Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 45

RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY

College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

April 19, 2018

Engr. Rs L.Lagrimas
Professor, College of Engineering and Industrial Technology
Rizal Technological University
Mandaluyong City, Philippines

Dear Sir:

Greetings!

We, the fourth-year students of Rizal Technological University pursuing a degree in


Bachelor of Science in Electronics and Communication Engineering are currently
enrolled in the subject Project Study (ECE 421).

We are writing to humbly request your service and expertise to serve as an adviser for
our thesis. We believe that your knowledge and insights will be valuable and will greatly
enrich our work.

Thank you for your consideration. We are hoping for a favorable response regarding to
our request.

Respectfully yours,

Researchers

VINCENT Y. CASERES

ROAVIMA SILVER D. ESOCTA

ANNE MARY F. FABREGAS

Conforme:

__________________________
ENGR. RS L. LAGRIMAS
Professor, College of Engineering and Industrial Technology
RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

Traffic Violators Monitoring Using RFID: Beating the Red Light

A Proposal Project Study Presented


to the Faculty of Electronics and Communications
Engineering and Technology Department & the College of Engineering &
Industrial Technology

In Partial Fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of

Bachelor in Electronics and Communications Engineering

Presented by:

Caseres, Vincent Y.

Esocta, Roavima Silver D.

Fabregas, Anne Mary F.

Dr. Wilfredo L. Timajo

APRIL 2018
RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

CHAPTER 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

INTRODUCTION

RFID or Radio-Frequency Identification based monitoring systems are

not new to the world of technology, it is now widely used in the industry. This kind

of monitoring system will help create faster ways to identify items, provide

efficient equipment lending and provide added security. Along the roads, where

there are a lot of irresponsible and unaware motorists and pedestrians, incidents

of traffic jams and road accidents are timely and relevant mostly along the roads

of Metro Manila due to ineffective monitoring systems at times. The Metro Manila

Development Authority (MMDA) is an agency in the Philippines which performs

planning, monitoring and coordinative functions, and in the process exercise

regulatory and supervisory authority over the delivery of metro-wide services

within Metro Manila without reducing the autonomy of the local government units

concerning purely local matters.


RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

In line with one of these services, specifically traffic management, the

agency has the authority to implement all traffic enforcement operations and

policies. If an MMDA traffic enforcer witnesses a traffic violation, he/she can

issue violation receipts or tickets to the erring motorist.

‘Beating the red light’ is an example of traffic infraction that the agency

apprehends. This violation is incurred when a motorist runs through an

intersection if the traffic light has already turned red. The violation may fall under

reckless driving or disregard of traffic signs – depending on the speed of the

vehicle.

There are a lot of factors as to why motorists would run a red light. It

might be that these motorists are trying not to be late for office or an

appointment, or they’re catching a flight, or there are no cars and they think

they’re safe to pass especially during wee hours of the morning. These people,

of course, know that this is wrong, but why do they still do it? Mainly because

there are no traffic enforcers present to apprehend them.


RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

Maybe these motorists are lucky enough to evade the law one time or

another, but repercussions are inevitable. Accidents abound because of traffic

violations like ‘beating the red light’. These accidents range from a minor collision

with another vehicle to death of pedestrians, passengers or the drivers

themselves.

In the likely event, though, that a traffic enforcer is present and a

motorist commits the infraction, the violator has no choice but to pull over and be

issued a violation receipt by the enforcer. But then there is the concept of

‘kotong’, wherein the enforcer would ask for money instead of issuing a ticket for

the violator. This current system of the MMDA for apprehending ‘beating the red

light’ violators greatly contributes to corruption, perpetuates bribery and cannot

apprehend violators for situations when traffic enforcers are absent.

So, what this paper provides an enhancement to the current system of

the agency from manual apprehension to computerized identification of violators.

The developed system is a plate number recognition system for ‘beating the red
RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

light’ violators. A miniature prototpye of the study will be done by the

researchers.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

 GENERAL

The manual apprehension system of MMDA does not provide evidence

in the occurrence of the event, relies only on the eye of the enforcer and

only has thin deployment of enforcers.

 FAILURE TO MONITOR THE VIOLATORS

The manual apprehension system of MMDA for ‘beating the red light’ is

not very flexible. It does not provide evidence of the occurrence of the

event making it hard to prove that such a violation happened. Violators

can easily get away from this. In this system also, the traffic enforcers only

use their naked eye which could be subject to high percentage of error like

misreading of the plate number of the vehicle. This can be due to factors
RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

like the vision of the enforcer, over-speeding of the car which makes it

hard for the enforcer to read the plate number or the quality of the plate

number. Also, the system only provides thin deployment of traffic

enforcers. The coverage is only limited to certain areas.

 TRAFFIC JAM

As demand approaches the capacity of a road (or of the intersections

along the road), extreme traffic congestion sets in. When vehicles are fully

stopped for periods of time, this is colloquially cause a traffic jam or traffic

snarl-up. Traffic congestion can lead to drivers becoming frustrated and

engaging in road rage.

 ROAD ACCIDENTS

The use of RFID on monitoring of ‘beating the red light’ violators

minimizes the accidents among commuters and pedestrians caused by

such violation.
RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1. What are the important variables involved in such device? What

problems will hinder the performance of the reader?

2. Where should the RFID reader be placed?

3. How effective is the RFID tracking monitoring system?

4. How much power does the device consume?

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Since the current apprehension system of the MMDA for ‘beating the

red light’ violators are all manual, the issues of corruption and unavailability of

traffic enforcers at certain intersections come about. Examples of when

corruption happens are: when a traffic enforcer compels a violating motorist into

giving money instead of issuance of violation receipt, and when the enforcer

uses more subtle approach of dropping subtle remark indicating his/her

preference of receiving money. So, with the reduced number of traffic enforcers

needed at every intersection mainly due to the presence of the proposed system

integrated with red-light cameras, opportunities for corruption are lessened.


RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

The issue of unavailability of traffic enforcers in manual apprehension

system is also a great opportunity to show how the system is of great help in

maintaining traffic management and policies at road intersections. With the

developed system, even in the absence of a traffic enforcer, management of

traffic and apprehension of erring motorists are still in operation.

Although, in employing this system, the need for traffic enforcers is

greatly lessened, they are still expected to be monitoring at some areas – the

reason practically being so that in cases of manual overrides of the traffic

situation or emergencies, they are quick to respond.

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

INPUT

 Connection of the devices

 Materials needed

 RFID tag

 RFID reader

 Drivers’ Car

 Equipment and Devices needed


RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

PROCESS

 Programming

 Construction of Prototype

 Series of testing

 Consultations

OUTPUT

 PC or LAPTOP

 CAR INFORMATION

 NAME OF OWNER

 PLATE NO.

 VEHICLE REGISTRATION

 AUTO INSURANCE

 DATE AND TIME OF VIOLATION

 TRAFFIC LIGHTS
RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

THEORY

RFID belongs to a group of technologies referred to as Automatic

Identification and Data Capture (AIDC). AIDC methods automatically identify

objects, collect data about them, and enter those data directly into computer

systems with little or no human intervention. RFID methods utilize radio waves to

accomplish this. At a simple level, RFID systems consist of three components:

an RFID tag or smart label, an RFID reader, and an antenna. RFID tags contain

an integrated circuit and an antenna, which is used to transmit data to the RFID

reader. The reader then converts the radio waves to a more usable form of data.

Information collected from the tags is then transferred through a communications

interface to a host computer system, where the data can be stored in a database

and analyzed at a later time.

The proposed study will go as where the RFID Tag/s on the equipment

will passes by the RFID Reader to identify the car information and its driver.

Then, it will be stored as data on the system to be able to keep the track of the

car. The system will store in a PC or Laptop where the drivers record about
RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

his/her violation (beating the red light) that will be up-to-date. The system is able

to give the record of the driver who violate. The data will be collected and the

system will be stored in a computer.

The following are variables involved in the process:

1. RFID TAG

An RFID tag is comprised of an integrated circuit (called an IC or chip)

attached to an antenna that has been printed, etched, stamped or vapor

deposited onto a mount which is often a paper substrate or Polyethylene

Terephthalate (PET). The chip and antenna combo, called an inlay, is

then converted or sandwiched between a printed label and its adhesive

backing or inserted into a more durable structure.

2. RFID READER

This device will provide the connection between the tag data and the

enterprise system software that needs the information. The reader

communicates with tags that are within its field of operation, performing

any number of tasks including simple continuous inventorying, filtering

(searching for tags that meet certain criteria), writing (or encoding) to

selected tags, etc.


RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS

1. The developed system is integrated with RFID Reader that

uses electromagnetic fields to automatically identify and track tags

attached to objects.

2. The developed system RFID tags contain electronically stored

information. Passive tags collect energy from a nearby RFID reader's

interrogating radio waves. Active tags have a local power source (such as

a battery) and may operate hundreds of meters from the RFID reader.

Unlike a barcode, the tag need not be within the line of sight of the reader,

so it may be embedded in the tracked object. RFID is one method

for Automatic Identification and Data Capture (AIDC).

3. Only the plate numbers regularly issued by the LTO for cars, vans and

trucks is processed by the proposed system. Commemorative, diplomatic

and government plates are not included.


RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

4. Vehicles without plates or for registration are outside the scope of the

system.

5. Cases like when two vehicles are caught by the RFID Reader where one

of them committed the violation while the other came from the right

direction (the road where the traffic light is green) will be under certain

investigations by the authorities towards the violator.

6. The case of when a traffic enforcer is compelled to manually override the

flow of traffic at an intersection and this act disrupts the technicalities of

‘beating the red light’ is not also within the scope of the proposed system.

7. If a plate number is dilapidated or obstructed to the point that it’s virtually

improbable to recognize, then the proposed system is not expected to

perform well.

8. Performance of the system is dependent on the quality of the image

caught by the RFID.


RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter includes the review of related literature and studies that the

researchers considered necessary to understand the topic of the study. Related

literatures are classified as foreign and local. A synthesis of reviewed literature

and studies citing the similarities and differences are presented at the end of the

chapter.

FOREIGN LITERATURE

The demonstration of the first continuous wave radio generation and

transmission of radio signals by Ernst F. W. Alexanderson in 1906 signaled the

beginning of modern radio communication and, subsequently, radio frequency

identification (RFID). RFID is the convergence of radio broadcast technology and

radar, although many of its early developments are not widely known due to the

military significance of this technology. Most documented histories of RFID

technology trace its development to the radio based identification systems from
RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

World War II when the British Air Force used radar to distinguish Allied aircraft

from enemy aircraft. Commercial development of RFID began in the late 1960s.

Arguably the first and most widespread commercial use of RFID was in the

development of electronic article surveillance (EAS) equipment to counter theft.

Although this system could only detect the presence or absence of a tag, the

tags themselves could be made cost-effectively and provided an effective anti-

theft measure — an important application in the early commercialization of the

Technology. Research and development by academic institutions, government

laboratories and private companies led to applications for animal tracking,

vehicle tracking and automated manufacturing.

By the mid-1990s, implantable RFID tags that were initially used to track

laboratory animals were being marketed to veterinarians and animal shelters to

identify pets. RFID is now used for hundreds of applications including theft

prevention, personnel access systems, automated parking, traffic management

and library book tracking, along with the monitoring of assets in supply chain

management.

RFID technology fundamentals RFID systems consist of four main elements: the

RFID tags, the RFID reader, the antennas and computer network used to

connect the readers. The tag itself is the building block of RFID, each containing
RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

an antenna and a small chip that contains a radio receiver and a modulator to

send a signal back to the reader. Tags come in a variety of shapes and sizes

allowing them to be implanted into animals and humans, and they can be

powered by the incoming radio signal (passive tags) or by a small battery (active

tags). The advantage of an active tag is that its reading range and reliability is

greater than that of a passive tag; however, passive tags can be much smaller

and cheaper to produce and should, in principle, work indefinitely.

RFID tags can also either be promiscuous in that any RFID reader (also known

as an interrogator) can communicate with it, or secure where the reader requires

an authentication credential in order for the tag to respond. RFID readers work

by sending a pulse of radio energy, which is measured using oscillation

frequency and power, to a tag and monitoring the tag’s response. Certain

frequencies require a license to broadcast using this part of the spectrum, though

most RFID systems use the so called unlicensed spectrum, which does not

require a radio license. Low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF) and ultra-high

frequency (UHF) bands are used within RFID systems depending on the

application. For example, the FDA has adopted the HF band for RFID systems

that are used to monitor prescription drugs.


RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

In a simple RFID system, the reader’s energy pulse acts simply as an on-off

switch for the tag. In more complex systems, the pulse can include commands to

the tag, such as instructions to read or write memory for more advanced

monitoring.

RFID asset management

• Retention of the history of an asset and audit trail of the asset’s lifecycle.

• Tamper alert messaging for unauthorized movement of assets that would

void equipment qualification in a regulated environment.

• Monitoring of laboratory temperature and humidity with audit trail and

alerting mechanism.

• A web-based enterprise system that provides total laboratory asset

management.

The benefits of an RFID system compared with traditional barcode and ERP

asset management systems.

Historically, inventory lists were maintained to monitor asset depreciation or as

part of various financial or laboratory management systems. Lack of information

or incorrect information about location, status and usage can, however, cause
RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

delays in laboratory operations or lead to excess inventory of costly assets.

Often, information is available, but is stored in different physical locations,

systems or databases. As a result, the ability to defend a laboratory during a

regulatory audit can become difficult. If the integrity of documentation, such as

service and maintenance logs, installation qualification (IQ), operational

qualification (OQ) and performance qualification (PQ) records is compromised,

then regulated laboratories are under risk of non-compliance. If documents

pertaining to maintenance, qualification and change management a controlled

environment for are stored in one compliant database, defense of the laboratory

becomes much easier from a holistic perspective. Integration of RFID technology

with compliant database architecture represents a significant step forward in

managing laboratory assets “well”, and in a compliant manner.

Features of an RFID-based asset management solution include:

• Real-time management of individual assets or groups of assets.

• Location of assets, locally, regionally or globally.

• Provision of current instrument status including service history.


RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

RFID and the pharma industry

RFID and the pharma industry RFID can increase the safety and visibility of

pharmaceutical products — from raw materials, through to manufacturing and

patient consumption — by allowing the tracking and tracing of medications at the

item level at each stage of the supply chain, preventing theft and effectively

facilitating management of product recalls to ultimately assure pharmaceutical

integrity. As such, the FDA has recommended the use of RFID tags to better

integrate and improve the safety of US medical supply chains.

For the analytical laboratory, managing and tracking high-end and portable

equipment and associated documentation is a core requirement of laboratory

management systems. Doing this ‘well’ with minimal resource and manual

intervention and in a compliant manner is the key to successful application of

RFID in the laboratory. Current systems used in pharmaceutical, biotech and

other regulated environments include simple hard copy inventory lists,

spreadsheets, barcoding systems and enterprise resource program (ERP)

systems. Historically, inventory lists were maintained to monitor asset

depreciation or as part of various financial or laboratory management systems.


RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

Lack of information or incorrect information about location, status and usage can,

however, cause delays in laboratory operations or lead to excess inventory of

costly assets. Often, information is available, but is stored in different physical

locations, systems or databases.

As a result, the ability to defend a laboratory during a regulatory audit can

become difficult. If the integrity of documentation, such as service and

maintenance logs, installation qualification (IQ), operational qualification (OQ)

and performance qualification (PQ) records is compromised, then regulated

laboratories are under risk of non-compliance. If documents pertaining to

maintenance, qualification and change management are stored in one compliant

database, defense of the laboratory becomes much easier from a holistic

perspective.

Integration of RFID technology with compliant database architecture represents a

significant step forward in managing laboratory assets “well”, and in a compliant

manner.
RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

FOREIGN STUDIES

RFID is a wireless automatic identification that is gaining attention and is

considered by some to emerge as one of the pervasive computing technologies

in history. As the technology grows very rapidly, RFID has received considerable

worldwide attention and widely used in monitoring and tracking ranging from

human identification to product identification. Previous research has successfully

indicated that RFID has been increasingly expanded in various fields such as

retail supply chain, asset tracking, postal and courier services, education,

construction industry, medical, and etc. (Roberts, 2006) The work presented by

Tan and Chang (2010) who had developed an RFID based e- restaurant system

to change the traditional restaurant services which is considered as passive. The

utilization of RFID is to improve the service quality which is customer-centered

that enable waiters to immediately identify customers via their own RFID-based

membership card. It can also provide customized services such as enhanced

dining table service; pay the bills, instant transmission of customer orders to

kitchens and flexibility of managing payments of bills and discounts.

However, the designed and developed RFID-based sushi management system

to help a conveyor belt sushi restaurant to achieve better inventory control,


RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

responsive replenishment, and food safety control, as well as to improve its

quality of service. (Ngai et. al., 2008).

In the perspective of animal tracking or livestock monitoring management

system, developed FARMA project which combined with RFID technology and

mobile wireless networking to track animal and the data in repository which

contains animal data records. The purposes of the system are to identify animal

in case it gets lost and identify some basic information about particular animals.

(Vouldimos et. al., 2010)

Similar works were done and developed a livestock monitoring system using

RFID. An RFID tag is used and attached to each livestock to monitor its

movement in and out as well as the basic information about any particular

animals. (Nor Suryani Bakeri et. al., 2007 and Ahmad Rafiq Adenan et. al., 2006)

The use of RFID also could assist in customs clearance process by reducing the

delay time. According to the authors, the use of RFID can improve the efficiency

of cargo process and reduce the inventory and labor cost. The work presented

based on the mathematical model of the customs clearance process delay and

the network of customs delay is reconstructed based on the use of RFID. RFID
RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

also has been successfully applied in global postal and courier services in

monitoring the parcel delivery. (Hsu, Shih and Wang, 2009)

One of the well-known courier service company is DHL which has been using

RFID in their services since 1988 and carried out 20 trials on active and passive

technology and successfully proved it improved the service and reduce the costs

(EPC Global, 2005). The application of RFID in global market in postal and

courier services contribute 650 billion per year and Europe was the leader in

utilizing RFID in postal and courier services (Zhang, et. al., 2006). High quality

service lead to customer satisfaction, increase market share, and enhance

profitability of service organizations. ((Zhang, et. al., 2006) & (Hoffman and

Bateson, 1997))

Some people have done a study to investigate the possibility of using RFID as a

tool for improving service quality in hospitality industry and primarily concern in

tourism industry. (Oztaysi, Baysan, and Akpinar ,2009)

In monitoring of asset tracking, an effective and efficient managing the tracking of

medical- assets in healthcare facilities can be performed by the means of RFID.

Oztekin et. al. (2010) has done a study using enhanced maximal covering

location problem along with critical index analysis metric to optimize the design of
RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

a medical-asset tracking system constrained by a limited number of RFID

readers. Results indicate that the proposed technique has improved by 72%

compared to the currently utilized expert placement strategy. Yan and Lee (2009)

developed RFID application in Cold Chain monitoring system to track the cold

chain product flowing in supply chain, ensure the products’ quality and comply

with relevant provisions during transportation. The system executes in real-time

environment and can track the location and monitor the temperature of cold-

chain products to ensure the quality.

However, according to the author has done a research regarding the application

of RFID in retail supply chain at a brink-and-mortar supermarket to investigate

the advantages and challenges with the early RFID applications in terms of

technological issue such as standardization, challenges on the data, network and

application layers. (Loebbecke, 2005)

They designed and developed of a context aware notification system for

university students using RFID. The system aims to deliver urgent notifications to

the intended students immediately at their respective locations. (Haron, et. al.,

2010) A quite similar work was done which integrates RFID and biometric sensor

to track students in a boarding school of their location at the selected restricted

area. (Herdawatie et. al., 2010)


RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

LOCAL LITERATURE

From RFID Journal, RFID is identified as generic term for a technology

that uses radio waves to identify people or objects. Several methods of

identification are made, but the most effective is to store a serial code that serves

as an identifier of a person or object, and other information, on a chip attached to

an antenna. The chip and the antenna together are called RF tag. The antenna

enables the chip to transmit the information to an RF reader. The RF reader

converts the radio waves into digital information that can then be passed and

converted by computers to be used. There are two varieties of tags, one is a

passive tag and another one is an active tag. Active RFID would function with the

aid of a battery while passive RFID uses the radio frequency energy transmitted

from the reader to power the tag. Active RFID can be used from monitoring

objects over larger areas. These include scanning of several packages through

dock doors or collection of real-time data in a warehouse. Active RFID tags have

a storage capacity of 128 K bytes with a larger range of communication and the

capacity to collect data from multiple tags at a very fast pace. Passive RFID can

be used for applications for a low-cost option and limitations in terms of data

storage. It can be used where large amounts of data are not required and there

is constrained asset movement like identification cards of students and


RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

employees. Both Active and Passive RFID can be used for in several

applications of supply chains. (RFID Journal, 2002).

LOCAL STUDIES

Mapua Institute of Technology Streamlines Library Processes with

Automated UHF RFID Solution Service Provider ClarIDy Solutions, Inc. Relies on

CSL to Deliver UHF RFID Readers and Antennas for Automatic Library Project

HONG KONG, CHINA--(Marketwired - Jun 9, 2014) - Today, Convergence

Systems Limited (CSL), a global provider of passive RFID products and active

RTLS equipment, announced that the Mapúa Institute of Technology in the

Philippines has transformed its library services with a unique Ultra High

Frequency (UHF) RFID solution from CSL and ClarIDy Solutions, Inc. Mapúa

Institute implemented the IDSmart™ library solution early this year at its

Intramuros campus in Manila in order to significantly enhance library processes

to better serve its faculty and students. According to Taiwanese service provider

ClarIDy Solutions, Mapúa was the first school in the Philippines to install this

UHF RFID solution, which uses CSL UHF products at Self-Service Stations, Self-

Return Stations and RFID Security Gates. "The objectives are to improve the
RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

workflow processes in our libraries, to solve inventory problems, and to save

time," said Emerald L. Lansangan, Mapúa's chief knowledge officer. "With this

efficient UHF RFID system in place, faculty members and students can now

expect faster and shorter queues when borrowing and returning library materials,

and librarians are free to focus on assisting our students with their research

queries." ClarIDy is a total solution provider with years of experience in hardware

design, project integration and library domain know-how, offering total UHF RFID

solutions for library applications. The IDSmart™ system incorporates ClarIDy

custom RFID book tags carefully concealed in the books and encoded with the

library's existing automation system. With these tags, the library books can be

quickly and easily inventoried, checked in and checked out using a portable

inventory reader, self-service library check-out station, self-return station or book

drop. In addition to improving reader service and work processes throughout the

library, security also is enhanced with RFID Security Gates at the building exits.

"Convergence Systems Limited was an ideal provider for the UHF library

initiative since they provide a variety of high-performance RFID readers and

antennas," said Megan Wu, global sales and marketing manager of ClarIDy

Solutions. "We are excited to work with CSL and appreciate their support on the
RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

Mapúa Institute of Technology Library project." "In addition to providing greater

efficiency and cost savings, this solution also offers real-time statistics of library

patron visits, and real-time inventory reports can be generated instantly using

CSL readers with Internet connectivity," said Jerry Garrett, managing director,

Convergence Systems Limited. "Increasingly, libraries are switching to UHF

RFID frequencies because the UHF tags cost less than HF tags, and the read

ranges for UHF are much greater than those offered by HF technology."

Due to the success of this UHF RFID system, the Mapúa Institute plans to install

this library solution at its Makati City campus as well. Also in Lyceum of the

Philippines - Laguna, an institution of higher learning, inspired by the ideals of

Philippine President Jose P. Laurel, was founded by Dr. Sotero H. Laurel and Mr.

Feliciano L. Torres last January 18, 2000. Its vision is to be the leading institution

not only in the CALABARZON but also in the Asia pacific region. Presently the

library of Lyceum of the Philippines-Laguna is using a traditional system wherein

students and employees will have to write their names in the log sheet for their

attendance in the library. With the current system, the librarian has a hard time in

determining the statistics of thle library users. Moreover, it is hassle for the users

to log in the logbook and most of the time they forgot to log in. This continuously

observed situation led the proponent to investigate and find ways on how to
RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

address the need of technology. The application of radio frequency identification

would be a good solution. As a summary, both foreign and local literature

discusses the successful of RFID applications in various fields as discussed

above, it shows that its application is endless. This explains the RFID application

in tracking of laboratory equipments movement to ensure its availability. It also

aims at helping the lab administrator in monitoring the equipment from lost or

misplaced. The monitoring of equipments movement is not only being monitored

by the lab administrator but also by the top management through online

databases. The foreign studies gives an overview on the projects made possibly

by different people that are related to this study which is monitoring equipments

with the use of RFID. RFID has been used in different fields such as in

production, food, parcels, medical supplies, poultry, it has been used by alot of

people however it is not too noticable by people who lacks knowledge about

RFID. RFID has been used in human identification to product identification

(Roberts, 2006), E-Resturants (Tan and Chang, 2010), Livestock Monitoring

Management System (Vouldimos et. al.,2010; Nor Suryani Bakeri, et. al., 2007;

Ahmad Rafiq Adenan et. al.,2006), Cargo Services (Zhang et. al., 2006), Retail

Supply Supermarket (Loebbecke,2005), Tracking Medical Assets (Oztekin et. al.,

2010). The local literature presented an overview of investigations that have


RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

been conducted on how schools can benefit from the use of RFID based

Monitoring System as a lever to improve the accuracy of inventory data records.

The implementation of this technology can also lead to other types of benefits

such as the reduction of information asymmetries and the incentive problems

arising between a downstream and an upstream party; the acquisition of

advanced knowledge about actual lead times experienced in the laboratories; the

increase in equipment system security, etc.

The Plate Number Recognition System is an application to be used for identifying

beating the red-light violators in Metro Manila. It takes in information of cars

passing by the main streets of Manila as inputs to be processed. This is done by

analyzing the data, frame by frame, and retrieve the frame where possible

violation occurred.

Apart from this paper’s proposed system, there have been others that has

discussed and ventured on making their own Plate Number Recognition System.

One example would be a Malaysian Vehicle License Plate Localization and

Recognition System. The system is developed based on digital images and is

applied to commercial car park systems for the use of documenting access of

parking services, secure usage of parking houses and also to prevent car theft
RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

issues. The localization algorithm is a mixture of morphological processes while

the recognition is attained by implementing the feed-forward backpropagation

artificial neural network.

Another system is an Automatic Vehicle Identification (AVI) by Plate Recognition

developed by Serkan Ozbay and Ergun Ercelebi. Their system’s algorithm

consists of 3 parts: extraction of plate region, segmentation of characters and

recognition of the plate characters. Edge-detection algorithm, smearing algorithm

and statistical based template matching are what the system uses for the major

parts respectively.

License Plate Number Recognition proposed by Garcia-Osorio, Diez-Pastor,

Rodriguez and Maudes is a system designed to work in not so restricted and

structured environment. The application can identify plate numbers

independently of its size, orientation, position or lightening condition.

A Novel Fuzzy Multilayer Neural Network is used in a different License Plate

Recognition application. This system undergoes three stages in recognizing

license plates.

First Stage: plate is detected inside the digital image


RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

Second Stage: characters are extracted by means of horizontal and vertical

projections

Third Stage: fuzzy neural network is used to recognized the license plates

The system proves to be robust as compared to other license plate recognition

systems.

An application used for recognizing Persian license plates is called a Farsi

License Plate Recognition system. This application undergoes the same stages

as the other systems of the same functions. This system has been tested on 400

vehicle images with the rate of success recognition of 95%.

Another localized number plate recognition system is one developed for

Indonesian vehicles. It is developed to increase the efficiency of several traffic

related services like automated parking, traffic light surveillance, electronic toll

collection, and vehicle surveillance for police uses. Unfortunately, the system

does not perform up to its expectations. It still requires a lot of human supervision

and input, and it depends heavily on the training set used.

One paper proposes a robust system to recognize plate numbers by multi-

frames learning. It uses a morphology-based method to extract contrast features

to find possible candidates for license plates. After locating the region of the
RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

license plate, the scheme of shape contexts is used to recognize the characters

in the plate. Basically, it is a Recognition of Vehicle License Plate from a Video

Sequence.

The use of license plate recognition systems in e-Government has been proven

helpful. And this is what Wu, et al, have confirmed in their research. They have

also dealt with the issue on how to apply license plate recognition in e-

Government in order to improve performance.

Another distinct way of recognizing license plates is by using decision trees.

Janota, et al, implemented this way in their proposed system. The system also

focuses on processing only one captured vehicle. The algorithm used in this

system finds holes and arcs to recognize characters. The system has also been

prototyped in C++ language.

One last related application to this paper’s proposed system is the one

developed by Vazquez, et al. They also use multilayer neural network to identify

the symbols of the number plate, just like the previous applications. It also

consists of two processes: the training and recognition processes. The training

process is the stage where the application learns to 8 identify symbols from
RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

number plates. The recognition process, on the other hand, is the stage where

the application actually identifies the characters in number plates.


RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the discussion on the research methodology of the

study, research instruments, procedures of data gathering and statistical

treatment which will be used for accurate data gathering and interpretation.

RESEARCH DESIGN

The figure below shows how the materials and devices will be placed. The

RFID Reader is placed near the traffic light in such a way that the reader

functions once the traffic light turns “RED”. The RFID Tag is carried by the

vehicles and will be recognized once the driver beats the Red Light. The car

information associated in the vehicle will be as:


RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

1. The first step will be initialization of pins of the Arduino module. This will

constitute the designation of pins for the variables which will be

encountered in the entire operation.

2. Next process is the initialization of the reader. Here, to make sure the

reader is well prepared for reading.

3. After initializing the reader, the reset is initialized too.

4. Once the materials had undergone initializations, they are ready for

detection of the tags. The system updates usually every after 1000ms .

5. For instance, a vehicle carrying an RFID Tag in it crosses the limit once

the traffic light turns “RED”, and the magnetic field in the designated area

turns on. When the field detects an RFID Tag, the RFID Reader

recognizes the tag and then sends data to the system software that allows

the reader to operate and communicate with RFID tags.

6. The data collected from tag reads to shown, sent, stored, etc. so that

users can make informed decisions and take actions.

7. The data are decrypted in the tag from the system upon reception.
RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

INSTRUMENTATION:

The following instruments and modules will be used in designing the

project study.

1. RFID TAG

An RFID tag is comprised of an integrated circuit (called an IC or chip)

attached to an antenna that has been printed, etched, stamped or vapor

deposited onto a mount which is often a paper substrate or Polyethylene

Terephthalate (PET). The chip and antenna combo, called an inlay, is then

converted or sandwiched between a printed label and its adhesive backing or

inserted into a more durable structure.

2. RFID READER (ARDUINO UNO )

This device will provide the connection between the tag data and the

enterprise system software that needs the information. The reader

communicates with tags that are within its field of operation, performing any

number of tasks including simple continuous inventorying, filtering (searching for

tags that meet certain criteria), writing (or encoding) to selected tags, etc.
RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

3. WRITER (ARDUINO ATmega)

This device will be the storage of the information from the rfid tag.

4. ANTENNA

This will be used for reception of data once an RFID Tag is sensed by the

RFID Reader.

5. HOST COMPUTER SYSTEM

The system will be used to display the information of the violators

associated with their license.

6. TRAFFIC LIGHT SYSTEM

Once the traffic light turns “red”, the RFID Reader turns on and the

monitoring of violators starts. The monitoring temporarily stops once the traffic

light is no longer in “red light”.

7. IoT (Internet of things)

Is a system that are provided with unique identifiers and has the ability to

transfer data over a network without human to computer interaction. The data

from the rfid system will be transfer to the other network using this system.
RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

a. DATA COLLECTION

The first stage will start once the traffic light is in “red light”, which is

the time when the monitoring starts. When the antenna in the RFID

Reader detects an RFID Tag, the data stored in the tag will be transmitted

to the reader. The RFID Reader is divided into two sections: the “Reader”

and the “Writer”.

The data received in the Reader will be encrypted in the Writer,

which prepares the data for transmission to the IoT (Cloud).

The data transmitted in the IoT will be decrypted and stored in the

computer system connected in the whole system. The computer system

will display all the needed information of the violators.

Q: How many read zones are needed and where will they be located?

A: In short, an RFID read zone should be located at every point it is

necessary to gather data (i.e. every point where reading RFID tags is required).

In some cases, a portal-type setup at a dock door to read items going in

and out may be the appropriate solution; in another, a single handheld RFID
RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

reader may be the best fit in order to scan items within an inventory closet.

Moreover, installing read zones at various stages of a manufacturing process

allows a user to know exactly where any given (tagged) item is on the facility

floor. Some companies may only be interested in knowing if an item is in the

facility. In these cases, read zones would only be necessary at the facility’s

entrances/exits.

Ultimately, the amount of read zones required and where those zones

should be located depends on the type of application as well as the amount of

data needed to achieve the desired results.

Q: There are items in my facility that contain liquids/metals; does that

mean RFID will not work for me?

A: As with any RFID application, thorough testing is key. There are certain

methods and measures that can be put in place to mitigate potential interference

caused by metal and water (as well as other interference causing elements).

If a company has limitations within the facility, environment, or items being

tagged, it should not discount RFID as the solution entirely. Instead, limitations

should be noted and thorough testing should be executed in order to see if such

obstacles can be overcome using specific equipment or techniques. Each type of


RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

item to be tagged will have different specifications that should be noted when

choosing the ideal tag. Some applications might require the use of several

different types of RFID tags in order to get the best results.


RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

REFERENCES

Ahmad Rafiq Adenan, Siti Zarina Mohd Muji, Mohd Helmy Abd Wahab.

Automated Animal Tracking System using Radio Frequency Identification Tags.

Proceeding of Computer Science and Mathematics Symposium 2006. KUSTEM,

Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia, 8 – 9 November 2006

EPC Global. RFID smart label practice experience. (2005-08-07) [2006-04-04],

http:/ / www.rfidi--nfo.com. cn/ report/ dissertation/ 2OoS08/ 1655.html

Haron, N. S., Saleem, N. S., Hassan, M. H., Ariffin, M. M. and Aziz, I. A. A RID

based Campus Context-Aware Notification System. Journal of Computing. Vol.

2. Issue 3.

Herdawatie Abdul Kadir, Mohd Helmy Abd Wahab, Zarina Tukiran Mohd Razali

Mohd Tomari and Mohd Norzali Hj. Mohd. (2010). Fusion of Radio Frequency

Identification (RFID) and Fingerprint in Boarding School Monitoring System

(BoSs), Sustainable Radio Frequency Identification Solutions, Cristina Turcu

(Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-7619-74-9, InTech, Available from: http:/ /

www.intechopen.com/ articles/ show/ title/ fusion-of-radio frequencyidentification-

rfid-and-fingerprint-in-boarding-school-monitoring system-b

Hsu, C-I, Shih, H-H, Wang, W-C. (2009). Applying RFID to Reduce Delay in
RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

Import CargoCustoms Clearance Process. Computers & Industrial Engineering.

Vol. 57. pp. 506 –519.

Loebbecke, C. (2005). RFID Technology and Applications in Retail Supply

Chain: The Early Metro Group Pilot. 18th Bled eConference on eIntegration in

Action, June 6 – 8, 2005, Bled, Slovenia.

Ngai, E. W. T. and Lo, S. Y. Y. (2008). Development of an RFID-based sushi

management system: The case of a conveyor-belt sushi restaurant.

International Journal of Production Economics, Vol. 112, Issue 2, pp. 630-645.

Nor Suryani Bakery, Ayob Johari, Mohd Helmy Abd Wahab, Danial, Md. Nor.

RFID Application in Farming Management System. In Proceeding of 3rd

International Conference on Robotics, Vision, Information and Signal Processing

2007 (ROVISP2007), Penang, 28 – 30 November 2007

Oztekin, A., Pajouh, F. M., Delen, D., and Swim, L. K. (2010). An RFID Network

Design Methodology for Asset Tracking in Healthcare. Decision Support

Systems. Vol. 49, pp. 100 – 109.

Oztaysi, B., Baysan, S., and Akpinar, F. (2009). Radio Frequency Identify

(RFID) in hospitality. Technovation. Vol. 29. Pp. 618 – 624.

Robert, C. M. (2006). Radio Frequency Identification (RFID). Computers &

Security, Vol. 25. Pp. 18 – 26.


RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

Tan, T-H, Chang, C-S. (2010). Development and Evaluation of an RFID-based

e-Restaurant System for Customer Centric Service. Expert System with

Applications. Vol. 37 Issue 9.

Voulodimos, A. S., Patrizakis, C. Z., Sideridis, A. B., Ntafis, V. A., and Xylouri, E.

M. (2010). A Complete Farm Management System based on Animal

Identification using RFID Technology. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture.

Vol. 70. Pp. 380 – 388.

Yan, B. and Lee, D. (2009). Application of RFID in Cold Chain Temperature

Monitoring System. 2009 ISECS International Colloqium on Computing,

Communication, Control, and Management. Aug. 8 – 9, 2009. Sanya, China.