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Balunes, Prince Patrick T.

January, 22, 2018

Comparative Analysis of Monotheistic Religions

Judaism Christianity Islam


Etymology Hebrew word Yehudim Greek word Christos Arabic word Salaam

Date Founded c. 1800 BCE c. 30 CE 622 CE

(Abraham); 6th cent.
BCE (Pentateuch); or
70 CE (destruction of
Second Temple)

Place Founded Southern Levant Southern Levant Arabian Peninsula

(modern-day Israel, (modern-day Israel,
Palestine, and Jordan) Palestine, and Jordan)

Prophet/Founder Moses, Abraham Jesus Muhammad

Development Little expansion; Within 60 years, Within 12 years, entire

mostly confined to churches in major Arabian peninsula;
Palestine area cities in Palestine, within 100 years, Muslim
throughout history Turkey, Greece and world stretched from the
Rome; entire Roman Atlantic to China
Empire by end of 4th

Core Beliefs

Nature of God Yahweh The Holy Trinity Allah

(Father, Son, Holy
Spirit) as one God
Sacred Text The Hebrew Bible The Bible The Qur’an or Koran

Creed 13 Articles of Faith Apostle’s Creed Six Articles of Faith

Nicene Creed Five Pillars

Religious Law Halakhah Canon Law Sharia

Religious Bible, Talmud, Bible; some also look Qur'an, Hadith

Authority halakhah to church fathers,
church councils,
ecumenical creeds;
papal decrees and
canon law for

House of Worship Temple, Schul, Chapel, Church, Mosque

Synagogue Basilica, Cathedral,
Meeting Hall

Day of Worship Saturday Sunday Friday


Jesus Christ An ordinary Jew, not The second person of Isa (Jesus) was a
the Messiah nor a the Trinity and born of prophet, sent by Allah
divine person the Virgin Mary. and born of the Virgin
Mary, but not divine

Jesus Christ Birth Normal birth Virgin birth Virgin birth

Jesus Christ Normal death Real physical death Jesus did not die, but
Death plus spiritual suffering ascended bodily into

Jesus Christ Rejects the idea of To reconcile Man to To proclaim the Injil, or
Mission Jesus as Messiah God, gospel
Jesus Christ Denied Affirmed Did not die; ascended
Resurrection into heaven during

Second Coming of Denied Affirmed Affirmed


View of false interpretation and true religion respected as fellow

Christianity expansion of Judaism "People of the Book" but
have wrong beliefs and
only partial, corrupted

View of Muslim false interpretation and respected as a fellow true religion

expansion of Judaism monotheistic religion,
but Muhammad is not
seen as a true prophet

View of Judaism true religion true religion but with respected as fellow
incomplete revelation "People of the Book" but
have wrong beliefs and
only partial, corrupted

Predestination affirmed by most affirmed


Afterlife Not emphasized; views Resurrection of body eternal Paradise or

vary: no afterlife, and soul; eternal eternal Hell
shadowy existence, heaven or hell (most
World to Come (similar denominations);
to heaven), Gehenna temporary purgatory
(similar to hell), (Catholicism)

Messiah the Messiah will come Jesus Christ is the Sunni: the Madhi
in the future Messiah awaited by (Messiah) will come in the
the Jews future; identity is known
only to Allah
Prophets Biblical prophets were Biblical prophets were Biblical prophets were
true prophets of God true prophets of God true prophets;
Muhammad is the final
and greatest

Human Nature two equal impulses, Created good but all born with equal ability to
one good and one bad inherit "original sin" do good or evil
from Adam, causing a
tendency to evil

Revelation prophets, recorded in through Prophets and through Muhammad,

Hebrew Bible Jesus (as God recorded in Qur'an
Himself), recorded in

Gods and Spirits One God: Yahweh One God, who is a One God (Allah in
(YHVH) Trinity of Father, Son Arabic); the same God
and Holy Spirit; revealed (imperfectly) in
angels; demons; saints the Jewish and Christian

Spiritual Beings angels and demons angels and demons angels, demons, jinn

Holy Spirit Not a distinct person, The third person of the Identical with the Angel
but a divine power Trinity, truly divine Gabriel, who appeared to
the Prophet Mohammed
giving him the Quranic

Sin Judaism rejects the We inherit a sinful There is no concept of

doctrine of original sin. nature through our original sin, nor vicarious
Atonement for sins common ancestor atonement. All Humans
commited is made Adam, who rebelled are born sinless, but
through seeking against God. Jesus human weakness leads
forgiveness from God Christ atoned for our to sin
in prayer and sins through his death
repentance on the Cross
Salvation belief in God, good correct belief, faith, correct belief, good deeds,
deeds good deeds, Five Pillars

Hell Tradtionally, there is A place of everlasting A place of torment and

the concept of punishment for the fire
Gehinnom or Gehenna unrighteous
- those who die in sin
may suffer temporary
punishment, but
certain sins merit
eternal punishment.

Scripture views vary views vary: most inspired, literal word of

believe inspired by God; inerrant in original
God; some believe language
literal Word of God,
inerrant in original

Hebrew Bible Canonical canonical; called "the noncanonical and

Old Testament" corrupted but useful as a
inspired text

Apocrypha noncanonical but canonical (Catholic) or noncanonical

useful useful but

New Testament noncanonical canonical noncanonical and

corrupted but useful as a
inspired text

Clergy rabbis priest, bishop, imams

archbishop, patriarch,
pope, pastor, minister,
preacher, deacon

Revered Humans Prophets saints, church fathers prophets; imams

(especially in Shia Islam)
Holy Place Canaan/Israel Jerusalem/Vatican Mecca


Food abstaining from pork No restrictions restricted from eating

or shellfish, or by not pork and drinking
drinking milk with a alcohol
meat dish

Prayer Three Times a Day No specific five daily prayers

Initiation Bar Mitzvah Baptism (idk)

Feast Pesach (Passover) Easter Ramadan

Shavuot (Weeks or
Sukkot (Tabernacles,
Tents or Booths)

Major Holidays Yom Kippur Lent Eid-al-Fitr

Days of Awe Holy Week Eid-al-Adha, month of
Passover Easter Ramadan

Other Holidays Chanukah Christmas Mawlid

Purim saints days Ashura

Head Covered generally yes generally no yes

During Prayer (especially men)

Marriage Monogamy Monogamy Polygamy

Ordination Achieved from an Achieved Through an do not formally ordain

independent rabbinical Ordination School religious leaders
school, or privately
from an individual
Clothing kippah or yarmulke No restrictions modesty and avoiding
traditionally worn at all "show off
times by Orthodox
Jewish men

Fasting Yes Yes Yes


Adherents Called Jews Christians Muslims

Estimated Number 14 million 2.4 billion 1.6 billion


Usa 5.6 million 159 million 3.3 million

Canada 350,000 21 million 500,000

UK 320,000 51 million


Schisms Reform-Orthodox Catholic-Orthodox Shia-Sunni (c. 650 CE)

(1800s CE) (1054); Catholic-
Protestant (1500s)

Branches Orthodox, Reform, Roman Catholic; Sunni, Shi'a, Sufism

Conservative Eastern Orthodox;

Original Languages Hebrew Aramaic and Greek Arabic

Main Locations Israel, Eastern Europe, Europe, North and Middle East, North
USA South America, Africa Africa, Southeast Asia

Symbols Star of David, chai, Cross, dove, anchor, Star and crescent; name
hamsa, tree fish, alpha/omega, of Allah in Arabic; color
chi rho green; mosque

Kashrut. (n.d). Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kashrut

Population. (n.d) Retrieved from


Judaism (n.d.) Retrieved from http://christianityinview.com/xncomparison.html

Christianity (n.d.) Retrieved from http://www.religionfacts.com/charts/christianity-islam-


Practices (n.d.) Retrieved from http://www.religionfacts.com/christianity/practices

Practices (n.d.) Retrieved from http://www.religionfacts.com/islam/practices

Practices (n.d.) Retrieved from http://www.religionfacts.com/judaism/practices

Islam (n.d.) Retrieved from https://www.enotes.com/homework-help/compare-contrast-


Islam (n.d.) Retrieved from https://www.quora.com/What-are-the-main-similarities-and-


Judaism (n.d.) Retrieved from http://www.123helpme.com/christian-islam-and-judaism-


Rituals (n.d.) Retrieved from https://quizlet.com/8534591/similaritiesdifferences-between-