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# Test 1 for TMA1101 TC10_ TC20_

8.00 pm – 9.15 pm

## Name: ____________________________________________ ID: _______________________

INSTRUCTIONS:
1. This paper contains 7 pages including the front page, it consists of TEN questions.
3. Should you need more space, you could write on the back of a page.
4. Maximum marks = 30

1. [4 marks]
(a) What is Euler’s formula?
Euler’s formula is given as 𝑒 𝑖𝜃 = cos 𝜃 + 𝑖 sin 𝜃.

𝑒 𝑖𝜃 −𝑒 −𝑖𝜃
(b) Use sin 𝜃 = 2𝑖 to derive the identity: sin3 𝜃 = A sin 3𝜃 + B sin 𝜃 for some value of
A and B. find the values of A and B.
[The identity (𝑎 − 𝑏)3 = 𝑎3 − 3𝑎2 𝑏 + 3𝑎𝑏 2 − 𝑏 3 would be useful. ]
Begin with
3
3
𝑒 𝑖𝜃 − 𝑒 −𝑖𝜃 𝑒 𝑖3𝜃 − 3𝑒 𝑖2𝜃 ∙ 𝑒 −𝑖𝜃 + 3𝑒 𝑖𝜃 ∙ 𝑒 −𝑖2𝜃 − 𝑒 −𝑖3𝜃
sin 𝜃 = ( ) =
2𝑖 8(𝑖)3
𝑒 𝑖3𝜃 − 3𝑒 𝑖2𝜃+(−𝑖𝜃) + 3𝑒 𝑖𝜃+(−𝑖2𝜃) − 𝑒 −𝑖3𝜃
=
8𝑖(𝑖 2 )
𝑒 𝑖3𝜃 − 3𝑒 𝑖2𝜃−𝑖𝜃 + 3𝑒 𝑖𝜃−𝑖2𝜃 − 𝑒 −𝑖3𝜃
=
8𝑖(−1)
𝑒 − 3𝑒 + 3𝑒 −𝑖𝜃 − 𝑒 −𝑖3𝜃
𝑖3𝜃 𝑖𝜃
=
−8𝑖
𝑒 𝑖3𝜃 − 𝑒 −𝑖3𝜃 − 3𝑒 𝑖𝜃 + 3𝑒 −𝑖𝜃
=
−8𝑖
𝑒 𝑖3𝜃 − 𝑒 −𝑖3𝜃 −3𝑒 𝑖𝜃 + 3𝑒 −𝑖𝜃
= +
−8𝑖 −8𝑖
𝑒 𝑖3𝜃 − 𝑒 −𝑖3𝜃 −3(𝑒 𝑖𝜃 − 𝑒 −𝑖𝜃 )
= +
−8𝑖 −8𝑖
1 𝑒 𝑖3𝜃 − 𝑒 −𝑖3𝜃 −3 𝑒 𝑖𝜃 − 𝑒 −𝑖𝜃
= (− ) ( ) + ( )( )
4 2𝑖 −4 2𝑖
1 𝑒 𝑖3𝜃 − 𝑒 −𝑖3𝜃 3 𝑒 𝑖𝜃 − 𝑒 −𝑖𝜃
= (− ) ( ) + ( )( )
4 2𝑖 4 2𝑖
1 3
= − sin 3𝜃 + sin 𝜃
4 4
If compare with sin3 𝜃 = A sin 3𝜃 + B sin 𝜃,
1 3
A = − ,B =
4 4

1
2. [2 marks]
Complete the following table with exact values of sin 𝜃, cos 𝜃 and tan 𝜃 corresponding to the
special angles given; approximations obtained from a calculator WOULD NOT be
accepted.

## 𝜃 sin 𝜃 cos 𝜃 tan 𝜃

𝜋 √1 √3 1
6 2 2 √3
𝜋 √2 √2 1
4 2 2
𝜋 √3 √1
√3
3 2 2

3. [4 marks] Find the limits. (You must show at least one intermediate step. )
a) lim (𝑥 3 + 𝑥 − 2) = lim 𝑥 3 + lim 𝑥 − lim 2
𝑥→−2 𝑥→−2 𝑥→−2 𝑥→−2
= (−2)3 + (−2) − 2
= −8 − 2 − 2 = −12

𝑥 2 −16 (𝑥+4)(𝑥−4)
b) lim = lim = lim (𝑥 + 4)
𝑥→4 𝑥−4 𝑥→4 𝑥−4 𝑥→4
= 4+4= 8

2012𝑥3+2 2012𝑥3 2
2012𝑥 3 +2 lim lim ( + 3)
𝑥→∞ 𝑥3 𝑥→∞ 𝑥3 𝑥
c) lim = 𝑥+𝑥3
= 𝑥 𝑥3
𝑥→∞ 𝑥+𝑥 3 lim lim ( 3 + 3 )
𝑥→∞ 𝑥3 𝑥→∞ 𝑥 𝑥
2 2
lim (2012 +3 ) lim 2012 + lim 3
𝑥 = 𝑥→∞ 𝑥→∞ 𝑥
= 𝑥→∞
1 1
lim ( + 1) lim + lim 1
𝑥→∞ 𝑥 2 𝑥→∞ 𝑥 2 𝑥→∞
2012 + 0 2012
= = = 2012
0+1 1
sin 𝑥−3𝑥 sin 𝑥 3𝑥 sin 𝑥
d) lim = lim − lim = lim − lim 3
𝑥→0 𝑥 𝑥→0 𝑥 𝑥→0 𝑥 𝑥→0 𝑥 𝑥→0
=1−3=4

2
4. [3 marks]
4
, 𝑥<3
𝑓(𝑥) = { 𝑥 − 1
𝑥 2 − 2𝑥 − 1, 𝑥≥3
a) Evaluate: (You must show at least one intermediate step. )
4 4 lim 𝑓(𝑥) = lim+(𝑥 2 − 2𝑥 − 1)
lim− 𝑓(𝑥) = lim− = 𝑥→3+ 𝑥→3
𝑥→3 𝑥 − 1 3−1
𝑥→3
= 32 − 2(3) − 1
4
= =2 = 9−6−1= 2
2

𝑥→3 𝑥→3

c) 𝑓(3) = 2

## d) Is the function 𝑓 continuous at 3? (Yes/No) Yes Give your reason.

lim 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑓(3)
𝑥→3
________________________________________________________________________

5. [3 marks]
a) State the Intermediate Value Theorem (i.e., the full statement including the hypothesis
and the conclusion).
Supposed 𝑓 is continuous on the closed interval [𝑎, 𝑏]. 𝑘 is a number such that
𝑓(𝑎) < 𝑘 < 𝑓(𝑏) or 𝑓(𝑏) < 𝑘 < 𝑓(𝑎). There exist a number 𝑐 in between 𝑎 and 𝑏, such
that 𝑓(𝑐) = 𝑘.

## b) Show that there is a root of the equation 𝑥 3 + 8𝑥 − 10 = 0 in the interval [1,2].

Let 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑥 3 + 8𝑥 − 10. It is continuous on the closed interval [1,2]
𝑓(1) = 13 + 8(1)−10 = 1 + 8 − 10 = −1
𝑓(2) = 23 + 8(2) − 10 = 8 + 16 − 10 = 14
By the Intermediate Value Theorem, there is a number 𝑐 ∈ [1,2] with 𝑓(𝑐) = 0.
Therefore, the function 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑥 3 + 8𝑥 − 10 has a root 𝑐 in between the closed interval
[1,2].

3
6. [4 marks]
a) Use the formal definition of the derivative to compute 𝑓′(3) when 𝑓(𝑥) = 4𝑥 2 . (Show
proper steps. )
𝑓(3 + ℎ) − 𝑓(3) 4(3 + ℎ)2 − 4(3)2
𝑓 ′ (3) = lim = lim
ℎ→0 ℎ ℎ→0 ℎ
4(9 + 6ℎ + ℎ2 ) − 4(9)
= lim
ℎ→0 ℎ
36 + 24ℎ + 4ℎ2 − 36
= lim
ℎ→0 ℎ
36 − 36 + 24ℎ + 4ℎ2 24ℎ + 4ℎ2
= lim = lim
ℎ→0 ℎ ℎ→0 ℎ
2
24ℎ + 4ℎ ℎ(24 + 4ℎ)
= lim = lim = lim (24 + 4ℎ)
ℎ→0 ℎ ℎ→0 ℎ ℎ→0
= 24 + 4(0) = 24 + 0 = 24

b) Find the equation of the tangent to the graph of 𝑦 = 4𝑥 2 at the point (3,36).
𝑦 = 4𝑥 2
𝑑𝑦
= 8𝑥
𝑑𝑥
At the point (3,36)
𝑑𝑦
𝑥 = 3, 𝑦 = 36, 𝑚 = = 8𝑥 = 8(3) = 24
𝑑𝑥
𝑦 − 36 = 24(𝑥 − 3)
𝑦 − 36 = 24𝑥 − 72
𝑦 − 24𝑥 = −72 + 36
𝑦 − 24𝑥 = −36

4
7. [2 marks] Carry out the differentiation.
𝑑𝑦
𝑦= =
𝑑𝑥

(𝑥 5 )4 20𝑥 19

cos 4𝑥 −4 sin 4𝑥

sin 7𝑥 7 cos 7𝑥

tan 5𝑥 5 sec 2 5𝑥

(a) 𝑦 = (𝑥 5 )4
= 𝑥 20
𝑑𝑦
= 20𝑥19
𝑑𝑥

(b) 𝑦 = cos 4𝑥
Let 𝑢 = 4𝑥
𝑦 = cos 𝑢
𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑢
= − sin 𝑢 , =4
𝑑𝑢 𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑢
= ∙ = (− sin 𝑢)(4) = −4 sin 𝑢 = −4 sin 4𝑥
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑢 𝑑𝑥

(c) 𝑦 = sin 7𝑥
Let 𝑢 = 7𝑥
𝑦 = sin 𝑢
𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑢
= cos 𝑢 , =7
𝑑𝑢 𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑢
= ∙ = (cos 𝑢)(7) = 7 cos 𝑢 = 7 cos 7𝑥
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑢 𝑑𝑥

(d) 𝑦 = tan 5𝑥
Let 𝑢 = 5𝑥
𝑦 = sec 2 𝑢
𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑢
= sec 2 𝑢 , =5
𝑑𝑢 𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑢
= ∙ = (sec 2 𝑢)(5) = 5 sec 2 𝑢 = 5 sec 2 5𝑥
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑢 𝑑𝑥

5
𝑑𝑦
8. [3 marks] Find 𝑑𝑥 with 𝑦 as given.
[Use the product rule or the quotient rule for differentiation; show proper steps.]
a) 𝑦 = 𝑥 3 sin 4𝑥
𝑑𝑢 𝑑𝑣
𝑢 = 𝑥3, = 3𝑥 2 , 𝑣 = sin 4𝑥 , = 4 cos 4𝑥
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑦
= (𝑥 3 )(4 cos 4𝑥) + (sin 4𝑥)(3𝑥 2 )
𝑑𝑥
= 4𝑥 3 cos 4𝑥 + 3𝑥 2 sin 4𝑥
= 𝑥 2 (4𝑥 cos 4𝑥 + 3 sin 4𝑥)

ln 𝑥
b) 𝑦 = 𝑥2
𝑑𝑢 1 𝑑𝑣
𝑢 = ln 𝑥 , = , 𝑣 = 𝑥2, = 2𝑥
𝑑𝑥 𝑥 𝑑𝑥
1
𝑑𝑦 (𝑥 2 ) ( ) − (ln 𝑥)(2𝑥)
= 𝑥
𝑑𝑥 (𝑥 2 )2
𝑥 − 2𝑥 ln 𝑥
=
𝑥4
𝑥(1 − 2 ln 𝑥)
=
𝑥4

9. [2 marks]
3 𝑑𝑦
a) Given 𝑦 = 𝑒 𝑥 , let 𝑢 = 𝑥 3 and use the chain rule to find 𝑑𝑥 .
𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑢
𝑦 = 𝑒𝑢, = 𝑒𝑢, = 3𝑥 2
𝑑𝑢 𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑦 3
= (𝑒 𝑢 )(3𝑥 2 ) = 3𝑥 2 𝑒 𝑢 = 3𝑥 2 𝑒 𝑥
𝑑𝑥
𝑑2 𝑦
b) Then proceed to find 𝑑𝑥 2 . Remember to show proper steps.
𝑑𝑢 3 𝑑𝑣 3
𝑢 = 3𝑥 2 , = 6𝑥, 𝑣 = 𝑒 𝑥 , = 3𝑥 2 𝑒 𝑥
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥
𝑑2𝑦 3 3
2
= (3𝑥 2 )(3𝑥 2 𝑒 𝑥 ) + (𝑒 𝑥 )(6𝑥)
𝑑𝑥 3 3
= 9𝑥 4 𝑒 𝑥 + 6𝑥𝑒 𝑥

6
10. [3 marks]
𝑑𝑦
Given 𝑦 3 + 𝑥𝑦 − 10𝑥 3 = 0, carry out implicit differentiation to obtain 𝑑𝑥 in terms of 𝒙 and
𝒚. Then find the gradient of the tangent to the curve 𝑦 3 + 𝑥𝑦 − 10𝑥 3 = 0 at the point (1,2).
𝑑 3 𝑑 𝑑 𝑑
(𝑦 ) + (𝑥𝑦) − (10𝑥 3 ) = (0)
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥
𝑑 3 𝑑 𝑑 𝑑 𝑑
(𝑦 ) + 𝑥 (𝑦) + 𝑦 (𝑥) − (10𝑥 3 ) = (0)
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑦
3𝑦 2 + 𝑥 ( ) + 𝑦 − 30𝑥 2 = 0
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑦
3𝑦 2 +𝑥 + 𝑦 − 30𝑥 2 = 0
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑦
(3𝑦 2 + 𝑥) + 𝑦 − 30𝑥 2 = 0
𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑦
(3𝑦 2 + 𝑥) = −𝑦 + 30𝑥 2
𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑦
(3𝑦 2 + 𝑥) = 30𝑥 2 − 𝑦
𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑦 30𝑥 2 − 𝑦
=
𝑑𝑥 3𝑦 2 + 𝑥
At (1,2),
𝑑𝑦 30(1)2 − (2)
𝑚= =
𝑑𝑥 3(2)2 + (1)
30(1) − 2
=
3(4) + 1
30 − 2 28
= =
12 + 1 13