion and the redshift of gravitational decoupling. Hatched

region is forbidden because of CMB distortions constraints. 5. Type Ia supernovæ

In 1998 (Riess et al. 1998, Perlmutter et al. 1999), distance mea-

To ensure that the final D abundance agrees with observa- surements for type Ia supernovæ (SNe Ia) revealed that these

tions (D/H ∼ 3 × 10−5 , Pettini et al. 2008) and imposing the objects are dimmer than expected if our Universe was correctly

gravitational decoupling as late as possible, we find that the co- described by a decelerating Einstein-de Sitter model. The intro-

moving size of the domains at 1 keV has to be around duction of a cosmological constant Λ in the field equations of

general relativity, which is apt to produce an accelerating expan-

L1keV ∼ 1015 cm, (21) sion, provided an impressive fit to the observational data. Today,

SNe Ia are one of the most important cosmological tests and are

which corresponds to a comoving size of 7 kpc today. This es- considered as prime evidence of an acceleration of the expan-

timate of the size of the emulsion may seem small compared, sion. We recall however that the strong evidence of a recent tran-

for instance, to the typical size of a galaxy, implying that there sition between a decelerating phase and an accelerating phase of

should be numerous matter and antimatter domains inside a sin- expansion heavily relies on the prior hypothesis of spatial flat-

gle galaxy. However, we recall that this size is only constrained ness. Without this hypothesis, the evidence is less clear (Seikel

when gravitational decoupling occurs and that domains, which & Schwarz 2008).

are in a non-linear mode of evolution immediately after photon The Dirac-Milne universe has neither acceleration nor decel-

matter-radiation decoupling, will have a dynamical behavior af- eration and is therefore equivalent to an open empty universe. In

ter recombination that effectively increases this size (Dubinski terms of the usual cosmological parameters, this universe corre-

et al. 1993, Piran 1997). sponds to the combination

As suggested by Fig. 7, the secondary production of light

elements by photodisintegration of 4 He leads to an overproduc- (Ω M = 0, ΩΛ = 0) . (22)

tion of 3 He relative to D. It is indeed usually assumed that D can

only be destroyed by stellar processes. On the other hand, 3 He In this context, the luminosity distance in the Dirac-Milne

can be either produced or destroyed, but the ratio D/3 He can universe follows the simple expression

only decrease (Sigl et al. 1995). Since this ratio is observed in c

our Galaxy to be D/3 He ∼ 1 but predicted to be D/3 He ∼ 0.1 in dL (z) = (1 + z) sinh[ln(1 + z)]. (23)

H0

the Dirac-Milne universe, the overproduction of 3 He is a priori

a strong constraint on the Dirac-Milne model. However, we note It is usually claimed that the empty universe, hence the

(see Jedamzik (2002) for a review) that D enhancement could Dirac-Milne universe, is strongly inconsistent with the SNe Ia

occur at high redshift diminishing the efficacy of the 3 He con- observations. We wish here to elaborate on this statement using

straint. the data of the first release of the SNLS collaboration (Astier

et al. 2006). The SNLS data consist of two distinct datasets. The

4.2.3. Production by nucleodisruption high-redshift sample, from the SNLS, comprises 71 SNe Ia with

redshifts between 0.2 ≤ z ≤ 1.01. The second sample is a low-

Nucleodisruption has been found to be a significant producer of redshift set, consisting of 44 SNe Ia taken from the literature

D and 3 He nuclei (Sihvola 2001) within the standard evolution with redshifts z ≤ 0.15. These data come from different experi-

of the scale factor. However, with the slow evolution of the ex- ments and are therefore possibly subject to different sources of

pansion rate in the Dirac-Milne universe and the hypothesis we systematic errors.

8

A. Benoit-Lévy and G. Chardin: Introducing the Dirac-Milne universe

Following the definition given in Astier et al. (2006), the dis- Table 2. Values of the different parameters for the fit using only

tance modulus is the 71 high-z SNe Ia of the SNLS. Here σint has been adjusted

such that χ2 /d.o.f. = 1. The number in parenthesis indicates the

µB = m∗B − M + α(s − 1) − βc, (24) number of degrees of freedom.

where M is the absolute magnitude of SNe Ia, α and β are global

parameters that link the stretch s and the color c to the distance Parameter Dirac-Milne ΛCDM EdS

modulus, and m∗B is the apparent magnitude of the supernova. It ΩM ··· 0.25 ± 0.08 1

should be emphasized that, in contrast to the ΛCDM cosmology, M −19.18 −19.33 −18.87

σint 0.1172 0.1173 0.155

there is no cosmological parameter dependence in the Dirac-

total χ2 68.01 67.01 67.97

Milne luminosity distance. The only degrees of freedom are the

χ2 /dof 1.00 (68) 1.00 (67) 1.0 (68)

nuisance parameters, M, α, and β. Following the procedure de-

scribed in Astier et al. (2006), we minimize the expression

X (µB − 5 log (dL /10 pc))2

χ2 = 10

. (25) for the other two models. The conclusion of this first analysis is

σ2 (µB ) + σ2int twofold. First, we confirm that the decelerating Einstein-de Sitter

Here, σ(µB ) takes into account measurement errors in the appar- model is extremely unlikely, which should come as no surprise.

ent magnitude m∗B , stretch, and color parameters derived by the Second, the Dirac-Milne and the flat ΛCDM models are almost

analysis of light curves (Guy et al. 2005), σint is the so-called identical, Dirac-Milne being in even closer agreement with the

”intrinsic” dispersion, which is a parameter introduced to ac- data than the flat ΛCDM model. Our analysis stresses that all

count for SNe Ia being astrophysical objects that naturally have SNe Ia analysis depend strongly on the use of low-z data to an-

some intrinsic dispersion in their absolute magnitude. However, chor the Hubble diagram.

the value of this parameter is unknown, and in the fitting pro-

cedure, σint is adjusted to ensure that the reduced chi-squared is 5.2. Analysis on the full data set

unity.

Similarly, we proceeded with our analysis of the full data sam-

ple used by SNLS in its one-year analysis, i.e. using an het-

5.1. Analysis with only the high-z sample erogeneous sample of low-z SNe Ia. Our results are given in

We first performed our analysis on the high-z sample without Tables 3 and 4. In this case, as expected, the flat ΛCDM pro-

including any low-z SN Ia. Without this low-z anchoring, the vides a closer fit to the data than the Dirac-Milne universe.

analysis does not permit us to discriminate between the ΛCDM

and the Dirac-Milne universes. In this respect, we note that the Table 3. Values of the different parameters for the fit using the

three-year analysis of SNLS using their data alone (Guy et al. complete data set of 115 SNe Ia. Here, σint has been fixed to

2010) is consistent to a better than 68% CL with the Dirac-Milne σint = 0. The number in parenthesis indicates the number of

universe, while the Einstein-de Sitter (EdS) model is clearly ex- degrees of freedom.

cluded. The evidence of an expansion acceleration therefore re-

lies on a comparison between low-z and high-z SNe Ia. We also Parameter Dirac-Milne ΛCDM EdS

present the results for the EdS model. ΩM ··· 0.258 ± 0.019 1

M −19.258 −19.38 −19.01

σint 0 0 0

Table 1. Values of the different parameters for the fit using only χ2 total 877.93 809.75 1507.83

the 71 high-z SNe Ia of the SNLS. Here, σint has been fixed to χ2 /dof 7.83 (112) 7.295 (111) 13.46 (112)

σint = 0. The number in parenthesis indicates the number of

degrees of freedom.

ΩM ··· 0.289 ± 0.033 1

M −19.24 −19.36 −19.04 Table 4. Values of the different parameters for the fit using the

σint 0 0 0 complete data set of 115 SNe Ia. Here σint has been adjusted

χ2 total 553.64 558.6 724.38 such that χ2 /d.o.f. = 1.The number in parenthesis indicates the

χ2 /dof 8.14(68) 8.33 (67) 10.65(68) number of degrees of freedom.

ΩM ··· 0.250 ± 0.036 1

The results of the analysis of the 71 SNe Ia are presented in M −19.217 −19.331 −18.98

Tables 1 and 2. In Table 1, the intrinsic dispersion is fixed to a σint 0.1432 0.1289 0.258

null value. The analysis is therefore performed using only the χ2 total 112.05 110.96 111.95

measurement errors, thereby giving a stronger weight to SNe Ia χ2 /dof 1.00 (112) 0.99(111) 0.99 (112)

with redshifts 0.2 ≤ z ≤ 0.4, which have smaller errors. The total

and reduced χ2 of the EdS model are much larger than those of

the ΛCDM and Dirac-Milne models, which are in turn similar.

In Table 2, the intrinsic dispersion is determined by assuming In Fig. 9, we present the residuals of the Hubble diagram for

that the reduced chi-squared is unity. The value of the intrinsic the Dirac-Milne, the flat ΛCDM, and Einstein-de Sitter models.

dispersion required to renormalize the reduced χ2 of the EdS The left-hand column represents the residuals when the value

model to unity is here again much larger than those required of the intrinsic dispersion was adjusted to normalize the χ2 to

9

A. Benoit-Lévy and G. Chardin: Introducing the Dirac-Milne universe

Fig. 9. Residuals of the Hubble diagram for the Dirac-Milne ((a) and (b)), flat ΛCDM ((c) and (d)), and Einstein de-Sitter ((e) and

(f)) models. The left column represents the residuals obtained by the minimization of the χ2 defined by eq. (25), in which the values

of the intrinsic dispersion is adjusted so that χ2 /d.o.f. = 1. In the right column, this intrinsic dispersion is fixed to 0.

1 per degree of freedom. In the right-hand column, we present to ensure that the two models are equally probable. This value

the residuals obtained when the intrinsic dispersion parameter should be compared to the budget of systematics errors esti-

is fixed to the value σint = 0. Setting σint to 0 enables one to mated in recent studies: ∆M = 0.04 mag (Kowalski et al. 2008).

consider the “real” measurement errors. It appears that for SNe Therefore, a relatively mild systematic error of 1.5 σ for nearby

with redshifts in the range 0.2 ≤ z ≤ 0.8 these errors are smaller SNe Ia would lead us to favor the Dirac-Milne universe over the

than the intrinsic dispersion. The use of such an ad-hoc param- conventional ΛCDM cosmology in the SNe Ia analysis.

eter in the analysis may degrade the quality of the data in the

redshift interval 0.2 − 0.4, where the quality of the observations

is highest. We note that such an analysis with statistical errors 6. Other tests

only was previously performed by the SNLS three-year analysis

A major result of CMB experiments has been the precise mea-

(Guy et al. 2010).

surement of the position of the first acoustic peak on the degree

Panels e) and f) present the residuals for the Einstein-de scale, which seems to imply that the spatial curvature is nearly

Sitter model. Even though the reduced χ2 has been constrained zero (Komatsu et al. 2010). In the open spatial geometry of the

to unity in panel e), the characteristic slope in the residuals illus- Dirac-Milne universe, this position would naively be expected at

trates the non-conformity of the Einstein-de Sitter model to the a much smaller angle. The ratio of the angular distances in the

data. The difference between the Dirac-Milne and the ΛCDM two models taken at redshift z ∼ 1100, which corresponds to the

models is however almost negligible, and can hardly be seen by surface of last scattering surface, is

simply examining the residuals.

We note that it is only the use of nearby SNe Ia that en- dAMilne (z) z=1100

ables us to distinguish between the Dirac-Milne and the ΛCDM ] 169. (26)

models, the latter then being the most likely model at a confi- dAΛCDM (z)

dence level of more than 3σ as previously announced (Astier

et al. 2006, Kowalski et al. 2008). The value of this ratio implies that an astrophysical object at

redshift z = 1100 is seen under an angle 169 times smaller in the

It appears that sources of previously unaccounted for sys-

Dirac-Milne universe than in the ΛCDM cosmology.

tematic errors (Kelly et al. 2010) are present in the nearby sam-

The angular position of the first peak is defined by the angle

ple data set. To investigate this, we determined the constant off-

under which the sound horizon is seen at recombination

set to the apparent magnitude of nearby SNe Ia required for the

chi-squared for the Dirac-Milne and the flat ΛCDM to become χ s (z∗ )

equal. We found that an offset of δm∗B = 0.06 mag is sufficient θ= , (27)

dA (z∗ )

10

A. Benoit-Lévy and G. Chardin: Introducing the Dirac-Milne universe

where χ s (z∗ ) is the sound horizon, dA (z∗ ) the angular distance, the radiative processes leading to recombination. We found that

and z∗ the redshift of the last scattering surface. It is of interest to z∗ ∼ 1040.

consider the equivalent multipole `a ∼ π/θ. The sound horizon Calculating the multipole of the acoustic scale using expres-

is defined as the distance that acoustic waves can travel in the sion (30), we obtain `a ∼ 160. The standard value of this quantity

primordial plasma. Taking into account the universe expansion, is `a ∼ 300 (Spergel et al. 2003). Instead of a discrepancy of a

this distance reads factor ≈ 169 , there is an almost exact compensation between the

Z t larger geometrical term, induced by the open geometry of the

dt0

χs = cs 0 , (28) Dirac-Milne universe, and the larger sound horizon, caused by

0 a(t ) the slow evolution of the expansion rate before recombination.

√ Taking into account the numerous approximations in the model,

where the speed of sound c s = c/ 3(1 + R), R being a correc- this remarkable coincidence is quite unexpected and represents a

tive factor caused by the presence of baryons (Hu & Sugiyama fascinating motivation to study the Dirac-Milne universe in more

1995). Its value can be related to the baryon to photon ratio η by detail.

R ≈ 1.1 × 1012 η/(1 + z). However, the sound horizon scale is also imprinted in the

The definition of the lower bounds of the integral requires large-scale structure power spectrum under the form of small

some care as we have shown previously that this integral di- oscillations (Eisenstein & Hu 1998) called baryonic acoustic os-

verges near the initial singularity. However, the mechanisms of cillations (BAOs). These oscillations are expected, at least in a

sound generation in the Dirac-Milne and ΛCDM universes dif- first approximation, on the same scale as the sound horizon. As

fer radically. In contrast to the generation of sound waves in discussed above, the sound horizon is much larger in the Dirac-

the standard model where inhomogeneities are produced at the Milne universe than in the standard cosmology. Admitting that

epoch of inflation, it seems reasonable to consider that sound there are BAOs in the Dirac-Milne universe, they should be ex-

waves in the Dirac-Milne universe are probably produced by an- pected on a scale much larger than that of the standard cosmol-

nihilation at the matter-antimatter frontiers. It is therefore natu- ogy. The claimed detection of these BAOs on the expected scale

ral to consider for this value the epoch of QGP transition around (within the standard cosmology) of ∼ 150 Mpc (Eisenstein et al.

T ∼ 170 MeV. In the absence of inflation, the universe is indeed 2005), presently detected at the ∼ 3σ level, if confirmed by on-

very homogeneous before this event, and QGP transition seems going experiments, would therefore provide a strong constraint

naturally to be the scale of interest in the Dirac-Milne cosmol- on the Dirac-Milne universe.

ogy. There is at present a rather general consensus that the QCD

transition is of neither first nor second order at null chemical po-

tential, but is probably an analytic crossover (see e.g. Aoki et al. 7. Conclusion

(2006), Bazavov et al. (2009), Endrődi et al. (2011), and refer- Since the standard ΛCDM model is in good agreement with

ences therein). Under this hypothesis, it would be extremely dif- observations but rather poorly theoretically motivated, we have

ficult, if not impossible, to understand how significant amounts studied here an alternative cosmological model, the Dirac-Milne

of matter and antimatter could have survived annihilation in the universe. Inspired by the work of Dirac, Kerr, and Carter, this

very slow evolution of the Dirac-Milne universe. However, this model restores the symmetry between matter and antimatter.

present belief is based on a QCD calculation, whereas the sit- Relying on the symmetries of the Kerr-Newman solutions in

uation of the primordial universe is more complicated, includ- general relativity, it makes the hypothesis that particles and an-

ing additional light leptons (electrons, positrons, neutrinos, and tiparticles behave similarly to quasiparticles such as electrons

antineutrinos). In addition, present calculations use light quark and holes in a semiconductor, and that antimatter has a negative

masses for the u and d quarks that are significantly higher than active gravitational mass. A fundamental characteristic of this

the actual masses of these quarks. Therefore, the observation Universe is the linear evolution of its scale factor, which solves

of large matter-antimatter domains would be an extremely use- in an elegant way both the problems of the horizon and the age

ful indication that, in contrast to present expectations, there is a of the universe.

sharp transition allowing the survival of significant regions of an- For primordial nucleosynthesis, we have found that the

timatter at the QCD transition. It should also be noted that some Dirac-Milne universe is able to produce 4 He at an adequate level,

authors are clearly considering the possibility that baryogenesis while producing 7 Li nuclei in proportions admittedly a factor

occurs at the QCD transition or at a O(100 MeV) temperature three higher than the observed values but with a smaller dis-

(see for example Dolgov (1992) for a review). agreement between observations and predictions than the stan-

Acoustic waves then propagate in the plasma as long as mat- dard cosmology. We have also shown that surface annihilations

ter and antimatter are in contact, i.e. until the gravitational de- at the frontiers of matter and antimatter naturally lead to the pro-

coupling, estimated in the previous section at zend ≈ 3 × 104 . duction of D nuclei, in amounts that are proportional to the in-

With these values, the comoving sound horizon is found to be verse of the characteristic size of the emulsion. The main focus

χ s ∼ 42 Gpc. (29) of this study has been the production of D, although the assump-

tion that the emulsion has a fixed characteristic size is clearly an

The expression of the angular position of the first acoustic peak approximation. Relaxing this assumption will allow the possibil-

then follows ity of the total annihilation of small patches of antimatter inside

larger regions of matter. This might lead to a net production of D

by nucleodisruption, which has a higher D/3 He production ratio

dA (Balestra et al. 1988), hence alleviate the constraints made by the

`a ∼ π , (30)

χ s (z∗ ) overproduction of 3 He nuclei .

The Dirac-Milne universe does not undergo an accelerated

It can be shown that the redshift of the last scattering surface expansion and therefore seems to conflict with the usual inter-

in the Dirac-Milne universe is a few percent lower than in the pretation of type Ia distance measurements. We have shown that

standard cosmology, here again due to the late decoupling of the Dirac-Milne universe can nevertheless be reconciled with

11

A. Benoit-Lévy and G. Chardin: Introducing the Dirac-Milne universe

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