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IEEE PES Transactions on Power Delivery

A Novel Method to Utilize PLC to Detect Corroded and


Eroded Segments of Power Transmission Lines

Journal: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery

Manuscript ID: TPWRD-00414-2011

Manuscript Type: Transactions

Date Submitted by the


17-May-2011
Author:

Complete List of Authors: Hosseinian, Seyed Hossein; AMIRKABIR University of technology,


E.E Dept.
Jalilzadeh Hamidi, Reza; Amirkabir University of Technology,
Electrical Enginieering
Sadeghi, S. H. H.; Amirkabir University of Technology, Electrical
Engineering

Technical Topic Area : Communication systems < Power System Communications

Key Words: Aging, Nondestructive testing, Corrosion


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A Novel Method to Utilize PLC to Detect
5
6 Corroded and Eroded Segments of Power
7
8
9
Transmission Lines
10
11 R. Jalilzade Hamidi, S. H. H. Sadeghi, and S. H. Hosseinian
12
13
14
15 decreased reliability of aged lines are reductions in system
16 Abstract— A great number of existing power transmission operability and maintainability, supply reliability, and public
lines have aged throughout the world. Considerable proportion of safety [1]-[6]. As a part of most NDT&E procedures the test
17 them is located in environments that exacerbate their corrosion
18 specimen is exposed to a wave and the altered reflected wave
and erosion process. Hence, in-time detection of resulting defects
19 can be used to determine the condition of the material.
necessitates the use of Non Destructive Tests (NDT). Currently
20 conventional methods include line scanning robots and helicopter Travelling waves can be utilized as a probe for transmission
21 scanning. In this paper a new method has been proposed which lines. PLCs (Power Line Carrier) can provide a range of
22 uses Power Line Carrier (PLC) elements, generally for frequencies which vary from 30-40 kHz to 500 kHz [7].
23 information communication in transmission lines, to detect the Fortunately, they are usually already installed and have become
corroded and eroded segments along transmission lines. The a standard equipment in substations, especially in UHV and
24
simulations are in the transient time-domain state and
25 HV sections where there are almost always existing.
“EMTPWorks” is used to perform these simulations. The main
26 concept of the suggested method is based on the backward wave In this paper a study is carried out to find out the feasibility
27 which is created due to the change in the characteristic impedance of using PLC propagated waves for defect detection in power
28 of a power transmission line. transmission lines, and the detect-ability of such waves in
29 transmission lines. Like other techniques, this method may
30 have some disadvantages and limitations; however it is useful
31 Index Terms— Conductor aging, corrosion, erosion, NDT, for finding corrosion and discontinuity in strands of ACSR,
32 PLC, power line carrier.
AAAR, AAR and other conductors. Some practically applied
33 techniques to find these kinds of flaws are: line scanning by
34 INTRODUCTION
robots [6], helicopter scanning [8], through visual inspections,
I.

35
36
37
C ORROSIVE contaminants present in the atmosphere, both
natural and artificial, tend to affect the useful lifetime of
metallic structures. The importance of the atmosphere as a
corona camera, and ultrasonic methods. Both aforesaid
techniques expenses are exorbitant despite current introduced
method.
38 corrosive agent is confirmed by the number of scientific
39 publications, in several countries. The corrosive action of the II. POWER TRANSMISSION APPARATUS AND CONDUCTORS
40 atmosphere depends, basically, on factors such as relative
41 ACSR conductors have been used for over 80 years for
humidity, pollutant substances, temperature, and stay time of
42 transmission of electric power at high voltage [1]. In most
an electrolyte film on a metallic surface. Besides these,
43 substations PLC system and its peripheral equipment are
climatic factors such as wind direction and wind intensity,
44 implemented to communicate for protection and other
rainfall and solar radiation must be taken into account. Internal
45 purposes. ACSR is the most applicable conductor type for
corrosion is a major factor limiting the life of steel reinforced
46 power lines. Features of some common conductors which used
aluminum conductors (ACSR) and the loss of zinc from the
47 in current study are presented in Table I.
central galvanized steel strands is a crucial stage in the
48
corrosion process. Severe industrial pollutions and erosion
49 III. CHARACTERIZATION OF WAVE PROPAGATION IN
damage the outer strands of a conductor. Early warning of
50 TRANSMISSION LINES
51 corrosion enables the operator to make best use of budgets for
reconductoring an ageing network. The major consequences of The transmission line equations that govern behavior of the
52 voltage and current which are travelling in relatively large
53 media proportional to the frequency of them are named the
54 R. Jalilzade Hamidi is a MSc student in the Electrical Engineering telegraph equations [9]. An infinite section of one phase of a
55 Department, Amirkabir University of Technology (e-mail:
reza.j.hamidi@aut.ac.ir). line is shown in Fig. 1.
56
S. H. H. Sadeghi is with Electrical Engineering Department, Amirkabir
57 University of Technology (e-mail: sadeghi@aut.ac.ir). ∂ u (x , t ) ∂i( x, t ) (1)
58 S. H. Hosseinian is with Electrical Engineering Department, Amirkabir − = R ′i ( x , t ) + L ′
59 University of Technology (e-mail: hosseinian@aut.ac.ir). ∂x ∂t
60
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1 TABLE I POWER-LINE CARRIERS


2
IV.

SPECIFICATIONS AND FEATURES OF CONDUCTORS USED IN THE CASE STUDY


The power-line carrier provides a path for communicating

Stranding
3

(Al/Stl)
Dia.Ind. Dia.Ind. Steel Core Cable
Conductor information between the terminals of a transmission line. The
4 name
Wire Al Wire Stl. Diameter Diameter
5 (Inches) (Inches) (Inches) (Inches) coupling equipment consists of the line tuner, coupling
6 Bluejay 45/7 0.1573 0.1049 0.3147 1.259 capacitor, and line trap; and provides a means of connecting
7 Joree 76/19 0.1819 0.0849 0.4245 1.880
the terminals to selected points on the power transmission line.
8 The transmission line provides a suitable path for the
Linnet 26/7 0.1137 0.0884 0.2642 0.720
9 transmission of carrier energy between terminals in the PLC
10
Content –

Content –
band of frequencies [7]. As mentioned in [10], a drain coil
% IACS

% IACS

RDC 20°C RAC 75°C RDC 75°C


Conductor
Stl

11
Al

name
1000ft. 1000ft. 1 km. must always be provided in the coupling capacitor, as it shown
12 Measured. Measured. Calc. in Fig. 3. The purpose of the drain coil is to provide a low
13 Bluejay 83.69 16.31 0.0155 0.0194 0.062855 impedance path to the ground for the power frequency current,
14 through the coupling capacitor; and at the same time, present a
Joree 86.73 13.27 0.0069 0.0094 0.027989
15 high impedance path to ground for the carrier frequency
Linnet 68.53 31.47 0.0505 0.0618 0.204109
16 energy. Coupling capacitors are in the range of Table II [7].
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26 Fig. 1. Small element model of a transmission line.
27 Fig. 3. Defect section in transmission line and PLC coupling apparatus circuit
model.
28 ∂ i (x , t ) ∂u ( x, t )
− = G ′u ( x , t ) + C ′ (2)
29 ∂x ∂t Frequencies in the range of 30–500 kHz have been
30 employed for PLCs. This frequency range is sufficiently high
31 to be isolated from the power frequency energy and the noise it
R ′ + jω L ′ (3)
32 Z C= creates, but not high enough to encounter excessive attenuation
33 G ′ + jω C ′
[7].
34
35 TABLE II
γ = (R ′ + jω L ′ )(G ′ + jω C ′ ) (4) COUPLING CAPACITOR VALUE BASED ON NOMINAL VOLTAGE
36
Voltage Capacitance Voltage Capacitance
37 class (KV) range (uF) class (KV) range (uF)
38 R′, L′, C ′ and G′ are variables per length unit. 34 0.004 – 0.010 161 0.0012 – 0.014
39 The forward wave, which is often called the incident wave, 46 0.004 – 0.015 230 0.0009 – 0.010
40 travels in the overhead line through the conductors, when the 69 0.003 – 0.015 287 0.006 – 0.007
92 0.002 – 0.020 345 0.0005 – 0.006
41 incident wave reaches into another medium with different
115 0.0019 – 0.020 500 0.0014 – 0.005
42 characteristic impedance the wave is defracted and divided into 138 0.0014 – 0.016 765 0.0023 – 0.005
43 forward and backward portions. Fig. 2 shows the defective line
44 model and the travelling waves.
45 V. TEMPERATURE CONSIDERATION
46 Z C 2 − Z C1 Since the thermal rating of any conductor is dependent upon its
r= (5)
47 Z C 2 + Z C1 maximum allowable temperature, and this temperature varies
48 widely according to engineering practice and assessment.
49
Where r is the reflection coefficient and the backward wave Temperatures of 50 °C to 180 °C are in use for ACSR [11],
50
size, Ur , is calculated by multiplying r by Uf . [12]. The electrical resistance of a conductor such as aluminum
51
wire is dependent upon collision processes within the wire. An
52
intuitive approach to temperature dependence leads to expect a
53
54 fractional change in resistance which is proportional to
55 temperature change:
56
57 ρ = ρ 0 (1 + α (T − T0 )) (6)
58
59 Fig. 2. Defective section in transmission line and travelling waves. Where ρ and ρ 0 are relative resistivity in standard and
60
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ambient temperature that are T0 and T, and α is linear km ρ (10)
2 R AC = X AC =
temperature coefficient of a material. 2 r ( n + 2 )π
3
Because of the reverse relation between temperature and
4 B. “T/D” method
skin depth as shown in Fig. 4, the conductor temperature at 75
5
6 degrees in Celsius is selected for simulations as a common, and Another method which is considered in this paper to
7 toward worst-case for detection of the defect area due to calculate the skin effect is the “T/D” method. The mentioned
8 reflections decrease from the defect. method is based on the same principle of the “Galloway-
9 Wedepohl”. Equations and the illustration (Fig. 5) are
10 SKIN EFFECT CONSIDERATIONS
VI. presented [14]:
11 Because of the skin effect, AC current tends to flow on the
12 outside of a connector. Predominant factor for quantizing the k = 1 + 3 . 409 × 10 13 X 2 . 078
Y 3 .92 − 3 . 32 × 10 − 21 X 4 . 55
Y Z
(11)
13 phenomenon is δ, the “skin depth”, which is calculated by:
14 X =T D (12)
15 2ρ
16 δ = (7) f (13)
Y =
17 µω R DC
18 Z = 6 . 50 − 1 . 27 X 3 . 33
(14)
19 where µ is permeability of the conductor and ρ is the relative
20 resistivity of it.
21 A comparison between methods that study frequency
22 dependent behavior of conductors is carried out in this paper
23 and the most accurate and proper one is selected for
24 simulations.
25
26 A. “Galloway and Wedepohl” method
27 The calculation of Rac and Xac is complicated by the irregular
28 surface profile of the conductor due to stranding. When high
29 frequencies are considered, the current is confined to the Fig. 5. T and D are marked on conductor cross-section.
30 surface of the outer layer of the strands, owing to the skin C. Comparison of Main Methods
31 effect. By assuming that the depth of penetration is very small,
32 Each of the above mentioned methods has their application
the current density at the surface of the conductor is
33 based on the kind of corrosion, erosion and accuracy that is
proportional to the magnetic-field intensity at the surface [13].
34 required. The “T/D” method is proper for both internal and
35 surface corrosion and erosion, but the “Galloway-Wedepohl”
km ρ (8) method is rather applicable for surface corrosion. Because of
36 ZC =
r ( n + 2 )π the internal and circumference decay in the current study,
37
38 simulations are based on the “T/D” method.
39 where k is approximately equals to 2.25 due to conductor
40 stranding, n is the number of strands in the outer layer, r is the SIMULATION VII.

41 radius of each outer strand, and m is described by (9).


The simulations are done using “EMTPWorks” as one of the
42 most well-known and accurate softwares for simulating and
43 jωµ (9) studying the transient time-domain state of power systems. In
m=
44 ρ the first step, the corrosion area on the cross-section of a
45
conductor is assumed as a percentage of the total diameter of
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60 Fig. 4. Comparison of skin depth under normal ambient and common working temperature.
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steel and aluminum as shown in tables and figures which are The circuit model used in simulations is shown in Fig. 8;
2
presented in appendix. DC resistance at 75 degrees in Celsius both ends of the transmission line are considered almost open
3
is calculated using specifications released by conductor circuit at the PLC frequency, because of the line traps that are
4
manufacturers (also mentioned in Table I). mounted on the phases. Coupling capacitors are selected
5
6 The used line modeling is EMTP constant parameter line according to Table II derived from [7] and drain inductance
7 model with consideration of skin effect and ground relative value is selected so that the resonance frequency becomes far
8 resistivity of 100 ohm-meters [15]. The transposing of long from the PLC frequency [17]. The values which are used for
9 transmission lines will increase the losses compared with non- simulations are presented by Table III.
10 transposed lines [7], therefore lines are fully transposed in TABLE III
11 simulation performances with the aim of the worst-case COUPLING ELEMENTS VALUES
12 condition. Each simulation has been done under its own Total
Drain
13 frequency which is determined by the PLC. Tower 230 Coupling Resonance Freq.
inductance
#1 KV capacitance
14 Two distinct geometrical transmission line models are
8 nF 0.3 mH 102 kHz.
15 analyzed and the conductor type on each changes within the
Total
16 range of general constraints. Tower details are produced by Coupling
Drain
Resonance Freq.
Tower 765 inductance
17 Fig. 6 and Fig. 7 from EMTP and [16], respectively. For the #2 KV capacitance
18 first tower configuration, the “Bluejay” and “Linnet” conductor 4 nF 0.5 mH 112 kHz.
19 types are appropriate, and for the second tower model “Joree”
20 and “Bluejay” are suitable. A. Simulation Results
21
22
23 1) Internal Corrosion
24 The slight conductor resistivity, in comparison to line
25 inductance, and taking into account that there is no change in
26 physical conductor dimensions by internal corrosion, there is
27 not any considerable reflection from the defective area; the
28 reflections are about 10-6 or 10-7 and are absolutely prone to
29 fade due to noise. Characteristic impedance of normal and
30 abnormal conductors is Zs= 5.21582E+02, and R per length =
31 5.70929E+01 for the normal section. For the defect section
Fig. 6. Tower #1 geometrical specifications.
32 (50% reduction, as the best case for detection) parameters are;
33 Zs= 5.21583E+02, R per length = 5.70949E+01, therefore the
34 reflection coefficient is negligible.
35
36 2) Surface Decay
37 The first simulation was run under the following conditions;
38 Tower #1, “BlueJay” Coductor, frequency of 40 kHz for the
39 PLC signal, the PLC signal is applied onto the line for a one
40 cycle duration, corroded area length is 100 meters and the
41 defective area is 100 km away from the PLC location. For
42 having an idea of Zc changes depend upon radius; normal
43 conductor Zs= 5.21582E+02 and R per length = 5.70929E+01,
44 for defect section (1% reduction, as the worst-case for
45 detection), Zs= 5.21890E+02 and R per length = 5.70981E+01
46 Fig. 7. Tower #2 geometrical specifications.
hence, reflection coefficient originates and getting significant
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60

Fig. 8. Tuner coupling and transmission line circuit model.


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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16 Fig. 9. Forward wave at defect area.
17
18 by radius reduction, as it can be seen in Fig. 10.
19 Fig. 9 depicts forward or indecent wave at the point of the
20 corroded area connection. This point is not accessible in
21 practice, but can be used as a time reference in the following
22 figures. Information derived from this point is not necessary
23 for later estimations but can be an auxiliary point for analyzing
24
next figures.
25
Fig. 10 shows the reflected wave from a surface corroded
26
area that is 100 km far from the PLC; the frequency of the
27 Fig. 10. Received wave at the location of tuner, Tower #1, “Blujay”
propagated wave is 40 kHz. Cross-section radius reduction
28 conductor, PLC at 40 kHz.
29 percentages are marked in the figure and tower #1 is used for
30 modeling. Outcomes for 150 kHz of frequency with ex-
31 simulation conditions are produced in Fig. 11.
32 Fig. 12 provides a comparative illustration between 40 and
VIII. ESTIMATION AND EVALUATIONS FOR DEFECTIVE SECTION
33 150 kHz of frequency on the conditions of previous
simulations, except for the conductor type. To estimate the distance, the length and also severity of the
34
Peak values of reflected waves are given in Table IV. The flaw in transmission line, travelling time is useful and can be
35
line attenuation coefficient becomes greater by frequency used not only for flaw detection, but also in evaluations thus,
36
37 augmentation, i.e. values of reflected wave amplitude at the having an approximation of travelling wave velocity is
38 tuner location are smaller at higher frequencies. valuable. This matter has no problem because of classic and
39 Fig. 13 shows complete received wave at the location of the modern methods for estimating and measuring wave velocity
40 tuner on the sending end. Both head and end reflections can be in a medium, especially transmission lines.
41 seen clearly.
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
Fig. 11. Received wave at the tuner point for 1% to 10% cross-section reduction, Tower #1, “Bluejay” conductor, PLC at 150 kHz.
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1
2 TABLE IV
PEAK VALUE OF RECEIVING WAVES AT THE TUNER POINT FOR ALL SIMULATION CONDITIONS.
3
4 PLC
5 signal 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 6% 7% 8% 9% 10%
6 freq. (db) (db) (db) (db) (db) (db) (db) (db) (db) (db)
(kHz.)
7 Tower 1 40 -70.89 -64.83 -61.26 -58.73 -56.76 -55.13 -53.75 -52.54 -51.48 -50.53
8 Bluejay 150 -78.40 -72.32 -68.76 -66.21 -64.24 -62.61 -61.23 -60.03 -58.96 -58.01
9 Tower 1 40 -71.77 -65.72 -62.16 -59.62 -57.65 -56.02 -54.64 -53.44 -52.38 -51.41
10 Linnet 150 -80.70 -74.65 -71.09 -68.55 -66.58 -64.95 -63.57 -62.37 -61.30 -60.35
Tower 2 40 -76.18 -70.10 -66.55 -64 -62.03 -60.39 -59.01 -57.81 -56.75 -55.78
11 Bluejay 150 -87.18 -81.16 -77.58 -75.04 -73.06 -71.44 -70.05 -68.85 -67.78 -66.82
12 Tower 2 40 -87.23 -71.94 -67.48 -64.95 -62.97 -61.34 -59.96 -58.76 -59.69 -56.73
13 Joree 150 -96.19 -80.1 -76.55 -74 -72.02 -70.39 -69.01 -67.81 -66.74 -65.78
14 Note the equation, ‘db = 20 log (I)’ is used.
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29 Fig. 12. Sending end tuner received signal, Tower#1, “Linnet” conductor and 40, 150 kHz.
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49 Fig. 13. Complete received wave from begin and end of defective section, Tower# 2, “Bluejay” conductor, 40 kHz.
50
51 A. Flaw Distance from PLC
52 As depicted in Fig. 14, T1 is the first reflection ‘time’ from
53 the flaw and its value is two times larger than the value shown
54 in Fig. 9, therefore the beginning of the corroded area can be
55 determined by dividing T1 by, two times the wave propagation
56 velocity in the medium (Distance = T1/2v).
57 Fig. 14. Ladder curve of the forward and backward PLC signal in a
58 B. Flaw Length transmission line. T1 and T2 are the time of defect head and end reflections
59 respectively.
As shown in (5) and Fig. 13, due to media characteristics
60
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changes at begin and at the end of the defected area in the internal decays are studied and a new method is derived from
2
conductor, two back waves are detected at the PLC position, the results of simulations run by “EMTPWorks”. It can detect
3
this is illustrated in Fig. 13. Section1 (the left section of the and evaluate surface decays the origin of which can be erosion
4
figure) shows the reflection from the defect head and section 2 and corrosive particles suspended in the air, rain fall, sun
5
6 (Right half of the figure) shows reflection from the defect end. exposure and wind.
7 The two waves are nearly anti-phase (have a 180 degrees phase
8 difference). Equation (15) can be used to estimate the length of APPENDIX
9 corrosion. Fig. 15 also shows the issue. Conductor features are changed by volatile ambient
10 T − T1 conditions, and conductors decay, over the time. The values
(15)
L= 2
11 2×v which are entry data for simulations have been calculated
12 Where is wave velocity, virtually the velocity of wave based on common working temperature and the conductor
13 propagation in the original conductor. L is the length of the
14 corroded section. T1 and T2 are depicted in Fig. 14 and their
15 deduction ( T = T1 −T 2 ) is shown in Fig. 13.
16
17 C. Defect severity
18 As it is obvious from Table IV, Fig. 12 and Fig. 13, the peak
19 value of the received wave is proportional to the reduction size,
20 frequency and flaw distance to the PLC. The distance can be
21 easily determined afterwards, by taking into account the line
22
attenuation factor, the size of the backward wave at the
23
defected section can be estimated. Thus, the range of conductor
24
radius reduction can be calculated from (5), because of the
25
known relation between “conductor radius” and
26
“characteristics impedance”. Fig. 16. Internal corrosion in terms of T reduction.
27
28
29 IX. CONCLUSION
30 The matter of power transmission line decay detecting is
31 important, because of the long life of many transmission lines,
32 and the harsh ambient conditions they undergo. The mentioned
33 issue is a complicated procedure, due in part to line inherent
34 features; such as inaccessible routes and large physical
35 structures. Some methods were applied in the past, all of which
36 needed close contact with the conductor along its length. The
37 method introduced in this paper not only exempts the need for
38 close following of the line route but also can be applied using
39 currently existing apparatus and elements. External and Fig. 17. Surface decay in terms of D attenuation.
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
Fig. 15. Curves related to the defect length, Tower #1, 3% cross-section reduction, 40 kHz. Defect length is from 50 to 200 meters.
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1 TABLE V
2 CONDUCTOR FEATURES’ CORRECTION, ACCORDING TO INTERNAL CORROSION AT 75 CELSIUS DEGREES
3 Conductor name
1% Radius. 5% Radius. 10% Radius. 20% Radius. 40% Radius. 50% Radius.
4 corroded corroded corroded corroded corroded corroded
5 R DC per km. 0.062956 0.063366 0.063903 0.065056 0.067719 0.069253
Bluejay
T/D 0.373 0.368 0.362 0.350 0.325 0.312
6
R DC per km. 0.028024 0.028166 0.028353 0.028752 0.029670 0.030195
7 Joree
T/D 0.3860 0.3815 0.375 0.364 0.3419 0.330
8
R DC per km. 0.204992 0.208636 0.213451 0.224054 0.250125 0.266346
9 Linnet
T/D 0.314 0.3074 0.298 0.279 0.243 0.224
10
11 TABLE VI
12 CONDUCTOR FEATURES’ CORRECTION, ACCORDING TO CIRCUMFERENCE CORROSION AT 75 CELSIUS DEGREES
13 1% Radius 2% Radius 3% Radius 4% Radius 5% Radius
Conductor name
Reduction Reduction Reduction Reduction Reduction
14
Diameter (cm) 3.1659 3.1339 3.1019 3.0699 3.0380
15
Bluejay R DC per km. 0.064200 0.065588 0.067023 0.068506 0.070040
16
T/D 0.374 0.372 0.371 0.370 0.368
17
Diameter (cm) 4.7274 4.6797 4.6319 4.5842 4.5364
18
Joree R DC per km. 0.028583 0.029197 0.029830 0.030486 0.031163
19
T/D 0.386 0.385 0.384 0.382 0.381
20
21 Diameter (cm) 1.8105 1.7922 1.7739 1.7556 1.7374
22 Linnet R DC per km. 0.208567 0.213176 0.217944 0.222877 0.227985
23 T/D 0.315 0.313 0.311 0.309 0.307
24 6% Radius 7% Radius 8% Radius 9% Radius 10% Radius
Conductor name
Reduction Reduction Reduction Reduction Reduction
25
26 Diameter (cm) 3.0060 2.9740 2.9420 2.9101 2.8781
27 Bluejay R DC per km. 0.071628 0.073270 0.074971 0.076734 0.078560
28 T/D 0.367 0.366 0.364 0.363 0.361
29 Diameter (cm) 4.4887 4.4409 4.3932 4.3454 4.2977
30 Joree R DC per Km. 0.031863 0.032588 0.033338 0.034115 0.034920
31 T/D 0.380 0.379 0.377 0.376 0.375
32 Diameter (cm) 1.7191 1.7008 1.6825 1.6642 1.6459
33 Linnet R DC per Km. 0.233274 0.238755 0.244437 0.250329 0.256444
34 T/D 0.305 0.303 0.301 0.298 0.296
35
36 cross-section reduction, either internal or conferential. [11] IEEE Standard for Calculating the Current-Temperature of Bare
37 Overhead Conductors IEEE Power Engineering Society, IEEE Std. 738 –
38 1993.
REFERENCES Vincent T. Morgan, Fellow, IEEE, “Effects of Alternating and Direct
39 [12]

Current, Power Frequency, Temperature, and Tension on the Electrical


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