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Lesson 7: Other Ancient Nations of Asia Olympic Games - the best known sports contest in the

Hittites - warlike people of Indo-European ancestry world


Phoenicians - famous in their purple dye extract; invented Homer - greatest tragic poet the world ever produced
the alphabet Pindar - the greatest lyric poet
King Hiram - famous Phoenician king; friend of king Sappho - tenth muse
Solomon Aeschylus - father the Greek Tragedy
Jews - called Hebrews Lesson 9: The Grandeur that was Rome
Monotheism - worship only one God Rome - capital of Italy
Cyrus the Great - founded the Persian empire; founded Latin - language in rome
the Achaemenid dynasty Etruscans - earliest rulers of Rome
Darius I - greatest ruler of Achaemenid dynasty; “king of Patricians - aristocrats who controlled the
kings” Senate(Government)
Zoroastrianism - a religion based on the belief that life is Plebeians - poor people; lowest mammal
constant struggle between good and evil. Forum - public square
Zoroaster “Prophet of Iran” Thucydides - wrote the Punic wars (Rome vs Carthage)
India - “The Land of Mystery” Hannibal - carthagian general who used elephant in war
Hinduism - religion of India Augustus – means his excellency
Brahmas- priests and scholars Pax Romana - peace in rome
Kshatriyas - nobles and scholars Trajan - military commander born in Spain and not an
Vaishyas - farmer, merchants and craftsmen aristocrat from rome
Sudras - laborers and slaves Hadrian – ruler when Roman architecture reached its peak
Pharias - untouchables Antoninus - earned the title Pius
Gautama Buddha - founded Buddhism Papacy - term for the authority of the Christian Church in
Nirvana - perfect happiness rome
Ayuveda - india traditional medicine Virgil - wrote the Aeneid
Panchatantra - first fable in mankind Horace - wrote Odes
Mahabharata and Ramayana - great epics Ovid - Rome’s greatest poet of love
Bhagavad Gita - world’s greatest philosophical poem Epigrams - short dedicatory inscriptions carved on tombs
Confucius - China’s most beloved teacher; book: Book of Pantheon - a massive dome
the Days Colosseum - greatest amphitheater in Rome
Lao Tzu - founded Taoism; his name means “Old Republic - ruled by elected officials
Scholar”; book: Tao Te Ching Lesson 10: Byzantine
Mencius - believed that all men are by nature good Rome - capital of the western roman empire
Sun Tzu - book: Art of War Constantinople - capital of the eastern roman empire
Lesson 8: The Glory that was Greece Roman Catholic - universal
Greeks- Hellenes; Hellenic civilization Eastern Orthodox - correct belief or genuine
Minos - greatest king and lawgiver of Crete Hippodrome - circuses are usually held
Metropolis - mother state Justinian Code - preserved and codified the roman law
Polis - city-state Caste System of Hinduism
Phatriya - tribe a. Brahmas
Homer - wrote Iliad and Odyssey b. Kshatriyas
Agora - main plaza and marketplace of the city-state c. Vaishyas
Monarchy - one -man rule; ruled by a king or a tyrant d. Sudras
Aristocracy - ruled by few men wisely e. Pharias
Oligarchy - ruled by few men badly
Pure or Direct Democracy - political decision were made Four Noble Truths
by the citizens 1. Man’s life is filled with suffering
Indirect Democracy (Republican) - ruled by elected 2. Man’s suffering is caused by his selfish desires
officials 3. Man can end his suffering by conquering his
Sparta - capital of Laconia selfish desires
Solon - started a democratic form of government 4. After conquering his manly desires, man reaches
Cleisthenes - transformed the Athenian government into Nirvana
real democracy
Persian wars - Battle of Marathon Eight Fold Path
Pericles - greatest statesman of Greece 1. Right Belief
Socrates - the most famous greek philosopher 2. Right aspiration
Plato - wrote The Republic 3. Right speech
Aesculapius - God of Medicine 4. Right conduct
Hippocrates - Father of Medicine 5. Right livelihood
6. Right effort
7. Right remembrance
8. Right meditation

India’s four religions


1. Hinduism
2. Buddhism
3. Sikhism
4. Jainism

Three famous Philosophers


1. Confucius
2. Lao Tzu
3. Mencius

3 classes of Spartan Society


1. Spartans, citizen and warriors
2. Freemen engaged in trade and industry
3. Helots (Slaves)

Architectural styles
1. Ionian
2. Doric
3. Corinthian
First Roman Triumvirate
1. Pompey
2. Julius Caesar
3. Crassus

First people Migrated in Italy


1. Etruscans
2. Greeks
3. Gauls (French)