Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 207

FOOD AND BEVERAGE CONSUMPTION AND HEALTH

SUGAR BEETS

PRODUCTION, USES AND HEALTH


IMPLICATIONS

No part of this digital document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or
by any means. The publisher has taken reasonable care in the preparation of this digital document, but makes no
expressed or implied warranty of any kind and assumes no responsibility for any errors or omissions. No
liability is assumed for incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of information
contained herein. This digital document is sold with the clear understanding that the publisher is not engaged in
rendering legal, medical or any other professional services.
FOOD AND BEVERAGE CONSUMPTION
AND HEALTH

Additional books in this series can be found on Nova‟s website


under the Series tab.

Additional e-books in this series can be found on Nova‟s website


under the e-book tab.
FOOD AND BEVERAGE CONSUMPTION AND HEALTH

SUGAR BEETS

PRODUCTION, USES AND HEALTH


IMPLICATIONS

LINDSEY BROOKS
EDITOR

New York
Copyright © 2015 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or
transmitted in any form or by any means: electronic, electrostatic, magnetic, tape, mechanical
photocopying, recording or otherwise without the written permission of the Publisher.

For permission to use material from this book please contact us:
nova.main@novapublishers.com

NOTICE TO THE READER


The Publisher has taken reasonable care in the preparation of this book, but makes no expressed or
implied warranty of any kind and assumes no responsibility for any errors or omissions. No
liability is assumed for incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of
information contained in this book. The Publisher shall not be liable for any special,
consequential, or exemplary damages resulting, in whole or in part, from the readers‟ use of, or
reliance upon, this material. Any parts of this book based on government reports are so indicated
and copyright is claimed for those parts to the extent applicable to compilations of such works.

Independent verification should be sought for any data, advice or recommendations contained in
this book. In addition, no responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage
to persons or property arising from any methods, products, instructions, ideas or otherwise
contained in this publication.

This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information with regard to the
subject matter covered herein. It is sold with the clear understanding that the Publisher is not
engaged in rendering legal or any other professional services. If legal or any other expert
assistance is required, the services of a competent person should be sought. FROM A
DECLARATION OF PARTICIPANTS JOINTLY ADOPTED BY A COMMITTEE OF THE
AMERICAN BAR ASSOCIATION AND A COMMITTEE OF PUBLISHERS.

Additional color graphics may be available in the e-book version of this book.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

ISBN:  (eBook)

Library of Congress Control Number: 2014955169

Published by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. † New York


CONTENTS

Preface vii
Chapter 1 Ethanol from Sugar Beet 1
Xavier Chavanne and Patrick Sadones
Chapter 2 Detection of Soil-Applied Herbicides by Sugar Beet Plants 29
Anna M. Szmigielski and Jeff J. Schoenau
Chapter 3 Energy Recovery from By-Products of Sugar Making Process 37
Muhammad Akram
Chapter 4 Enzymatic and Microbial Conversion of Sugar Beet Shreds into
Valuable Products 89
Mirjana Antov, Darjana Ivetić and Zorica Kneţević Jugović
Chapter 5 Environmental, Health and Food Issues Related to Sugar Beet
Bioethanol Production 111
Rok Fink, Sebastjan Filip and Sašo Medved
Chapter 6 Sugar Beet Quality in Dependence on the Effectiveness of
Fungicides and Genotype on Cercospora beticola Sacc 133
A. Kristek, S. Kristek, R. Baţok, I. Rešić and I. Varga
Chapter 7 Osmotic Dehydration Kinetics of Sugar Beet Pulp 151
Aleksandar Jokić, Zoltan Zavargo, Zita Šereš,
Jovana Grahovac and Jelena Dodić
Chapter 8 Effect of Drying Conditions on Rehydration Kinetics of
Sugar Beet Pulp 167
Aleksandar Jokić, Zoltan Zavargo, Zita Šereš,
Bojana Prodanić and Dragana Šoronja-Simović
Index 183
PREFACE

Sugar beet is one of two the most important industrial cultures for sugar production.
Sugar beet is an effective bioindicator plant used for bioassay detection of herbicide residues
in soil because of its sensitivity to many herbicides. This book discusses the production of
sugar beets, as well as its uses and health implications.
Chapter 1 - The chapter examines one of the products derived from sugar beets, i.e.,
ethanol from agriculture plants used as a transportation fuel, or agro-ethanol. This substitute
for gasoline has been advocated since as early as the beginning of 20th century, as in the case
of other crops such as cane and corn. But without some help - subsidies and incorporation
mandates- it remains difficult to compete with petroleum products, even when the price of
crude oil reaches $100 per barrel as it is presently. Nevertheless, ethanol offers beet producers
a protected market, which will no longer be possible in the case of the global sugar market.
The topic is mainly described in the context of France, one of the largest producers of
sugar beets and its products. The chapter first provides some statistics of production on sugar
beet harvests, sugar from cane and beet and agro-ethanol in the world, France and other major
producers. The quantity of ethanol from sugar beet is still very modest by comparison with
ethanol production from cane (0.5 M tonne oil equivalent in 2012 against 12 Mtoe).
The chapter then describes the chain of processes from the farm to fuel dispenser and
assesses their energy requirements to produce one joule of agro-ethanol, taking into account
gains from by-products. The analysis determines the different physical and technical
parameters on which the industry efficiency depends: the specific consumptions of the
modern processes, concentrations of sugar, ethanol and dry matter in the different liquids
produced along the chain of processes, yields of conversion.
In spite of major efforts to save energy and increase the yields, consumption of final
energy by the industry is still large, equivalent to about 66% of the heat value of its
production. Further gains are more difficult as a lot of limitations are intrinsic to beets. By
comparison, the production of ethanol from sugar cane requires only about 15%, thanks to the
fiber constituent of cane, bagasse, which is used as a fuel in aco-generation system at the
factory. With efficient processes, bagasse use can even generate an electricity surplus. Beet
residues are in too small amount and do not suit fuel specifications to achieve the same role.
Chapter 2 - Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an effective bioindicator plant used for
bioassay detection of herbicide residues in soil because of its sensitivity to many herbicides.
In bioassays the response of a bioindicator plant to a herbicide is measured, and once the
response in a designated herbicide concentration range is established, the bioassay can be
viii Lindsey Brooks

used in research and soil testing. Typically research focuses on assessment of the effect of soil
properties on herbicide bioactivity and dissipation in soil, while soil testing is carried out to
identify the potential for injury to rotational crops due to residual herbicides that may persist
in soil to the next growing season.
Application of the sugar beet bioassay for assessment of how herbicide behavior in soil is
influenced by soil properties was investigated using two herbicides that have different modes
of action i.e., pyroxsulam and pyroxasulfone. Pyroxsulam is a Group 2 (acetolactate synthase
inhibitor) herbicide that primarily inhibits root length of sensitive plants, while pyroxasulfone
is a Group 15 (long chain fatty acid elongase inhibitor) herbicide that generally affects shoot
growth of susceptible plants.
This chapter describes (1) the sugar beet bioassay technique for detection of pyroxsulam
and pyroxasulfone in soil, and (2) the use of this bioassay for evaluation of pyroxsulam and
pyroxasulfone bioactivity and dissipation in soil.
Chapter 3 - Sugar beet is widely used in the world to manufacture sugar. In the UK 7.5
million tonnes of sugar beet is processed for sugar production each year. The sugar making
process produces by-products such as vinasse, raffinate and pressed sugar beet pulp. Vinasse
and raffinate are liquids while pressed pulp is a solid by-product. After sugar extraction,
remaining beet is pressed mechanically to remove water which results in pressed sugar beet
pulp having 20 – 24% dry matter. Raffinate and vinasse originate from the liquid stream after
sugar; alcohol and betaine are taken out. All these by-products have an energy value
associated with them which can be recovered by employing a suitable technology. The most
widely used energy recovery technology is thermal processes also known as combustion. As a
result of the high moisture content which is of the order of 50 – 75%, it may not be possible
to combust these materials without the use of a primary fuel, such as coal, having a high
calorific value to compensate for the energy loss due to the presence of excessive amounts of
water. Moreover, it may not be possible to combust these materials in conventional systems
without major modifications or without penalties.
This chapter discusses potential for energy recovery from beet sugar industry by-products
using fluidized bed combustion technology. Vinasse, raffinate and pressed pulp were
fired/cofired with Thoresby coal in a fluidized bed test rig. The tests were conducted at
different thermal inputs at a wide range of operating conditions. The chapter also includes
discussions on alternative uses of sugar industry by-products.
The work is focused on the combustion of blends of coal and pressed pulp in different
proportions. It was observed that the proportion of pressed pulp in the blended fuel can be up
to 50% for successful energy recovery using fluidized bed technology. During combustion of
different coal-pulp blends it was found that excess air requirement is reduced by around 20%
in comparison to coal only firing, over the range of the operating conditions tested. This
aspect can be used to enhance the throughput of such energy conversion systems.
Because of the presence of high amounts potassium in pressed pulp, which could cause
agglomeration during combustion in fluidized beds, longer term tests were carried out with
50/50 blend of coal and pulp. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analyses of bed samples
taken at the end of every day have shown the up to 1% accumulation of potassium in the bed.
For comparison purposes tests were also carried out by co-firing coal with raffinate and
vinasse. Post experiment SEM analysis confirmed the accumulation of potassium in the bed
which was found to be around 8% for raffinate and around 10% for the vinasse experiment. It
Preface ix

was observed that vinasse and raffinate, due to very high potassium content, require the
introduction of alkali getters for successful energy recovery.
The study has a broad application and can be beneficial in utilizing relatively cheap, poor
quality, unprepared biomass materials. The results of this study can be helpful in devising
systems to deal with wastes or by-products from different industries in co-combustion with a
fuel of higher calorific value such as coal. Thus the study will have dual impact on the
industry; addressing waste management issues on one hand and producing useful energy on
the other. This may contribute towards meeting the targets of Kyoto Protocol by reducing
emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) as biomass is thought to be CO2 neutral.
Chapter 4 - Sugar beet shreds as waste that remains after sugar extraction represent
material rich in different carbohydrate polymers. They contain cellulose (20 - 30%),
hemicellulose (18 - 34%) and pectin (23 - 32%) while protein and lignin content is relatively
low, 7 - 11% and 1 - 4%, respectively. Conventional use of sugar beet shreds as by-product of
sugar industry is as an ingredient of ruminants feed formulations or as soil fertilizer. It is
known that digestibility and even nutritional value of sugar beet shreds as well as
preservability of fresh ones can be improved by microbial conversion i.e., by ensiling them by
bacterial fermentation. However, microbial conversion of sugar beet shreds can be directed
toward production of valuable products such as enzymes. Namely, due to their high content of
carbohydrate polymers sugar beet shreds can be excellent substrate for production of
cellulases, hemicellulase and pectinases by fungi. In addition, by use of enzymes
carbohydrates from sugar beet shreds can be converted into simple sugars and used for
production of lignocellulosic bioethanol as well as into oligosaccharides with prebiotic
characteristics. Low lignin content makes them favorable substrate for enzymatic conversion
allowing more simple pretreatment procedures. This chapter aims to review processes of
microbial and enzymatic conversions of sugar beet shreds into valuable products of
biotechnology.
Chapter 5 - Energy sources of mankind are changing due to intense research, technology
and serious global consequences. The present energetic paradigm of our society, based on the
massive use of fossil fuels, has to be changed rapidly, due to the serious influence on the
environment. Since mobility is essential to our modern industrialized society, the known oil
reserves are limited and consumption is still growing, liquid biofuels can represent potential
substitute for fossil fuels. Bioethanol from sugar beet is one of the candidates among first
generation liquid biofuels as feedstock grows on wide geographical regions and
implementations do not demand special engine modification.
Some biofuels can lead to substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emission when
compared to fossil fuels. Nevertheless, there are also other environmental considerations like
acidification, eutrophication, photo smog, ozone depletion, loss of biodiversity and impact on
ground water. Moreover, there are also some concerns based on liquid biofuel security, such
as whether the production of biofuels will meet the projected energy consumption. The world
population growth is increasing exponentially as the famine in both developing and developed
countries. Sustainable development must balance environmental, economic, and social
concerns at multiple scales, which includes also the health impacts. The by-products of
biofuels combustion include carbon dioxide and water vapour, along with a variety of trace
gasses and aerosol emissions that have many impacts on air quality and consequently on
human health. Several studies indicate that the combustion of biofuels can result in adverse
health.
x Lindsey Brooks

Biofuels have attracted considerable attention in the past decade as renewable,


biodegradable, and nontoxic fuels.
Chapter 6 - Sugar beet is one of two the most important industrial cultures for sugar
production. A large number of factors have an impact on the achieved results in the sugar beet
production, whereby the most important one is the appearance and development of leaf
disease caused by C. beticola Sacc. In the area where sugar beet is grown, the damage by this
fungal plant patogen is large. It depends on the cropping practices, abiotic factors, quality and
quantity of the composition of microorganisms in the soil and the disease control measures.
Application of tolerant hybrids has become a rule in the areas where it is cultivated sugar
beet. By breeding were obtained tolerant hybrids against this pathogen, on the other side, this
tolerance did not influence the yield reduction, as it was the case with the first obtained
tolerant hybrids to fungus C. beticola Sacc. Application of fungicides is necessary for
sensitive and tolerant sugar beet hybrids. The efficiency of the treatment depends on the
application time, number of applications and the choice of fungicide - contact or sistemic.
Furthermore, it is extremely important to choose the right active substance of fungicide,
which means do not use twice the same active substance, or combine two or more active
substances in order to avoid the development of resistance. For these reasons, the aim of this
study was to determine root yield and root quality of sugar beet under different climate and
soil conditions in dependence of fungicide efficiency and the tolerance to fungus Cercospora
beticola Sacc. of the studied hybrids. Research of production values 8 hybrids were
performed on eutric brown soil in eastern Croatia in the conditions of natural infection with a
pathogenic fungus Cercospora beticola Sacc. with and without fungicide application since
2010. until 2012. Hybrids involved in the experiments are unequal tolerance to the fungus C.
beticola and they are ownership of four selection houses that sell sugar beet seed in the
Republic of Croatia. Weather conditions during the research were significantly different. The
first was with increased, while the remaining two with small amounts of rainfall compared to
the long term average. In all three years monthly air temperatures during the growing period
were elevated, especially 2012th year. The obtained results show strong dependence of yield
and quality of the roots of through vegetation of conservation leaf, hybrids and year. Because
of damage to the leaves, on variants where no treatment was carried out in relation to the
well-preserved variant with three treatments, root yield was reduced by an average of 15.92 t
ha -1 (20,64%), sugar content 1,61 (rel. 10,37%) and sugar yield for 3,07 t ha-1 (30,67%).
Damages due to omitted fungicide application were highly significant for all hybrids, and the
repeated use of fungicides to combat C. beticola Sacc., it is still mandatory and highly cost-
effective measures in sugar beet production. On average of research by highest root yields
hybrids were Boomerang, Colonia, KWS and Sandor. The highest sugar content were found
in Colonia KWS, Asketa and Boomerang. Content of sugar in molasses best hybrid was
Colonia KWS. By pure sugar yield significantly better than the others were hybrids Colonia
KWS and Boomerang.
Chapter 7 - Osmotic dehydration is a process of partial removal of water from plant
tissues by submerging into hypertonic (osmotic) solutions. Driving force for diffusion of
water from the tissue to the solution provides a higher osmotic pressure of hypertonic solution
in relation to the osmotic pressure that exists within the cells of plant tissue. The diffusion of
water is accompanied by a simultaneous counter diffusion of solute from the osmotic solution
into the tissue. Just how membrane responsible for osmotic transport has no ideal selectivity
and other dissolved substances present in the cell may also pass to the osmotic solution. The
Preface xi

rate of diffusion of water from a plant tissue depends on several factors such as temperature
and concentration of the osmotic solution, the size and shape of the plant material, the weight
ratio of the solution and the material and many other factors. Osmotic dehydration was
carried out in the sucrose solutions and in combined sucrose - sodium chloride solutions. The
mass transfer that occurs during osmotic dehydration process was monitored through water
loss and solid gain. In order to describe the kinetics of the process two parameter Peleg
equation as empirical model was used. It was proven that it is good model to adequately
represent the experimental results of water loss and solid gain for both sucrose and combined
osmotic solutions. By use of the response surface methodology in finding a polynomial
dependence of reciprocal values of the Peleg equation parameters it is possible to determine
the influence of process parameters on the equilibrium and the initial velocity of the mass
transfer.
Chapter 8 - Dietary fibers are used for making numerous food products in various
quantities and can be of different origin. The high moisture content of the sugar beet dietary
fibers is suitable for the development of microorganisms, subsequently in order to extend the
shelf life of sugar beet fibers they are dried. The drying process, which is necessary in order
to obtain a product with high solid content, can significantly damage the sensory properties of
dietary fiber (color, taste, texture, etc.). Therefore, it is important to pay special attention to
the choice of modes and parameters of the drying process. Rehydration of dried food products
is one of the most important characteristics of this type of product. The changes that are
monitored during the process of rehydration are the result of water penetration into the
structure of the product. This process is based on diffusion, thus it is very dependent not only
on the temperature of rehydration but also on the drying process parameters. For the purpose
of modeling the rehydration process different models are applicable, among which the most
commonly used are empirical models such as Peleg and Weibull model. The aim of this
chapter is the examination of the influence of classical convective and microwave drying on
rehydration of dietary fibers from sugar beet. Another goal was to investigate the effect of
decolorizing pretreatment on the rehydration of sugar beet fibers. The experimental results
suggest that Weibull and Peleg equations are good tool for description of the rehydration
kinetics of sugar beet dietary fibers. The coefficients of determination (R2) are in range from
0.987 to 0.999 for Peleg equation whiles the Weibull equation within the limits of 0.984 to
0.999. Reciprocal values of Peleg equation parameters can be used to find dependences of the
initial rate of rehydration and the equilibrium moisture content in the function of the drying
temperature or power microwave drying and rehydration temperature using response surface
methodology.
In: Sugar Beets ISBN: 978-1-63463-499-1
Editor: Lindsey Brooks c 2015 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Chapter 1

E THANOL FROM S UGAR B EET


Xavier Chavanne∗ and Patrick Sadones
Equipe Dynamique des Fluides Géologiques.
Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Univ. Paris Diderot,
Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France

Abstract

The chapter examines one of the product derived from sugar beets, i.e., ethanol
from agriculture plants used as a transportation fuel, or agro-ethanol. This substitute
for gasoline has been advocated since as early as the beginning of 20th century, as in
the case of other crops such as cane and corn. But, without some help - subsidizes
and incorporation mandates - it remains difficult to compete with petroleum products,
even when price of crude oil reaches $100 per barrel as it is presently. Nevertheless,
ethanol offers beet producers a protected market, which will no longer be possible in
the case of the global sugar market.
The topic is mainly described in the context of France, one of the largest producers
of sugar beets and its products. The chapter first provides some statistics of production
on sugar beet harvests, sugar from cane and beet and agro-ethanol in the world, France
and other major producers. The quantity of ethanol from sugar beet is still very modest
by comparison with ethanol production from cane (0,5 M tonne oil equivalent in 2012
against 12 Mtoe).
The chapter then describes the chain of processes from the farm to fuel dispenser
and assesses their energy requirements to produce one joule of agro-ethanol, taking
into account gains from by-products. The analysis determines the different physical
and technical parameters on which the industry efficiency depends: the specific con-
sumptions of the modern processes, concentrations of sugar, ethanol and dry matter in
the different liquids produced along the chain of processes, yields of conversion...
In spite of major efforts to save energy and increase the yields, consumption of
final energy by the industry is still large, equivalent to about 66% of the heat value
of its production. Further gains are more difficult as lot of limitations are intrinsic to
beets. By comparison, the production of ethanol from sugar cane requires only about
15%, thanks to the fiber constituent of cane, bagasse, which is used as a fuel in a
co-generation system at the factory. With efficient processes, bagasse use can even

E-mail address: chavanne@ipgp.fr
2 Xavier Chavanne and Patrick Sadones

generate an electricity surplus. Beet residues are in too small amount and do not suit
fuel specifications to achieve the same role.

PACS 05.45-a, 52.35.Mw, 96.50.Fm


Keywords: Ethanol, Sugar Beet, Energy efficiency, industrial processes

1. Introduction
Little known in the area of ethanol production from agriculture crops for transportation
fuel - agro-ethanol for short - is the use of sugar beet. It is the counterpart in a humid
and temperate climate, such as in the northern Europe, of a better known sugar plant, the
sugar cane. France is an important producer of beet and the present leader of agro-ethanol
production from the crop.
The oversight is not really surprising given the very modest quantities by comparison
with the productions from other plants such as cane and corn, as shown in Table 3 for 2012.
Nevertheless, agro-ethanol could represent a new outlet for beet culture in lieu of the
sugar market, the latter being more and more difficult owing to the harsh competition from
sugar cane and the progressive end of protectionism measures. In USA, where beet is not
used for agro-ethanol, some beet producers are carrying out pilot projects to produce it [1].
As an advanced agro-fuel agro-ethanol from beet benefits from a regulated market imposed
by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007
A fact also not very well known is the higher sugar yields than for cane per tonne of
harvested plant and per ha of planted area, as shown in Table 3. As a result, the average
ethanol yield is about 7.5 m3 ·(ha·y)−1 for beet in France against about 5.5 m3 ·(ha·y)−1 for
sugar cane in Brazil.
After describing succinctly the history of this industry until now, we present some pro-
duction statistics concerning sugar beet: its production in the world and in some leading
countries like France, general production of sugar and the share of beet on it, and produc-
tion of agro-ethanol.
In the second part we describe the processes to extract sugar from beet and to transform
it into ethanol, as well as their energy requirements. Improvements but also limitations are
indicated.
Those requirements are finally compared to the ones of the industries to produce gaso-
line from crude oil and ethanol from sugar cane.

2. From the Origin to Now


For more details, see the book written by Ballerini et al. [2].
If the first cultures of beet to extract sugar date back from the beginning of 19th century,
its use to produce agro-ethanol is concomitant to the development of motorized car, i.e. the
beginning of the 20th century. In passing the same happened to other crops, corn in USA
and cane in Brazil. Of course production of alcohol from these plants had predated the
internal combustion engine.
Ethanol from Sugar Beet 3

Some articles of the old French newspaper "L’illustration" published during June 1902
are worth reading for our subject. They described the problem faced by beet growers to
export their surplus of sugar without subsidizes and their efforts to promote ethanol from
beet to substitute for gasoline imported from USA or Russia. However, it required to heavily
tax petroleum products.
The same story has since repeated itself each time when either an outlet for the locally
grown crop has to be guarantied, or crude oil become expensive to import. The latter
occurred with the shocks of oil price during the seventies. But once the price receded
during the eighties, agro-ethanol production fell to negligible quantities, except in Brazil
with cane.
The former motivation occurred in the nineties as a result of the negotiations to lib-
eralize global markets such as those of sugar and cereals. They tended to end any form
of protectionism (sugar production under quota in European Union, i.e. with a guarantied
price, must be phased out in 2017 [3]). Productions of agro-ethanol and fuels from oil
rich crops were then encouraged in industrialized countries to reduce stocks of agriculture
products difficult to export without some help, similar to the situation in 1902.
At the beginning of 2000s these countries started as well enacting measures to reduce
the dependence on imported fossil fuels. They have been reinforced by the five fold rise of
crude oil price since 2002. New price situation results from the exhaustion of supergeant
oil fields (initial reserves larger than 5 billion barrels or 5 Gb) discovered before the 70s.
New fields, now, rarely exceed 1 Gb reserve and are located in difficult environments. The
situation should thus be lasting as long as a cheaper substitute for crude oil is not available.
In addition to classical motivations, production of agro-ethanol has benefited from pol-
itics to limit emission of fossil greenhouse gases considered as the main responsible for
current climate change, large part of them originating from petroleum products.
In France agro-fuel production has been supported by the obligation for fuel retailers to
incorporate a certain amount of it (7% of the low heat value LHV of fuel since 2011), and
a partial devolution of taxes levied on transportation fuels [3]. Since 2011 the devolution
amounts to 140 e per m3 of agro-ethanol, to be shared with retailers. Fig. 1 shows the
sudden rise of alcohol production from agriculture plants after 2005 in order to comply
with the mandate, along with the demise of the production of synthetic ethanol.
Due to the obligation of incorporation, agro-ethanol producers can benefit from a high
price, 637 e per m3 in average for 2012 or 28.7 e per GJLHV (according to the quotation
of ethanol T2 FOB at Rotterdam). By comparison gasoline price was 605 e per m3 or
about 19 e per GJLHV (according to the quotation of Eurobob gasoline by Platts). It
should be noted that prices, and taxes, are fixed on a volumetric basis, as if 1 L of ethanol
and gasoline were energy equivalent. Yet the volumetric LHV of gasoline is 50% higher
than ethanol one, giving a substantial benefit to ethanol producers - and State income - to
motorists detriment.
However, ethanol price also results from a competitive market with a shrinking demand
in France as not all the ethanol production is incorporated. Gasoline consumption is de-
creasing due to the rise of diesel share in road transportation fuels. In July 2014 ethanol
price had fallen to 21.1 e per GJLHV , while gasoline one before tax was still high at 17.2
e per GJLHV .
4 Xavier Chavanne and Patrick Sadones

Figure 1. Production of alcohol in France since 1994 broken down according to its origin,
sugar beets, cereals - mostly wheat -, wine and petroleum products. Source: CGB.

As a result of high prices and subsidizes in 2012, producers had a revenue of 78 e per
tonne of beet from ethanol sale (assuming a yield of 100 l of ethanol per tonne of beet).
By comparison revenue from white sugar without subsidize amounted to 64 e, as average
price for one tonne of refined sugar was 400 e (assuming a yield of 160 kg of sugar per
tonne of beet).
On the other hand, their energy efficiency and their contribution to reduce the emissions
are disputed (see the presentation of these discussions by the agro-ethanol promoters them-
selves [3, 4]). Furthermore, they require agriculture surface to the detriment of pastures,
forests or cultures eligible for food. Conversion of pastures and forests into crop surface
entails the release of part of their carbon stored in form of humus. Promoters of agro-
ethanol argue that they have been able to rise agriculture yields to counteract the effect of
the new usage.
These critics have recently dampened the support granted by public administrations.
Thus, in France, they limit the amount of ethanol eligible to the financial bonus and have
reduced this bonus. Agro-ethanol producers may even lost it after 2015 [3].

3. Production Statistics on Sugar Beet, Sugar and Ethanol


Data are given for the world and some important producing countries in 2012, the latest year
for which data are most reliable and complete. Recent trend until 2012 is also indicated.
Different sources exist, international organizations like the Food and Agriculture Or-
ganization of the United Nations FAO, associations of producers like the Confédération
Générale des planteurs de Betteraves CGB, services providers such as F.O. Licht and, of
course, national agriculture departments. Data from one to another can show discrepancies.
A discrepancy may result from error reporting, or it may indicate that apparently similar
data are actually different, as it is the case for harvested quantities of beets. We will clarify
Ethanol from Sugar Beet 5

any potential source of confusion about data.

3.1. Sugar Beet in 2012


Table 1 shows harvested area, quantity and yield Y16% for each major producer in 2012
according to the statistic department of FAO (FAO STAT). Mass corresponds to washed
beet root.

Table 1. Production of sugar beet in 2012 for the world and major producing countries

2012 world EU 27 France Russia USA Ukraine China


Area Mha 4.9 1.66 0.39 1.10 0.49 0.45 0.24
Harvest Mt16% 270 116 33.7 45.0 31.9 18.4 11.5
Yield Y16% t·(ha·y)−1 55.0 69.6 86.5 40.9 65.5 41.1 48.7

Not indicated by the service - at least not obviously - the harvests are normalized at
the same standard sugar content of 16% (see appendix of CGB annual reports [3] and the
official documents about the methodology to collect data on the French agriculture produc-
tions [5]). The conversion from the actual yield YA depends on the true content of total
recoverable sugar TRS according to the formula:

T RS(%) − 3
Y16% = YA (1)
13

This conversion allows to compare beet yields between countries and over time at same
sugar content, although it slightly overestimates high yields. It may induce some confusion
when reporting the ethanol yield from a tonne of beet at the factory. As the mass balance is
usually made with beets as received, for which sugar content T RS is very often higher than
16% [2], using the standard yield Y16% instead of YA can result in overestimates of ethanol
yields per unit of area or unit of harvested quantity.
Table 1 shows that major producers are located, or at least partly, in temperate areas.
Sugar beet needs a mild and humid climate. The main culture area in France is located at
the north of the country.
Among the main producers, France presents the highest yield, which is still rising as
observed in Fig. 3, notwithstanding the fluctuations from year to year due to meteorological
conditions. Since the mid nineties the world averaged yield Y16% has also increased steadily
from about 33 to 55 t·(ha·y)−1 . It permits to maintain a certain level of production at 250+/-
20 Mt16% despite that the harvested area has diminished by more than 40% during the same
period.
There is a general push to improve beet productivity, starting with its agriculture yield.
As already said, the beet must compete with its tropical counterpart - the cane - for a market
- the sugar one - more and more liberalized. In 2017 all subsidies to protect sugar beet in
European Union should be removed [3].
6 Xavier Chavanne and Patrick Sadones

3.2. Sugar Production in 2012


Table 1 shows quantities of equivalent raw sugar produced by major countries in 2012
according to data compiled by the company F.O.Licht and reported in the 2014 yearbook
of CGB [3]. 1.087 t of raw sugar is required to make 1 tonne of white or refined sugar. The
quantities exclude those used to produce alcohols, or should as it is not clear in the case of
the European Union.

Table 2. Production of raw sugar in 2012 for the world and major producing countries
[3]

2012 world Brazil India EU 27 France China Thailand USA


Production Mt 184 41 27.4 17.3 3.8 14.2 10.4 8.2

As far as beet producers are concerned, the quantities of raw sugar they extract can be
deduced from the beet production using data in Table 1 and the standard TRS 16%.
Actually major producers of sugar process cane, or largely cane, except the European
Union. In 2012 sugar quantity from beet represented 22% of the overall quantity, while
it amounted to about 36% in 1993. As the amount of production has steadily increased -
it was 111 Mt in 1993 -, the absolute quantity extracted from beet has remained roughly
constant at 35±4 Mt.
France has already started to find other markets for its beet production.

3.3. Agro-alcohol and Agro-ethanol in 2012


In terms of statistics this paragraph is even more challenging that the previous ones, espe-
cially for beet.
Firstly, data are mainly reported in terms of volume. Mass of ethanol in a fixed volume,
and consequently the energy content of the volume, depends on its temperature and pres-
sure. However, there is seemingly an agreement to report it at 15◦ C and 1 013 hPa or 1 atm.
Density of the liquid is then 794 kg·m−3 and its volumetric LHV is 21.3 MJ·l−1 or 0.51
toe·m−3 (toe: tonne oil equivalent is a unit of energy widely used in economy, which value
is 41.9 GJ).
Secondly, data of alcohol production of a country can contain synthetic alcohol made
form petroleum products (hydration of ethylene). France produced 19 k·m3 of it in 2012 out
of a total of 1.88 M·m3 . The quantity is rapidly diminishing with the rise of the feedstock
price (Fig. 1). In European Union it still represents about 9% of the total [3]. Elsewhere in
the world there are no reported quantities. We assume they are small relative to agriculture
alcohol.
Thirdly, not all alcohol from crop is destined to transportation, which is the case for
French beets. Indeed, pure and absolute alcohols are produced for beverage, industrial
or pharmaceutical purposes. Agro-alcohol correspond thereafter to all alcohols made from
agriculture plants, including agro-ethanol. Global production of the latter amounted in 2012
to about 84 M·m3 , or 82% of the total alcohol production, according to data compiled by
F.O. Licht [3].
Ethanol from Sugar Beet 7

Fourthly, recent policies on fuels are promoting those produced from plants non eli-
gible to food and animal feed (grass or woods), and from agriculture residues (straw or
corn stover). The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 in USA have man-
dated their progressive use to limit the extension of ethanol production from corn (in 2008
mandated volume for 2014 should have been 6.5 M·m3 ). Feedstock are mostly made of
ligno-cellulosic materials, which is assumed to be converted into ethanol either by thermo-
chemicals processes or by fermentation of sucroses produced from plants. However, due to
the difficulty to modify the material, at the difference of starch or sugar, quantities remain
currently negligible (below 2 k·m3 in USA) [3, 4]. The amount provisioned by the Act of
2007 in USA has had to be reduced. Fuels and ethanol derived from any forms of biomass
except agriculture crops are labeled bio-fuel and bio-ethanol, respectively.
A last precaution about statistics on agro-ethanol production concerns the inclusion of
other liquids in small quantities (about 5% in volume) such as denaturant in USA and water
in Brazil, the two main producers. In Brazil volumes of hydrated and anhydrous ethanol are
added without accounting for the difference of LHV.

Table 3. Production in 2012 and yields of agro-ethanol from sugar beet, can and corn

2012 Productiona Agriculture b Dry matter TRSc Ethanold


Mtoe yield YA fraction fraction yield
Beet, France 0.25 [3] 75.4 [5] 0.25 0.183 3.8
Cane, Brazil 10.7 [6] 71 [6] 0.30 0.14 2.8
Corn, USA 23.9 [4] 7.75 [7] 0.85 0.62 1.6b
a
Low heating value LHV of agro-ethanol without added water or denaturant: 21.3 MJ·l−1
or 0.51 toe·m−3 at 15◦ C and 1 atm.
b
Country averaged agriculture yield YA for 2012 in t·(ha·y)−1 from data of national agri-
culture departments. In the case of cane YA accounts for all cultivated surface, including the
fallow area at the end of a cycle and before next one. Corn yield was abnormally low in 2012
due to exceptional droughts. It reached 10.0 tA ·(ha·y)−1 in 2013.
c
Total Recoverable Sugar for sugar plant or Starch for cereals
d
in toeLHV ·(ha·y)−1 obtained from data in previous columns. See text.

Table 3 shows the LHV quantities of agro-ethanol produced from beet in France, cane
in Brazil and corn in USA for 2012, after deduction of water and denaturant volumes. The
global production was close to 40 MtoeLHV . They have remained roughly constant since
2010. British Petroleum BP Statistical Review of World Energy published in June 2014
reports for all fuels produced from agriculture crops in 2012 a quantity of 61.5 MtoeLHV .
Agro-fuels also comprise modified oils from oleaginous plants such as soya, sunflower
and rapeseed. By comparison BP review indicates a production of oil (crude oil, bitumen
and liquids separated from natural gas) of about 42 000 MtoeLHV , of which about 45% is
dedicated to produce road transportation fuel. Surface limitation of agriculture crops make
difficult the substitution of agro-fuels for fossil oils. They can be only a - small, even a very
small - part of the solution.
Actually, it is very difficult to determine the exact quantity in the case of beet in France,
even looking deeply in the reports of CGB. In 2012 the country produced 2.0 M·m3 of
agro-alcohols of which agro-ethanol volume - processed mostly from cereals and beet -
8 Xavier Chavanne and Patrick Sadones

was 1 220 k·m3 [3]. The agro-ethanol amount in 2004 was 225 k·m3 , 60% of which from
beet [2]. Fig. 1 shows the different origins of alcohol and their evolution since 1994. New
production from cereals has been mostly dedicated to agro-ethanol. Hence we assume that
about 500 k·m3 of agro-ethanol was produced from beet in 2012.

4. Ethanol Production from Sugar Beet. Processes


and Energy Requirements
4.1. The System: from the Farm Fields to Gasoline Dispenser
Ethanol production is still associated with sugar production, especially in the off-harvest
period. A by-product of the sugar crystallization, égout pauvre or beet molasses, is used
to store sugar extracted from beet during the harvest period. The by-product produce by
dilution the liquor to be fermented during the rest of the year.
In order to compare with petroleum industry and because of the on-going trend to re-
duce the lower profitable sugar production, we examine here a standalone ethanol industry
operating all year round. This is achieved using existing processes. The main adaptation is
to concentrate part of the raw juice into a syrup to substitute for égout pauvre. The operation
of purification of the raw juice is omitted as it is not necessary in the case of ethanol produc-
tion. Purification and/or rectification after distillation are equally not included as it is only
required to produce alcohol for pharmaceutical or beverage purposes. These simplifications
also correspond to some energy saving.

Figure 2. From field to tank. Main operations and their flows to produce ethanol from beet
in France. YA is the annual average beet yield per unit area. Also indicated are ethanol,
pulp and stillage yields in dry matter per unit of beet tonnage.

Fig. 2 shows the main operations of this industry and their inputs and outputs. The
main product is the anhydrous ethanol, which is mixed with gasoline.
We do not deal with the production of ethyl tert-butyl ether, which results from the
reaction of ethanol with a petroleum product, isobutylene (other names are 2-methylpropene
and isobutene), in order to better match gasoline specifications [2]. It is being progressively
discontinued, even in France where it has been mostly promoted [3]. Production of the
ether of alcohol is also more energy consuming due the complexity of the reaction, which
necessitates the distillation and recycling of ethanol. Beside, the whole operation takes
place at few refineries in south of France (close to Lyon and Marseille), subsequently far
from the beet fields.
Ethanol from Sugar Beet 9

4.2. Balance of Beet Dry Matter


Table 3 also indicates actual agriculture yields YA per unit area and year, as well as the
contents xS of sugar - or starch in cereal case - and that of dry matter DM in crops, as
received at the factory. To draw a correct comparison between YA of sugar plants, total
cane production in 2012 is reported against all the area dedicated to the culture, which
includes the fallow part [8]. Sugar content of beet roots in France, which has remained
stable in average over the last decades (see Fig. 3), corresponds to its mean over the last ten
years, xS = 183 kgS ·t−1
A .

Figure 3. Evolution in France since 1990 of the country averaged contents in beet root of
sugar (TRS) and beet pulp on a dry basis (DM), as well as their annual yields per unit of
planted area. Information on pulp was not available before 2002. Sources: CGB, Agreste.

For all crops ethanol yield YOH per unit area and year is deduced from:

YOH = YA xOH LHVm , (2)

where xOH is the ethanol yield at the factory in kg·t−1


A and LHVm ethanol LHV per unit
mass (26.8 MJ·kg−1 ).
For sugar plants xOH depends on xS according to:

xOH = 0.511 αOH xS . (3)

The factor 0.511 results from the stoechiometric coefficients of the transformation of glu-
cose into ethanol. However, only a fraction αOH of sugar is converted into ethanol, even
in ideal conditions, due to losses and parasitic reactions [2]. The highest yield, or Pasteur
yield, is 0.947 and in practice αOH is lower than 0.93.
10 Xavier Chavanne and Patrick Sadones

As far as sugar beet is concerned, D. Ballerini indicated in 2006 on-going progress


to raise xOH from 70 to 80 kg·t−1 A [2]. With a sucrose content of 18% αOH amounts
to 0.86. This latter value is also reported in the case of ethanol production from sugar
cane [6]. Because of some losses of sugar during the first stages of plant processing (slicing
and extraction with hot water) and the presence of complex sugars, the yield is lower than
yields encountered in the case of cereals.
As a result, from the initial sugar content - 183 kgS ·t−1 A - 158 is converted into
ethanol and CO2 gas. A small part of the difference, about 4 kgS ·t−1 A , is left in
beet pulp, the first main by-product at the factory generated during the extraction of
sugar (http://www.tereos-coproduits.com/sites/default/files/uploads/FICHE_Pulpe %20bet-
terave%20deshydratee_EN.pdf. The document indicates the average composition of the
product). It corresponds mainly to insoluble residues, which, for most of them, are concen-
trated and dried. Due to its rich content in proteins and digestible fibers it is sold as a feed
for ruminants. Fig. 3 shows that pulp average content in the beet root is about 55 kgDM ·t−1 A
on a dry basis.
Another part of the beet sucrose is found in the liquid effluent of the
ethanol distillation, or stillage (http://www.tereos-coproduits.com/sites/default/files /up-
loads/FICHE_Vinasse%20betterave_en.pdf). Parts of its dry constituents - pectin and ash -
make it better suited to organic fertilizer after its concentration. Assuming a beet dry matter
content of 25% and that all remaining sucrose after alcoholic fermentation is recovered in
the stillage, its DM is around 37 kgDM ·t−1 A .

4.3. Methodology. From the Processes to the Whole System


A process based method is used to assess the energy and other material requirements of
the ethanol industry (chap. 4 of [9]). It offers some flexibility and transparency about the
analysis on industry operations and their consumptions. It permits to gather data beyond
the beet industry, in fact in all industries where the same processes operate. Operation is
understood in the text as the goal, such as concentrating the sugar of raw juice, while the
process is the means, such as a multi-effect evaporator.
On the other hand, the method requires more technical and scientific knowledge, but
permits to better control potential errors or unadapted assumptions. It should make explicit
the technical and physical variables of the industry on which its efficiency depends, such
as sugar and ethanol yields and process specific consumptions, as well as their importance.
These information permit to discuss any improvement or constraints and physical limita-
tions, and to derive a long term perspective.
The energy requirement of the whole industry is reported per unit of its main product
expressed in LHV because of its use as a fuel. This specific requirement is called thereafter
the global rate R of energy consumption in J for 1 J of ethanol or J · J−1
OH . For convenience
consumption is also reported per tonne of beet as received at the factory (after cleaning). As
its TRS content and sugar conversion into ethanol have reached some limits - see discussion
in the previous Subsection -, the tonne of beet is assumed to always yield 2.15 GJOH · t−1 A .
This represents already a limitation.
The system is decomposed according to its main operations (see Fig. 2) and, within
each of them, their operations (see Fig. 4 for the factory). Level of decomposition depends
Ethanol from Sugar Beet 11

on the availability of data, which is someway a function of the time spent.


As the total consumptionP is the sum of the consumptions for the different operations of
the system, we have R = j Rj with Rj the global rate of consumption for the operation
j, i.e. the contribution of j to R. Within the chain of operations the contribution Rconc
of concentrating sugar in the raw juice is given in J of energy per J of produced ethanol.
Comparison between Rj permits to figure which operations deserve longer time of analysis
in order to refine Rj . When only one or two data for j are available and we have a poor
understanding of its processes, an uncertainty of at least ±50% must be considered.
To better study the consumption efficiency of each operation j, it is studied separately
using j own output. Hence we introduce the local rate for j, rj . We also work with opera-
tion direct consumptions to make rj process specific and closer to raw data. Consumption
efficiency for concentrating the raw juice, rconc , is measured in kg of required steam per kg
of removed water (kst · kgw −1 ).

This choice is guided in order to have rj nearly invariant over a large range of consump-
tion for a given process, or at least less variable than the operation global rate Rj . It makes
rj less dependent on the industry where the process is used and data on j are retrieved.
Auxiliary operations must provide for the requirements of the system direct operations.
Their specific consumption is taken into account by a conversion factor, βj . A gas fueled
boiler can generate the steam used to concentrate the juice. Its factor is βboiler = 2.65 MJ
of gas LHV per kg of steam (assuming an efficient boiler at 97%LHV and steam energy
resulting mainly from water latent heat). Taking into account all the gas heat value (or high
heat value HHV) and the energy lost along processes to extract, refine and transport gas, we
obtain an overall factor of about βboiler = 3.15 MJtot · k−1 st . Instead of a simple boiler, a
combined heat and power generator can also supply steam along with electricity, which is
what is considered in this study.
Under certain conditions (temperature, amount...), heat requirement of a process can be
provided by the waste heat from another one owing to process integration. In this case we
have for heat demand βj,th = 0, except when rj,th already includes the saving. On the other
hand, the transfer increases electricity consumption.
Moreover, the separation between direct and auxiliary operations permits to study the
possibility of a self-reliant industry like the petroleum industry and, by necessity of energy
conservation, the global energy system (See chap. 5 of [9]). Ethanol can be used to produce
steam and other requirements of system direct operations with βj expressed in MJOH · k−1 st
or MJOH · MJ−1 e .
The contribution Rj to R from operation j is deduced from βj rj thanks to a variable
wj such as Rj = βj rj wj . wj represents the "weight" of βj rj in R. It is also the output
of j per unit of the system output. For instance wconc for juice concentration represents
the amount of water to remove from juice for one tonne of beet processed. It will depend
whether the raw juice is concentrated into a syrup at 61% of sugar or into a liquor to be
fermented at 16% of sugar.
We do not take into account energies to manufacture chemicals consumed at the fac-
tory and the equipment of the industry. We assume them negligible relative to the energy
consumptions in use, which is the case for equipment used at their capacity during their
normal life time (see the case of a tractor in Chap. 4 of [9]). However, it does not mean that
these contributions are small when looking at the industry financial balance. The difference
12 Xavier Chavanne and Patrick Sadones

stems from the high added value of these products in a developed economy, whereas final
energy such as electricity and petroleum products must be cheap (see Chap. 3 of [9]). As
a result, share of final energy cost in the price of these equipment represents currently few
percent.

Notes about energy unit and other units Because a unit of energy such as J or toe gives
no indication about the form of the energy, which may be a source of confusion as each
form does not provide the same service, and for the sake of concision, units of energy are
accompanied in the text by a subscript. Thus subscript e stands for electricity from the main
grid, HHV or LHV stands for high or low heat value of a fuel, while subscript tot stands
for the total energy to produce a fuel from natural resource, including its high heat value.
Likewise, subscripts in units of mass and volume allow to distinguish different types of
matters: w stands for water to remove, A for beet root as received, DM for dry matter of
pulp or stillage, S for sugar, OH for ethanol, st for process steam, stillage for stillage and
beer for beer.

4.4. The Farm Operations


The beet culture corresponds to intensive and mechanized agriculture. Plant is sown in
April and harvested from October to December when sugar is most concentrated in beet
roots. The culture is rotated on cycles of 4 to 5 years with crops like winter wheat or
oleaginous plants to prevent diseases [10]. Intensive agriculture does not preclude of good
agriculture practices. In addition, beet leaves are left and stillage from ethanol distillation
is returned to soil to replenish soil organic matter and offset part of nutrient losses.

4.4.1. Mechanical operations and diesel consumption

The diesel consumption of a tractor or an harvester is proportional to the traveled distance


for a type of activity. Hence the local rate rmech is expressed in diesel volume (in liter l)
required per hectare and per year. It fluctuates with soil nature and meteorology.

Operations with tractor According to a study in 2002 [11], from soil preparation at the
end of previous culture 15 tractor trips are made, consuming 165 l·(ha·y)−1 . Fertilizers
have to be brought at different times of the culture cycle. It is possible to reduce the number
of tractor trips to 10 with combined operations and tools, but a higher load increases the
consumption per trip. Soil preparation without tillage could better contribute to save fuel.
However, it is not adapted to beet with long roots.

Harvest A recent study by the Institut Technique de la Betterave ITB [12] indicates an
average consumption by harvesters of 50 l·(ha·y)−1 .

In total rmech = 215 l·(ha·y)−1 of diesel.


Ethanol from Sugar Beet 13

Diesel energy content Diesel LHV is around 36 MJLHV ·l−1 , according to data on trans-
portation fuels [13]. The factor of conversion into primary energy βdiesel , which accounts
for the total heat value of diesel and the energy consumed to extract, transport and transform
the crude oil, amounts to 1.2 Jtot·J−1
LHV or 43 MJtot ·l
−1 [14] (see also Fig. 7).

4.4.2. Synthetic fertilizers


We consider the major ones, N, P and K. Quantities are reported in the conventional units
as used in agronomy: kg of N, P2 O5 and K2 O, respectively. They are in forms rapidly
assimilable by plants, such as minerals for N.

Application rates Large progress has been done to reduce inputs owing to a better control
and the import of organic fertilizers. ITB reports average rates of 100 ± 30 kgN · (ha · y)−1
[15, 16], 70 ± 30 kgP2 O5 · (ha · y)−1 and 145 ± 50 kgK2 O · (ha · y)−1 [17].
Nutrients are present in leaves at the field and in residues at the factory. Except beet pulp
all these organic matters are restored to soil. Pulp export amounts to 4.2 tDM · (ha · y)−1
(Fig. 3). About 10% of pulp dry matter is made of protein (see link to Téréos data in Sub-
section 4.2.). Considering that 5.7 g of protein contains 1 g of N, at least 75kgN · (ha · y)−1
of N must be offset by synthetic N input. Taking into account N losses the amount agrees
with above application rate. We can even consider that the demand increases steadily with
pulp and, subsequently, beet root yields. Hence rN = 1.3 ± 0.4 kgN · t−1 A
P and K contents in pulp are around 0.1 and 0.8% of DM, respectively. Their export
in the pulp is equivalent to about 10 kgP2 O5 · (ha · y)−1 and 40 kgK2 O · (ha · y)−1 , respec-
tively. Actually the balances of the elements in the soil are more complex. ITB establishes
P and K need based on soil chemical analyzes.

Energy requirements Nitrogen fertilizers derive from ammonia, of which production is


mainly based on the gas fueled Haber-Bosh process (see [18–21] and Section 1 of Chap. 3
in [9]). The most used fertilizer in France, solid ammoniac-nitrate (33.5% N), requires a
net energy from natural gas of about βN = 41 MJtot · kgN −1
.
P and K synthetic fertilizers are produced from phosphate rocks and sylvinite, respec-
tively.
Phosphate ore is water insoluble and, consequently, not directly assimilable by plants.
As a result, large part of it is transformed into phosphoric acid through an attack by sulfuric
acid. Sulfuric acid is produced from elemental sulfur S, itself an important by-product of
the oil and gas industry [18, 22, 23]. Because of the successive exothermic reactions of
oxidation, S transformation into sulfuric acid can release large amount of heat. Its use
to produce electricity and process steam offsets energy requirements to extract the ore,
concentrate its phosphate content and achieve other operations (sulfuric acid factory is often
integrated with mine operations). Hence βP2 O5 = 0 JLHV · kgP −1
2 O5
.
Sylvinite is largely recovered from deep evaporites in earth crust. A fully integrated
mine in Canada, working paleolozic evaporite at depth close to 1 000 m, requires 0.68
MJe · kgK−1
2O
of electricity and 1.9 MJLHV · kgK −1
2O
of fuel [24]. Including requirements
for electricity production and for transport estimate of βK2 O for potash production is
4.5±0.3 MJtot · kgK −1
2O
.
14 Xavier Chavanne and Patrick Sadones

4.4.3. Agrochemicals
Application rates In 2006 the rate ragrochi was about 4.0 kgai · (ha · y)−1 of active in-
gredients, of which 2.8 kg in herbicides [10].

Energy requirements Agrochemicals are made from petroleum products. References


[8, 11, 25–27] indicate values for βagrochi ranging from 130 to 430 MJLHV · kgai
−1
. It is
fixed at 280±75 MJLHV · kgai , or 340±90 MJtot · kgai .
−1 −1

4.4.4. Others
Irrigation is only performed in areas south of Paris due to sufficient rains and soil humidity
elsewhere. Moreover, only 11% of the surface of these areas requires irrigation. The need
is equivalent to 110 mm of rain. We assume in the future these surfaces not anymore used
for beet culture.
We also neglect contribution from lime application, assuming soils are sufficiently rich
in calcium.
Seed contribution is not included for lack of information.

4.4.5. Overall farm contribution


Diesel consumption for machinery is the main contributor with 7.75 GJLHV · (ha · y)−1
or 9.3 GJtot · (ha · y)−1 . Next important requirement is synthetic nitrogen fertilizer
with 3.4 GJLHV · (ha · y)−1 of gas or 4.1 GJtot · (ha · y)−1 . The rest contributes about
1.85 GJLHV · (ha · y)−1 or 2.0 GJtot · (ha · y)−1 .
Farm global consumption rate Rf arm amounts to 13.0 GJLHV · (ha · y)−1 , or in total
15.4 GJtot · (ha · y)−1 .
Taking int account ethanol yield, 162 GJLHV · (ha · y)−1 , we have Rf arm at about
8.0% of ethanol LHV, or in total 9.5%.

4.5. Transport and Distribution


Beet fields are assumed in average 25 km away from the factory, as indicated by Téréos
company in its web page for its factory at Origny-Sainte-Benoite in France. It may under-
estimate the distance for other factories for which processed beet is cultivated over larger
area.
Transport is achieved with trucks of 44 t gross weight carrying 25 t of load in the
forward way while returning empty. We assume an average fuel consumption of 38 l per
100 km [14]. Hence the diesel consumption per tonne of load is rtrans = 0.75 l · t−1 load. The
load includes some soil left on the beet roots, which amounts to about 25% of the mass of
washed beet.
Taking also into accountβdiesel , the transport contribution amounts to 34 MJLHV · t−1 A
or 40 MJtot · t−1A i.e. about 1.9% of ethanol LHV. Ethanol is first transported by train
to refineries where it is blended with gasoline (average distance about 350 km). It is then
distributed either directly to refueling stations or to local storage. About 65% of the blend is
carried to local storage by pipeline (distance about 150 km). Trains are used for 10% of the
Ethanol from Sugar Beet 15

blend and longest distances (about 800 km). The rest is distributed directly by trucks. Tank
trucks are always used for the final distribution to the refueling stations. Their average trip is
assumed around 50 km (distances can be much smaller in urban area but with truck engine
operating less efficiently). Using the specific consumption for each mode of transport, the
overall consumption is Rdist = 0.0075 Jtot · J−1 OH , or 0.006 JLHV · JOH [14]. In spite of
−1

much larger distance than for beet transport, distribution contribution to R is lower because
of the high energy content of the load - ethanol itself - and the use of efficient modes.

4.6. The Factory Operations

Figure 4. Main factory operations to process beet root into ethanol and its by-products, as
well as their inputs and outputs. Contents of sugar S, dry matter DM of pulp or stillage, or
ethanol OH in the flows are specified. Sources: [2, 28, 29], Internet site of Téréos Co.

Fig. 4 shows the factory operations and their flows. Their contents in sugar, dry matter
of pulp or stillage, or ethanol are specified as well. Relative to sugar or pure ethanol produc-
tion, juice purification and rectification are not necessary, consequently saving some energy.
Juice extraction generates a residue - pulp -, and ethanol distillation produces stillage. Both
by-products must be treated, at least dried and/or concentrated, before their disposal.
The direct use of raw juice is only possible during the harvest time from September
to December, which amounts currently to 110 days [3]. Once dug up the roots can not be
stored for long as their metabolism consumes progressively the sucrose (about 0.3 kg · t−1 A
per day). There is as well the risk of frost and thaw cycles, which degrade the sugar quality.
Moreover, the raw juice is difficult to preserve thanks to its high moisture content.
Consequently, all roots are processed during the harvest period and raw juice is either
concentrated into syrup or directly fermented into alcohol. We assume that 40% of the
yearly beer production occurs during the harvest period.
Moreover, sugar of the raw juice must be concentrated before the fermentation operation
owing to syrup addition, in order to reach the required ethanol grade COH . In French
factories the grade is COH = 7.8% (corresponding to COH = 10% in volume or a mass
ratio of ethanol to the rest of the beer = 0.085) [2, 30]. Assuming a conversion rate at the
fermentation step αOH = 0.88 (see Subsection 3.3.), liquor to be fermented has a sugar
content of CS0 = 16% (or a ratio of sugar to the rest of the liquor = 0.19). As a result, 1 t of
liquor at CS0 requires about 0.95 t of raw juice at CS = 13.5% and 0.05 t of syrup during
the harvest period, while it consumes 0.26 t of syrup for the rest of the year. 1 t of syrup in
turn necessitates 4.5 t of raw juice.
16 Xavier Chavanne and Patrick Sadones

Hence, about 68% of raw juice must be converted into syrup for the factory to operate
during a year.
In order to save some energy and to concentrate stillage DM, stillage produced during
the harvest period is totally recycled at the extraction process. In addition, during the rest
of the year part of it is used to dilute the syrup. Hence, we suppose a distillation effluent
with a 10% DM content.

4.6.1. Beet processing and juice extraction


Roots are washed, sliced and finally submitted to a counter-flow of water or stillage at 70◦ C
to extract its sucrose.
According to D. Ballerini, using data provided by l’Union Nationale des Groupements
de Distillateurs d’Alcool UNGDA [2], the overall operation requires rexct = 22 kgst · t−1 A
and 35 MJe · tA −1
. A 2000 Swiss study indicates a consumption of rexct = 64 kgst · t−1 A
and 24 MJe · t−1 A for a factory project based on Finnish processes [28].
By comparison in 2006 cane preparation and sugar extraction in a typical Brazilian
factory necessitate 141 kgst · t−1A and 74 MJe · tA [31, 32]. On the other hand, it operates
−1

at 100 C.

The lowest requirement results probably from operating with modern equipment and
using waste heat available from other processes.
One tA of beet yields 1.34 t of raw juice and 55 kgDM · t−1A of pulp DM.

4.6.2. Pulp treatment


Mechanical concentration of wet pulp DM Pulp DM is first concentrated by mechanical
means from about 10% to 28%. A mass 6.43 kgw · kgDM −1
of water is thus removed, or
wpulpM ech = 354 kgw · tA . Nearly 200 kgpulp · tA of concentrated pulp are produced.
−1 −1

We assume that the same process of centrifugation and decantation to concentrate stil-
lage DM from 12% to 30% in a wheat dry mill set up by the Maguin Interis Co. is used to
achieve the operation [2]. It consumes rpulpM ech = 52 kJe · kgw−1 of electricity.

Drying of concentrated pulp Pulp is then dried to reach a DM content of 89% [2, 29]. A
mass 2.5 kgw · kgDM −1
of water is thus evaporated, or wpulpDry = 135 kgw · t−1A .
Thermal consumption is dominated by the water latent heat (2.25 MJ per kgw ). Residue
consistency makes difficult more efficient processes like the evaporator (see next Subsec-
tion). Some saving can be achieved by using part of the produced steam to finish pulp
drying [33]. Gas consumption is reduced from 2.9 to 2.1 MJHHV · kgw −1
.
Electricity consumption to handle concentrated pulp (using conveyors, drum rotation...)
is considered equivalent to that for handling distillers grains in a wheat dry mill per unit of
their mass [2]. It amounts to rpulpDry,e = 115 kJe · kgpulp
−1
of electricity.

4.6.3. Juice concentration into syrup


Raw juice is concentrated from CS = 13.5% to 61%. A mass of 5.8 kgw · kgS−1 of water is
thus removed. Taking into account that 68% of the raw juice, and so beet, are thus processed
over the year, the specific quantity of water amounts to wSconc = 710 kgw · t−1A .
Ethanol from Sugar Beet 17

Heat requirement to evaporate this quantity would be too huge, about 1.65 GJ·t−1 A .
Instead, the concentration occurs in a multi-effect evaporator, which consists in a succession
of liquid/gas separators. The first effect is heated by process steam. The evaporated water
in turn heats by condensation the following effect, and so on. Process steam consumption
is close to the amount of water to remove divided by the number of effects.
The process requires a strict control of pressure and temperature of each effect, and is
limited by liquid fluidity. Hence it is not amendable to all feedstock and final concentration
depends on the nature of the solid residue. Juice with dissolved sugar is easier to concentrate
than stillage residue, and beet pulp does not suit.
Multi-effects can be combined with a thermo-compressor. Part of the evaporated water
at the first effect is recompressed and heated owing to entrainment by high pressure process
steam (at about 4 bars) in an injector. The output heats the first effect. It is equivalent to
add another effect.
The drawback is the increased number of equipment and, subsequently, electricity con-
sumption.
A simple five effect evaporator in a typical Brazilian sugar mill requires rconc = 10.3 kJ
of electricity and 0.224 kg of process steam per kg of removed water [31].
A simple six effect one used to concentrate stillage consumes rconc = 51 kJ of electricity
and 0.176 kg of process steam per kg of removed water [?].
With the addition of thermo-compression we assume a consumption to concentrate the
juice of rconc = 55 kJe · kgw−1
and 0.155 kgst · kgw
−1
.

4.6.4. Juice fermentation

In a large ethanol factory of 0.30 M.m3 annual capacity, fermentation takes place in a series
of 5 to 6 tanks of about 2 million liters each at a temperature between 30-35◦ C [2]. Over a
total residence time of about 35 hours a beer at 10%vol of ethanol is produced. Thus 10 l
of beer contains 1 l of ethanol, or wf erm = 1.0 m3beer · t−1
A .
The fermentation step requires electricity to pump the liquor between tanks, to drive
agitators, to compress and inject air and CO2 for aeration, and to cool the tanks. The con-
sumption is assumed proportional to the quantity of beer. The local rate rf erm varies from
about 14.5 MJe · m−3 beer, according to two Swiss studies using manufacturer data [28,29], to
22 MJe · mbeer in French factories [2]. This large difference is surprising for equipment and
−3

procedures quite similar. The last value is retained as corresponding to actual operations in
France.

4.6.5. Beer distillation

A French study based on information from UNGDA indicates that the steam requirement
of a one column system is as high as rdist,th = 250 kgw · m−3beer, whereas operating with a
double effect and thermo-compression decreases rdist,th to 100 kgw · m−3beer [11].
Distillation columns and multi-effect evaporators share some similarities. They are two
systems of separation which intend to recover large part of the water latent heat. Unsur-
prisingly both systems present close performances in terms of consumptions per mass of
evaporated liquid.
18 Xavier Chavanne and Patrick Sadones

In a corn dry mill where three columns operate in series seemingly without double effect
and thermo-compression, rdist,th is 190 kgw · m−3 beer [34].
The Finnish project in Switzerland would operate with three simple columns (no men-
tion of double effect or thermo-compression) [28]. The system requires rdist,th = 125
kgw · m−3beer and rdist,e = 3 kJe · mbeer . values seem too low.
−3

In a Maguin Interis wheat dry mill operating with a single column at low pressure, the
specific consumption is rdist,th = 180 kgw · m−3 beer and rdist,e = 2.2 kJe · mbeer , which is
−3

consistent with indications from the first study.


The distillation step in UNGDA factories is performed with two coupled stripping
columns using a double-effect (the condenser of one column is the reboiler of the other)
and thermo-compression [2]. Process steam is injected directly into the first effect. The
system requires rdist,th = 80 kgw · m−3 beer and rdist,e = 11 kJe · mbeer . We assume that the
−3

operation is achieved with this latter and efficient process.


Ethanol content in the final product is about 91.5% or 93% in volume.

4.6.6. Ethanol dehydration

In modern factories dehydration process is achieved with molecular sieves, which absorb
selectively water, instead of the binary distillation previously used. Sieves are regenerated
by heating or swing pressure.
Although of the same order, values of rdehy found in the literature present a large dis-
persion: rdehy = 0.34 kgst · l−1OH and 68 kJe · lOH in a wheat dry mill of Maguin Co. [2],
−1

rdehy = 0.55 kgst · lOH and 68 kJe · lOH in a UNGDA factory [2], while rdehy = 0.49
−1 −1

OH and 12 kJe · lOH for ethanol produced from beet molasses according to indica-
kgst · l−1 −1

tions of also Maguin Co. [29].


Only the latter provides information about the process: overheated ethanol vapor passes
through sieves and latter ones are regenerated by condensing outgoing steam to produce a
vacuum. For our analysis we retain this process.

4.6.7. Stillage concentration

Because of the high chemical oxygen demand COD of the beet stillage - nearly 1 kg of
COD per kg of DM - due to its soluble matter, methane can be produced through stillage
anaerobic digestion [2, 29]. Assuming an efficiency of COD digestion of 85% and a yield
of 12 MJHHV · kgCOD−1
of methane, and taking into account stillage DM fraction of around
37 kgDM ·tA (See Subsection 3.3.), we would obtain a gain of around 370 MJHHV · t−1
−1
A .
Because of the high residence time for anaerobic fermentation (20 days), investment on
large tanks is necessary (for an ethanol factory of 0.30 M.m3 ·y−1 , a total volume of 165 Ml
would be required). Electricity for agitators, pumps... would amount to about 10% of the
gas heat value. For these reasons we do not take into account this possibility.
Concentrating stillage DM from CDM = 10% to 52% requires to remove more than 8
−1
kgw · kgDM of water, or wDM conc ' 300 kgw · t−1 A .
The operation is supposedly carried out with the same process used to produce syrup.
Ethanol from Sugar Beet 19

4.6.8. Gains from ethanol by-products


Since ethanol save gasoline on LHV basis, its production is assessed in unit of its heat value.
Because its by-products are not used as transportation fuel but as animal feed and fertilizer,
the same equivalence can not be used.
On the other hand, stillage permits to save some synthetic fertilizer and, consequently,
the energy to produce it. Likewise beet pulp saves some feed and, as a result, the energy
to produce the feed. Hence an energy value can be attributed to them. As stillage is al-
ready included in the nutrient balances at the farm, no value is given. As far as the beet
is concerned, it must be compared to a common feed having the same caloric and protein
contents.
Dry matter of pulp has a quantity of digestible energy for ruminants close to that of
soft wheat grain at 86% DM (7.1 MJ·kg−1 for dairy cattle and 7.6 MJ·kg−1 for beef cattle).
Both contain a comparable amount of ruminant digestible proteins (90 g·kg−1 ), although
the degradable part by micro-organisms in intestine is a little lower for pulp.
Subsequently, we assume that soft wheat grain is the equivalent feed. Its culture in
France requires a quantity of energy 2.070 GJtot per tonne of harvest, of which about half
corresponds to petroleum products - mainly diesel for mechanized operations - and the other
half to gas - mostly to produce N fertilizers -, according to a study about ethanol production
from wheat in France [35]. The requirement is deduced from the consumption at the farm to
produce 1 J of ethanol LHV, 26.2%, and ethanol yield from wheat, YOH = 7.9 GJOH ·t−1 .
At 12% moisture wheat grains do not necessitate drying. For a pulp yield of 55 kgDM · t−1 A ,
the energy gain amounts thus to of 95 MJLHV · tA or 115 MJtot · tA .
−1 −1

4.6.9. Combined heat and power generator. Factory energy balance


Fig. 5 shows the direct requirements for the main operations to process 1 tonne of beet root
in the factory. It amounts to about 305 kgst · t−1
A of steam, 165 MJe · tA of electricity and
−1

260 MJLHV · tA of gas.


−1

Figure 5. Steam (kgst ), electricity (MJe ) and heat (MJLHV ) requirements for the main
factory operations to process 1 tonne of beet root.

Fig. 6 shows the energy flows to produce electricity and process steam at 3-4 bars
from a co-generator using a steam turbine. 4 bar steam is required for evaporator thermo-
compression. High pressure steam at 60 bars and 450◦ C is generated at the gas fueled
boiler. This choice corresponds to existing or projected co-generation systems in ethanol
factories [11, 30]. In average during a year the system consumes close to 1.01 GJLHV · t−1
A
20 Xavier Chavanne and Patrick Sadones

Figure 6. Energy flow diagram of a combined heat and power generator providing electricity
and 1 kg of steam to factory processes. It operates with superheated steam at 60 bars and
450◦ C. Flows represent LHV of gas and enthalpy of water (with 0 kJ for liquid water at
0◦ C).

of gas to provide 305 kgst · tA


−1
of steam and 157 MJe · t−1A of electricity.
An additional generator operating with the same superheated steam but in power mode
alone could supply the remaining electricity requirement. Assuming a turbine expanding
steam close to iso-entropic condition - at 80% - and a condenser working at 20◦ C, electricity
yield is 24.5% net/LHV.
Total energy requirement at the factory supposedly supplied by gas - or ethanol on a
LHV basis - amounts to 1.30 GJLHV · t−1 A . Deducting the gain from pulp the net amount is
1.20 GJLHV · t−1A or about 56% of the LHV of the produced ethanol.
In terms of primary energy consumption (mostly gas in our model), we obtain a net
requirement of 1.45 GJtot · t−1
A or about 67% of production of ethanol LHV.

4.7. Synthesis about Consumption Efficiency. Comparison with those


for Cane based Ethanol and Gasoline Productions
From the farm to the fuel dispenser requirements to produce ethanol from beet are equiv-
alent to 66% of the ethanol energy, on a LHV basis, or close to 80% on a primary energy
basis (mostly gas and oil).

4.7.1. Ethanol production from cane


Operations to produce ethanol from cane are similar, or even identical, to those in the beet
case.
All operations at the farm are assumed mechanized and burning practice has been
phased out, which should be the practice after 2020 [25]. Total diesel consumption amounts
to about 230 l·(ha·y)−1 [25], or 195 l·(ha·y)−1 by including the fallow area in the 6 year
cycle of plant culture. Total associated consumption amounts to 8.4 GJtot · (ha · y)−1 .
As cane is a perennial plant, it minimizes losses and profits from organic mineralization.
Leaves left in the field during harvest, as well as process residues - stillage and filter cake
mud - restored to soil, are assumed to bring back their N content. Nevertheless, synthetic
N fertilizer must at least offset the loss of bagasse N due to its burning, which amounts
to 0.93 ± 0.15 kgN · t−1A (N content of bagasse dry matter is 6 ± 1 kgN · tDM , according
−1

to Hassuani et al. [32], with 150 kgDM · t−1A of DM in cane). By including about 20% of
losses, we obtain an input of 1.15 ± 0.15 kgN · t−1A equivalent to 90 ± 10 kgN · (ha · y) ,
−1

which results in 3.70 GJtot · (ha · y)−1 of energy consumption for fertilizer manufacture.
Ethanol from Sugar Beet 21

In the other hand, Macedo et al. report only 50 kgN · (ha · y)−1 , in the case of no burn-
ing practice and residue restoration, or 0.70 kgN · t−1 A [8, 25]. In absence of more infor-
mation to explain this discrepancy (is sugar cane a N fixing plant?), N input is assumed
to offset losses of N in bagasse and minor ones at the field. Other data of Macedo et
al. are used, 0.50 ± 0.10 kgK2 O · t−1 A for potash by taking into account all residues, or
35 ± 10 kgK2 O · (ha · y)−1 , and 2.0 kgai · (ha · y)−1 of agrochemicals.
Farm energy requirements per unit of total area dedicated to cane culture are
slightly lower than those for beet culture. However, as ethanol yield from cane is
117 GJLHV · (ha · y)−1 and 1.65 GJLHV · t−1 A , the farm contribution is equivalent to 11%
of ethanol LHV and, consequently, larger than in the case of beet. It results from the lower
yield of ethanol from cane, itself due to smaller sugar content (Table 3).
Transportation and distribution consumptions are dependent on distances and modes
but little on differences of characteristics between both plants [14]. The recent construc-
tion of a pipe network and hubs to collect and store ethanol from distilleries [36] will per-
mit substantial gains of efficiency for distribution by comparison with carrying ethanol
by tanker trucks. Currently, it can transport ethanol from mainland distilleries to a refin-
ery of Petrobras petroleum Company in Paulínia, at about 100 km from the city of São
Paulo and 150 km from the cost. This last leg of the pipe is also planned. Average to-
tal distance from a distillery to coastal port is assumed to be about 650 km [36]. From
pipe specification flow velocity ranges from v = 0.90 to 2.0 m·s−1 , i.e. expected values
for pipe transportation [14]. Assuming diesel - or ethanol - fueled compressors with an
overall yield of 25%, fuel specific consumption to offset flow friction in pipes is around
rpipe = 0.050 v 2 MJLHV · (tOH · km)−1 . Hence, rpipe = 0.12 v 2% of ethanol LHV. The
last leg to a refueling station is probably achieved thanks to a truck. Consequently, even
with v = 2 m·s−1 , consumption contribution from distribution represents less than 0.75%
of ethanol LHV.
The major and crucial differences with sugar beet industry occur at the factory, although
operations are identical.
The processes in a typical Brazilian distillery in 2006 were not as efficient as those in
French beet factories. However, this situation is independent of the crop and it is in fact
improving [31, 32, 35].
On the other hand, because cane is cultivated in a humid tropical climate, its harvest is
spread over at least nine months [6]. It permits thus to reduce the conversion of raw juice
into syrup. Currently ethanol production is limited to the harvest period and syrup is just
needed to concentrate sugar in juice.
Furthermore, tropical climate permits higher crop yields. We have noted that cane
presents a lower sugar content per area and mass harvested (see Table 3); but its total dry
matter is much larger. Cane processing produces raw juice like for beet and about 150
kgDM · t−1A of a by-product, bagasse, made mostly of fibers. Because of its potential as fuel
(49% moisture, low ash content and LHV = 7.8 MJ · kgDM −1
), it is burnt in a co-generation
system to supply at least all energy requirements of factory processes. Furthermore, with
modern co-generator (operating with superheated steam at 90 bars and 520◦ C such as pro-
posed by the Brazilian company DEDINI S/A) and efficient processes, factories can save
part of bagasse to generate in power mode alone electricity for the grid, up to 32% of ethanol
LHV.
22 Xavier Chavanne and Patrick Sadones

In a scenario where ethanol from cane is exported to Europe, it would be transported


by a tanker ship. The requirement of bunker fuel for a 100 kt carrier, including the return
trip with ballast, is about rship = 0.10 MJLHV · (tOH · km)−1 [14]. Distance between São
Paulo port and Rotterdam in Netherlands - the main European port for fuel imports - is
about 10 000 km. The contribution from export by ship in LHV represents thus around
3.7% of ethanol LHV. In terms of energy balance, ethanol from cane would remain very
competitive.

4.7.2. Gasoline production from crude oil

Figure 7. Energy flows through the main operations of the petroleum industry for 1 J of
crude oil high heat value HHV at the oil field output. Each operation consumes part of
its own input and/or part of refinery products. HC: hydrocarbons, Total SA: data from the
french company Total, Fr. 2008: average refinery in France in 2008. Source of values: [14].

Petroleum industry is nearly a self-reliant energy industry providing directly or in form


of refined products the requirements of its operations, as shown in Fig. 7. To produce 1 J of
gasoline LHV about 1.20 J of crude oil must be extracted, or 1 toe of gasoline requires 1.2
toe of crude oil.
On the other hand, quantity of crude oil in reservoir rocks which allow this efficient
extraction is limited. As a result, its global production will decline from present level,
or even is already in decline. Marginal but growing productions from tar sands, very tight
rocks such as in USA, watered reservoirs without natural pressure support... present a much
larger energy requirement at the field, which, in extreme cases, can be even higher than the
output (see an example at the end of Chap. 3 in [9]). This situation has been financially
possible as crude price has increased while prices of electricity, and gas in some situations,
have remained more stable. In addition, consumption at the refinery can be as high as 12%
of its input HHV in order to meet environmental regulations and increased demand for
transportation fuels requiring additional and energy consuming processes [14].
Industries of ethanol from sugar plants, in particular sugar cane, can benefit from this
development. However, due to their limited cultivation areas and the demand for sugar,
neither beet or cane can substitute for fossil oil in large scale.
Beet based ethanol industry can divert a part of its production to be also self-reliant.
From the previous analysis, 0.66 J of energy LHV must be consumed to produce 1 J of
ethanol. Consequently, if ethanol must provide all the requirements of its industry, 1 toe
of energy net production will necessitate the gross production of 2.94 toe of ethanol, the
processing of 57 tA · and a surface of 0.76 ha per year. All the area dedicated to beet culture
Ethanol from Sugar Beet 23

in France would produce about 0.5 Mtoe net (see Table 1), short of the gasoline annual
consumption, 12 Mtoe. Financially, it is difficult to envision this case, as there would be
a lack of revenue to amortize the investment and to pay for fixed operational costs such as
salaries.

5. Conclusion
In a temperate and humid climate such as in the north of France, sugar beet is cultivated to
produce sugar and prevent its importation from countries with a humid and tropical climate
and where sugar is extracted from cane.
Beet is also processed to produce alcohols, part of which is destined to substitute for
gasoline in transportation (called agro-ethanol). Current quantities are very small against
productions of ethanol from cane and corn (0.5 M tonne oil equivalent toe in 2012 against
12 Mtoe for cane and 24 Mtoe for corn), and above all against those of transportation fuels
from crude oil (about 20 000 Mtoe, with roughly half for gasoline).
Nevertheless, agro-ethanol can be a more accessible market for beet industry than the
sugar one as the latter is increasingly dominated by cane production. The new outlet has
been possible thanks to the rise of crude price, becoming a luxury commodity, and some
public helps in form of subsidizes and mandates. Motorists also contribute by paying the
same price (tax including) for ethanol and gasoline on a volumetric basis, whereas they
have not the same energy value (the value for one liter of ethanol is two thirds that for one
liter of gasoline).
We have assessed the energy consumptions of the entire industry from the farm to the
fuel dispenser to produce one Joule J of ethanol energy. To achieve the analysis, we have
considered a factory dedicated only to ethanol production. It necessitates to perform the
study at the process level, which permits to discard processes used for sugar production
such as juice purification.
Beet growers and ethanol producers have largely improved the productivity and effi-
ciency of operations. Besides, the plant presents some advantages in terms of alternating
culture to reduce synthetic inputs. However, energy requirements remain high especially at
the factory where beet roots are processed into ethanol. Direct consumptions of processes
are equivalent to 66% of the ethanol energy, on a LHV basis, of which 56% at the factory.
They result largely from the high number of operations and the necessity to concentrate the
useful part - sugar, dry matters and ethanol - in the juices and residues extracted from beet
roots. Room for improvements are limited (some gas can be produced from the anaerobic
digestion of stillage, but requires large equipment investment).
Actual overall consumption, mostly in form of crude oil and above all natural gas -
amounts to 86% of the production. Financially, it makes the cost of production of ethanol
quite correlated with fossil fuel prices and, subsequently, potentially linked to gasoline one
(when gas price is close to crude oil one on a LHV basis, as it is the case in France).
An alternative would be for the industry to provide its own requirements owing to
ethanol. It would amount to 66% of the gross production and would necessitate almost
three time as much planted area as in the situation using external energies. Financially,
costs of items other than energy would be difficult to meet. This alternative would be at-
tractive when crude oil and gas prices become higher than the ethanol price in markets.
24 Xavier Chavanne and Patrick Sadones

Due to some flexibility, steam consumptions in processes could also be reduced to the
detriment of electricity requirement. Electricity would be then imported from the grid at a
lower cost owing to its production from nuclear energy.
Ethanol from sugar cane is produced through identical or similar operations. Conse-
quently, direct consumptions can be also close if the same efficient processes are used (a
typical Brazilian is still far from this situation). However, cane yields a large amount of
residue - 15% of cane mass against 5.5% for beet -, which is dry enough to be used as
fuel in order to supply all factory requirements and even electricity surplus to the grid.
Ironically, this higher overall efficiency stems partly from cane stalk having a lower sugar
content than beet root and, subsequently, a lower ethanol yield. As a result, even by taking
into account the consumption of importation by ship, cane industry can compete with beet
one for the local ethanol market as the industry is doing for sugar market.
We have not dealt with the emission of fossil greenhouse gases resulting from beet
processing into ethanol. From the energy consumptions of natural gas and crude oil by
the industry we can infer that the balance is not favorable. Moreover, there is also the
production of N2 O, a potent greenhouse gas, during plant cultivation. The released quantity
is difficult to assess.
Of course, use of ethanol to substitute for fossil fuels would improve markedly this
balance. On the other hand, emission resulting from land use change would be three time
as high as without self-reliance. However, as residues of the industry is either restored to
soil or, in the case of beet pulp, used as a substitute for wheat as animal feed, the impact is
a bit low.

Acknowledgment
The authors thank prof. J.-P. Frangi, director of the Institut Universitaire Professionnel
Génie de l’Environnement, without whom this work would not have been possible.
They are also grateful to P. Dumas researcher at Centre International de Recherche
Agronomique pour le Développement (France) for his remarks.

References
[1] Bruce Dorminey. Ethanol from energy beets: A viable option? Renewable Energy
World, April 2014.

[2] D. Ballerini. Les biocarburants: état des lieux, perspectives et enjeux du développe-
ment. IFP publication, Editions Technip, 2006. 375 pp (In French).

[3] Confédération Générale des planteurs de Betteraves. La betterave en 2014, fév. 2014.
163 pp (In French).

[4] Renewable Fuel Association. 2014 ethanol industry outlook, February 18th, 2014. 40
pp.
Ethanol from Sugar Beet 25

[5] Agreste. Statistique Agricole Annuelle. Ministère de l’agriculture et de la pêche.


Available at http://www.agreste.agriculture.gouv.fr/page-d-accueil/article/donnees-
en-ligne (accessed in Oct. 2014), 2014 (In French).

[6] Anuário Estatístico da Agroenergia 2012. Ministério da agricultura pecuária


e abastecimento secretaria de produção e agroenergia departamento da cana de
açúcar e agroenergia. Available at http://www.agricultura.gov.br/desenvolvimento-
sustentavel/agroenergia /estatistica (accessed in Oct. 2014), 2013.

[7] USA agricultural statisitics. field crops, corn. National Agricultural


Statistics Service, US Department of Agriculture. Available at
http://www.nass.usda.gov/Statistics_by_Subject/index.php?sector=CROPS (accessed
in Oct. 2014), 2014.

[8] I.C. Macedo, M.R. Lima Verde Leal, and J.E. Azevedo Ramos da Silva. Assessment
of greenhouse gas emissions in the production and use of ethanol in brazil. Technical
report, Government of State Sao Paulo, March 2004. 19 pp. + annexes.

[9] X. Chavanne. Energy Efficiency: What it is, Why it is Important, and How to Assess
it. Nova Science Publishers, December 2013. 187pp.

[10] Betterave sucrière : Progrès techniques et environnement. synthèse. Technical report,


Institut Technique de la Betterave, nov. 2007 (In French).

[11] Ecobilan. Bilans énergétiques et gaz à effet de serre des filières de production des
biocarburants. Technical report, ADEME and DIREM, nov. 2002. 132 pp (In French).

[12] La technique betteravière. Perfbett : performance des chantiers de récolte. Technical


report, Institut Technique de la Betterave, n◦ 995 du 24 décembre 2013 (In French).

[13] J.C. Guibet and E. Faure-Birchem. Fuels and engines: technology, energy, environ-
ment, volume 2. Éditions Technip, 1999.

[14] X. Chavanne and J.P. Frangi. Comparison of the energy efficiency to produce
agroethanol between various industries and processes: the transport stage. Biomass
and Bioenergy, 35(9):4075–4091, October 2011.

[15] La technique betteravière. La dose d’azote à l’optimum avec azofert. Technical report,
Institut Technique de la Betterave, n◦ 980 du 12 février 2013 (In French).

[16] La technique betteravière. Azote : Pourquoi faut-il ajuster les doses ? Technical
report, Institut Technique de la Betterave, n◦ 998 du 18 février 2014 (In French).

[17] La technique betteravière. Analyse des pratiques de fertilisation P, K et conseils pour


les améliorer. Technical report, Institut Technique de la Betterave, n◦ 1002 du 23 avril
2014 (In French).

[18] G. Kongshaug. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in fertilizer pro-
duction. 28, 1998.
26 Xavier Chavanne and Patrick Sadones

[19] Production of ammonia. Technical report, European Fertilizer Manufacturers


Association, 2000. 44 pp.

[20] Production of nitric acid. Technical report, European Fertilizer Manufacturers


Association, 2000. 36 pp.

[21] Production of ammonium nitrate and calcium ammonium nitrate. Technical report,
European Fertilizer Manufacturers Association, 2000. 40 pp.

[22] Production of sulphuric acid. Technical report, European Fertilizer Manufacturers


Association, 2000. 68 pp.

[23] P. Grécias. Chimie descriptive organique minérale Math Sup. et Spé PP’Deug A.
Lavoisier, 1988. 450 pp (In French).

[24] Metal ore mineral mining and quarrying 2005. Technical report, Statistics Canada.
Catalogue no. 26-223-XIB, October 2007.

[25] I.C. Macedo, J.E.A. Seabra, and J.E.A.R. Silva. Green house gases emissions in the
production and use of ethanol from sugarcane in brazil: The 2005/2006 averages and
a prediction for 2020. Biomass and bioenergy, 32(7):582–595, 2008.

[26] X. Chavanne and J.P. Frangi. Le rendement énergétique de la production d’éthanol à


partir de maïs. Comptes Rendus Geosciences, 340(5):263–287, 2008 (In French).

[27] Levington Agriculture. Energy balances in the growth of oilseed rape for biodiesel
and of wheat for bioethanol. Technical report, British Association for Bio Fuels and
Oils (BABFO), Jun. 2000.

[28] A Fromentin and al. Caractérisation de filières de production d’éthanol dans le


contexte helvétique. Technical report, LASEN, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de
Lausanne, Lausanne Switzerland, Mar. 2000. 119 pp (In French).

[29] E Gnansounou and A Dauriat. Etude comparative de carburants par analyse de leur
cycle de vie. Technical report, LASEN, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne,
Lausanne Switzerland, March 2004. 70 pp (In French).

[30] S. Signoret. L’éthanol en grande pompe. Énergie Plus, n◦ 386, 15 May 2007 (In
French).

[31] A.V. Ensinas, S.A. Nebra, M.A. Lozano, and L.M. Serra. Analysis of process steam
demand reduction and electricity generation in sugar and ethanol production from
sugarcane. Energy Conversion and Management, 48(11):2978–2987, 2007.

[32] S.J. Hassuani, M.R.L.V. Leal, and I. de Carvalho Macedo. Biomass power generation:
sugar cane bagasse and trash. Technical report, Centro de Tecnologia Canavieira and
Programa das Nações Unidas para o Desenvolvimento, 2005. 216 pp.

[33] J. Mousset. Déshdratation des pulpes de betteraves et des fourrages. Lettre de


l’ADEME, n◦ 102, May 2005 (In French).
Ethanol from Sugar Beet 27

[34] J.R. Kwiatkowski, A.J. McAloon, F. Taylor, and D.B. Johnston. Modeling the process
and costs of fuel ethanol production by the corn dry-grind process. Industrial crops
and products, 23(3):288–296, 2006.

[35] X. Chavanne and J.P. Frangi. Comparison of the energy efficiency to produce
agroethanol between various industries and processes: Synthesis. Biomass and Bioen-
ergy, 35(7):2737–2754, July 2011.

[36] Grandes Construcoes. Ethanol pipeline starts to operate. Available in English


at http://www.grandesconstrucoes.com.br/br/index.php?option=com _content&view=
article&id=413, May 2014.
In: Sugar Beets ISBN: 978-1-63463-499-1
Editor: Lindsey Brooks © 2015 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Chapter 2

DETECTION OF SOIL-APPLIED HERBICIDES


BY SUGAR BEET PLANTS

Anna M. Szmigielski and Jeff J. Schoenau


Soil Science Department, University of Saskatchewan,
Saskatoon, Canada

ABSTRACT
Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an effective bioindicator plant used for bioassay
detection of herbicide residues in soil because of its sensitivity to many herbicides. In
bioassays the response of a bioindicator plant to a herbicide is measured, and once the
response in a designated herbicide concentration range is established, the bioassay can be
used in research and soil testing. Typically research focuses on assessment of the effect
of soil properties on herbicide bioactivity and dissipation in soil, while soil testing is
carried out to identify the potential for injury to rotational crops due to residual herbicides
that may persist in soil to the next growing season.
Application of the sugar beet bioassay for assessment of how herbicide behavior in
soil is influenced by soil properties was investigated using two herbicides that have
different modes of action i.e., pyroxsulam and pyroxasulfone. Pyroxsulam is a Group 2
(acetolactate synthase inhibitor) herbicide that primarily inhibits root length of sensitive
plants, while pyroxasulfone is a Group 15 (long chain fatty acid elongase inhibitor)
herbicide that generally affects shoot growth of susceptible plants.
This chapter describes (1) the sugar beet bioassay technique for detection of
pyroxsulam and pyroxasulfone in soil, and (2) the use of this bioassay for evaluation of
pyroxsulam and pyroxasulfone bioactivity and dissipation in soil.

INTRODUCTION
Sugar beet is susceptible to many herbicides that are commonly used in various crops.
Consequently, the conventional weed control in sugar beet production is difficult as herbicide


Corresponding author‟s email: anna.szmigielski@usask.ca
30 Anna M. Szmigielski and Jeff J. Schoenau

options are limited and potential for crop injury is high [1]. However, introduction of
glyphosate-resistant sugar beet allowed the use of glyphosate to eradicate weeds without
harming the sugar beet crop [2]. Another issue related to sugar beet sensitivity to herbicides is
the potential carry-over injury to sugar beet from a herbicide that was applied in previous
crop and that persisted in soil particularly under conditions of low moisture and cool
temperature [3, 4]. Because of the sugar beet sensitivity to herbicides, sugar beet is a very
useful bioindicator plant for bioassay detection of herbicides in soil.
Herbicides in soil are determined either by plant bioassays or by chemical methods [5].
Bioassays detect the phytotoxic portion of herbicide that is available to susceptible plants,
while chemical methods determine total quantity of herbicide in soil. Because the
bioavailable herbicide is detected by bioassays, this methodology is suitable for assessment of
the effect of soil properties on herbicide behavior in soil [6, 7]. Also, because bioassays are
very sensitive, they are frequently used in soil testing for detection of residual herbicides that
may cause injury to rotational crops [8].
In the development of a bioassay, once it is established that sugar beet is susceptible to a
herbicide under investigation, the next step is the selection of the sensitive plant parameter to
be measured in response to a herbicide. Parameters that are easy to assess in plant bioassays
are root or shoot length [9], and root or shoot fresh or dry weight [10], but many other
parameters have been used [8, 11]. Next, the duration of sugar beet growth required to obtain
a significant response is selected. Shorter growth period is preferred as the effect of soil
nutrient status and other soil properties is minimized and plant response is primarily due to
the herbicide. Generally plant response is evaluated in a concentration range from zero to the
field application rate. Plant bioassays may be performed in the field and in the green-house
where a herbicide is applied by spraying [7, 10, 12], or in the laboratory with a herbicide
usually being soil-incorporated [6, 13, 14]. For laboratory experiments in which a soil-
incorporated herbicide is used, field application rate can be converted to the herbicide
concentration in soil by assuming that the applied herbicide remains either in the top 5 cm
[13], 10 cm [6] or 15 cm of soil [14] and a soil bulk density of approximately 1.3 g/cm3.
This chapter describes the sugar beet bioassay technique for detection of pyroxsulam and
pyroxasulfone in soil, and provides examples of the use of this bioassay. Pyroxsulam, a
Group 2 (acetolactate synthase inhibitor) herbicide and pyroxasulfone, a Group 15 (long
chain fatty acid elongase inhibitor) herbicide have different mode of action and both are
efficacious against certain grass and broadleaf weeds in various crops.

SUGAR BEET BIOASSAY TECHNIQUE


The laboratory bioassay using sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. „Beta 1385‟) was performed in
2-oz Whirl-Pak® plastic bags that are 10 cm high and 6 cm long [9]. A quantity of 50 g of
soil was wetted to 100% moisture content at field capacity, hand mixed and transferred to a
Whirl-Pak® bag. The soil in the bag was lightly packed to form a layer that was
approximately 8 cm high, 6 cm long and 1 cm wide. Six sugar beet seeds were planted in soil
and the soil surface was covered with plastic beads to reduce soil drying (Figure 1). Sugar
beet plants were grown in the laboratory under fluorescent lights and plants were watered
Detection of Soil-Applied Herbicides by Sugar Beet Plants 31

daily to a predetermined weight. Shoot and root length of intact plants was measured with a
ruler after the Whirl-Pak® bag was opened and soil was washed away with water.

plastic beads

Whirl-Pak® bag

sugar beet plant

soil

Figure 1. Diagram of a sugar beet bioassay in a Whirl-Pak® bag.

Using this simple laboratory bioassay technique, sugar beet response to pyroxsulam in
the range from 0 to 3.45 μg/kg and to pyroxasulfone in the range from 0 to 276 μg/kg was
evaluated. The optimal duration of sugar beet growth required for significant inhibition due to
pyroxsulam was 4 days and due to pyroxasulfone was 7 days. Measuring both roots and
shoots of sugar beet showed that pyroxsulam inhibits primarily root length while
pyroxasulfone inhibits mainly shoot length and that both of these parameters correlate well
with the respective herbicide concentration (Figure 2).

Figure 2. Sugar beet root and shoot response to (a) pyroxsulam obtained by the 4-day bioassay, and (b)
pyroxasulfone obtained by the 7-day bioassay.
32 Anna M. Szmigielski and Jeff J. Schoenau

APPLICATIONS OF THE SUGAR BEET BIOASSAY


Effect of soil properties on herbicide bioactivity. Soil characteristics, particularly soil
pH, organic carbon and clay content have considerable effect on bioavailability of herbicides
[7, 13, 15]. Bioassays are ideal for assessment of the effect of soil properties on herbicide
bioactivity because they detect the herbicide portion in soil that is actually available to plants.
Multiple studies of soils of varying properties have demonstrated that herbicide bioactivity
can be related to either one soil factor or a combination of different soil factors [4, 6, 15, 16].
Effect of soil properties on herbicide bioactivity can also be assessed by artificially altering
one soil characteristic such as soil pH or organic carbon content. This allows for the removal
of the influence of other soil properties and for the measurement of the effect of only the
altered characteristic on herbicide bioactivity as shown in the examples below.
Natural pH 6.9 of a soil was altered through acidification with aqueous HCl to 6.0 and
through alkalization with CaCO3 suspension in water to 7.5 [17]. After equilibrating the soils
for one week, bioactivity of pyroxsulam in the range from 0 to 3.45 μg/kg was evaluated with
the 4-day sugar beet root length bioassay. As can be seen in Figure 3, sugar beet root length
inhibition was greater when soil pH increased and was reduced when soil pH decreased,
demonstrating that weed control with pyroxsulam varies with soil pH and that it is more
efficacious in soils of higher pH. As pH increases, the organic matter and soil colloids acquire
negative charges which repel herbicide anions that are formed through dissociation of weakly
acidic herbicides, such as pyroxsulam, resulting in reduced herbicide adsorption to soil
colloids and consequently in increased herbicide availability to plants [7, 14, 18].

80
Root length inhibition (%)

60

40

20 pH 7.5 (alkalized)
pH 6.9 (natural)
pH 6.0 (acidified)

0
0 1 2 3 4

Pyroxsulam (g/kg)

Figure 3. Effect of soil pH on pyroxsulam bioactivity determined by the 4-day sugar beet root length
bioassay.

Organic carbon content of a soil that had 1.3 % natural organic carbon content was
increased by addition of a wheat straw biochar. Typically biochars have high organic carbon
content, high surface area and porous structure, and may be considered to have characteristics
that resemble soil organic matter. Biochar was added in the range from 0 to 2% and
pyroxasulfone bioactivity was assessed from 0 to 276 μg/kg with the 7-day sugar beet shoot
length bioassay. Sugar beet shoot length inhibition decreased with the increase of biochar
Detection of Soil-Applied Herbicides by Sugar Beet Plants 33

concentration in soil demonstrating that pyroxasulfone becomes less bioavailable when soil
organic carbon content is high (Figure 4). Soil organic matter is typically estimated to contain
58% carbon. Soil organic matter has colloidal structure and contains a mixture of complex
organic compounds with many functional groups that strongly sorbs various chemicals
including herbicides [19].

80
0% biochar
0.25% biochar
Shoot length inhibition (%) 0.5% biochar
60 1.0% biochar
2.0% biochar

40

20

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300

Pyroxasulfone (g/kg)

Figure 4. Effect of biochar content in soil on pyroxasulfone bioactivity determined by the 7-day sugar
beet shoot length bioassay.

Herbicide dissipation. The rate of herbicide dissipation in agricultural environments


determines whether the herbicide will provide long term weed control through the season of
application, and whether there is a potential for herbicide carry-over injury to subsequent
crops. Because the dissipation rate varies with soil characteristics, bioassays are an effective
tool for evaluating herbicide persistence in soil. Typically high organic matter and clay
content and low soil pH decrease the dissipation rate by reducing the amount of herbicide
available for degradation [6, 20, 21]. The rate of dissipation also depends on environmental
conditions in the season of herbicide application, particularly on moisture and temperature
[20, 22, 23]. Determination of dissipation half-life for herbicides under controlled laboratory
conditions is illustrated in the following example.
Pyroxsulam and pyroxasulfone dissipation in soil was evaluated under conditions of soil
moisture content of 80% field capacity and 25°C temperature. Soil samples with added water
and pyroxsulam at 3.45 μg/kg or pyroxasulfone at 92 μg/kg level in capped Styrofoam cups
were incubated and soil moisture content was kept nearly constant by adding water daily to
predetermined weight. At each sampling time, residual pyroxsulam was determined by the 4-
day sugar beet root length bioassay, while residual pyroxasulfone was assessed by the 7-day
sugar beet shoot length bioassay. Herbicide concentration remaining in soil at each sampling
time was calculated using dose-response curves (Figure 2), and was plotted vs incubation
time (Figure 5). The rate of dissipation was faster for pyroxsulam than pyroxasulfone, and the
estimated half-lives were 11 and 30 days for pyroxsulam and pyroxasulfone, respectively.
Moisture content of 80% field capacity and temperature of 25°C represent warm and moist
conditions that typically facilitate herbicide degradation. When pyroxsulam dissipation was
assessed at 30% moisture content and 25°C, and at 80% moisture content and 15°C (data not
34 Anna M. Szmigielski and Jeff J. Schoenau

shown), the estimated half-lives were 63 days and 92 days, respectively, demonstrating that
dry and cool conditions decrease the rate of herbicide dissipation and could result in enough
herbicide persisting in soil to cause carry-over injury to sensitive rotational crops.

120

100
pyroxasulfone

Herbicide remaining (%)


pyroxsulam
80

60

40

20

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Time (day)

Figure 5. Pyroxasulfone and pyroxsulam dissipation under laboratory conditions of 25°C and moisture
content of 80% field capacity determined by the 7-day sugar beet shoot length and the 4-day sugar beet
root length bioassay, respectively.

If active residues of herbicides remaining in soil from previous herbicide application are
suspected, growers may consider submitting field samples for testing. Soil testing can be
performed by chemical methods or bioassays. Because chemical methods determine total
amount of a herbicide in soil, they are poor predictors of residual phytotoxicity and potential
crop injury. Bioassays detect the presence of bioavailable residues and are generally
considered to be a better risk-management tool for making recropping decisions that is
available to growers [8, 9].

CONCLUSION
The examples of the application of sugar beet bioassays described in this chapter show
that sugar beet is a very useful bioindicator plant for detection of herbicides in soil.
Depending on the herbicide mode of action, different sugar beet growth parameter may
respond to a herbicide of interest. Root length and shoot length inhibition of sugar beet
proved to be suitable for detection of pyroxsulam (Group 2 herbicide) and pyroxasulfone
(Group 15 herbicide), respectively. Performing sugar beet bioassay in Whirl-Pak® bags is
simple and requires only 50 g of soil per bag. Plants are grown in Whirl-Pak® bags filled
with soil in a laboratory under fluorescent lights, and then after 4 days for pyroxsulam and 7
days for pyroxasulfone, intact sugar beet plants are removed from soil and are measured.
Bioassays using sugar beet plants are an effective method for evaluating phytotoxicity,
dissipation and residual activity of herbicides in soil environments.
Detection of Soil-Applied Herbicides by Sugar Beet Plants 35

REFERENCES
[1] UC IPM: Information about Integrated Weed Management in Sugarbeet. (2010).
Available from: http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/r735700111.html
[2] Kniss, A.R., Wilson, R.G., Martin, A.R, Burgener, P.A & Feuz, D.M. (2004).
Economic evaluation of glyphosate resistant and conventional sugar beet. Weed
Technol. 18, 388-396.
[3] Frank, R. (1966). Atrazine carryover in production of sugar beets in Southwestern
Ontario. Weeds, 14, 82-85.
[4] Moyer, J.R. & Hamman, W.M. (2001). Factors affecting the toxicity of MON 37500
residues to following crops. Weed Technol. 15, 42-47.
[5] Smith, A.E. (1995) A review of analytical methods for sulfonylurea herbicides in soil.
Intern. J. Environ. Anal. Chem. 59, 97-106.
[6] Eliason, R., Schoenau, J.J., Szmigielski, A.M. & Laverty, W.M. (2004). Phytotoxicity
and persistence of flucarbazone-sodium in soil. Weed Sci. 52, 857-862.
[7] Renner, K.A., Meggitt, W.F. & Penner, D. (1988). Effect of soil pH on imazaquin and
imazethapyr adsorption to soil and phytotoxicity to corn (Zea mays). Weed Sci. 36, 78-
83.
[8] Watson, P.R. & Checkel, S. Soil residual herbicide bioassays: science and practice. In
Van Acker R.C., editor. Soil residual herbicides: Science and management. Sainte-
Anne-de Bellevue, Québec: Canadian Weed Science Society – Société canadienne de
malherbologie; 3, 71-79.
[9] Szmigielski, A.M., Schoenau, J.J., Irvine, A. & Schilling, B. (2008). Evaluating a
mustard root-length bioassay for predicting crop injury from soil residual flucarbazone.
Comm. Soil Sci. Plant Anal., 39, 413-420.
[10] Blanco, F.M.G. & Velini, E.D. (2005). Sulfentrazone persistence in soybean-cultivated
soil and effect on succession cultures. Planta Daninha. 23, 693-700.
[11] Horovitz, M. (1976). Application of bioassay techniques to herbicide investigations.
Weed Res., 16, 209-215.
[12] Mersie, W. & Foy, C.L. (1985). Phytotoxicity and adsorption of chlorsulfuron as
affected by soil properties. Weed Sci. 33, 564-568.
[13] Papiernik, S.K., Koskinen, W.C. & Barber, B.L. (2012). Low sorption and fast
dissipation of the herbicide saflufenacil in surface soils and subsoils of an eroded prairie
landscape. J. Agric. Food Chem. 60, 10936-10941.
[14] Hultgren, R.P., Hudson, R.J.M. & Sims, G.K. (2002). Effects of soil pH and soil water
content on prosulfuron dissipation. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50, 3236-3243.
[15] Morillo, E., Undabeytia, T., Cabrera, A., Villaverde, J., & Maqueda, C. (2004). Effect
of soil type on adsorption-desorption, mobility, and activity of the herbicide
norflurazon. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52, 884-890.
[16] Moreale, A. & Van Bladel, R. (1980). Behavior of 2,4-D in Belgian soils. J. Enivron.
Qual. 9, 627-633.
[17] Szmigielski, A.M., Schoenau, J.J., Johnson, E.N., Holm, F.A., Sapsford, K.L. & Liu, J.
(2012). Effects of soil factors on phytotoxicity and dissipation of sulfentrazone in
Canadian prairie soils. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 43, 896-904.
36 Anna M. Szmigielski and Jeff J. Schoenau

[18] Grey, T.L., Walker, R. H., Wehtje, G.R. & Hancock, H.G. (1997). Sulfentrazone
adsorption and mobility as affected by soil and pH. Weed Sci. 45, 733-738.
[19] Motoki, Y., Iwafune, T, Seike, N., Otani, T. & Asano, M. (2014). Effects of organic
carbon quality on the sorption behavior of pesticides in Japanese soils. J. Pestic. Sci. 39,
105-114,
[20] Thirunarayanan, K., Zimdahl, R.L. & Smika, S.E. (1985). Chlorsulfuron adsorption and
degradation in soil. Weed Sci. 33, 558-563.
[21] Ohmes, G.A., Hayes, R.M. & Mueller, T.C. (2000). Sulfentrazone dissipation in a
Tennessee soil. Weed Technol. 14, 100-105.
[22] Goetz, A.J., Lavy, T.L. & Gbur, E.E. (1990). Degradation and field persistence of
imazethapyr. Weed Sci. 38, 421-428.
[23] Walker, A. (1991). Influence of soil and weather factors on the persistence of soil-
applied herbicides. Appl. Plant Sci. 5, 94-98.
In: Sugar Beets ISBN: 978-1-63463-499-1
Editor: Lindsey Brooks © 2015 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Chapter 3

ENERGY RECOVERY FROM BY-PRODUCTS


OF SUGAR MAKING PROCESS

Muhammad Akram*
University of South Wales (formerly University of Glamorgan), UK

ABSTRACT
Sugar beet is widely used in the world to manufacture sugar. In the UK 7.5 million
tonnes of sugar beet is processed for sugar production each year. The sugar making
process produces by-products such as vinasse, raffinate and pressed sugar beet pulp.
Vinasse and raffinate are liquids while pressed pulp is a solid by-product. After sugar
extraction, remaining beet is pressed mechanically to remove water which results in
pressed sugar beet pulp having 20 – 24% dry matter. Raffinate and vinasse originate from
the liquid stream after sugar; alcohol and betaine are taken out. All these by-products
have an energy value associated with them which can be recovered by employing a
suitable technology. The most widely used energy recovery technology is thermal
processes also known as combustion. As a result of the high moisture content which is of
the order of 50 – 75%, it may not be possible to combust these materials without the use
of a primary fuel, such as coal, having a high calorific value to compensate for the energy
loss due to the presence of excessive amounts of water. Moreover, it may not be possible
to combust these materials in conventional systems without major modifications or
without penalties.
This chapter discusses potential for energy recovery from beet sugar industry by-
products using fluidized bed combustion technology. Vinasse, raffinate and pressed pulp
were fired/cofired with Thoresby coal in a fluidized bed test rig. The tests were
conducted at different thermal inputs at a wide range of operating conditions. The chapter
also includes discussions on alternative uses of sugar industry by-products.
The work is focused on the combustion of blends of coal and pressed pulp in
different proportions. It was observed that the proportion of pressed pulp in the blended
fuel can be up to 50% for successful energy recovery using fluidized bed technology.
During combustion of different coal-pulp blends it was found that excess air requirement

*
Corresponding author: Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Sheffield Low Carbon Combustion
Centre Crown Works Industrial Estate, Unit 2 Rotherham Road Beighton S20 1AH
muhammadakram100@yahoo.com 01142698981.
38 Muhammad Akram

is reduced by around 20% in comparison to coal only firing, over the range of the
operating conditions tested. This aspect can be used to enhance the throughput of such
energy conversion systems.
Because of the presence of high amounts potassium in pressed pulp, which could
cause agglomeration during combustion in fluidized beds, longer term tests were carried
out with 50/50 blend of coal and pulp. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analyses of
bed samples taken at the end of every day have shown the up to 1% accumulation of
potassium in the bed. For comparison purposes tests were also carried out by co-firing
coal with raffinate and vinasse. Post experiment SEM analysis confirmed the
accumulation of potassium in the bed which was found to be around 8% for raffinate and
around 10% for the vinasse experiment. It was observed that vinasse and raffinate, due to
very high potassium content, require the introduction of alkali getters for successful
energy recovery.
The study has a broad application and can be beneficial in utilizing relatively cheap,
poor quality, unprepared biomass materials. The results of this study can be helpful in
devising systems to deal with wastes or by-products from different industries in co-
combustion with a fuel of higher calorific value such as coal. Thus the study will have
dual impact on the industry; addressing waste management issues on one hand and
producing useful energy on the other. This may contribute towards meeting the targets of
Kyoto Protocol by reducing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) as biomass is thought to
be CO2 neutral.

1. INTRODUCTION
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are on the rise despite investment in energy intensive
technologies as well as efficiency improvements. The emissions increased by 1.6% per year
on average, over the last three decades. Carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the
combustion of fossil fuels are increasing at a rate of 1.9% [Rogner, et al. 2007]. According to
the fourth assessment report of the IPCC, in 2030 more than 80% of the global energy mix
will be from fossil fuels with consequent GHG emission implications if energy policies are
not substantially changed. The energy related CO2 emissions are projected to be 40 – 110%
higher in 2030 as compared to 2000.
Humankind has a long history of using biomass for cooking and heating purposes. The
use of wood is thought to be much older than civilisation. In third world countries where the
majority of the population lives in villages with no access to natural gas, wood is still the
primary source of their energy source and to fulfil their everyday needs. Biomass is
considered to be CO2 neutral as during its growth it uses the equivalent amount of CO2 that is
then emitted during its combustion. Of course there is an energy penalty associated with its
harvesting and transportation etc and somebody can argue on the CO2 neutrality of biomass.
Nevertheless, using biomass for power production can significantly reduce GHG emissions.
The combustion of biomass is widely recognised to be a means of reducing carbon
dioxide emissions from heating processes. However one of the main barriers to the more
widespread application of the technology has been the difficulty of burning relatively cheap,
poor quality, unprepared biomass materials. These unprepared potential fuels can be variable
in composition and fuel properties and often have relatively low calorific values and high
moisture content so that the stability and efficiency of the combustion process can be
adversely affected unless they are co-fired with a hydrocarbon support fuel. By-products of
Energy Recovery from By-Products of Sugar Making Process 39

sugar making process, vinasse, raffinate and pressed sugar beet pulp (PP), using sugar beet as
raw material fall in the category of difficult biomass with low CV and high moisture content.
In order to understand the origin of these materials sugar making process is briefly described
hereunder.
Sugar Beet is widely used to produce sugar. The simplified block diagram of the overall
process is shown in Figure 1. Sugar beet is processed initially to remove stone and soil and
the clean beet is then sliced into thin strips called cossettes. These are pumped to diffusers
where they are mixed with hot water to extract sugar juice. The raw juice is then separated
from the residual fibrous material which is mechanically pressed to partially remove
moisture. This so called pressed sugar beet pulp is dried in coal and oil fired driers before
being compressed into pellets which are sold in bulk as animal feed.
The raw juice is then progressively heated through complex heat recovery systems which
minimize the energy demand of the plant. Milk of lime and CO2 are added to precipitate
calcium carbonate or chalk which removes the impurities in the raw juice. The extracted “thin
juice” passes through multiple effect evaporators which boil the water off and produce syrup
known as “thick juice”. Crystallisation of sugar takes place in pans which boil the thick juice
under vacuum. When the crystals are fully grown the blend of crystal sugar and syrup, known
as massecuite, is spun in centrifuges to separate the sugar from the syrup or “mother liquor”.
After the sugar crystals are washed, dried and cooled they are conveyed to storage silos.
The syrup is further processed to produce betaine, more sugar and raffinate for animal feed.
Raffinate which is also tested in this project is also known as “desugared beet molasses”. A
further biomass co-product also considered in this project is vinasse, a co-product from a
bioethanol process. Typical analyses of these sugar industry co-products are given in Table 1.

Figure 1.The sugar making process.

Table 1. Pressed pulp, Vinasse and Raffinate analysis [Akram, 2012]

Pressed pulp Vinasse Raffinate


Dry solids (%) 26 – 30 40 – 45 50
Total ash (%) db 6–8 22 – 25 36 – 44
Sugars (%) db 1.5 – 2.2 8.7 12 – 15
Volatiles solids (%) db 92 – 94 - -
Sulphur (%) db 0.25 5 1
Nitrogen (%)d b 1.6 5 3.2
Phosphorus (%) db 0.1 0 0.16
Potassium (%) db 0.75 7 13
Sodium (%) db 0.1 2.5 3.6
Calcium (%) db 1.2 0.05 0.76
40 Muhammad Akram

All these by-products have an energy value associated with them which can be recovered
by employing a suitable combustion technology. As a result of the high moisture content
which is of the order of 50 – 75%, it may not be possible to combust these materials without
the use of a primary fuel, such as coal, having a high calorific value to compensate for the
energy loss due to the presence of excessive amounts of water. Moreover, it may not be
possible to combust these materials in conventional systems without major modifications or
without penalties.

2. APPLICATIONS OF SUGAR MAKING PROCESS BY-PRODUCTS


In the following sections each of the by-products is evaluated for its potential use for
different applications. Moreover, the use of by-products of the process to generate useful
energy can reduce dependence on coal and oil and thus can offer substantial financial
benefits. Therefore, a comprehensive discussion is included on the energy recovery from
these by products of sugar making process using fluidized bed technology. The energy
recovery process can have environmental implications. Therefore, emissions originating from
the combustion of these materials are also discussed in detail.

2.1. Vinasse

Vinasse also known as distillery wastewater, stillage, slops and dunderVinasse may have
widely different properties depending upon the process and raw material used for the
production of alcohol as shown in Table 2. For example, vinasse characteristics vary
significantly if molasses comes from cane sugar rather than the beet sugar industry. The raw
diffusion juice which is rich is organic and inorganic substances has an acidic pH and is
deeply turbid and coloured. Distilleries produce huge amounts of vinasse with a medium
sized distillery processing 110,000 – 120,000 tonnes of molasses per year producingabout
70,000 tonnes of concentrated (60 Brix) vinasse per year [Vaccari, et al., 2005].

Table 2. Characteristics of Brazilian distillery wastewater


[Sheehan and Greenfield, 1980]

Distillery feedstock
Characteristics
Cane molasses Cane juice Cassava
Organic matter 63.4 19.5 21.8
Total nitrogen 1.2 0.3 0.4
Sulphate (SO4)-2 8.4 0.6 0.1
Phosphorus (P2O5) 0.2 0.2 0.2
Magnesium (MgO) 1 0.2 0.1
Potassium (K2O) 7.8 1.2 1.1
Energy Recovery from By-Products of Sugar Making Process 41

One of the reasons limiting the spread of the biotechnology industry is the production of
wastes, e.g., vinasse, which are difficult to dispose off. The large amount of vinasse can be
utilised as fodder which partially solves the problem.
Vinasse constitutes a high volume and high strength acidic waste so that disposal of
untreated vinasse to natural waterways is not feasible [Sheehan and Greenfield, 1980].
Vinasse is probably the strongest of all industrial wastes in terms of its polluting load
specially B.O.D. Average B.O.D of vinasse from a molasses distillery is about 35000ppm. A
small distillery discharging only 50,000 gallons of vinasse per day can contribute a B.O.D
load equivalent to the sewage of a town with 100,000 inhabitants. To maintain about 3ppm
dissolved oxygen in the stream receiving vinasse, minimum dilution required is 11660 times
that of the vinasse or about 11000 cusec (cubic feet per second) of water [Chakrabarty, 1964].
Vinasse can pose significant threat to fish. LC50 values of vinasse that can kill different fish
species in 96 hours are reported in Verma and Dalala [1976].
Vinasse, typically, contains a high concentration of potassium, calcium, chloride and
sulphate ions. Inorganic constituents present in vinasse are given in Table 3. Ash from the
combustion of vinasse contains about 37% K2O and 70 – 73 % of the ash is soluble in water.
Potash is present as sulphates, chlorides, sulphides and carbonates. The average distribution
of potassium salts in the ash is given in the Table 4 [Sheehan and Greenfield, 1980].
Different options have been tried or proposed to utilize vinasse. Possible outlets for this
by-product could be composting, fodder, filler in paper, cattle feed, methane production by
anaerobic fermentation, fertilizer (high K content), as a binder in briquetting and
combustion.Volume of stillage can be reduced by recycling which also removes some of the
organic and inorganic constituents [Sheehan and Greenfield, 1980]. About 50% of the stillage
can be recycled [Dubey, 1974]. Stillage can be applied to land as a fertilizer to increase its pH
because high Ca and Mg improves physical and chemical properties,mineral and water
containing characteristics and fertility of soil [Sheehan and Greenfield, 1980]. A number of
studies have been devoted to assess the feasibility of vinasse as a fertilizer e.g., Ross et al.
(1938), Sastry et al. (1964), Guimaraes et al. (1968), Dubey, (1974), Khruslova et al. (1974),
Cooper, (1975),Jackman, (1977), Gloria, (1977) Bieske, (1979) and Usher and Willington,
(1979). For economic disposal of vinasse as a fertilizer a large land area adjacent to the
distillery is required and should be in a low-medium rainfall region which is highly unlikely
in the UK. Moreover there are huge costs of piping network [Sheehan and Greenfield, 1980].

Table 3. Inorganic constituents in molasses stillage (g/kg)[Bieske, 1979]

Australia Brazil
Component
Millaquin distillery Average (1976)
Ash 32 19.2
N 3.1 0.9
P 0.02 0.05
K 8.6 4
Ca 1.1 1.8
Mg 1.5 0.5
42 Muhammad Akram

Table 4. Average distribution of different potassium salts in the crystals obtained from
neutralisation of Vinasseash[Sheehan and Greenfield, 1980]

Range (%)
Potassium sulphate, K2SO4 66 – 68
Potassium chloride, KCl 16 – 17
Potassium carbonate, K2CO3.2H2O 6–7
Total potash as K2O 50 – 51
Total average potassium salts as %age of crystals 90

Zajic (1971) proposed deep well disposal of vinasse as a cheaper alternative. However
limited underground storage and specific geological formation preclude a wide scale stillage
disposal by this method [Sheehan and Greenfield, 1980]. Montanani (1954) described a
system in which stillage is neutralized with lime and evaporated to be used as a fertilizer.
Dubey (1974) discussed stillage disposal with particular reference to UK where 1280 m3 of
stillage per hectare per year is required. The land is ploughed or sprinkled to control odour.
Sastry et al. (1964) however concluded that the process is not economical if odour is a series
issue.
Van Haandel (2005) discussed the feasibility of anaerobic digestion of sugarcane vinasse.
The anaerobic digestion of vinasse has been applied at full scale at several distilleries [Souza,
1992] with conversion efficiencies of more than 80% at organic loading rates of over 20kg
COD/m3/d. For the amount of COD in vinasse, about 100 kg of methane is produced at 80%
removal efficiency. If methane is used for power generation, 500kWh of power can be
produced for a generation efficiency of 35 – 40% [Van Haandal, 2005]. However, according
to Cortez and Perez (1997) economics associated with technical problems act as a limiting
factor for methane gas production by anaerobic fermentation of vinasse.
Julsingha (1970) described a process for removing potassium from vinasse. Vinasse was
concentrated to 30 – 60 °Brix and H2SO4 was added to it. Potassium was removed in the form
of K2SO4.5CaSO4.H2O. Reich (1945) proposed a system in which concentrated stillage is
passed through three low temperature carbonising retorts and activated at 870 °C. The
resultant carbon then undergoes counter-current aqueous extraction to produce potash liquor
and char. The liquor contains KCl and K2SO4 for fertilizer use. Yamauchi, et al. (1977) burnt
stillage containing 21% solids using heavy fuel oil. Ash was dried to produce non-
hygroscopic granules to be used as a fertilizer. Sastry et al. (1964) reported 34.7% K2O and
2.2% P2O5 in the stillage incineration ash. However, according to Monteiro (1975)
incineration to produce fertilizer is not economical.
Polack et al. (1981) showed that combustion of Louisiana‟s vinasse is very difficult and
they were not successful in the combustion of vinasse even when air was preheated and
different air fuel ratios were tested. However, Cortez and Perez (1997) were successful in
combusting vinasse alone in different solid concentrations and in co-firing 45° Brix as an
emulsion with #6 fuel oil. Vinasse used for the tests was from Shepherd oil distillery and its
composition is given in Table 5. They determined that the adiabatic flame temperature of
50% solids vinasse was 700 °C and that of 60% solids vinasse was 793 °C.
They combusted vinasse and #6 fuel oil emulsion in different concentrations and
concluded that the combustion of the emulsion was feasible when vinasse concentration in the
Energy Recovery from By-Products of Sugar Making Process 43

emulsion was varied from 0 to 50% with best results obtained for vinasse concentrations up to
25%. However, when vinasse concentration was increased above 50% they observed that the
flame was unstable.They measured CO as a function of excess air and found that when
concentration of vinasse in the emulsion is increased, CO concentration in the flue gas tend to
stabilize. For emulsions with 20% or higher vinasse content, CO concentration tend to reach a
constant value of about 105 – 110ppm and was almost independent of excess air. They
therefore concluded that the introduction of vinasse makes the complete combustion of #6
fuel oil more difficult due to the possibility of formation of oil-water emulsion.
The Swedish Alpha-Laval reported the economical, technical and commercial feasibility
of 60% solids vinasse combustion using swirl combustion technology [Nilsson, 1981]. In a
later study, Hollandse Constructive group, A Dutch Company reported the complete
combustion of 60% solids vinasse using swirl combustion technology in a specially designed
steam generator [spruytenburg, 1982]. However, detailed technical information on the
combustion of vinasse is still lacking.
Chakrabarty, (1964) observed vigorous foaming during concentration of vinasse from 9%
to 75%. Moreover, concentration of vinasse above 75% solids resulted in crystallisation of
potassium and other salts. As soon as liquid started cooling, pumping was difficult.
The dry solids of vinasse have a minimum calorific value of 6000 BTU/lb (13.9 MJ/kg).
Chakrabarty (1964) incinerated vinasse by spraying in to the top of an incinerator and the ash
thus produced was leached and processed to crystallise potash as KCl and K2SO4.
Chakrabarty also found that the combustion temperature was much lower than that could be
achieved in a bituminous coal fired boiler and concluded that vinasse was only suitable for a
waste heat boiler to raise low pressure steam.
SAACKE delivered a plant in the 1990s to a German chemical factory for a liquid waste
fuel similar to vinasse. It has 10 SAACKE SSB-burners, each of 1000 kg/h fuel feed with 10
MJ/kg LHV. Optimum combustion and low emissions can be achieved at all loads by proper
split of main and core air. The plant is running with less than 10% support fuel. In 2006
SAACKE installed two more SSB-burners of 26 MW each and one with 30 MW in Brazil, at
two different tube boilers, running with the support of natural gas or fuel oil (max 30%)
[SAACKE, 2009].

Table 5. Shepherd oil distillery Vinasse composition

As received Dry basis


Solids (%) 29.79 n.a.
Ash (%) 13.31 18.95
Sulphur (%) 0.08 0.12
Volatile matter (%) 48.67 69.31
Fixed carbon (%) 8.24 11.73
Carbon (%) n.a. 39.72
Hydrogen (%) n.a. 8.60
Nitrogen (%) n.a. 1.65
44 Muhammad Akram

Gupta et al. (1968) were the first to combust vinasse in a fluidized bed. They
concentrated vinasse to 30 – 40 °Brix and burnt the vinasse in a fluidized bed at 700 °C by
spraying it from the top by a spray nozzle using cold compressed air. Hot flue gas, rich in
excess air, from a coke fired furnace was forced through the fluidized bed furnace to burn the
sprayed vinasse.Kujala et al. (1976) investigated and evaluated various options for vinasse
use including evaporation and fluidized bed incineration for crude potash production and ash
treatment for refined potassium salt production. They proposed to use a fluidized bed reactor
as a gasifier and perform the after burning in a waste heat boiler. The crude potash recovered
from the ash, separated by a cyclone, should have 40% K2O, 10% CaO, 19% SiO2 and 31%
others. The potassium salts expressed as a percentage of ash should be in the following order
of composition: K2SO4 56%, KCl 7% and K2CO3 5%. This crude potash containing 65 – 70%
potassium slats can be used as a fertilizer. The ash thus produced can be further processed by
multistage leaching, filtering and neutralising with controlled injection of H2SO4 to convert
carbonates to sulphates, evaporation and crystallisation.The finished product thus obtained at
92% dry solids should have 83% K2O4, 9% KCl (traces of sodium salt) and 8% moisture.
Basic research has been carried out by Cortez and Perez (1997), who have experimented
with incineration of pure and vinasse emulsions blended with heavy oils, as mentioned
earlier. Although vinasseincineration technology was already presented as being
commercially viable in the early 1980s by some companies, e.g., Alfa Laval and Hollandase
Constructive Group (HCG), in practice, it failed to live up to expectations. From the year
1950 onwards, the firm HCG installed boilers with special furnaces to burn concentrated
vinasse in Holland, Czechoslovakia and Thailand. One such plant is still working successfully
in the Banghikhan distillery in Thailand [Seebaluck, et al. 2008].
A project, started in 2003, for electricity generation from vinasse at Mumias Sugar
Company Limited (Kenya) is being carried out. Vinasse concentrated to 60% solids (wt/wt)
along with bagasse will be fired in a specially designed boiler to produce 22 tonne of steam
per hour at 45 bara and 400 °C. The boiler will consume 7.54 tonne per hour (TPH) of
concentrated vinasse with 60% (wt/wt) solids. The boiler will use a special design traveling
grate Indian technology, and will burn mainly bagasse on the grate while the concentrated
Vinasse will be sprayed inside the furnace at a height of about 10 meters above the traveling
grate to ensure that all the Vinasse particles burn off in suspension. The steam raised in the
boiler is then expanded through a turbo-generator to generate electricity. The electricity
generating section will consist of a 2.1 MW back pressure turbo-generator with the inlet
steam at 40 bara and 398 °C. The steam exhausted at 5 bara will be used in the distillery and
for the concentration of Vinasse [UNFCCC, 2011].

2.2. Raffinate

A further biomass material as a result of the sugar producing industry which received
limited attention by researchers is known as raffinate. Raffinate is similar to molasses in
appearance (dark brown) and is fairly sticky, slightly viscous liquid material. Raffinate is
similar to vinasse but with different properties depending upon the process of production.
Raffinate analyses from two different sources are given in Table 6.
Energy Recovery from By-Products of Sugar Making Process 45

Table 6.Raffinate analysis [Akram, 2012]

Proximate and Ultimate analysis Pattinson & Stead TES Bretby


Moisture (wt/wt %) 37.22 45.90
Ash (wt/wt%) 16.44 6.90
Volatile matter (wt/wt%) 44.24 39.20
Nitrogen (wt/wt%) 1.7 1.82
Sulphur (wt/wt%) 0.69 0.13
Chlorine (wt/wt%) 0.94 0.19
Sodium (wt/wt%) 0.23 917 ppm
Potassium (wt/wt%) 0.68 2760 ppm
Calcium (wt/wt%) 0.002 67000 ppm
SO3(wt/wt%) 1.4 22400 ppm
Characteristics
Gross Calorific value 6.28 7.02
Net Calorific value 4.86 5.49
Density kg/m3 1330 1320
Kinematic viscosity,100 °C (cSt) 2.5 3
Dynamic viscosity (kg/m.s) 0.003325 0.00396

Raffinate is a product of downstream process as compared to vinasse. Raffinate and


vainasse have very different compositions and thus expected to behave differently during
combustion. Raffinate has little bit lower water content than vinasse but ash content of
raffinate is higher than that of vinasse. Raffinate has higher alkaline content (calcium,
potassium and sodium) but lower sulphur and nitrogen content than vinasse. As alkalis are
thought to be responsible for agglomeration in fluidized bed combustion, this shows that
raffinate has higher agglomeration tendency during combustion in a fluidized bed. However,
due to higher potassium, calcium and phosphorous content, raffinate could be of a better
economical value in terms of salts recovery by incineration and using those salts as a
fertilizer.

2.3. Sugar Beet Pulp

Sugar beet pulp (SBP) is a well known potential source of cellulose. The yield of
cellulose ranges from 17 to 32% [Hasan and Nurhan, 1994]. Sugar beet pulp consists roughly
of one third cellulose, one third pectin and one third hemicelluloses [Thibault et al., 1994].
Beet pulp can be dried pulp (90% dry matter) or overpressed pulp (greater than 25% dry
matter). SBP can be used for cattle feed, feedstock for methanol production, paper production
(filler) and energy recovery [Vaccari, et al., 2005]. Good quality paper can be obtained by
using up to 33% of wastes coming from sugar factories [Vaccari, et al. 1997]. Taking into
account that a sugar factory processing 10,000 tonnes of beet per day uses every year about
400 tonnes of paper for packaging and 5 tonnes of paper for printing and writing, a
considerable portion of pulp and carbonation sludge can be reutilised for the production of
paper for in-use [Vaccari,et al. 2005].
46 Muhammad Akram

Due to its composition sugar beet pulp is considered as foodstuff [Bach Knudsen, 1997]
and therefore used as food complement to animal feeds. However due to the high cost of
drying and low protein content [Rouilly et al. 2006a] it is sometimes not economical. It is also
used as a source of fibre in the composition of biodegradable materials [Turbaux, 1997] and
for paper manufacturing [Wong and Breloga, 1997]. Efforts have also been made to use it in
the packaging manufacturing [Rouilly, et al. 2006a] and to improve its nutritional properties
[Ralet et al. 1991].
Sugar beet factories, in contrast to cane sugar which are self sustaining in energy supply
by burning bagasse, need a high input of fossil energy, about 170 – 330 kWh to process one
ton ofbeets. This is excluding the energy required to dry sugar beet pulp which takes up to
one third of the whole energy demand for sugar production [Brooks et al. 2008]. In order to
reduce external energy demand in beet sugar factories it is required to generate energy from
internal sources. Few efforts have been made to produce biogas by anaerobic treatment of
sugar beet pulp e.g., Stoppock and Buchholz (1985), Hutnan et al. (2001) and Brooks et al.
(2008). According to Hutnan et al. (2001) energy produced in anaerobic treatment of sugar
beet pulp can cover about 30.4% of the daily energy consumption of a beet sugar factory.
However, Brooks et al. (2008) claimed a higher figure and quoted that the biogas produced
could substitute about 40% of the natural gas required for thermal energy supply.
Devrim (2008) investigated the pyrolysis kinetics of the YeniÇeltek lignite and sugar beet
pulp blends prepared at different ratios (100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80, and 0:100) by
thermogravimetric analysis in nitrogen atmosphere under non-isothermal conditions with a
heating rate range of 30 K/min in the pyrolysis temperature interval of 298 – 1,173 K.
Apparent activation energies of the lignite and sugar beet pulp were calculated as 51.55
kJ/mol and 97.27 kJ/mol, respectively. Activation energies of the blends were also calculated
and were found to vary between 54.87 and 74.83 kJ/mol. Relative volatile matter yields of the
blends decreased with increase in lignite to SBP blending ratio.
Yilgin et al. (2010) studied co-pyrolysis of 50/50 (wt/wt%) pellets of Soma Lignite and
sugar beet pulp (from a sugar plant in Elazig, Turkey) at 600 °C. The pulp was dried in an
oven at 50 °C until the desired moisture content of <10%, grinded and sieved to get a particle
size of -100 + 200 mesh. Pellets of approximately 13mm diameter and 6 mm height were
produced for pyrolysis by compaction under a hydraulic press applying a pressure of
104kgf/cm2. By Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) they have shown that the SBP
decomposes faster and undergoes higher weight loss than the lignite due to higher volatiles
and lower fixed carbon content of SBP. Weight loss of SBP exceeded 90% as compared to
46% for the lignite over the heating period ending at 900 °C. Results of pyrolysis have shown
that SBP given higher yields of liquid and gas and lower char as compared to lignite. One
very interesting conclusion they made, by comparing the results with expected value, that
SBP and lignite behave independently in the blend and the interactions among the evolving
structures are not considerable enough to be effective on the yields.
Combustion of sugar beet pulp for energy recovery has received very little attention.
Jevic et al. (2007) performed basic assessment of thermal efficiency and emissions
parameters by combusting 65mm briquettes of blend of wheat straw and 15% sugar beet pulp
(wt/wt) in a 8kW nominal heat output prototype of combustion accumulation stove SK-2 with
upper after burning. Characteristics of the blend are given in Table 7. About 12 kg of the
blended fuel was combusted for a period of 40 – 70 minutes. They found that the so-called
Energy Recovery from By-Products of Sugar Making Process 47

self defined thermal-technical efficiency was higher than 70% and the emissions of NOx
(corrected to 11% O2) were around 180 mg/Nm3.
Hrdlicka and Dlouhy (2002) co-fired lignite and sugar beet pulp having 79.7% moisture,
1.21% ash and with energy value of 1.45 MJ/kg. Combustion of pulp alone was possible
when moisture content of the pulp was reduced to 45%, its energy value increased to 8.5
MJ/kg. They co-fired lignite and pulp blends in 2MW fluidized bed boiler with lignite to pulp
ratios of 3:1 and 1:1. The test data is shown in Table 8. The data shows that at higher
proportion of pulp in the blend CO emissions are higher but NOx emissions are lower. They
stated that burning of pulp can cover 30 – 50% of heat and power requirements of sugar mill.
Moreover, co-firing reduces emissions of NOx and SO2.
Apart from Jevic et al. (2007) described above, there is no authentic open literature on the
combustion of pressed pulp primarily due to the reason that so far the pulp has been used as a
feedstock for animals. The pressed pulp is dried for use as cattle feed primarily using a coal
fired fluidized bed to produce hot combustion products which are subsequently fed into a
rotary drier. Consequently there is an interest in co-firing pressed pulp with coal to reduce
coal imports and thus saving money. There is a lack of published data on co-firing of these
by-products therefore the main aim of the rest of this chapter is the discussion of combustion
of these in a fluidized bed for energy recovery.

Table 7. Characteristics of wheat straw and 15% sugar beet pulp briquettes(wt/wt)

Wheat straw and 15% SBP* Sugar Beet Pulp


Total Moisture (%) 6.34 71
Volatile matter (%) 72.15 12.9
Fixed Carbon (%) - 14.1
Ash (%) 6.42 2
Carbon (%) 42.61 14.1
Hydrogen (%) 5.41 1.8
Nitrogen (%) 0.53 0.14
Sulphur (%) 0.05 0.14
Oxygen (%) 37.22 10.9
Sodium (%) - 0.1
Potassium (%) - 0.75
Calcium (%) - 1.2
Gross CV (MJ/kg) 16.62 5.2
Net CV (MJ/kg) 15.03 3.2
*Jevic et al. (2007)

Table 8. Measurements on FK 2MW boiler Co-Firing Lignite and Sugar Beet Pulp

Blending ratio (lignite/pulp) 3:1 1:1


Output (kW) 1100 1200
O2 (%) 9.2 8.6
CO (mg/Nm3) corrected to 6% O2 111 196
Excess air 1.78 1.7
NOx (mg/Nm3) corrected to 6% O2 616 570
Bed temperature(BT),(°C) 835 845
48 Muhammad Akram

3. PULP ENERGY RECOVERY ASSESSMENT


Typically, pulp has a very high moisture content of the order of above 70% and hence a
very low net calorific value of 3.20 MJ/kg. The pulp can offer feeding problems due its high
moisture content and sticky nature. Therefore, it may have to be blended with an easy flowing
fuel to make consistency in the feeding.
Compositions of the coal-pressed pulp blends tested are 50/50, 60/40 and 70/30 by mass
in the thermal input range of 11.8 to 19.7 kW at flue gas O2 concentrations ranging from 5 to
12.8%. Analyses of all the three coal-pulp blends tested are given Table 9. The results of the
experiments with coal-pulp blends are summarized and compared with coal only firing in
Table 10.

Table 9. Analysis of Coal-Pulp Blends

Coal Pressed pulp 50/50 blend 60/40 blend 70/30 blend


Carbon (%) AR 74.42 14.1 44.3 50.3 56.3
Hydrogen (%) AR 4.06 1.8 2.93 3.16 3.38
Oxygen (%) AR 6.97 10.9 8.94 8.5 8.1
Nitrogen (%) AR 1.62 0.14 0.88 1 1.2
Sulphur (%) AR 2.01 0.14 1.08 1.26 1.45
Chlorine (%) AR 0.63 0 0.32 0.38 0.44
Moisture (%) AR 5.6 71 38.3 31.76 25.22
Ash (%) AR* 4.9 2 3.45 3.74 4.03
Volatiles (%) AR 34.2 25.1 29.7 30.6 31.5
Fixed carbon (%) AR 55.3 1.9 27.4 32.4 37.5
Ash (%) Dry 5.19 6.9 5.7 5.6 5.52
Volatiles (%) Dry 36.23 86.55 49.05 45.85 43.13
Fixed carbon (%) Dry 58.58 6.55 45.25 48.55 51.35
C (%, DAF$) 82.96 52.07 75.79 77.78 79.42
H (%, DAF) 4.53 6.65 5.02 4.88 4.77
O (%, DAF) 7.77 40.25 15.3 13.21 11.49
N (%, DAF) 1.81 0.52 1.51 1.59 1.66
S (%, DAF) 2.24 0.52 1.84 1.95 2.04
St. Air (Nm3/kg of fuel)8.01 1.5 4.76 5.41 6.06
A/F ratio (kg/kg) 9.6 1.8 5.7 6.48 7.26
CV Net, (MJ/kg) 30.1 3.2 16.65 19.34 22.03
Air/NCV (kg/MJ) 0.32 0.56 0.34 0.335 0.33
Contribution
Coal (MJ/kg) 30.1 0 15.05 18.06 21.07
PP (MJ/kg) 0 3.2 1.6 1.28 0.96
Coal (%) 100 0 90.4 93.4 95.6
Pressed pulp (%) 0 100 9.6 6.6 4.4
* $
AR = As Received; DAF = Dry Ash Free
Energy Recovery from By-Products of Sugar Making Process 49

Table 10. Results of Coal and Pressed Pulp tests

50/50 60/40 70/30 100/0


Thermal input (kW) 11.8 – 14.2 13.3 – 19.7 12.7 – 14.6 8.7 – 18.2
O2 in flue gas (%) 5 – 11.5 7 – 12.1 8.9 – 12.8 9.7 – 14.5
Efficiency at Bed Temperature (BT),(%) 58 – 83 59 – 83 67 – 93 72.5 – 92.3
Efficiency at Freeboard temperature 71 – 97 69 – 94 76 – 100 80.5 – 99
(FBT), (%)
Fluidizing velocity (%) 1.6 – 2.6 1.9 – 2.4 1.8 – 2.3 1.9 – 3.1

The variation of bed temperature with increasing oxygen level and hence excess air is
presented in Figure 2 for coal and all the three blends of coal and pressed pulp at virtually
constant net thermal input of approximately 14 kW. The data represented in the Figure is
smoothed over the range of conditions tested. Generally as the proportion of the pressed pulp
is increased the cooling effect of the additional moisture is also increased. Air supplied to
practical combustion systems is well above stoichiometric. Thus, the combustion or adiabatic
flame temperature is significantly reduced as some of the heat of the combustion process is
used for heating up of the excess air. Consequently, when firing with high moisture fuel, such
as by-products of sugar industry, a fixed bed temperature can be maintained at a lower excess
air (oxygen) level since “additional” air is not required to cool the bed. This reduction in the
necessary air flow to maintain a fixed bed temperature can be seen more clearly in Figure 3
which plots, for a constant thermal input, the measured air flow to the fluidized bed against
the proportion by mass of the pressed pulp in the blended fuel at particular fixed bed
temperatures.
A blend of 70/30 coal-pulp has around 27% lower CV and 350% higher moisture than
coal, so the excess air required to get a fixed bed temperature should have been drastically
reduced when firing 70/30 coal-pulp blend as compared to coal alone. However, the data
shows that there is little reduction in excess air (only 1 – 2%) over the conditions tested when
fuel is switched from coal to 70/30 coal-pulp blend. Thus, the effect of fuel moisture on the
reduction of excess air when firing 70/30 coal-pulp blend is not significant. This may be due
to the dominance of coal in the blend which is contributing around 88% of the total dry matter
and is contributing around 96% towards the total energy input from the blend. Thus blends of
small proportions of pulp with coal can be co-fired with little effect on the performance of the
combustor. This is in line with the findings of Howe and Divilio (1993) who assessed pilot
and commercial experience on fluidized bed combustion and found that co-firing with 10 –
20% (weight basis) of secondary fuel is possible with minimal impact on performance and
design.
However, when 60/40 coal-pulp blend is combusted reduction in excess air is significant
although the change in moisture of fuel in this case is only 25% and change in energy value is
12%, as compared to 70/30 blend. The excess air requirement to get a bed temperature of 800
°C is reduced by around 10% as compared to 70/30 blend and around 11% as compared to
coal. Thus the effect of moisture on the reduction of excess air is more for 60/40 blend (32%
moisture) as compared to 70/30 blend (25% moisture). Similarly, excess air requirement for
getting a bed temperature of 900 °C is reduced by more than 11.5% as compared to 70/30
blend and by 13.3% as compared to coal. In the case of 60/40 blend dry matter contribution of
coal is 83% and its energy contribution is 93%. Neither the energy contribution of coal nor
50 Muhammad Akram

the moisture content of the 60/40 blend is significantly changed as compared to 70/30 blend
relative to change in these properties for 70/30 blend as compared to coal. Therefore, the
significant changes in excess air requirement for 60/40 blend may be due to combined effect
of increased moisture and reduced thermal input contribution by coal. This also suggests that
there is a specific moisture content at which its effect on the bed cooling is significant.
For 50/50 blend increase in moisture is 21% and reduction in energy value is 14% as
compared to 60/40 blend which is not very much different from the relative difference
between 60/40 and 70/30 blends.In the case of 50/50 blend excess air is reduced by 5 – 9% as
compared to 60/40 blend and 19 – 20% as compared to coal, with higher values at lower bed
temperatures. The reduction is 9% at 800 °C and 5% at 900 °C as compared to 60/40 blend.
This may be due to the reason that at higher temperature, moisture is evaporated relatively
quickly and fuel combustion rate increases which results in higher bed temperature and thus
requirement of excess air for a fixed bed temperature is increased. At lower temperature
moisture stays longer in the bed which slows fuel burning rate which results in lower bed
temperature. In order to increase the bed temperature air flow needs to be reduced so that
higher reduction in excess air is observed at lower bed temperatures. Therefore, the reduction
in air flow increases relatively sharply when PP proportion is increased to higher levels so
that overall about 20% less air is required when the ratio of the pressed pulp is increased to
50%. The air spared by moisture can be used to burn more coal and thus can result in
improvement in throughput. The discussion above concludes that the optimum blending ratio
of Thoresby coal and pressed sugar beet pulp is 50/50 (wt/wt) as it is the maximum ratio
which was successfully fired and that it gives maximum reduction in excess air requirement
for a fixed bed temperature.

1000

950
Bed Temperature (°C)

900

850

800
Coal
750 70/30 Coal/Pulp
60/40 Coal/Pulp
700 50/50 Coal/Pulp

650

600
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
O2 (%) in flue gas

Figure 2. Bed Temperatures with Different Blends of Coal and Pressed Pulp.
Energy Recovery from By-Products of Sugar Making Process 51

50
45
40
35
Air flow (m3/h)

30
25
20
BT 800 C
15
BT 850 C
10
BT 900 C
5
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Pressed pulp in mixture (%)

Figure 3. The Effect of Coal-Pulp Blend Proportions on the Overall Fluidizing Air Flow rates required
to achieve a Fixed Bed Temperature.

2000
NOx (mg/Nm3 at 6% O2)

1500

1000

Thoresby coal
500 60/40 coal/PP
50/50 coal/PP
70/30 coal/PP
0
750 770 790 810 830 850 870 890 910 930 950
Bed Temperature (°C)

Figure 4. Comparison of NOx emissions from coal and 50/50 coal-PP blend.
52 Muhammad Akram

Table 11. Emissions comparison from Coal and Coal-PP blends

NOx (mg/Nm3 at 6% O2) SO2 (mg/Nm3 at 6% O2)


Thoresby coal 1600 – 1800 2500 – 2750
70/30 blend 1200 – 1600 1600 – 2400
60/40 blend 1200 – 1500 1000 – 1500
50/50 blend 1200 – 1500 500 – 1000

A comprehensive discussion on the emissions from the combustion sugar industry by-
products is given in the following paragraphs.
Emissions data for NOx and SO2 for coal-pulp blends is summarised in Table 11. The
normalised NOx emissions at 6% O2 for coal-pulp blends are compared with those for coal
alone in Figure 4. NOx emissions for blends are only 12 – 22% lower than those for coal
although “as received” nitrogen content of pulp (0.14%) is considerably lower as compared to
1.62% for the coal. However, the dry matter contribution of pulp in the blends is very low as
compared to coal. Thus coal nitrogen plays a dominant role in the formation of NOx due to its
higher mass contribution. Nitrogen conversion for the blends is between 26% and 32% which
is almost the same as that for coal as mentioned previously. As emissions of NO x for blends
are lower than coal a further benefit of co-firing pressed pulp should be a reduction in NOx
emissions.
Emissions of SO2 in mg/Nm3 corrected to 6% O2 for coal and coal-pressed pulp blends
are shown in Figure 5. The figure shows that SO2 emissions for blends are lower than those
for coal. Although the data is scattered nevertheless it is clear that the emissions decrease with
increase in proportion of pressed pulp in blend. Based on the sulphur content of the blends,
most of the data corresponds to a sulphur conversion of 40% – 60%, 26% – 40% and 14% –
27% for 70/30, 60/40 and 50/50 coal-PP blends, respectively, see Figure 6.

3000
SO2 (mg/Nm3 at 6% O2)

2500

2000
Thoresby coal
1500 60/40 coal/PP
50/50 coal/PP
1000 70/30 Coal/PP

500

0
700 740 780 820 860 900 940
Bed Temperature (⁰C)

Figure 5. Comparison of SO2 emissions from coal and coal-PP blends.


Energy Recovery from By-Products of Sugar Making Process 53

70

60

Sulphur conversion (%) 50

40

30

20

10

0
Coal 70/30 60/40 50/50
Blneding ratio (Coal/Pulp)

Figure 6. Sulphur conversion for coal and coal-PP blends.

The lower conversion with increased proportion of pressed pulp may be possibly due to
the increase in moisture which absorbs SO2. With increasing pulp proportion, moisture
content of the blend increases and thus more OH radical are available to convert produced
SO2 to H2SO4 by the reactions mentioned in Section 4.2. Also retention of sulphur by biomass
ash could be another possibility. The figure 5 also shows that the emissions increase with
increasing bed temperature. The effect of bed temperature on SO2 emissions seems to be
more pronounced at higher pulp proportions in the blends.
The maximum SO2 capture by CaO is achieved at Ca/S molar ratio between 2.5 and 4
[Nowak, 2003]. As the Ca/S ratio for all the fuels and fuel blends tests is very much lower
than this optimum requirement, see Tables 12 and 16, that is why the conversion of sulphur to
SO2 is relatively higher (14 – 60% for coal-pulp blends).
Sulphur forms gaseous compounds SO2, and SO3, and alkali sulphates during the
combustion process. About 40% – 90% of total sulphur in the biomass fuel is bound in the
ash and the remainder is carried in the flue gas as SO2 and to a minor extent as SO3. Thus SO2
emissions are lower when blending biomass with coal [Savolainen 2003]. Higher proportion
of biomass during co-firing can result in lower SO2 emissions due to sulphur retention by
biomass ash.
Emissions of CO normalised to 6% O2 for coal and pressed pulp blends against O2
concentration in the flue gas (excess air) are plotted in Figure 7. The figure shows that CO
emissions are the highest for 70/30 blend and decrease with increase in pressed pulp
proportion in the blend possibly due to delayed evolution of volatiles as a result of increased
moisture content with increasing pulp proportion in the blend. The figure also shows that the
emissions decrease with increase in excess air.
54 Muhammad Akram

4. EFFECT OF OPERATING CONDITIONS AND FUEL


CHARACTERISTICS ON EMISSIONS
In order to devise a suitable energy recovery system it is essential to consider emissions
from such a process. Emissions control strategies need to be employed to keep them under
environmental limits. Knowledge of emissions formation mechanisms is necessary to develop
emission mitigation strategies. So far in this chapter NOx, SO2 and CO emissions data for
tests conducted with different coal and pulp blends at a wide range of operating conditions is
presented. Following paragraphs discuss the potential formation pathways and the effect of
fuel characteristics and operating conditions on the emissions.

4.1. NOx Emissions

The mechanisms of NOx formation and destruction during combustion and the effect of
different parameters on NOx emissions are described as follows.
Nitrogen in fuel is the greatest source of NOx and N2O during fluidized bed combustion.
The conversion of coal nitrogen to NOx and N2O ranges from 10% [Braun, 1990] to 30%
[Suzuki et al. 1991] depending upon the type of coal. Only a small percentage of NOx come
from atmospheric nitrogen (thermal and prompt) at typical fluidized bed temperature of 800 –
900 °C [Halgaard, 1991]. Fuel NOx formation takes place by the combustion of nitrogen
containing species released during volatilisation and oxidation of nitrogen retained in char.
Fuel NOx are very sensitive to stoichiometric conditions. Prompt NOx, contributes the
minimum to the total NOx, and results from radicals of hydrocarbons reacting with
atmospheric nitrogen. These reactions give NH3 and HCN under fuel rich conditions. These
NH3 and HCN are oxidized to NO in lean zone of the flame [Mahmoudi et al. 2010].

Table 12. Nitrogen and Sulphur contents of Coal and Coal-PP blends

50/50 60/40 70/30 100/0


Nitrogen, AR (%) 0.88 1 1.2
Nitrogen, Dry (%) 1.42 1.50 1.57
Nitrogen, DAF (%) 1.51 1.59 1.66
Sulphur, AR (%) 1.08 1.26 1.45 2.01
Sulphur, Dry (%) 1.74 1.85 1.93
Sulphur, DAF (%) 1.84 1.95 2.04
Ca, AR (%) 0.66 0.55 0.44 0.12
K, AR (%) 0.41 0.34 0.27
Na, AR (%) 0.16 0.17 0.18
Fe, AR (%) 0.45 0.54 0.63
Ca/S (Mass) 0.61 0.44 0.31 0.06
Ca/S (Molar) 0.49 0.35 0.25 0.05
Moisture (%) 38.3 31.76 25.22
Energy Recovery from By-Products of Sugar Making Process 55

3500

3000 50/50 Blend


60/40 Blend
CO (ppm at 6% O2)
2500 70/30 Blend

2000

1500

1000

500

0
6 8 10 12 14
O2 (%) in flue gas

Figure 7. Carbon monoxide emissions from coal-PP blends.

There are more than 80 possible reaction mechanisms for N2O and NOx formation in
fluidized bed combustion. There are over 90 reactions of HCN which play a key role in the
formation of NOx and N2O from the nitrogen released during de-volatilisation [Halgaard,
1991; Gustavsson and Leckner, 1990; Johnsson et al. 1990; Johnsson, 1990]. Most of the NO,
N2O, NH3 and HCN is formed during de-volatilisation stage although de-volatilisation step is
much shorter than char combustion. NO is also formed in significant amounts during char
combustion, however N2O, NH3 and HCN are not considered important [Winter, et al. 1999].
When a fuel particle is heated up, NH3 and HCN are released and oxidised in complex
reaction mechanisms with O and OH to form NO [Kilpinen and Hupa 1991]. NH3 is oxidized
to NO by the following reaction [Kilpinen and Hupa, 1991].

NH3 + 5/4O2 NO + 3/2H2O (1)

N2O is not observed as it is thought to be destroyed in the flame mainly by the following
reaction and is converted to molecular nitrogen [Winter, 1997].

N2O + H  N2 + OH (2)

Formation of HCN and NH3 also depends upon heating rate. Bassilakis et al. (1993)
found that at lower heating rates volatile nitrogen product is NH3 while at higher heating rates
the product is HCN. HCN is evolved primarily from the fuel while NH3 evolves from the fuel
in small amounts as well as produced mainly from the conversion of HCN by reaction (3)
with H.
56 Muhammad Akram

HCN + 2H  NH3 + C (3)

Formation of fuel rich zone adjacent to the fuel particle effectively reduces NO. Higher
de-volatilisation rate leads to fuel rich zones close to fuel particles and results in NO
reduction [Winter et al. 1999]. HCN is the main precursor to N2O. It oxidizes to NCO by O
and OH radicals which is converted to N2O and CO by reacting with NO by the following
reaction (4) [Winter et al. 1999]. In the presence of moisture rate of production of NCO can
increase due to the production of more OH radicals and thus conversion of NO to N2O by
reaction (4) can increase which can result in lower NOx emissions.

NCO + NO  N2O + CO (4)

Volatile nitrogen is predominantly converted to NO but conversion levels are different


for different fuels. Fuels, having higher nitrogen content, show lower nitrogen conversion as
compared to those with lower nitrogen content. NH3 can convert to NO and also can act as a
reducing agent. That is why it is used in thermal DeNOx and Selective Non-Catalytic
Reduction processes to reduce NOx emissions by the following reaction [Winter et al. 1999].

2/3NH3 + NO  5/6N2 + H2O (5)

High nitrogen containing fuels give relatively higher concentrations of HCN and NH3
during combustion which can reduce already formed NO by reactions (3) to (5).
Hydrocarbons form H-radicals which can also convert HCN to NH3. Hydrocarbon radicals
reduce NO to N2 in the same way as during reburning, so called “intrinsic reburning effect”
[Niksa and Cho, 1996]. Below temperature of 900 °C, interaction of hydrocarbons with NO is
very small [Alzueta et al. 1997]. As all the results presented in this chapter are at 800 – 900
°C, it is possible that hydrocarbon influence on the NO reduction may not be considerable.
Conversion of nitrogen to NH3 decreases with increase in partial pressure of oxygen as
NH3 oxidizes to NO and N2 if enough oxygen is present. With increase in oxygen partial
pressure HCN increases and reaches a maximum then decreases by possible conversion of
HCN to N2O [Winter et al. 1999] by reaction (4).Conversion of HCN to NH3 by reaction (3)
takes place at low oxygen concentrations only [Miller and Brown, 1989]. It is well known
that NH3 and HCN can act as NO reductants or oxidants depending upon temperature “so
called temperature window” and controlled by radical pools [Kristensen et al. 1996].
Depending upon oxygen partial pressure and concentration of radicals, temperature for
maximum reduction in NO is about 900 °C [Kasuya, et al. 1995].
In the case of coal more HCN is produced at higher temperatures mainly by tar cracking
reactions and NH3 formation decreases [Nelson et al, 1992]. As NH3 is mainly oxidized to
NO, the production of more HCN than NH3 can lead to lower NO emissions.
NOx formation during biomass combustion at temperatures between 800 and 1100 °C is
mainly due to fuel bound nitrogen [Sjaak and Jaap, 2008]. Due to the lower nitrogen content
of biomass fuels, combustion of most of the biomass fuels is expected to reduce NOx
emissions. However, co-firing particularly at low co-firing ratios has resulted in, both higher
and lower NOx emissions, from biomass coal blends than those from coal alone.
Biomass fuels have a different chemical structure to coals. In biomass, nitrogen is
predominantly present as aliphatic nitrogen in amino and ammonium structures while, in coal,
Energy Recovery from By-Products of Sugar Making Process 57

nitrogen is mostly present in aromatic structures. Moreover, biomass has higher hydrogen and
lower nitrogen content than coal. That is why N2O is hardly detected during fluidized bed
combustion of biomass [Knobig et al. 1997] as it is converted to N2 and OH by reacting with
H by reaction (2).
Effect of fuel characteristics and operating conditions on NOx emissions is discussed
hereunder.
The ratio of O to N is a describing parameter for HCN to NH3 ratio. High O/N ratio
corresponds to low HCN/NH3 ratio [Hamalainen and Aho, 1994]. Fuels with higher O/N
ratios form more OH radicals and other oxygen containing radicals which are responsible for
the conversion of HCN to NH3 [Aho et al. 1993]. Hydrogen is also possibly required to
convert HCN to NH3 [Winter et al. 1999].
Ratios of H/N, O/N and O/H for all the fuels tested are given in Table 13. The table
shows that O/N ratio for 50/50 coal-pulp blend is higher than 60/40 and 70/30 blends which
can results in the formation of more NH3 by mechanisms described above. The NH3 can
reduce NO to N2 by reaction (5) thus emissions of NO for 50/50 blend should be lower as
compared to the other two. However, the emissions for all the three blends are in the same
range, see Table 11. The table also shows that O/H ratio for the 50/50 blend is the highest
than the other two.Comparatively lower amount of H in the 50/50 blend may result in lower
NH3 production by reaction (3) and thus reduction of NO to N2 by reaction (5) is reduced.
Also, higher fuel moisture content can produce more O and OH radicals which can result in
lower NO emissions by reaction (4). As 50/50 blend has the highest moisture content, it
should have the lowest NO emissions of the three blends. Moreover, nitrogen content of the
50/50 blend is lower than the other two due to lower coal proportion, thus it should give
lower NO emissions. The influence of all of these parameters alongside moisture variation
may have balanced and the resultant NOx emissions don‟t show significant variations.
Therefore, due to the influence of other parameters it is not possible to discuss the results in
relation to these elemental ratios.
Increase in moisture content results in reduction in NOx emissions due to reduced fuel
nitrogen as well as lower bed temperatures. With increase in moisture content of fuel more O
and OH radicals are produced. With increase in radicals more NCO is produced which
converts NO to N2O by reaction (4) and thus NOx emissions are reduced. However, NOx
emissions for different coal-pulp blends are observed to be in the same range (1200 – 1600
mg/Nm3) indicating that the effect of moisture on NOx emissions is not noticeable or is
balanced by the influence of other operating parameters. Moreover, when two fuels are
blended in different proportions, it is not only the moisture content but other characteristics
also change and thus it is not possible to distinguish the effect of moisture from other
influencing parameters.
Concentration of NOx decreases for different moisture contents and excess air values by
reactions of NO with fuel carbon and CO on the surface of chars. However, in a study of NOx
emissions from co-firing saw dust (moisture content 51 – 63%) and Polish and Russian coals
(moisture content 9 – 13% and 9 – 11%, respectively), Savolainen (2003) found that high
moisture content in fuel tends to delay ignition and overall NOx emissions could be higher
than with pure coal. The net effect of delayed ignition to increase NOx and lower nitrogen
content, lower temperatures and reactions on the char surface to decrease NOx is probably
balanced and no considerable effect of moisture on NOx emissions is observed.
58 Muhammad Akram

Table 13. H/N, O/N and O/H ratios of the fuels tested on DAF basis [Akram, 2012]

H/N O/N O/H


Thoresby Singles Coal 1.1 4.2 3.8
Sugar Beet Pulp 12.3 74.5 6.1
50/50 Coal-Pulp Blend 3.33 10.16 3.05
60/40 Coal-Pulp Blend 3.16 8.5 2.69
70/30 Coal-Pulp Blend 2.82 6.75 2.4

The effect of temperature on NOx emissions for different fuels is observed to be different.
For coal only firing the emissions found to be slightly increased with increase in bed
temperature. Emissions of NOx increase with increase in bed temperature for coal due to
decreased influence of char at higher temperatures. At higher bed temperatures char is
consumed quicker and NOx reduction by char is lower and emissions increase. Moreover, at
higher bed temperature combustion rate is higher and production rate of radicals increases
[Kilpinen and Hupa, 1991] which can result in increased conversion of nitrogen to NO.
Combustion temperature has the largest effect on NOx and N2O emissions during fluidized
bed combustion [Amand and Leckner, 1988; Oka and Anthony 2003]. With an increase in
bed temperature concentration of NOx increases while that of N2O decreases. Braun et al,
(1990 and 1991) also observed the effect of bed temperature on NOx emissions and found that
when bed temperature was increased concentration of NOx increased from 0 to 150 mg/m3
while those of N2O decreased from 250 to 100 mg/m3 for a low volatile coal.
During co-firing coal-pulp blends NOx emissions found to be decreased with increase in
bed temperature. Bed temperature increases with decrease in excess air. This reduced air flow
results in lower oxygen availability to convert NH3 to NO by reaction (1) and thus the
emissions are reduced. Although the data is scattered, the effect of temperature on NOx
emissions is more pronounced at higher pulp proportions in the blend possibly due to increase
in moisture content of the blend with increase in pulp proportion. During 50/50 blend
combustion the emissions increased from 1256 to 1488 mg/Nm3 (corrected to 6% O2) with
decrease in bed temperature from 865 to 790 °C. Similarly, during 60/40 blend combustion
the emissions increased from 1173 to 1454 mg/Nm3 (corrected to 6% O2) with decrease in
bed temperature from 910 to 770 °C and during 70/30 blend combustion the emissions
increased from 1169 to 1530 mg/Nm3 (corrected to 6% O2) with decrease in bed temperature
from 925 to 798 °C. At lower bed temperature the emissions for all the three blends are not
very much different but at higher bed temperatures the emissions show more variation with
changes in bed temperature with 50/50 blend the most affected. Thus, the effect of bed
temperature is more pronounced at higher bed temperatures compared to that at lower bed
temperatures. This may be due to the production of more O and OH radicals, at higher
temperatures and higher moisture contents, which can convert NO to N2 by reactions (3) and
(4).
Bed solids especially char play a key role in the destruction of NOx and N2O and
formation of molecular nitrogen. With lower volatile content fuels, char concentration in the
bed is increased creating favourable conditions for destruction of NOx and formation of
molecular nitrogen [Oka and Anthony, 2003]. There is conflicting information in the
literature on the effect of volatiles on NOx emissions. Oka and Anthony, (2003) described that
Energy Recovery from By-Products of Sugar Making Process 59

combustion of high volatile, high nitrogen content coal generally gives lower NOx emissions.
On the other hand Braun et al., (1990 and 1991) observed that during the combustion of high
volatile coal more NOx is formed. However, Moritomi, et al. (1991) found that NOx and N2O
emissions are not affected by the volatile content of the coal in a bubbling fluidized bed.
Emissions for coal-pulp blends do not show a noticeable effect of volatiles on NOx
emissions. The emissions for all the coal-pulp blends are almost in the same range despite
change in pulp proportion in the blends. However, it should be noted here that the ratio of
volatiles to fixed carbon for the blends are not very much different due to very low dry mass
contribution of pulp in the blends, see Table 14. Thus small variation of volatiles does not
show significant changes in NOx emissions.
Also nitrogen in different fuels is present in different forms. The type of nitrogen
compound produced during combustion depends upon nitrogen species present in the fuel and
thus effects NOx emissions. During fluidized bed combustion more of the nitrogen present in
biomass fuels is released as NOx as compared to coal [Leckner and Karlsson, 1993]. Thus
NOx emissions should be higher when co-firing biomass with coal as compared to those
obtained when firing coal alone. However, due to lower nitrogen content of biomass than
coal, lower loading and higher reactivity of biomass char [Tillman, 1991] opposite trend is
observed.
It is observed that the emissions of NOx increase with increase in excess air. Increase in
excess air increases oxygen level which creates favourable conditions for the oxidation of
volatile nitrogen compounds. At lower excess air NO is reduced due to the presence of fuel
rich conditions. During combustion of 50/50 coal-pulp blend the emissions increased from
1256 to 1488 mg/Nm3 (corrected to 6% O2) with increase in excess air from 9.3% to 11.5%
O2 in the flue gas. Similarly, during 60/40 coal-pulp blend combustion the emissions
increased from 1173 to 1454 mg/Nm3 (corrected to 6% O2) with increase in excess air from
8.2% to 12.1% O2 in the flue gas and during 70/30 coal-pulp blend combustion the emissions
increased from 1169 to 1530 mg/Nm3 (corrected to 6% O2) with increase in excess air from
7.4% to 12% O2 in the flue gas.
The effect of excess air is more pronounced at higher temperatures [Mahmoudi et al.
2010]. Increase in NO emissions with increase in excess air due to fuel NOx formation
mechanism was also observed by Permchart and Kouprianov, (2004).
Oka and Anthony (2003) found that an increase in excess air simultaneously affects the
formation and destruction of nitrogen oxides. During combustion typically 20 – 40% of fuel
bound nitrogen is converted to NOx [Hoy and Gill, 1987]. Conversion of fuel nitrogen
increases with increase in equivalence ratio and mixing [Pohl and Sarofim, 1976]. Fuel NOx
are not very much sensitive to temperature but are sensitive to mixing. During pulverized coal
combustion at 2480K, Pershing and Wendt (1977) however, found that 75% of the total NOx
produced came from fuel NOx mechanism. As fluidized bed provides excellent mixing of fuel
and air, it can be assumed that all the NOx formed are from fuel nitrogen [Mahmoudi et al.
2010].
The effect of excess air on NOx emissions is also influenced by the presence of Ca in the
fuel. Catalytic effect of CaO leads to significant NOx emission differences from combustion
in fluidized beds using silica bed [Amand and Leckner, 1988]. Presence of CaO may result in
increased NOx formation if excess oxygen is present [Leckner and Amand, 1987]. It is
observed, during coal-pulp blends, that NOx emissions tend to increase with increase in
60 Muhammad Akram

excess air which may be due to combined effect of the presence of Ca contributed by pulp as
well as the presence of oxygen.
However, Duan et al. (2012) observed decrease in NOx emissions with increase in excess
air. According to them it may be due to lower availability of CO at higher excess air and thus
NOx reduction by CO by reaction (6) is comparatively lower.

2NO + 2CO 2CO2 + N2 (6)

The emissions of NOx depend upon nitrogen content of the fuel. As biomass fuels have
lower nitrogen content than coal, NOx emissions during co-firing are found to be lower for all
the pulp blends with coal as compared to coal alone. The emissions from the combustion of
coal-pulp blends are also lower (1200 – 1600 mg/Nm3, corrected to 6% O2) than coal due to
lower nitrogen content of pulp (0.14%) but the difference is small due to very low dry mass
contribution of pulp (11.6% in 70/30 blend and 23.5% in 50/50 blend).
Similar observations were made by Kuprianov et al. (2006) who found that higher
nitrogen content of rice husk in its blend with bagasse increases the overall nitrogen content
of the blend when its proportion is increased. They found that emissions of NOx from
conventional fluidized beds burning rice husk are high (100 – 180 ppm at 20 – 100% excess
air) due to higher nitrogen content in the fuel. Chakritthakul and Kuprianov (2011) observed
optimum performance of swirling fluidized bed combustor firing eucalyptus bark and
rubberwood sawdust in a ratio of 3:1 (sawdust:bark) at an excess air level of 50 – 55%.

4.2. SO2 Emissions

The results of emissions for different coal-pulp blends are interesting and vary
considerably with change in blending ratio. The emissions decrease with increase in pulp
proportion in the blend despite very little contribution of dry matter from pulp. This may be
due to increase in the moisture content of the blend with increase in pulp ratio. The effect of
different parameters on SO2 emissions is described hereunder.
During coal-pulp blends combustion the emissions of SO2 are decreased with increase in
pulp proportion in the blend. The emissions varied between 500 – 1000, 1000 – 1500 and
1600 – 2400 mg/Nm3 (corrected to 6% O2) for 50/50, 60/40 and 70/30 coal-pulp blends,
respectively. The efficiency of sulphur fixation in the ash depends upon the concentration of
alkaline earth metals, especially calcium, in the ash. Calcium contained in the coal ash can
capture a considerable amount of SO2 [Raymant, 1989]. Ash from certain coal types can
capture above 90% of sulphur [Zhang, et al. 1991]. Generally, de-sulphurisation efficiency
increases with increases in the Ca/S ratio [Oka and Anthony, 2003]. Analysis shows that Ca/S
ratio of pulp is 143 times and of 50/50 coal-pulp blend is 10 times that of coal, see Table 15.
Ca/S ratio increases with increase in pulp proportion in the blends due to its higher Ca and
lower S content. This could be one of the possible reasons for lower SO2 emissions with
increase in pulp proportion in the blends. De-sulphurisation efficiency increases with increase
in contact time between SO2 and CaO. Thus higher bed height may result in decreased SO2
emissions [Oka and Anthony, 2003]. The decrease in SO2 emissions with increase in pulp
proportion in coal-pulp blends may also be due to increase in moisture content. Presence of
moisture can convert SO2 to H2SO4.
Energy Recovery from By-Products of Sugar Making Process 61

Table 14. Volatiles and Fixed carbon content of Fuels and blends tested
(% of combustible matter)

Volatiles Fixed carbon V/FC Normalised V/FC


(%) (%) with coal
Coal 38.2 61.8 0.62 1
50/50 Coal-Pulp Blend 52.5 47.5 1.1 1.77
60/40 Coal-Pulp Blend 48.5 51.5 0.94 1.52
70/30 Coal-Pulp Blend 45.3 54.7 0.83 1.34

However, higher amount of CaO does not necessarily mean a higher sulphur capture
efficiency as Fe2O3 can have a catalytic effect on the reaction of CaO and SO2 [Yeh at al.
1987]. Zhang et al. (1991) concluded by a comparative study on six different facilities and
nine different coals that it is not possible to determine a general relationship between de-
sulphurisation efficiency and Ca/S ratio. Moreover, microstructure of calcium also affects its
sulphur capture efficiency. Larger specific surface area CaO has more capability to capture
SO2 as compared to that having smaller specific surface area [Duan et al. 2010]. It is possible
that CaO present in different fuels may have different pore structures and thus different
sulphur capture efficiency and may be a possible reason for variations and data scatter in
sulphur emissions during tests with different fuels.
Effect of excess air on SO2 emissions is plotted in Figure 8 for 50/50 coal-pulp blends.
The figures show that the emissions decrease with increase in excess air. This shows that
sulphur retention is increased at higher excess air levels. During 50/50 coal-pulp blend
combustion SO2 emissions decreased from around 900 to 600 mg/Nm3, a reduction of around
33%, when excess air is increased from 8.5% to 10.8% O2 in the flue gas.
Increase in excess air levels increases fluidizing velocity. So an intuitive conclusion is
that sulphur emissions decrease with increase in fluidizing velocity. However, not only that
fluidizing velocity is influenced by operating temperature, it also influences other variables
such as residence time and mixing. Higher fluidization velocity reduces residence time of gas
in the bed and freeboard but increases intensity of mixing and attrition. Therefore, it is
difficult to determine the effect of fluidization velocity on sulphur capture. However, Oka and
Anthony, (2003) stated that normally, higher SO2 emissions should be expected at increased
fluidization velocity. Similar results were witnessed by Valk et al. (1989) who obtained lower
de-sulphurisation efficiency with higher fluidization velocity.However, Zhang et al. (1989)
observed that fluidization velocity does not significantly affect sulphur retention in fluidized
beds. As explained earlier, SO2 emissions observed to be decreased with increase in fluidizing
velocity.
Emissions of SO2 are also affected by changes in bed temperature. With coal-pulp blends
effect of bed temperature on SO2 emissions is pronounced and the emissions observed to be
higher at higher bed temperatures. The emissions increased from around 600 to 1200
mg/Nm3, 1000 to 1500 mg/Nm3 and 1800 to 2400 mg/Nm3 with increase in bed temperature
from 780 to 885 °C, 810 to 860 °C and 825 to 925 °C during firing of 50/50, 60/40 and 70/30
coal-pulp blends, respectively. Increased emissions of SO2 with temperature may be due to
decomposition of calcium sulphate (CaSO4), present in the fuel or formed by forward reaction
(7) in the early stages at lower temperatures, into CaO and SO2 by the following reverse
reaction [Duan et al. 2010].
62 Muhammad Akram

Table 15. Comparison of SO2 emissions for Fuels and blends tested

Fuel SO2 (mg/Nm3 at 6% O2) Ca/S


Mass Molar
Coal 2500 – 2750 0.06 0.05
Coal-Pressed Pulp blend (50/50) 600 – 1200 0.61 0.49
Coal-Pressed Pulp blend (60/40) 1000 – 1500 0.44 0.35
Coal-Pressed pulp blend (70/30) 1800 – 2400 0.31 0.25

Figure 8. SO2 vs. O2 for 50/50 coal-pulp blend (11.8 kW).

2CaO + 2SO2 + O2 2CaSO4 (7)

The temperature at which maximum sulphur capture efficiency occurs is 800 °C – 900 °C
[Oka and Anthony, 2003] which is within fluidized bed operating temperature range. Change
in sulphation efficiency with variation in temperature in the vicinity of the optimum
temperature is not much. The optimum temperature for maximum SO2 capture varies from
coal to coal [Fernandez et al. 1989] and from unit to unit. Leckner and Amand, (1987) have
shown that sulphation efficiency reduces significantly when temperature is below 780 °C or
above 960 °C.
Emissions of SO2 reduce as biomass mass fraction is increased due to fuel sulphur
dilution. Because of low sulphur content of the biomass fuels SO x emissions decrease
depending upon the co-firing ratio and the sulphur content of the biomass. The emissions are
found to be lower when co-firing as compared to coal alone firing. An additional incremental
reduction beyond the amount anticipated on the basis of fuel sulphur content is possibly due
to the sulphur retention by alkali compounds in biomass ashes. During co-firing coal and pulp
blends SO2 emissions were found to be decreased with increase in biomass fraction.
Thus the influence of volatiles on SO2 emissions depends upon type of biomass fuel as
nature of volatiles varies from fuel to fuel. It is not possible to comment on the effect of
volatiles on SO2 emissions due to influence of moisture on the emissions. Moreover, energy
Energy Recovery from By-Products of Sugar Making Process 63

contribution of pressed pulp in the blends is very low 4.4 – 9.6%. Thus volatiles contribution
of pulp in the blends is not significant and may have little effect, if any, on the emissions.

4.3. CO Emissions

Measurement of CO emissions is a good indicator of the quality of combustion and


provides reasonably good surrogate for the organic species. Measurement of CO emissions is
cheaper and simpler than measurement of the more complex organic species. Emission levels
of these pollutants can be controlled by making sure that co-firing does not have a significant
impact on emissions i.e., the particle size and moisture content of the biomass are acceptable,
the method of introduction of biomass is appropriate and system is designed and operated
properly.
Emissions of CO can be controlled by adjusting the air to fuel ratio and by proper mixing
of air and fuel. During de-volatilisation of biomass, CO, CO2 and CH4 are released and
contribute to the formation of CO [Werther et al. 2000]. Heterogeneous reactions of CO2 and
H2O with carbon most likely result in the formation of CO as temperature in the FBC is lower
than 1000 °C [Tillman et al. 1981]. In the bottom part of fluidized bed combustor de-
volatilisation and primary reactions are dominant while in the upper part post combustion CO
is consumed by its oxidisation by O2 as well as OH radicals [Kouprianov and Permchart,
2003].
Emissions caused by incomplete combustion are mainly a result of inadequate mixing of
air and fuel, lack of available oxygen, too short residence time, too low combustion
temperature and too low radical concentration specially OH.These variables need to be
optimized to reduce emissions caused by incomplete combustion [Sjaak and Jaap, 2008]. The
emissions of CO, converted to 6% O2, from the combustion of different coal and pulp blends
are given in Table 16. The effect of fuel characteristics and operating conditions on CO
emissions is discussed in the following paragraphs.
Moisture content influences the combustion behaviour, adiabatic flame temperature and
volume of the flue gas produced per unit energy. Wet fuels need longer residence time for
drying stage thus higher bed volume is required in order to adjust the temperature control
system of the bed properly and to design the volume of the furnace in a way that ensures a
sufficient residence time of the flue gas in the hot bed for complete combustion. Increase in
moisture content of the fuel reduces maximum possible achievable temperature and therefore
opportunity for preventing emissions as a result of incomplete combustion is reduced [Sjaak
and Jaap, 2008]. Therefore, combustors designed for low moisture fuels, e.g., coal, cannot be
used for high moisture fuels without significantly compromising their performance.
During coal-pulp blends CO emissions (normalised to 6% O2) were found to be above
500 ppm for all the conditions tested. The emission ranges observed for the coal-pulp blends
are 600 – 1400 for ppm for 50/50 blend, 1200 – 2900 for 60/40 blend and 1000 – 2500 for
70/30 blend. However, for a fixed excess air level, CO emissions found to be decreased with
increase in pulp proportion in the blend despite increase in moisture. For example, at 10% O2
in the flue gas, CO emissions for 50/50 blend (moisture content 38.3%) are 750 ppm, for
60/40 blend (moisture content 31.8%) are 1300 ppm and for 70/70 blend (moisture content
25.2%) are 1600 ppm. This is possibly due to delayed evolution of volatiles with increase in
moisture. Increase in moisture results in increase in residence time and thus more time for the
64 Muhammad Akram

fuel to burn resulting in lower CO emissions. It could also be due to higher CO reduction by
increased OH radical produced at higher fuel moisture content.
Emissions of CO are found to be dependent on biomass fraction in coal-biomass blends.
It is observed that influence of moisture on CO emissions is more pronounced at lower excess
air levels. With increase in excess air, difference in CO emissions is found to be lower at
different moisture contents. At lower excess air levels CO emissions are higher due to higher
wet oxidation of char at elevated moisture. For example, when O2 level increased from 9% to
11%, CO emissions are found to be decreased from 1200 to 750 ppm, from 1800 to 1000 ppm
and from 2500 to 1500 ppm for 50/50, 60/40 and 70/30 coal-pulp blends, respectively. This
represents CO reductions of 450, 800 and 1000 ppm, respectively.
Emissions of CO were found to be lower for 50/50 coal-pulp blend (representing the
highest moisture content of the three blends) as compared to 60/40 and 70/30 blends, possibly
due to delayed and slow evolution of volatiles. Also during combustion of coal-pulp blends
major proportion of the blends was constituted of coal.The coal has low volatiles and more
char which stays in the bed until combusted.
Fluctuations in CO emissions are due to possible feed flow variations by screw feeder.
For example, the emissions varied from 600 to 1400 ppm, from 1200 to 2900 ppm and from
1000 to 2500 ppm for 50/50, 60/40 and 70/30 coal-pulp blends, respectively. The variations
may be as a result of poor mixing of the blends or possible bridging in the hopper which
could have influenced feed flow rates. The fluctuations are higher in the present case possibly
due to higher moisture content of fuels. When a batch of high moisture fuel enters the bed the
particles of the fuel need to be heated and dried first. While this occurs oxygen is not
consumed and result is higher CO emissions [Ghani et al., 2009].
During most of the tests in this study CO emissions are found to be affected by excess air.
The emissions first decrease and then increase with minimum values observed at O2 levels
between 12 and 13.5%. At low excess air levels, CO emissions are higher as a result of
incomplete combustion due to lack of oxygen availability. As the air flow is increased CO
emissions decrease due to better mixing and oxygen availability. At even higher excess air
levels CO emissions again increase possibly due to decrease in temperature which results in
incomplete combustion.
Neverthless, by carefully controlling the combustion process, furnace can be adjusted to
any fuel moisture content which ensures optimized burnout and CO emissions and optimized
efficiency of the system.
Bed temperature, excess oxygen, residence time and flue gas mixing all effect CO
emissions.

Table 16. Comparison of CO emissions for Fuels and blends tested

Fuel CO (ppm), corrected to 6% O2


Coal 500 – 1800
Coal-Pressed Pulp blend (50/50) 600 – 1400
Coal-Pressed Pulp blend (60/40) 1200 – 2900
Coal-Pressed pulp blend (70/30) 1000 – 2500
Energy Recovery from By-Products of Sugar Making Process 65

At higher fluidizing velocities CO does not have sufficient time to convert to CO2 and
thus CO emissions increase. Thus increase in excess air can work both ways. On one hand
excess air can reduce CO emissions by providing more oxygen to convert CO to CO2 and on
the other hand it can increase CO emissions by increasing fluidizing velocity which can force
the produced CO to leave the combustor unburned. Thus, the results can be explained on the
basis that at lower excess air levels CO emissions are higher due to lack of oxygen
availability. When excess air is increased, CO emissions decrease because of oxygen
availability which converts CO to CO2. At even higher excess air levels, CO emissions
increase due to higher fluidizing velocity and lower bed temperature.
The volatiles evolve and leave the bed unburned possibly due to lower residence time.
During coal-pulp blends combustion CO emissions are found to be first increasing with
increase in blending ratio (increase in the pulp proportion in the blend) and then decreasing.
The emissions increase from 1000 – 2500 ppm for 70/30 blend to 1200 – 2900 for 60/40
blend possibly due to increased moisture which hinders access of oxygen to coal particles.
With further increase in pulp proportion the emissions decrease to 600 – 1400 ppm which
may be due to delayed ignition at higher moisture content.

5. FLUIDIZED BED BEHAVIOUR ASSESSMENT


OF THE BY-PRODUCTS

Vinasse and raffinate were co-fired with coal. The raffinate was also co-fired with natural
gas to assess the influence of coal ash on bed behaviour. Moreover, prolonged tests with pulp
were undertaken using optimum blend (50/50; coal/pulp) to study the feasibility of this
material for this particular application for energy recovery. Experimental details of the tests
can help in designing suitable energy recovery systems of the future in the sugar industry
using beet sugar as a raw material.

5.1. Co-Firing of Raffinate with Coal

Raffinate was cofired with Thoresby singles coal. Raffinate has a viscosity of 150 mpa.s
(0.15 kg/m.s) and density of 1320 kg/m3. The coal used for the tests was 6 – 10 mm size.
The conditions of the test are given in Table 17. The resultant bed and freeboard
temperatures as well as the pressure drop across the bed during this test are presented against
time in Figure 9.
Approximately 40 minutes after the start of co-firing the pressure drop experienced a
sharp fall which was associated with the onset of agglomeration and partial de-fluidization of
the bed. Under these latter conditions, the pressure drop is no longer associated with
supporting the mass of the suspended bed particles and hence falls to a value of that for a
partially “packed” bed. The phenomena of bed agglomeration results in temperature gradients
in the bed and according to Armesto et al. (2002) large fluctuations in the bed pressure are
first signs of onset of agglomeration. In Drift and Olsen, (1999) view point, upon onset of
agglomeration, temperatures within the bed start to deviate.
66 Muhammad Akram

Subsequent inspection of the bed indicated a substantial volume of agglomerated sand


particles. Once the bed began to clinker, the fuel feed was switched off so that the bed
temperature decreased. The subsequent recovery in bed pressure as shown in the figure is
probably due to solidification of the sticky deposits and partial breakup of the weak brittle
bonds between sand particles by the air.

1000 400
900 350
800
300

Pressure (mmWg)
700
250
Temperature (C)

600
500 200
400 Bed temperature 150
300 Freeboard temperature
100
200 Bed pressure
100 Raffinate on 50
0 0
0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50
Time (hr)

Figure 9. Bed behaviour during co-combustion of coal and raffinate.

Table 17. Test conditions for Coal-Raffinate test

Coal flow for 81 min (kg/h) 2.8


Coal flow for 81 min (kW) 23.3
Coal flow for 7 min (kg/h) 3.2
Coal flow for 7 min (kW) 26.7
Raffinate flow (l/h) 2.88
Raffinate flow (kg/h), Density = 1320 kg/m3 3.8
Coal to Raffinate feed ratio (kg/h)/(kg/h) 0.84
Coal (%) 45.7
Raffinate (%) 54.3
Coal only feed time (hrs) 0.9
(Coal + Raffinate) feed time (hrs) 0.57
Total coal feed time (hrs) 1.47
Total coal feed (kg) 4.22
Total reffinate feed (kg) 2.2
Coal to raffinate mass ratio (kg/kg)* 1.92
Sand to raffinate ratio (kg/kg)* 3.4
*Ratio of total material fed to the bed
Energy Recovery from By-Products of Sugar Making Process 67

It should be noted that soon after raffinate was fed onto the bed, freeboard temperature
became higher than BT, see Figure 9. The rise in freeboard temperature was observed to be
around 50 °C with a peak value of around 100 °C just before raffinate feed was switched off.
It is evident from the figure that agglomeration and complete de-fluidization are preceded by
changes in temperatures and pressures in and across the bed. It is also clear that a
considerable proportion of the raffinate was burning above the bed resulting in higher
freeboard temperature.
From the figure (9) it can be seen that after switching off the fuel feed there are two peaks
in bed temperature when it dropped down to 400 °C and another peak when BT went down to
200 °C. The peaks can be attributed to the burning of un-combusted coal/char in the
agglomerated bed material and to the inherent property of agglomeration to cause local high
temperatures.
Bed temperature of 874 °C as observed during the last moments before bed slump could
give a vital information about the behaviour of raffinate combustion in a fluidized bed.
Burning coal char particles might have considerably higher temperature than the bed
temperature measured by thermocouple. This higher particle temperatures or hot spots can
initiate agglomeration phenomenon locally which then extends throughout the bed due to the
fact that these agglomerates act as nuclei to attract other particles to form bigger
agglomerates.
Post experiment bed examination showed that top of the bed was fluidizable. However,
there was an evidence of the presence of white particles possibly coated with sticky material
responsible for agglomeration and bed slump. The particles were also bigger than the original
sand particles fed into the bed. At the bottom of the bed, just above the stand pipes, there was
a big lump of the agglomerated bed material, see Figure 10. The lump was possibly formed
on the top of the bed, close to the raffinate feed point, then settled down to the bottom of the
bed i.e sand from the bottom had been blown to the top and eventually resulted in settling
down the lump. There is also a possibility that stickiness of raffinate may have resulted in the
formation of lump which then strengthened over time due to high temperature.
Samples of the bed material, one from the top of the bed and one from the agglomerated
lump, were analysed by SEM to check the possibility of the presence of alkalis responsible
for the bed agglomeration. The results of SEM are given in Table 18 and SEM scan is shown
in Figure 11. It can be seen from the table that surprisingly concentration of alkalis in the
lump is considerably lower than that in the top of the bed. Thus, it can be thought that the
lump was formed during the early stages of the raffinate feeding when BT and BP first started
to fell down. Also it is possible that the lump became strengthened because of subjection to
high temperature over a period of time and was unbreakable by the force of the air unlike the
rest of the bed. As it is mentioned earlier that top of the bed was un-agglomerated. It can be
concluded that when BT came down, melted phase solidified and push of the air helped to
break the loosely bonded lump particles down to individual particles.
Also there were found some small lumps of agglomerated sand which were easily
breakable by hand. The reason for these could be that they settled down onto the bed parts
which were stagnant or un-fluidized and thus were not broken by the force of the air.
68 Muhammad Akram

(a) Top of the bed (b) Agglomerated lump

Figure 10. Bed material after Coal-Raffinate co-firing.

Table 18. SEM results of Raffinate-Coal Combustion test

Top of the bed Agglomerated lump


Weight (%) Atomic (%) Weight (%) Atomic (%)
C 30.88 43.48 38.42 49.93
O 36.76 38.86 38.44 37.51
F 0.72 0.64 0.55 0.46
Na 2.92 2.15 1.38 0.93
Mg 0.1 0.07 - -
Al 0.7 0.44 0.26 0.15
Si 10.72 6.45 16.75 9.31
S 4.86 2.56 0.39 0.19
Cl 0.21 0.1 - -
K 12.05 5.21 3.57 1.42
Ti 0.09 0.03 0.04 0.01
Ca - - 0.2 0.08

(a) Top of bed (fluidizable) (b) Agglomerated lump

Figure 11. SEM scan of Coal-Raffinate test.


Energy Recovery from By-Products of Sugar Making Process 69

Softening temperature of the ash is thought to be the agglomeration occurrence


temperature in fluidized beds.Softening temperature of coal is above 1060 °C. However,
during the test agglomeration occurred at a temperature of 874 °C. This shows the influence
of alkalis present in the fuel and silica in the bed to form a composition which tends to reduce
agglomeration temperature considerably.
The average content (by mass) of sodium and potassium in the outer layer of the particles
removed from the bed after the testas measured by SEM analysis were 2.1% and 7.8%
respectively. The high levels of potassium are associated with the formation of potassium
silicate eutectics which can melt at temperatures as low as 760°C. The resultant molten,
sticky silicate deposits on sand and ash particles appears to be the likely cause of
agglomeration of the bed. The substantial “pick up” of potassium is not unexpected since
raffinate typically contains very high levels (13.0%) of this metal, see Table 19. During
combustion potassium transforms from organic to inorganic forms of low melting point K2O-
SiO2 [Lin et al. 1999].
Emissions data given in Table 20 is taken as an average over a period of at least 10
minutes. For coal and raffinate co-firing, the emissions data is averaged over a period for
which coal flow was the same as for “coal only” analysis in the above Table. It can be
observed from the table that concentration of O2 decreased while that of CO2 increased after
the introduction of raffinate indicating the combustion of raffinate. Considerable increase in
CO emissions was observed due to incomplete combustion. The presence of water in raffinate
(almost 50% of raffinate flow) could have contributed to the conversion of CO to CO2 by
water gas shift reaction (8), given below [Twigg, 1989], as can be evidenced by the
considerable increase in the concentration of H2. The endothermic nature of the water gas
shift reaction, alongside water, may have contributed towards bed temperature decrease in the
early stages of raffinate introduction as can be observed in Figure 9.

Table 19. Alkali Metal Contents of Raffinate, Vinasse and Sugar Beet
Pulp on dry basis[Akram, 2012]

Sodium (Na) % Potassium (K) % Calcium (Ca) %


Raffinate 3.6 13.0 0.76
Vinasse 2.5 7.0 0.05
Pressed Pulp 0.1 0.75 1.2

Table 20. Flue gas analysis of Coal and Raffinate Co-Firing test

Coal only Coal + Raffinate


Measured Corrected to 6% O2 Measured Corrected to 6% O2
O2 (%) 14.3 6 11.4 6
CO2 (%) 3.8 8.5 5.4 8.4
CO (ppm) 160 358 2845 4445
NO (ppm) 386 864 386.5 604
NO2 (ppm) 1 2 0.6 1
NOx (ppm) 387 866 387.1 605
SO2 (ppm) 379.1 849 244.6 382
H2 (ppm) 8.6 19 611 954
70 Muhammad Akram

H2O + CO  CO2 + H2 (8)

The table shows that the emissions of NOx remained unchanged after the introduction of
raffinate. This may be explained on the basis that both the coal (1.62%) and raffinate (1.6%)
contain almost the same nitrogen content on as received basis.However, emissions of SO2
decreased after raffinate introduction which again explains the possibility of formation of
H2SO4 by the reaction of SO2 with water present in raffinate.

5.2. Co-Firing of Raffinate with Natural Gas

During previous test of co-combustion of coal with raffinate, agglomeration occurred


very quickly possibly due to difficulty in properly controlling the bed temperature. So, it was
decided to conduct controlled bed temperature test with raffinate and natural gas instead of
coal as bed temperature can be better controlled with gas firing than coal firing. Also as the
gas burner fires into the combustion chamber (acting as plenum chamber) to the fluidized
bed, flue gas coming from the distributor is at a higher temperature as compared to air and
thus will have a higher volumetric flow. This might exert a higher force that will break up the
loose agglomerates and therefore agglomeration temperature might be higher than that
achieved with raffinate and coal co-firing.
After getting stable bed temperature with natural gas (firing rate at 32kW) raffinate was
introduced into the bed at a flow rate of 2.29 l/h (3 kg/h). Experimental conditions before the
raffinate introduction were noted to be BT = 800 °C and BP = 261 mmWg.
After around 10 minutes, raffinate feed was stopped due to low bed pressure. Total
amount of raffinate fed into the bed during this period was 0.38 litres (0.5 kg) which
translates into around 6.2% raffinate in the sand. The burner was kept running so that gas
coming from the combustion chamber was still at high temperature. It was observed that BT
went up slowly and BP went down to 100 mmWg. The bed and freeboard temperature and
bed pressure variations during the experiment as a function of time are plotted in Figure 12.
Three major differences were noted between coal-raffinate co-firing and gas-raffinate co-
firing.

1. With gas-raffinate bed slumped within ten minutes and with lesser amount of
raffinate going into the bed as compared to coal-raffinate.
2. Bed temperature went up instead of going down as in the case of previous
experiment with coal and raffinate
3. Freeboard temperature was lower than the bed temperature as opposed to coal-
raffinate tests.

After 6.8 minutes of the raffinate stoppage, burner was stopped but fan was kept running.
BP started going up and restored to its original value. Thus it can be concluded that
agglomerates formed at higher temperature broke down to individual particles when BT
dropped. With natural gas-raffinate co-firing bed slumped quickly, in lesser time and with
lesser amount of raffinate feeding into the bed as compared to coal-raffinate co-firing. This is
possibly due the fact that coal mineral matter, due to the presence of calcium, helps
preventing the agglomeration and increases operational time.
Energy Recovery from By-Products of Sugar Making Process 71

During coal-raffinate firing freeboard temperature was higher than bed temperature but in
the case of gas-raffinate co-firing it was vice versa.It may be possible that with coal-raffinate
co-firing there might be potentially more unburned combustibles in the bed region compared
to gas-raffinate co-firing and the combustion of these unburned combustibles could have
proceeded to the freeboard region. This indicates the burning of raffinate in the bed with gas
firing. It picks heat from the sand to get ignited. With coal firing, as coal is already burning
above the bed, it picks up heat from the flame above the bed and at least part of it starts
burning above the bed.
The figure shows that just before the raffinate feed was stopped both bed and freeboard
temperatures started increasing and bed pressure started declining before a sudden dip which
was thought to be the condition of onset of agglomeration and raffinate feed was
stopped.Afterraffinate feed was stopped, bed temperature kept on increasing which could be
due to two reasons. Firstly, as the bed pressure was very low indicating that most of the bed
was agglomerated and slumped, there was lesser sand available to be fluidized and to absorb
heat from the hot flue gas coming from the bottom consequently bed temperature observed to
be increased. Secondly, increase in the bed temperature may be probably due to increased
combustion chamber temperature. It was observed that air flow was increased itself, possibly
due to lesser resistance offered by bed as lesser sand was available to be fluidized as a result
of agglomeration. As gas flow also increases with air flow proportionally due to the constant
air/fuel ratio control system, a higher gas flow might have increased combustion chamber
temperature. This higher combustion chamber could be responsible for higher bed
temperature. It is possible that both of these factors are acting simultaneously and the increase
in bed temperature is the net effect of the two.

1000 500
900 450
800 400
Pressure (mmWg)
700 350
Temperature (C)

600 300
500 250
Bed Temperature
400 200
Freeboard temperature
300 Bed pressure 150
200 100
Raffinate on Raffinate off
100 50
0 0
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
Time (hrs)

Figure 12. Bed behaviour during co-combustion of natural gas and raffinate.
72 Muhammad Akram

Results of SEM analysis are given in Table 21. SEM scan is shown in Figure 13. Flue gas
analyses of the natural gas-raffinate co-combustion are given in Table 22. The table shows
that the introduction of raffinate decreased O2 level showing that raffinate was burning.
However change in O2 concentration was very low indicating that combustible matter in
raffinate introduced was very low as compared to total fuel flow. Also emissions of CO show
that raffinate results in incomplete combustion. Presence of hydrogen in the combustion
products after raffinate introduction indicates the possibility of occurring water gas shift
reaction.
Table 21. SEM results of Raffinate-Natural gas Combustion test

Site of interest 1 Site of interest 2


Weight (%) Atomic (%) Weight (%) Atomic (%)
O 51.44 65.84 50.22 64.2
F -0.08 -0.09 - -
Na 4.48 3.99 3.7 3.29
Mg - - 0.19 0.16
Al 1.23 0.94 0.85 0.64
Si 35.32 25.75 39.57 28.81
P - - 0.23 0.15
K 4.6 2.41 4.86 2.54
Ca 0.42 0.21 0.38 0.19
Fe 2.59 0.95 - -

NOx emissions after the introduction of raffinate rose considerably, unlike in the case of
coal-raffinate test where they were almost same before and after raffinate introduction. This is
possibly due to lower nitrogen content of natural gas which resulted in lower NOx emissions
before raffinate introduction. The NOx emissions increased after raffinate introduction due to
the fuel bound nitrogen as raffinate contains about 1.6% nitrogen in it. Presence of NO2 is
also evidenced in the flue gas after the introduction of raffinate. The balance between NO and
NO2 depends upon the nature of the nitrogen compounds present in the fuel and operating
conditions. Increase in CO and NOx emissions could be due to lack of temperature
homogeneity caused by poor mixing and improper combustion which led to de-fluidization.

5.3. Co-Firing of Vinasse with Coal

Vinasse has relatively lower Na and K content as compared to raffinate. After achieving a
bed temperature of 600 °C, coal feed was started and subsequently after few minutes the gas
burner was turned off. Finally, after the bed temperature stabilised, vinasse feed was started.
The experimental conditions are given in Table 23.
It was observed that vinasse behaved similar to raffinate, despite its low alkali content.
Bed slumped within 37 minutes of the start of vinasse feeding. Temperature and pressure
variations as a function of time are plotted in Figure 14. Sudden changes in bed and freeboard
temperatures and bed pressure were observed and this was thought to be the onset of
agglomeration process. At this stage both coal and vinasse feeds were stopped. However,
there were some abnormal parameters observed.
Energy Recovery from By-Products of Sugar Making Process 73

At the start of agglomeration process bed pressure went up sharply (instead of going
down). However it came down after a peak.

 Bed temperature and freeboard temperature both went up at the start of


agglomeration
 Soon after the onset of agglomeration freeboard temperature was considerably higher
than bed temperature and was so for some time after stopping both the coal and
vinasse feeds

The rig was subsequently dismantled to inspect the bed more closely and an
agglomerated lump as shown in Figure 15a was found at the top of the bed. The lump was
breakable by hand. It is interesting to note that the lump was found at the top of the bed
instead of at the bottom of the bed as was found in the case of raffinate. The reason for that
could be that vinasse was fed at higher level in the bed than raffinate and the lump was
probably formed in the later stages of the test possibly due to lower alkali content of vinasse
than raffinate.The formation of lump at the top also explains the observed increase in
freeboard temperature. The lump might have contained some unburned combustibles which
continued to burn which resulted in higher freeboard temperature.

(a) Site of interest (b) Site of interest 2

Figure 13. SEM scan of natural gas-raffinate test.

Table 22. Flue gas analysis of Natural gas-Raffinate Co-Firing

Gas only Gas + Raffinate


Measured Corrected to 6% O2 Measured Corrected to 6% O2
O2 (%) 10.6 6 10 6
CO2 (%) 5.9 8.5 6.3 8.6
CO (ppm) - - 497 678
NO (ppm) 37 53 107 146
NO2 (ppm) - - 7 9.5
NOx (ppm) 37 53 114 156
SO2 (ppm) 2 3 - -
H2 (ppm) - - 44 60
74 Muhammad Akram

Table 23. Experimental conditions for Coal-Vinasse test

Coal flow (kg/h) 2.1


Coal flow (kW) 17.5
Vinasse flow (l/h) 1.65
Vinasse flow (kg/h), Density = 1320 kg/m3 2.2
Coal to Vinasse feed ratio (kg/h)/(kg/h) 0.95
Coal (%) 48.8
Vinasse (%) 51.2
Coal only feed time (hrs) 1.27
(Coal + Vinasse) feed time (hrs) 0.61
Total coal feed time (hrs) 1.88
Total coal feed (kg) 3.95
Total vinasse feed (kg) 1.34
Coal to vinasse mass ratio (kg/kg)* 2.95
Sand to vinasse ratio (kg/kg)* 5.6

*Based on the total fuel mass input into the bed

1000 440
900 400
800 360

Bed Pressure (mmWg)


700 320
Temperauer (ᵒC)

280
600
240
500
200
400 Bed Temperature (C)
160
300 Freeboard Temperature (C)
120
200 Bed Pressure (mmWg)
80
100 40
0 0
0.00 0.40 0.80 1.20 1.60 2.00 2.40 2.80
Time (hrs)

Figure 14. Temperature and Pressure observations during coal vinasse agglomeration test.

There were found some hard sintered bed agglomerates as shown in figure 15b. During
the tests the sampling probe of the flue gas analyser was also seen to be deposited with white
material, most likely NaCl and KCl, see Figure16a. There were also white deposits found on
the feed pipe, see Figure 16b, which may be composed of alkaline compounds.
Results of SEM analysis are given in Table 24 and SEM scan is shown in Figure 17. Gas
analyses of the test are given in Table 25. It can be seen from the table that there is an
increase in SO2 emissions when vinasse is introduced. This is because vinasse has significant
amounts of sulphur in it. However the increase in SO2 does not reflect the high amounts of
5% sulphur in vinasse. Thus it was thought that the sulphur behaved differently in the
Energy Recovery from By-Products of Sugar Making Process 75

(a) In-situ agglomerated material (b) Hard sintered agglomorates

Figure 15. Agglomerated material after Coal-Vinasse co-firing.

(a) Deposits on feed pipe (b) Deposits on gas analysis probe

Figure 16. Sticky deposits on the gas analysis probe and feed pipe.

Table 24. SEM analysis of Coal-Vinasse Agglomeration test

Site of interest 1 Site of interest 2


Element Weight (%) Atomic (%) Weight (%) Atomic (%)
O 48.29 62.23 40.98 60.40
F 4.64 5.03 -1.76 -2.18
Na 3.46 3.1 3.37 3.46
Mg 0.3 0.26 0.4 0.39
Al 1.35 1.03 2.13 1.86
Si 28.37 20.83 23.48 19.71
P 0.26 0.18 0.23 0.17
S 2.85 1.83 3.33 2.45
K 9.84 5.19 10.22 6.16
Ca 0.63 0.32 0.82 0.48
Fe - - 16.8 7.09
76 Muhammad Akram

Table 25. Gas analyses of the Coal-Vinasse test

Coal only Coal + Vinasse


Gas constituent As measured Corrected As measured Corrected
(12.7% O2) to 6% O2 (10.3% O2) to 6% O2
CO2 (%) 6.3 11.4 8.1 11.4
CO (ppm) 350 633 2234 3132
NOx (ppm) 472 853 471 660
SO2 (ppm) 443 801 711 997

(a) Site of interest 1 (b) Site of interest 2

Figure 17. SEM scan of coal-vinasse agglomeration test.

presence of water or is absorbed by water. The same phenomenon was observed during coal-
PP pulp tests. The nitrogen content of vinasse was also very high, but the NOx emissions were
the same (on as measured basis) before and after the introduction of vinasse, but were found
lower in the latter case when corrected to 6% O2 basis. This could be because N in biomass
behaves differently than N in coal as discussed previously.

5.4. Co-Firing of Pressed Pulp with Coal

Vinasse and raffinate agglomeration tests revealed that agglomeration occurred fairly
quickly and could be problematic in fluidized beds. Consequently, it was decided to perform
prolonged tests in which pressed pulp, having relatively lower alkali content, was co-fired
with coal to assess its behaviour in the bed. The test rig was operated at a typical bed
temperature of about 870°C for approximately 7 hours per day for 11 days to assess the
likelihood of agglomeration over a longer term when co-firing coal and pressed sugar beet
pulp. Before the co-firing tests with coal and pulp, the rig was fired with Thoresby coal for 3
days for comparison purposes and after replacement of the bed the remainder of the tests were
undertaken with a 50/50 blend of coal and pulp. Samples were removed from the bed on a
daily basis for SEM analysis. Results of SEM analysis of representative samples are given in
Table 26. There was no evidence of abnormal fluidized bed behaviour during these tests.
Moreover visual and microscopic examination exhibited no visible signs of
agglomeration, see for example Figure 18 which presents a magnified image (SEM scan) of
Energy Recovery from By-Products of Sugar Making Process 77

the sand from the bed at the end of the co-firing experiments. The visual appearance of the
bed after the co-firing tests was however different from that after coal firing, see Figure 19
which suggests that the composition of the outer layers of the sand particles are different in
the two cases.

6. COMPARISON OF SEM RESULTS


The levels of potassium with coal-PP co-firing were low but were considerably higher for
co-firing test with raffinate and vinasse. However there appeared to be a gradual increase in
potassium content when co-firing coal and pressed pulp. Armesto et al. (2002) also observed
the accumulation of potassium in the bed when bed material was not changed between the
runs. They observed increased amounts of potassium-calcium silicates in the bed. After 8
days (about 56 hours) of testing during current study potassium content had risen to 1.08%
(which is around 4 times higher than that observed after 3 days testing with coal, see Figure
20. This is still a low level, when compared with that for raffinate, and as mentioned earlier
there is no sign of bed clinkering. Consequently agglomeration is unlikely to be major
problem when co-firing pressed pulp with coal particularly when size degradation of the sand
during long term operation is taken into account. However a safe level for the potassium
content cannot be predicted so that much longer timescale tests may be required for a
definitive conclusion.
The levels of sodium on the outside of the ash and sand particles after co-firing were
lower than those of potassium, see Figure 21 with no evidence of a gradual increase over the
duration of the tests. Again however the sodium content after co-firing with pressed pulp is
substantially below the measured value after the short duration raffinate test. The highest
detected sodium levels occurred after 3 days of coal firing. However, no problems of
agglomeration were experienced after these tests so that the presence of relatively high levels
of sodium do not appear to be associated with bed clinkering. This is probably a result of the
relatively high melting point of sodium silicate (1088 °C) which is significantly above the
fluidized bed temperature. The relatively high level of sodium with Thoresby coal is in line
with the typical value of about 4.5% in the ash of this coal. The amount of coal used in the co-
firing tests was greater than in the 3 day coal alone case so that the low sodium levels with
co-firing may be due to the pulp “neutralising” the deposition of sodium silicate. It is worth
mentioning here that alkalis in coal and biomass behave differently during combustion and
the output of gaseous alkali metals is not steady [Hansen et al. 1995].
It can be observed from the Figures 20 and 21 that during coal only tests both sodium and
potassium started accumulating but sodium accumulation rate is considerably higher than
potassium, possibly due to higher sodium content in the coal. Comparison of the figures show
that during coal-PP tests potassium content in the bed increased with time but sodium content
first increased and then decreased which indicates interactive behaviour of sodium
accumulation is different when PP is co-fired with coal. The figures also show that potassium
and sodium content in the bed is very high after rafinate and vinasse co-firing tests. During
natural gas-raffinate test relative sodium content is higher than potassium content as
compared to coal-raffinate test which again indicates different behaviour of these alkalis
during co-firing.
78 Muhammad Akram

Table 26. SEM results of Coal-PP Combustion test

Coal, Sample 4 Coal-PP, Sample 12


(after 3 days testing) (after 8 days testing)
Weight (%) Atomic (%) Weight (%) Atomic (%)
C 29.16 38.69 52.8 57.53
O 47.12 46.94 44.35 36.28
F 2.95 2.48 1.81 1.24
Na 2.67 1.85 0.43 0.24
Mg 0.14 0.09 1.7 0.92
Al 4.16 2.45 3.9 1.89
Si 11.51 6.53 9.15 4.26
P 0.11 0.06 0.82 0.35
S 0.53 0.26 0.85 0.35
K 0.29 0.12 1.08 0.36
Ca 0.96 0.38 13.17 4.3
Ti 0.41 0.14 0.5 0.14
V - - -31.14 -8

Figure 18. The Sand Bed after the Coal-Pressed Pulp Co-Firing Tests.

(a) Coal (b) Coal-pressed pulp

Figure 19. Visual appearance of the Fluidized Bed after Extended Tests with coal and pulp.
Energy Recovery from By-Products of Sugar Making Process 79

11
10
9
8 1 - Original sand
7 2 to 4 - Coal tests
5 to 12 - Coal/PP tests
K (%) 6 13 - Coal/Raffinate tests
5 14 - Natural gas/Raffinate test
4 15 - Coal/Vinasse test
3
2
1
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Sample No.

Figure 20. Potassium Content of the Sand Outer Layers.

Potassium content in different fuels tested and their ashes is given in Table 27. Based on
the analysis given in Thomas et al. (1995) percentage of K in ash is very high for vinasse and
raffinate as compared to other biomass fuels (from literature) such as wood, paper, begasse.
The potassium content of pressed pulp is lower than hull, shell and pits but is higher than
wood, begasse, paper etc. and is comparable with straw and grass. Thus, based on the analysis
pulp has a higher propensity of agglomeration than wood and paper but is lower than hull,
shell and pits. Moreover, due to their higher potassium content, agglomeration tendency of
vinasse and raffinate is very much higher than some of the other biomass fuels available.

4.5
4 1 - Original sand
2 to 4 - Coal tests
3.5 5 to 12 - Coal/PP tests
3 13 - Coal/Raffinate tests
Na (%)

14 - Natural gas/Raffinate
2.5 15 - Coal/Vinasse
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Sample No.

Figure 21. Sodium Content of the Sand Outer Layers.


80 Muhammad Akram

Table 27. Potassium content of Fuels tested

Fuel Ash (%) dry basis K (% of Ash) K (% of Fuel, AR)


Raffinate 40 32.5 6.5
Vinasse 23 30.4 2.94
Pulp 7 10.7 0.21
Coal 5.2 1.16 0.03

Table 28. Potassium calculations on Fuels tested

Fuel fed K fed with Potassium flow Sand to K K in sand (kg),


(kg) fuel (kg) (g/h) ratio SEM
Coal-PP Tests 96 + 96 0.23 4.1 32 0.08
(56 hours)
Coal-Raffinace 4.2+2.2 0.14 245.6 52 0.58
Test
Natural gas- 0.5 0.03 176.5 231 0.35
Raffinate Test
Coal-Vinasse 3.9+1.3 0.04 65.6 185 0.75
Test

During 56 hours testing of coal-PP co-firing, almost 96 kg of PP was burned with an


equivalent amount of coal in the bed. Amount of potassium introduced into the bed during
this period is calculated to be 0.23 kg which equates to sand to potassium ratio of around
32.4. Results of calculations for all the experiments are given in Table 28. It is interesting to
note that potassium introduced into the bed is the highest and sand to potassium ratio is the
lowest in coal-PP test as compared to raffinate and vinasse tests. This shows that potassium
feed-rate into the bed is very important. During vinasse and raffinate tests potassium feed-rate
was higher than PP test as raffinate and vinasse contain considerably higher amounts of
potassium. Thus higher the amount of alkali per unit time fed into the bed higher the chances
of agglomeration to occur, for explanation see column 4 of Table 28. It also indicates that
introduction of small amount of alkali for a longer time is better than introducing larger
amount in a shorter time.
The table also shows, in the right column, calculated value of potassium based on SEM
results, in the bed after each experiment. It can be observed that, for coal-PP test, potassium
found in the bed, by SEM results, after the test is a lot lower than the potassium introduced
into the bed. This could be due to evaporation of part of the potassium during the combustion
process. Wu et al. (1999) observed that 13 – 20% potassium was evaporated with flue gas or
deposited in the combustor. It can be observed that the amount of potassium accumulated in
the bed, for raffinate and vinasse tests, is very much higher than the amount of potassium
introduced into the bed. This shows discrepancy in the SEM results. However, it is possible
that the distribution of potassium in the bed was not even. As the samples were taken from the
top of the bed it is possible that this has higher potassium content as compared to the bottom.
However, this theory violates the inherent nature of fluidized bed to distribute material fed
into the bed equally throughout the bed. The results indicate that, in order to devise suitable
energy recovery systems, more research is needed to fully understand the behaviour of
potassium in the by-products of sugar process combusted in fluidized beds.
Energy Recovery from By-Products of Sugar Making Process 81

CONCLUSION
Fluidized bed tests have been performed with sugar industry biomass including vinasse,
raffinate and PP when co-firing with coal. The results show that raffinate and vinasse are
problematic fuels and cause agglomeration fairly quickly. Calcium in coal ash extends
defludidisation time which indicates that lime can be used as a bed material to increase
operational times while firing these troublesome fuels. However, no signs of agglomeration
were observed during prolonged tests with coal and pulp. Therefore, PP can be used as fuel in
fluidized bed without the use of alkali getters as long as operational parameters are properly
controlled. But, vinasse and raffinate can‟t be used without adapting measures such as
addition of alkali getters to reduce agglomeration.
The results show that blending pulp with coal considerably reduces emissions of NOx and
SOx due to lower sulphur and nitrogen content of pulp. The reduction in emissions is
observed to be higher with increased biomass content in the blends. It is observed that ratio of
volatiles to fixed carbon plays a key role in reducing NOx emissions. There was no
considerable effect of moisture content on NOx emissions. However, NOx emissions found to
be increased with increase in excess air and decreased with increase in bed temperature.
Emissions of SO2 found to be decreased with increase in biomass proportion due to
increase in Ca/S ratio. Higher moisture content of fuel reduces SO2 emissions by possibly
converting them to H2SO4. Emissions of SO2 found to be decreased with increase in excess
air and decrease in bed temperature with more pronounced effects with higher moisture
content fuels. The emissions of CO are found to be decreased first and then increased with
increase in excess air. Emissions of CO are found to be increasing with increase in coal
proportion in the blend when high moisture biomass was co-fired with coal. Emissions of CO
found to be decreased with increase in pulp proportion in the blend despite increase in
moisture content, possibly due to delayed ignition and longer residence time in the bed.
The results presented and discussed in this chapter show that it is possible to recover
energy from sugar industry by-products by employing a suitable technology. Pressed pulp is
relatively easy fuel and can be used to recover energy and to reduce coal and oil consumption
costs. However, in order to devise suitable energy recovery systems for vinasse and raffinate,
more research is needed to fully understand the behaviour of potassium during combusion in
fluidized beds.

REFERENCES
[1] Aho, M.J., Hamalainen, J.P. &Tummavuori, J. L. (1993). “Importance of solid fuel
properties to nitrogen oxide formation through HCN and NH3 in small particle
combustion”, Combustion and Flame, 95, 22-30.
[2] Akram, M. (2012).Optimisation of Co-Firing of High Moisture Biomass with Coal in a
Bubbling Fluidized Bed Combustor”, PhD Thesis, University of Glamorgan, UK.
[3] Alzueta M.U., Glarborg, P. & Dam-Johansen, K. (1997). “Low temperature interactions
between hydrocarbons and nitric oxide: An experimental study”, Flame and
Combustion, 109, 25-36.
82 Muhammad Akram

[4] Amand, Le. &Leckner, B. (1988). “Emissions of nitrogen oxide from a CFB boiler-The
influence of design parameters”, Presented at 2nd International Conference on FBC,
Compiegne (France).
[5] Armesto, et al. (2002), “Combustion behaviour of rice husk is a bubbling fluidized
bed”, Biomass and Bioenergy, 23, 171-179.
[6] Bach Knudsen, K. E. (1997). “Carbohydrate and lignin contents of plant materials used
in animal feeding”, Animal Food Science and Technology, 67, 319-338.
[7] Bassilakis, R., Zhao Y., Solomon, P.R. et al. (1993). “Sulfur and nitrogen evolution in
the Argonne coals. Experiment and modeling”, Energy and Fuels, 7(6), 710-720
[8] Bieske, G.C. (1979). “Agricultural use of Dunder”, Proceedings of A.S.S.C.T.1.
[9] Braun A., et al., (1990). “Emission of NO and N2O from a 4 MW fluidized bed
combustor”, Presented at 21st IEA-FBC Technical Meeting, Belgrade.
[10] Braun, A., et al., (1991). “Emissions of NO and N2O from a 4 MW fluidized bed
combustor with NO reduction”, Proceedings of the 11thInternational Conference on
FBC,Montreal, 2, 709-717.
[11] Brooks, L. et al. (2008). “Biogas from Sugar Beet Pressed Pulp as substitute of Fossil in
Sugar Beet Factories”, Water Science and Technology, 1497-1504.
[12] Chakrabarty, R.N. (1964). “Potash Recovery-A Method of Disposal of Distillery wastes
and Saving Foreign Exchange”, Symposium on Ethyl Alcohol Production Technique,
93-97.
[13] Chakritthakul, S.&Kuprianov, V. (2011). “Co-firing of eucalyptus bark and rubber
wood sawdust in a swirling fluidized bed combustor using an axial flow swirler”,
Bioresource Technology, 102, 8268-8278.
[14] Cooper, B.R. (1975). “Distillery waste as Fertilizer”, Annual Report of Research,
Caroni Research station, 10-12.
[15] Cortez, L. A. B. & Perez, L. E. B. (1997). “Experiences in vinasse disposal Part III;
Combustion of vinasse-#6 fuel oil emulsions”, Brazilian Journal of Chemical
Engineering, 14, 1.
[16] Devrim, Y. G. (2008). “Pyrolysis Kinetics of Blends of YeniCeltek Lignite and Suagr
Beet Pulp”, Energy Sources, Part A, 30, 238-246.
[17] Drift, A. V. D.& Olsen, A. (1999). “Conversion of biomass prediction and solution
merthods for agglomeration and related problems”, ECN-C-99-090, November 1999.
[18] Duan, L., Chen, X., Li, Y., Liang, C.& Zhao, C. (2010). “Investigation on SO2
emissions from 410 t/h circulating fluidized bed boiler burning petroleum coke and
coal”, Asia-Pacific Journal of Chemical Engineering, 2010, 5, 274-280.
[19] Duan, F., Chyang, C., Chin, Y.& Tso, J. (2012). ”Pollutant emission characteristics of
rice husk combustion in a vortexing fluidized bed incinerator”, Journal of
Environmental Sciences, Vol. 24, DOI: 10.1016/S1001-0742(12)60054-0
[20] Dubey, R.S. (1974). “Distillery Effluents-treatment and Disposal”, Sugar News Ann.
Number, 6, 9-26.
[21] Fernandez, A., et al., (1989). “Characterisation of Spanish high sulphur coals for FBC
process”, Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on FBC, San Francisco,
volume 1, 93-98.
[22] Ghani, W.A., Alias, A.B.&Cliffe, K. R. (2009). “Co-combustion of refuse derived fuel
with coal in a fluidized bed combustor”, Journal of Engineering Science and
Technology, 4, 1, 122-131.
Energy Recovery from By-Products of Sugar Making Process 83

[23] Gloria, N.A. (1977). “Use of stillage as a fertilizer”, Cordistil Internal publication,
Dedini, Sao Paulo, Brazil,
[24] Guimaraes et al., (1968). “Determination of economic dose of vinasse as sugar cane
fertilizer”, O Solo, 60, 87-91.
[25] Gupta, S.G., Shukla, J.P. & Shukla, N.P. (1968). “Recovery of Crude Potassium salts
from spent wash of molasses distilleries by Fluidized Incineration”, Proceedings of the
36th Annual Convention-Sugar Technologists Association, XXXXIII-1 to XXXXIII-7.
[26] Gustavsson, L. &Leckner, B. (1990). “Reduction of N2O emissions from FB boilers
through gas injection”, Presented at 20th IEA-AFBC Technical Meeting, Lisbon.
[27] Halggard, T. (1991). “Nitrous oxide from combustion”, PhD dissertation, Technical
University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
[28] Hamalainen, J.P. &Aho, M. J. (1994). “Formation of nitrogen oxides from fuel-N
through HCN and NH3: a model compound study”, Fuel, 73, 1894-1898.
[29] Hansen, L. A., Michelsen, H. P.& Dam-Johansen, K. (1995).“Alkali metals in a coal
and biosolid fired CFBC-Measurements and thermodynamic modelling”, In
proceedings of teh 13th International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion,
Orlando, Florida, 7-10 May, 1, 39-8.
[30] Hasan Torgul, &NurhanArslan, (2003). “Flow properties of sugar beet pulp cellulose
and intrinsic viscosity-molecular weight relationship”, Carbohydrate polymers, Volume
54, Issue 1, Pages 63-71.
[31] Howe, W. C. &Divilio,R. J. (1993). “Fluidized bed combustion experience with
alternative fuels”, Proceedings of Strategic Benefits of Biomass and Waste fuels, EPRI
TR-103-146.
[32] Hoy, H. R. & Gill, D. W. (1987). “The combustion of coal in fluidized Beds”, Chapter
6, In: Lawn CJ, Editor, Principles of Combustion Engineering for Boilers, London,
Academic Press, 521.
[33] Hrdlicka, F.&Dlouhy,T. (2002). “Co-firing of coal and biomass with high water
content”, 45th International energy Agency Fluidized bed conversion, November 18,
2002. Downloaded on 31-08-2012 from the following website:
http://www.processeng.biz/iea-fbc.org/upload/45hrdlicka.pdf
[34] Hutnan, M. et al. (2001). “Two-step pilot scale anaerobic treatment of sugar beet pulp”,
Polish Journal of environmental Studies, 10(4), 237.
[35] Jackman, E.A., (1977). “Distillery effluent treatment in the brazil national alcohol
programme”, The Chemical Engineer, 319, 239-242.
[36] Jevic, P. et al. (2007). “Efficiency and gases emissions with incineration of composite
and one component biofuel briquettes in room heater”, Research in Agricultural
Engineering, 53, 94-102.
[37] Johnsson, J. E., Amand, L. E. &Leckner, B. (1990). “Modelling of NOx formation in
CFBC boiler”, Presented at 3rd International Conference on CFB, Nagoya, Japan.
[38] Johnsson, J. E. (1990). “A NOx module for the IEA-Model”, Presented at 21st IEA-
AFBC Technicall Meeting. Belgrade.
[39] Julsingha van, J., (Invr.), N.V. CentraleSuikerMaatshappij, (1970). “Process for
removing potassium from molasses or vinasse in the form of its double salt
K2SO4.CaSO4.H2O”, Ger OLS 1817550,
84 Muhammad Akram

[40] Kasuya, F., Glarborg, P., Johnsson, J.E.& Dam-Johansen, K., (1995),“The thermal
DeNOxprocess:influence of partial pressures and temperature”, Chemical Engineering
Science, 50, 1455–1466
[41] Khruslova, T.N.&Kolomiets, D.M. (1974). “Use of fodder yeast slops from Alcohol
Factories for irrigation and as fertilizer for seedling”, Ferment. Spirit. Prom., 440-42.
[42] Kilpinen, P.&Hupa, M. (1991). “Homogeneous N2O chemistry at fluidized bed
combustion conditions-a kinetic modelling study”, Combustion and Flame, 85, 94-104.
[43] Knobig, T. et al. (1997). “Are measurements in small scale units representative of the
performance of large scale combustors with circulating fluidized beds?”, VDI Report
1314, Association of German Engineers, 281-296.
[44] Kouprianov, V. I. &Permachart, W. (2003). “Emissions from a conical FBC fired with
biomass fuel”, Applied Energy, 74, 383-392.
[45] Kristenen, P.G., Glargorg, P.& Dam-Johansen, K. (1996). “Nitrogen chemistry during
burnout in fuel-staged combustion”, Combustion and Flame, 107, 211-222.
[46] Kujala, P. (1979). “Distillery Fuel Savings by Efficient Molasses Processing and
Stillage Utilisation”, Sugar Y Azuzar, 13-16.
[47] Kuprianov, V. I., Janvijitsakul, A. &Permchart,W. (2006). “Co-firing of sugar cane
begasse with rice husk in a conical fluidized bed combustor”, Fuel, 85, 434-442.
[48] Leckner, B.&Karlsson, M. (1993). “Gaseous Emissions from Circulating Fluidized Bed
Combustion of Wood”, Biomass and Bioenergy, 4, 5, 379-389.
[49] Leckner, B. &Amand, L.E. (1987). “Emissions form a circulating and a stationary
fluidized bed boiler: A comparison”, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on
FBC, Boston, 2, 891-897.
[50] Lin, W.& Dam-Johansen, K. (1999),” Sulphur capture by alkali content of straw during
co-firing with coal in FBC”, In: Li BQ, Liu ZY, editors. Prospects for coal science in
the 21st century; 1421-1424.
[51] Mahmoudi, S., Baeyens, J. & Seville, P. K. (2010). “NOx formation and selective non-
catalytic reduction (SNCR) in a fluidized bed combustor of Biomass”, Biomass and
Bioenergy, 34, 1393-1409.
[52] Miller, J.A.,& Brown, C. T. (1989). “Mechanism and modelling of nitrogen chemistry
in combustion”, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 15, 287-338.
[53] Montanani, F.N. (1954). “Ingenieria Sanitaria”, Mexico, 8, 21-43.
[54] Monteiro, C.E. (1975). “Brazilian Experience with the Disposal of Waste Water from
the Cane sugar and Alcohol Industry”, Process Biochemistry, 33-41.
[55] Moritomi, H. et al., (1991). “NOx formation mechanism of circulating fluidized bed
combustion”, Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on FBC, Montreal, 2,
1005-1011.
[56] Nelson, P.F., Buchley, A. N. & Kelly, M. D. (1992). “Functional forms of nitrogen in
coals and the release of coal nitrogen as NOx precursors (HCN and NH3)”, In 24th
Symposium on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1259-1267.
[57] Niksa, S.& Cho, S. (1996). “Conversion of Fuel-Nitrogen in the primary zones of
pulverized coal flames”, Energy and Fuels, 10, 463-473.
[58] Nilsson, M. (1981). “Energy Recovery from Distillery Wastes”, from Alfa-Laval A.B.,
International Sugar Journal, September, 83, Issue 993, 259-261.
[59] Nowak, W. (2003). “Clean coal fluidized bed technology in Poland”, Applied Energy,
74, 405-413.
Energy Recovery from By-Products of Sugar Making Process 85

[60] Oka, S. N.& Anthony, E. J. (2003). “Fluidized Bed Combustion”, CRC Press, ISBN:
978-0-8247-4699-5
[61] Permchart, W. &Kouprianov, V. I., (2004). “Emissions performance and combustion
efficiency of a conical fluidized bed combustor firing various biomass fuels”,
Bioresource Technology, 92, 83-91.
[62] Pershing, D. W. & JOL Wendt, (1977). “Pulverized coal combustion: the influence of
flame temperature and coal composition on thermal and fuel NOx”, 16th Symposium on
combustion, Pittsburgh, PA, The Combustion Institute, 491-501.
[63] Pohl, J. H.&Sarofim, J. F. (1976). “Fate of coal nitrogen during pyrolysis and
oxidation”, In: Proceedings of the Stationary Sources Combustion Symposium-volume
1, Fundamental Research, EPA-600/1-76-152a, Washington DC, USEPA.
[64] Polack, J.A., Day, D.F.& Cho, Y.K. (1981). “Gasohol from sugar cane-stillage
deposition”, Audubon Sugar Institute, Louisiana State University, September.
[65] Ralet, M.C., Thibault, J.F.& Della valle, G. (1991). “Solubilisation of sugar beet pulp
cell wall polysaccharides by extrusion cooking”, Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft Und
Technologie, 24, 107-112
[66] Raymant, A. P. (1989). “Sulphur capture by coal ash and freeboard processes during
fluidized bed combustion”, Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on FBC,
San Francisco, 1, 345-352.
[67] Reich, G.T. (1945). “Production of Carbon and Potash from Molasses Distillery
Stillage”, Transactions of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 233-251.
[68] Ronger H. H., Zhou, D., Bradley, R., Crabbe, P., Edenhofer, O., Hare (Australia),
B.,Kuijpers, L. &Yamaguchi, M. (2007). “In climate Change 2007”: Mitigation,
contribution of Working group III to the Fourth assessment Report of the
Intergovernmental panel on climate change (B. Metz, O.R. Davidson, P.R. Bosch, R.
Dave, L.A. Meyer (eds)], Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom
and New york, NY, USA.
[69] Ross, A. R., et al., (2002). “Measurement and prediction of the emission of pollutants
from the combustion of coal and biomass in a fixed bed furnace”, Fuel, 81, 571-582.
[70] Rouilly, A., Jorda, J. &Rigal, L. (2006a). “Thermo-mechanical processing of sugar beet
pulp. 1. Twin-screw extrusion process”, Carbohydrate polymers, 66, 81-87
[71] SACCKE (2009). “Combustion technology/Biomass and alternative fuels e.g., LCV
fuels like vinasse in the sugar industry, SAACKE Swirl Burner SSBS-LCG.
[72] Sastry, C.A.&Mohanrao, G.J. (1964). “Treatment and disposal of distillery wastes”,
new developments of chemical industries relating to ethyl alcohol; Symposium on ethyl
alcohol production technique, New Delhi, India, 88-92; Publ. Noyes Development
Corp. N.Y., U.S.A.
[73] Savolainen, K. (2003). “Co-firing of biomass in coal-fired utility boilers”, Applied
Energy, 74, 369-381.
[74] Seebaluck, V. et al. (2008). “Bioenergy for Sustainable Development and Global
Competitiveness: the case of Sugar Cane in Southern Africa”, A compilation of Results
from the Thematic Research Network: Cane Resources Network for Southern Africa
(CARENSA). Thematic Report 2, Industry, downloaded from the following website on
20/08/2011.
[75] Sheehan, G.J. & Greenfield, P.F. (1980). “Utilization, Treatment and Disposal of
Distillery Wastewater”, Water Research, 14, 257-277.
86 Muhammad Akram

[76] Sjaak Van Loo and JaapKoppejan, (2008). “The Handbook of Biomass Combustion and
Co-firing”, IEA Bioenergy Task 32, Earthscan Publications Ltd.
[77] Spruytenburg, G.B. (1982). “Vinasse Pollution Elimination and Energy Recovery”,
from HollandseConstructie Group, B.V., International Sugar journal, March, 73-74.
[78] Stoppock, E.& Buchholz, K. (1985). “Continuous Anaerobic Conversion of Sugar Beet
Pulp to biogas”, Biotechnology Letters, 7(2), 119-124.
[79] Suzuki, Y., Moritomi, H. & Kido, N. (1991). “On the formation mechanism of N2O
during circulating fluidized bed combustion”, Proceedings of 4th SCEJ Symposium on
CFB, Japan.
[80] Thibault J. F.,Renard, C.M.G.C.&Guillon, F. (1994). “Physical and chemical analysis
of dietary fibres in sugar beet and vegetables”, In H.F. Linskens and J.F. Jackson,
“Modern methods of plant analysis”, 16, 23-55.
[81] Thomas, R.M., et al. (1995). “Alkali Deposits found in Biomass Power Plants; A
preliminary Investigation of Their Extent and Nature”, Summary report, National
Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2, NREL/TP-433-8142.
[82] Tillman, D. A. Rossi, A. J.&Kitto, W. D. (1981). “Wood combustion”, New York,
Academic Press.
[83] Tillman, D. A. (1991). “The combustion of Solid Fuels and Wastes”, London Academic
Press.
[84] Turbaux, M.E.M. (1997). “composite ecological and recyclable materials for moulding
granules”, FR, 2, 745, 818
[85] Twigg, M.V. (1989). “Catalyst Handbook”, second ed., 283-339.
[86] UNFCCC, (2011). “Clean Development Mechanism Project Design Document Form
(CDM-SSC-PDD)”, Version 03, downloaded from the following website on
20/08/2011.
[87] Usher, J.F.& Willington, I.P. (1979). “The potential of distillery waste as sugar cane
fertilizer”, Proceedings of Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists, 143-146.
[88] Vaccari, G., et al. (1997). “Paper manufacture using beet pulp and factory waste lime”,
International Sugar Journal, 99, 532-536
[89] Vaccari, G., et al. (2005). “Overview of the environmental problems in beet sugar
processing: possible solutions”, Journal of Cleaner Production, 13, 499-507
[90] Valk, M., Bramer, E. A. &Tossaint, H. H. J. (1989). “Optimal staged combustion
conditions in a fluidized bed for simultaneous low NOx and SO2 emission levels”,
Proceedings of 10thInternational Conference on FBC, San Francisco, 2,995-1001.
[91] Van Haandel, A.C. (2005). “Integrated energy production and reduction of the
environmental impact at alcohol distillery plants”, Water Science and Technology,
52(1-2), pp. 49-57.
[92] Verma, S.R. &Dalala, R.C. (1976). “Toxicity of distillery waste to Puntiussophore
(Ham) and Mystusvittatus (Bloch) (Pisces: Cyprinidae: Bagridae) part 3. Bioassay
studies and TLm determination. ActaHydrochim. Hydrobiol,4, 457.
[93] Werther, J. et al. (2000). “Combustion of agricultural residues”, Progress in Energy and
Combustion Science, 26, 1-27
[94] Winter, F.,Wartha, C.&Hofbauer, H. (1999). “NO and N2O formation during the
combustion of wood, straw, malt waste and peat”, Bioresource Technology, 70(1),
39-49.
Energy Recovery from By-Products of Sugar Making Process 87

[95] Winter, F., Wartha, C. &Hofbauer,H. (1997). “The relative importance of radicals on
the N2O and NO formation and destruction paths in a quartz CFBC”, Proceedings of
14th International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion, ASME, New York, 1131-
1138.
[96] Wong, E.&Bregola, M. (1997). “Use of sugar beet pulp for making paper or
cardboard”, WO, 97/30215.
[97] Wu, S. et al. (1999),”Test Study of Salty Paper Mill Waste in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed
Combustor”, Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Fluidized Bed
Combustion”, May 16-19, 1999, Savannah, Georgia.
[98] Yamauchi, et al., (1977). “Waste water treatment in fermentation”, Japan Kokai, 77,
72, 365.
[99] Yeh, A. T., Lee, Y. Y. &Genetti, W. E. (1987). “Sulphur retention by mineral matter in
lignite during fluidized bed combustion”, Proceedings of the 9thInternational
Conference on FBC,Boston, 1, 345-352.
[100] Yilgin, M., Duranay, N. D.&Pehlivan, D. (2010). “Co-pyrolysis of lignite and Sugar
Beet Pulp”, Energy Conversion and Management, 51, 1060-1064.
[101] Zajic, E.V. (1971). “Water pollution. Disposal and Reuse”, Vol. 2, Marcel Decker, New
York, 573-589.
[102] Zhang, J. Q. et al., (1991). “Evaluation of SO2 emissions from six fluidized bed
combustors”, Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on FBC, Montreal, 2,
639-648.
[103] Zhang, J. Q., et al., (1989). “Interpretation of FBC sulphur retention tests on Canadian
coals”, Proceedings of 10th International Conference on FBC, San Francisco, 1, 907-
916.
In: Sugar Beets ISBN: 978-1-63463-499-1
Editor: Lindsey Brooks © 2015 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Chapter 4

ENZYMATIC AND MICROBIAL CONVERSION OF


SUGAR BEET SHREDS INTO VALUABLE PRODUCTS

Mirjana Antov1,*, Darjana Ivetić1 and Zorica Knežević Jugović2


1
Faculty of Technology, University of Novi Sad, Serbia
2
Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Serbia

ABSTRACT
Sugar beet shreds as waste that remains after sugar extraction represent material rich
in different carbohydrate polymers. They contain cellulose (20 - 30%), hemicellulose (18
- 34%) and pectin (23 - 32%) while protein and lignin content is relatively low, 7 - 11%
and 1 - 4%, respectively. Conventional use of sugar beet shreds as by-product of sugar
industry is as an ingredient of ruminants feed formulations or as soil fertilizer. It is known
that digestibility and even nutritional value of sugar beet shreds as well as preservability
of fresh ones can be improved by microbial conversion i.e., by ensiling them by bacterial
fermentation. However, microbial conversion of sugar beet shreds can be directed toward
production of valuable products such as enzymes. Namely, due to their high content of
carbohydrate polymers sugar beet shreds can be excellent substrate for production of
cellulases, hemicellulase and pectinases by fungi. In addition, by use of enzymes
carbohydrates from sugar beet shreds can be converted into simple sugars and used for
production of lignocellulosic bioethanol as well as into oligosaccharides with prebiotic
characteristics. Low lignin content makes them favorable substrate for enzymatic
conversion allowing more simple pretreatment procedures. This chapter aims to review
processes of microbial and enzymatic conversions of sugar beet shreds into valuable
products of biotechnology.

*
Corresponding author: mantov@uns.ac.rs
90 Mirjana Antov, Darjana Ivetić and Zorica Kneţević Jugović

1. INTRODUCTION: CHEMICAL COMPOSITION


OF SUGAR BEET SHREDS

Sugar beet shreds are by-product of the sugar beet industry representing the fibrous
portion of the roots of sugar beet left after the sucrose is removed. Sugar beet roots contain
about 15% sucrose and about 5% cell wall polysaccharides on a wet weight basis. In order to
reduce water content sugar beet shreds can be mechanically pressed and dried. As a result
wet, pressed and dried beet shreds differ only in dry matter (DM) content which is 6 - 12%,
18 - 30% and 87 - 92%, respectively [1].
Composition of sugar beet shreds given in Table 1 shows relatively low content of fat and
high percentages of both crude fiber and nitrogen free extractives which indicate high
carbohydrate content.

Table 1. Chemical composition of sugar beet shreds (based on DM)

Čobić et al. [2] Kelly [3] Dinand et al. [4]


Crude protein (%) 9.9 - 10.7 10.1 - 10.3 7
Crude fat (%) 0.7 - 1.0 nd* 2
Crude fiber (%) 20.7 - 24.2 19.6 - 20.4 24
Nitrogen free extractives (%) 58.1 - 61.8 62.7 - 63.1 59
Ash (%) 4.4 - 6.9 6.0 - 6.5 8
*nd – not determined.

It is known that plant cell walls are composed predominantly of the structural
polysaccharides - cellulose, hemicelluloses and pectins. Typical primary cell walls of
dicotyledonous plants to which sugar beet belongs are composed of almost equal amounts of
three types of polysaccharides: a) pectin, rich in galacturonic acid and containing the main
neutral sugars galactose, arabinose, and rhamnose, b) hemicelluloses, typically xyloglucans
with minor amounts of (gluco)mannans, and c) cellulose. However, sugar beets which are
mainly composed of parenchymal tissue with elactic hydrophilic cell walls differ in
composition from cell walls of typical dicotyledonous plants - they are characterized by very
high pectin content which is methylated and acetylated. In addition, sugar beet cell walls have
very low amounts of xylose, mannose, non-cellulosic glucose, and fucose – the sugars usually
indicating hemicelluloses. Extraction of sugar beet cell walls with KOH produced
hemicellulosic extract which was predominantly xylan [5]. However, methods for
polysaccharides extraction usually are not selective enough; also the same sugars might exist
in different polysaccharides which might lead to confusing results. It have to be pointed out
that hemicellulose content in sugar beet cell walls is mainly calculated on the base of the
presence of extremely high content of arabinans which actually originate from side chains of
the sugar beet pectins and are a small part of hemicellulose [6]. Sugar beet cell walls also
contain phenolic acids (<10 mg/g), mainly ferulic acid. Although quantitatively minor, these
phenolic acids are thought to be of major importance in the structure of the beet cell wall.
Although there are minor differences in global carbohydrate composition between cell
wall material isolated from raw beets and sugar beet shreds [6] processing of sugar beet might
induce changes in structure and extractability of its polysaccharides [5]. Results of several
Enzymatic and Microbial Conversion of Sugar Beet Shreds into Valuable Products 91

studies showed that after extraction of sucrose carbohydrate composition of sugar beet shreds
based on dry matter is 20 - 30% cellulose, 17.5 - 34% hemicellulose and 23 - 32% pectins,
while lignin content is low, 1 - 4.4% [4, 7, 8, 9, 10]. Composition of carbohydrates in sugar
beet shreds might be expressed through components of polymeric sugars as 22.7% glucan,
5.14% xylan, 5.92% galactan, 23.73% arabinan and 1.85% mannan [10].
To date, sugar beet shreds have mainly been used as animal feed or, in regions with no
livestock farming, dumped in landfill [2, 3, 11, 12]. However, it is possible to extract
components from sugar beet shreds and modify them by some physico-chemical treatment in
order to modulate the nutritional effects and/or to improve their functional properties in this
way increasing their value [13]. It is also possible to utilize them as substrate for microbial
and enzymatic conversion in order to produce alternative uses of higher value products of
biotechnology. Bioconversion reactions, based on the use of (immobilized) microbial
biocatalysts (cells or enzymes) have many advantages over the chemical synthesis which are
based on so-called sustainable-related properties. In such way obtained products are derived
from renewable agro-substrates and agro-industrial residues under mild reaction conditions,
they are biodegradable and posses desired chirality; bioconversion reaction generaly have
positive environmental impact which relates them to “green chemistry” [13].

2. MICROBIAL CONVERSIONS OF SUGAR BEET SHREDS


2.1. Ensiling

Ensiling is a way to conserve forage with high water content by microbial fermentation in
the absence of air (oxygen) for use in animal (predominantly ruminant) feeding. Efficient
fermentation should ensure a palatable and digestible feed. During ensiling, some bacteria are
able to degrade cellulose and hemicellulose to their component sugars which are subsequently
metabolized to low molecular weight acids, mostly lactic acid. This can also be encouraged
by the use of appropriate mix of enzymes and microbial (lactic acid bacteria) silage
inoculants. The lactic acid bacteria are also believed to produce bacteriocins that discourage
the growth of and spoilage by unwanted populations.
Ensiling is a multiphase process which starts with the impounding of the forage and is
initiated by aerobic microbial populations. During this stage the aerobic organisms consume
and exhaust oxygen which leed to anaerobic conditions. This phase is undesirable, because
the aerobic bacteria consume soluble carbohydrates that should otherwise be available for the
beneficial lactic acid bacteria. It also leads to the production of moisture, and heat generation
which if not properly managed are capable of destroying the process. Proteinaceaous
materials may also be rapidly broken down during this phase and this can lead to loss of
nutrients and the accumulation of ammonia [14].
In the anaerobic phase of ensiling, a mixed population of lactic acid bacteria
predominates and metabolizes fermentable sugars, producing lactic acid and reducing the pH
of the mass to acidic levels. Production of good quality silage requires that anaerobiosis is
achieved quickly to enable development and predomination of lactic acid bacteria and
consequent decreasing of pH in the forage. This discourages spoilage of the silage and
ensures the retention of the most nutrients in the final product. To encourage rapid
92 Mirjana Antov, Darjana Ivetić and Zorica Kneţević Jugović

acidification during ensiling and control the fermentation pattern to avoid undesirable growth
of spoilage microorganisms such as butyric acid-producing clostridia and enterobacteria some
chemical additives (e.g., formic acid, acetic acid and sulfuric acid) and lactic acid bacteria
inoculants are often added to the silage [7]. The duration of ensiling varies with the nature of
the forage being ensiled, particularly, the initial concentration of fermentable sugars and the
population of lactic acid bacteria.
One of the challenges of sugar beet shreds utilization for animal feeding is their
stabilization during storage. Ensiling of wet and partially dry sugar beet sheds is an
alternative to dry storage of sugar beet shreds. During ensiling of sugar beet shreds the most
distinguished change is fermentation mainly of water soluble carbohydrates into short chain
organic acids and alcohols. The most important product of ensiling sugar beet shreds is lactic
acid which is formed as a result of lactobacili in the bulk of feed material [2].
The main goal of ensiling sugar beet shreds is to preserve their nutrition value and to
minimize qualitative and quantitative loss as much as possible. It is neccessary to emphasize
that the losses are inevetable in both dry matter and feed quality because they come out as
result of biochemical reactions as well as from the processes of tissue desintegration and
consequent water release [2].
Recently ensiling as microbial conversion of sugar beet shreds has been investigated as a
novel storage method to supply stable biomass for year-round biorafinery industries [7].
Regarding this, the effects of ensiling on storage and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis were
studied. It was found that acetic acid inoculants improved sugar beet preservation and
prevention of cellulose and hemicellulose loss. Moreover, ensiling process significantly
improved enzymatic digestibility of sugar beet shreds so obtained results suggest that this
microbial conversion may also be a promising pretreatment technology for their
bioconversion to value-added products of biotechnology.

2.2. Protein Enrichment

Usage of wastes from agriculture and food industry for animal feeding is constrained to
some extent by their very low content of protein, vitamin, oil and other nutrient and limited
digestibility and palatability to ruminants. However, they may be applied for animal nutrition
following protein enrichment by using a variety of micro and macro fungi and bacteria.
So, if appropriate technologies will be developed for their valorization by protein
enrichment these wastes can represent valuable biomass and potential solutions to problems
of animal nutrition and world wide supply of protein and calories. Applied technologies
would need to consider and to be adjusted to characteristics of individual wastes as well as to
environment in which they are generated, reprocessed and used [14].
Generally, technologies available for protein enrichment of agricultural and food industry
wastes include solid substrate cultivation, ensiling and high solid or slurry processes but the
main efforts in this direction have emphasized the use of solid substrate cultivation. The
choice of microbial type to grow on lignocellulosic wastes depends to a large extent on the
desired end product, and on whether or not a pretreatment step is included or needed in the
cultivation process. In adition, protein enrichment of agro-food waste may be accompanied by
the microbial production of valuable biochemicals such as food/feed grade enzymes [15] and
organic acid [16]. In most cases the production of protein enriched lignocellulosic waste has
Enzymatic and Microbial Conversion of Sugar Beet Shreds into Valuable Products 93

been associated with the reduction in the content of lignocellulose (associated with loss of
biomass via microbial respiration as carbon dioxide). Although agricultural and food industry
waste materials are percieved as cheap enough to achieve sustanaible microbial conversion
for their protein enrichment pollution potential of applied technology as well as vicinity of
facility where they are generate should be taken into consideration. Ensiling itself hardly
leads to protein enrichment of the biomass except if mineral nitrogen is included [14].
Besides protein enrichment of other agro-food wastes, the possibility of use of sugar beet
shreds as principal carbon and energy sources enriched by microbial biomass protein such as
single cell protein and fungi has also been investigated. Four fungi Trichoderma viride,
Trichoderma reesei, Fusarium oxisporum and Chaetopium cellulolyticum were cultivated in
submerged and solid-state cultivation using sugar beet shreds as substrate. Products with up
to 27% protein content were obtained in submerged cultivation. Sugar beet shreds could be
upgraded to a product of 31% protein level with 49% product recovery in solid state
cultivation of 5 days while upgrading of 33.8% protein could be achieved in solid-state
cultivation of 3 days. Solid state cultivation with these fungi could be appropriate processing
method for protein enrichment of sugar beet shreds considering their availability and not
producing large volume of effluents [17].
One more fungus was considered for microbial conversion of sugar beet shreds for their
protein enrichment. Conditions of solid state cultivation of Neurospora sitophila was
optimized regarding protein enrichment of these lignocellulosic by-product leading to
increase in protein content of untreated sugar beet shreds after 5 days of cultivation on surface
from 15% (w/w) to 30% (w/w) [18]. Obtained results could be very promising for large scale
production of animal feed especially for countries which import animal feed and where such
residues are plentiful. Conversion of sugar beet shreds into microbial protein by Aspergillus
tamarii in solid-state cultivation was yielded in protein enrichment of lignocellulosic material
with 22.4% protein content of the product after two-day process [8].
Microbial conversion of sugar beet shreds to single cell protein was studied by four
yeasts of Candida spp. – C. utilis, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. solani [19]. Candida
utilis and C. tropicalis showed better performances than other investigated yeasts. Maximum
bioconversion efficiency, 46%, was achieved by C. tropicalis in two-day batch flask
cultivations. The bioconversion of sugar beet shreds under controlled conditions was also
studied using C. tropicalis in a 5 L bioreactor giving 29% and 48% product recovery with
39% and 25% protein level, in a two- and one-stage process, respectively. The one-stage
process (simultaneous saccharification and cultivation) was also run in a larger volume and
gave 50% product recovery with 29% protein content. In addition, solid state cultivation of
Candida tropicalis was optimized with the purpose of bioconversion of sugar beet shreds into
a protein-rich product. By one-stage process a product having 48% protein content was
obtained when C. tropicalis was cultivated for 42h at 30°C and pH 5.0, after 6 hours of
combined action of cellulolytic and pectinolytic enzymes at 40°C and pH 4.8 [20].
Sugar beet shreds showed themselves as good economic substrates for single cell protein
production by yeasts cultivation and the process can be explored on large scale. This not only
solves the disposal problem of these by-products of sugar industry but also produces a protein
enriched product which could be used as a source of protein in various food and feed
applications.
94 Mirjana Antov, Darjana Ivetić and Zorica Kneţević Jugović

2.3. Soil Fertilization

As it was mentined earlier, sugar beet shreds are lignocellulosic residue produced during
sugar processing and as very cheap they are mainly used as animal feed or, in region with no
livestock farming, dumped in landfill. Hence, their use as a soil fertilizer has been
recommended after microbial treatment with Aspergillus niger in a rock phosphate-amended
medium [21, 22, 23]. Rock phosphates are natural inexpensive sources of phosphorus but
their solubilization rarely occurs in non-acidic soils. However, microbially mediated
processes involving chelation and exchange reactions are able to solubilize inorganic
phosphate forms. A. niger grown on sugar beet extraction waste secretes organic acids, citric
acid in particular, and this microbial conversion leads to solubilisation of rock phosphate and
transformation of the lignocellulosic material into more simple sugar compounds [21]. As a
consequence, plant growth promotion in response to A. niger-treated sugar beet shreds was
accompanied by increased colonization of plant root by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi - plant
beneficial microorganisms which play a key role in soil fertility and in plant nutrient
acquisition [21, 22, 24].
Moreover, it was concluded that microbial conversion of sugar beet shreds by A. niger
was crucial for their use as a soil fertilizer – not only it appeared to be beneficial to growth of
arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and increase of the amount of available phosphate but it even
removed potential phytotoxic effects of the sugar beet waste [24].
One more fungus Phanerochaete chrisosporium was grown on mixture of sugar beet
shreds, olive wastes and rock phosphate in order to convert them to soil fertilizer [23]. The
final product was found to significantly improve growth and nitrogen and phosphate uptake
of mycorrhized plants showing high fertilizing value. Moreover, combined application of
arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and microbially treated wastes and partially solubilized rock
phosphate exerted biocontrol functions on pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum by the action of
produced manganese peroxidase as natural biocide. Thus, microbial conversion of sugar beet
shreds by Phanerochaete chrisosporium to value-added product, besides soil fertilizing
feature, can offer an environmentally safe alternative to chemical fungicide application.

2.4. Enzyme Production

Considering that sugar beet shreds containe cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin, they
could be an excellent substrate for the microbial conversion into valuable products of
biotechnology – enzymes degrading these polymeric carbohydrates.
The possibility of conversion of polysaccharides from sugar beet waste by mixed
bacterial culture under anaerobic conditions was investigated in order to find appropriate
conditions for obtaining high levels of enzyme activities [25]. Sequential model of enzymes
production was discovered with the arabanase activity that was maximal at the early
fermentation stage and pectinases and cellulases that were produced distinctly later.
Microbial conversion of sugar beet shreds into enzymes might be very efficient by fungi,
too. The genome of the coprophilous fungus Podospora anserina harbors a large and highly
diverse set of putative lignocellulose-acting enzymes. Sugar beet shreds were the substrate
that induced secretion of large and broad array of different enzymatic activities degrading
carbohydrates by fungus. So, P. anserina showed the best performing of its secretome on
Enzymatic and Microbial Conversion of Sugar Beet Shreds into Valuable Products 95

sugar beet shreds and capacity to supplement the industrial Trichoderma reesei enzyme
cocktail for further application in wheat straw saccharification [26]. In the investigation of
fungal secretomes, one more microorganism Sclerotium rolfsii was identified as the most
versatile producer of a mix of pectinolytic, hemicellulolytic, cellulolytic and polymer-
degrading redox enzymes when grown on a sugar beet shreds medium [27].
Because pectin content of sugar beet waste is high it is often used as cheap medium
component for production of pectinolytic enzymes [28, 29, 30, 31, 32]. Production of alkaline
pectin lyase by Bacillus clausii [31] on this substrate could be very interesting from the aspect
of establishing sustainable agriculture. Namely, this enzyme shows potential as a biological
control agent against several plant diseases thus eliciting disease resistance.
Fungal pectin lyase with the same potential for biological control was produced by solid
state cultivation of Aspergillus niger on sugar beet waste material [29]. Microbial conversion
of sugar beet extraction waste into pectinolytic activities by Polyporus squamosus was
studied in optimization experiments. It was found that combination of concentration of
phosphate and pH of media was essential for high secretion of enzymes [33]. Sugar beet
shreds have also been converted into extracellular alkaline pectinase by Bacillus gibsoni [30]
and into exo-pectinase by Bacillus pumilus [32].

Figure 1. Time course of produced (a) biomass, (b) endo-p and (c) exo-p activity during the cultivation
of P. squamosus in () homogeneous medium and in () the top and () the bottom phase of ATPS
medium, containing dry sugar extraction waste [28].
96 Mirjana Antov, Darjana Ivetić and Zorica Kneţević Jugović

The most often type of cultivation for microbial conversion of sugar beet shreds to
pectinolytic enzymes is solid state one, no metter if bacteria or fungi are producers. Besides
many advantages of solid state cultivation over the submerged one [34, 35, 36] there is
always a step of enzyme extraction from solid waste materials. An interesting approach was
made by cultivation of fungus Polyporus squamosus in aqueous two-phase system containing
sugar beet shreds [28]. Generally, cultivation of microorganisms in aqueous two-phase
systems for the purpose of production of extracellular enzymes are based on the idea of
separationg cells from enzymes by partitioning them into opposite phases, thus avoiding
conventional step of mechanical separation. The basic idea of study was the production of
pectinases by P. squamosus and their simultaneous separation from biomass in aqueous two-
phase system containing sugar beet shreds as cheap pectin source.
During the whole time course of cultivation, fungal growth was restricted to the bottom
phase and the amounts of biomass and exo-pectinase activity produced were superior to the
ones in control homogeneous cultivation (Figure 1). The partition coefficients for two
produced pectinolytic enzymes – endo-pectinase and exo-pectinase as a measure of their
distribution between the top and the bottom phase, were 4.26 and 2.78, respectively. The top
phase yields in the single extraction step were about 90% for both pectinolytic enzymes.
Moreover, besides from showing themselfs as suitable substrate for pectinase production,
sugar beet shreds did not caused any detrimental effect on partitioning of enzymes in aqueous
two-phase system.

2.5. Biogas and Methane

Microbial conversion of agricultural and food industry waste can be exploited for biogas
and methane production by anaerobic methanogenic bacteria. Obtained biogases could be
valuable supplemantation as an alternative energy source for industry and farms.
However, limited number of investigation has been done with sugar beet shreds. One of
these concerned anaerobic treatment of sugar beet shreds at conditions of high organic load,
low retention time and high specific production of biogas and methane and indicated this
waste material as very suitable substrate. The energy content of methane was approximately
35 MJ/m3 (for natural gas it is 38 MJ/m3) so produced biogas might be a significant
alternative source of energy [37].
In another study, microbial conversion of sugar beet shreds by mesophilic or
thermophilic mixed bacterial cultures taken from anaerobic digestor was assessed in relation
to, among others, biogas and methane production [38]. Thermophilic digestion of sugar beet
shreds showed performance advantages over mesophilic one including higher specific
methane production and operation stability at investigated organic loading rates with more
than 68% recovery of the calorific value as methane.

2.6. Miscellaneous

High-value chemicals are usually synthesized by chemical methods but biological


synthesis through microbial conversion of agri-food wastes adds market value. Ferulic acid
which is component of sugar beet cell walls was biotransformed using Enterobacter soli and
Enzymatic and Microbial Conversion of Sugar Beet Shreds into Valuable Products 97

E. aerogenes to yield 4-vinnyl-guaiacol, a high-value additive for food and beverages and
medicinal applications [39]. Also, microbial conversion of the same substrate to natural
vanillin was conducted by simultaneous action of Aspergillus niger and Pycnoporus
cinnabarinus [40].
Moreover, sugar beet shreds appeared to be a suitable cost-effective supplemental
substrate for bacterial conversion by Xanthomonas campesytris in order to produce xanthan
gum [41].

3. ENZYMATIC CONVERSION OF SUGAR BEET SHREDS


3.1. Bioethanol

World energy crisis encourages the development of alternative energy sources. Among
others, as a promising direction seems to be the production of bioethanol from different raw
materials. Lignocellulosic biomass is readily available and has no competing value as food;
however, there are no known organisms that can rapidly and efficiently convert all biomass
sugars into ethanol with high productivities. For fermentation, the cell-wall material needs to
be degraded into fermentable monosaccharides. If degradation is performed by enzymes,
before this lignocellulosic feedstocks are often structurally modified by different
pretreatments [42]. Actually, the presence of hemicellulose and lignin along with crystalline
nature of cellulose makes lignocellulosic biomass recalcitrant for enzymatic hydrolysis and
represents one of the major problems to be solved in the bioethanol production from this
source [43]. Moreover, lignin causes unproductive binding of cellulolytic enzymes resulting
in reduction of hydrolysis rate and increase in enzymes consumption [44]. Enzymatic
processes are currently expensive, but they can operate with high yields and generate few
inhibitory side products.
As it was already mentioned, sugar beet shreds contain significant amount of
carbohydrates and insignificant amounts of lignin. The low dry matter content makes
combustion of wet sugar beet shreds for heat and power production unfavorable although
their pyrolysis into solid char and bio-oil [45] and co-pyrolysis with lignite [46] were
investigated. On the other side, their low lignin and high sugar content make them an
interesting candidate for bioethanol production. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pectin-rich
processing residue such as sugar beet shreds appears to be much more amenable to enzymatic
degradation than lignified cellulosic substrates because they do not require chemo-mechanical
treatments for effecient enzymatic hydrolysis as other lignocellulosic substrates [47]. In
addition, using pectin-rich residues from industrial processes is beneficial because the
material is already collected and partially pretreated to some extent to facilitate enzymatic
deconstruction of the plant cell wall polysaccharides [48].
It is essential that during the planning of enzymatic degradation of lignocellulosic waste
methabolic capabilities of ethanol producing microorganism are taken into consideration.
Fermentations of pectin rich materials such as sugar beet shreds have been conducted with a
variety of ethanologens, including yeasts and bacteria. Escherichia coli can ferment a wide
range of sugars including galacturonic acid, the primary component of pectin. However, the
mixed acid metabolism of E. coli can produce unwanted side products. Saccharomyces
98 Mirjana Antov, Darjana Ivetić and Zorica Kneţević Jugović

cerevisiae can not naturally ferment galacturonic neither acid nor pentose sugars but has a
homoethanol pathway. Erwinia chrysanthemi is capable of degrading many of the cell wall
components of pectin-rich materials, including pectin. Klebsiella oxytoca can metabolize a
diverse array of sugars including cellobiose, one degradation product of cellulose. However,
both E. chrysanthemi and K. oxytoca produce side products during fermentation, similar to E.
coli [48].
When cultivating Saccharomyces cerevisiae which is the most commonly used
microorganism for bioethanol production, one more important characteristic should be taken
into consideration - its high sensitivity to hemicellulose and lignin degrading products that
can be formed during the pretreatment (e.g., in strong acidic environment at high
temperatures) [49]. S. cerevisiae is unable to produce native enzymes to hydrolyse cellulose,
hemicellulose and pectin, so enzyme saccharification by exogenous enzymes is neccessary for
the hydrolysis of sugar beet shreds. Complete enzymatic hydrolysis of only one component of
beet shreds, cellulose, to glucose requires several classes of enzymes and might represents
hurdle for commercialization of cellulose to ethanol processes as it was found for other
lignocellulosic substrates [50].
Another challenge specific for sugar beet shreds as source for bioethanol production is
high pectin content. Namely, pectic substances associate with cellulose [51] which might
effect yield of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by hindering exposure of it surface to the
enzyme action. In order to overcome this disadvantage, enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar beet
shreds previously subjected to acidic pretreatment was investigated from the aspect of S.
cerevisiae as fermentative microorganism. Conditions for pectic substances extraction by acid
were mild in order to prevent formation of degradation products that can be toxic to the
fermentative microorganism. In addition, although polyethylene glycols (PEG) were reported
to have a positive effect on results of hydrolysis of different lignocellulose materials due its
interaction with lignin [44], almost no information has been reported on their effect on sugar
beet shreds hydrolysis. Hence, the objective of this work was to investigate releasing of
reducing sugars during enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in the sugar beet shreds, in respect
to enzyme concentration, substrate solids load and presence of PEG [52].

Figure 2. The effect of acidic pretreatment on yield of enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar beet shreds;
enzyme concentration 10 FPU/g, solids load 2.5% (w/w), temperature 40 oC [52].
Enzymatic and Microbial Conversion of Sugar Beet Shreds into Valuable Products 99

Applied acidic pretreatment proved to be successful in preparing sugar beet shreds for
cellulases action providing increase in hydrolysis yield 1.65 times in comparison to untreated
ones (Figure 2). Statistical analysis showed significance of the models for reducing sugars
yield as response in which PEG molecular weight/PEG concentration, enzyme
concentration/solids load and temperature/PEG 4000 concentration were independent
variables. The highest reducing sugars concentration was achieved under next conditions - 1 g
PEG 4000/g substrate, 47.5 oC, enzyme concentration 10 FPU/g and 3% (w/w) solids load,
representing 1.6-fold increase in hydrolysis yield in comparison to the one obtained at lower
temperature and solids load and in absence of PEG (Figures 3 and 4). Addition of PEG opens
the possibility to reduce the both consumption of enzyme and time of hydrolysis without
decreasing in yield of reducing sugars. In addition, it was indicated that by addition of
polyethylene glycol 4000 at 1 g/g substrate, enzyme concentration and hydrolysis time could
be reduced by approximately two thirds and one third, respectively, without loss in sugars
yield [52].

Figure 3. Response surface of reducing sugars yield released by enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated
sugar beet shreds as function of enzyme concentration and solids load; temperature 40 oC; hydrolysis
time 48 h [52].

Figure 4. Response surface of reducing sugars yield released by enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated
sugar beet shreds as function of temperature and PEG 4000 concentration; enzyme concentration 10
FPU/g, solids load 3% (w/w), hydrolysis time 48 h [52].
100 Mirjana Antov, Darjana Ivetić and Zorica Kneţević Jugović

Assuming that enzymatic hydrolysis of only one component of sugar beet shreds,
cellulose, to glucose requires several classes of enzymes as well as that pretreatment and
enzymatic hydrolysis steps demand large quantities of energy, water, and chemicals
producing large quantities of wastewater that should be purified before discharging back to
the nature, one can not expect that commercialization of cellulose to ethanol would be
sustainable. Regarding these, one of the promising options to meet this challenge, among the
others, could be the valorization and reuse of side-streams, especially wastewaters obtained
during pretreatment of sugar beet shreds particulary those after pectin removal [53].
Reduction of wastewater treatment costs and consequent improvement of overal economy of
whole process could be accomplished by recovering pectin from the wastewater from
depectinization step by membrane separation. The obtained permeate could be further
processed either by conventional method of aerobic biological treatment or by
nanofiltration/reverse osmosis.
Another possibility to increase economic fisibility of bioethanol production from sugar
beet shreds is to reuse waste materials obtained after their enzymatic conversion. Analysis of
chemical composition of solid residue after enzymatic hydrolysis indicated that these
materials can be used as animal feed. This finding could considerably contribute to
profitability of bioethanol production from sugar beet shreds [54].
With the aim to completely utilize carbohydrate polymers from sugar beet shreds
differently pretreated samples were characterized and used for an enzymatic saccharification
study to analyze the amounts of fermentable monosacharides produced [11]. Enzymatic
conversion of sugar beet shreds was performed by mix of β-glucosidase, β-xylosidase, α-
arabinofuranosidase, xylanase, cellulase, arabinanase, galactanase, polygalacturonase and
pectat lyase allowing fast and efficient hydrolysis of substrate. More than 90% of all cellulose
could be hydrolyzed within 24 hours, using lower enzyme levels than those reported in earlier
studies.
Furthermore, the synergistic action of cellulolytic and pectinolytic enzymes in release of
total monosaccharides and of glucose, arabinose and galacturonic acid was also studied.
Three cellulases, one hemicellulase and one pectinases were used separately or in binary or
ternary combinations to hydrolyse dry sugar beet shreds, and concentrations and composition
of released sugar were determined [9]. Pectinase appeared to be the most important enzyme
since by hydrolysing the pectic surface of the lignocellulosic substrate it favoured degradation
of cellulose by the respective enzymes.
If enzymatic hydrolysis is employed, the fermentation and hydrolysis stages could be
combined in a single step. In this process, known as simultaneous sacharificatin and
fermentation (SSF), fermenting organisms consume the simple sugars as they are produced by
the enzymes effectively preventing end-product inhibition of the cellulases.
Mixture of cellulases, pectinase and cellobiase was used for enzymatic conversion of
sugar beet shreds to monosaccharides which can be utilized by genetically engineered
bacteria Escherichia coli strain KO11, Klebsiella oxytoca strain P2, and Erwinia
chrysanthemi EC 16 pLOI 555 to produce ethanol [47]. They fermented carbohydrates from
sugar beet shreds with varying efficiencies with E. coli KO11 which was the most efficient
being able to convert pure galacturonic acid to ethanol with minimal acetate production.
Similar results were obtained in study of enzymatic saccharification of sugar beet shreds with
pectinolytic and cellulolytic activities supplemented with cellobiase after which successful
fermentation to ethanol by E. coli KO11 was achieved [10].
Enzymatic and Microbial Conversion of Sugar Beet Shreds into Valuable Products 101

In another study hydrolysis of sugar beet shreds was conducted with the application of
the same mixture of enzymes. Although it is known that these enzymes could work
synergistically with fermenting microorganisms to convert the carbohydrate components of
sugar beet shreds into biofuels it was shown that hemicellulase was not necessary to improve
the hydrolysis for obtaining high reducing sugar yield [7]. Simultaneous saccharification and
fermentation may be one way to achieve high bioethanol yield from sugar beet shreds since
relatively low end-product concentration could be maintained leading to low end-product
inhibition.

3.2. Dietary Fiber

Dietary fiber as a class of compounds includes a mixture of plant carbohydrate polymers,


both oligosaccharides and polysaccharides, e.g., cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectic substances,
gums, resistant starch and inulin which may be associated with lignin and other non-
carbohydrate components. Each polysaccharide type is distinguished by chemical, physical,
and functional properties which generally define how they are isolated and used
technologically. Their effective utilization, however, is largely dependent on their efficient
extraction and separation, on whether the isolated polysaccharides can be used directly or
require further processing, and on whether they provide unique functionality.
Apart from the fact that it is not hydrolysed, digested and absorbed in the human small
intestine, dietary fiber achieves at least one of these functions - increases the faecal bulk,
stimulates colonic fermentation, reduces insulin responses and cholesterol levels, and even
reduce risk of some chronic disorders and some forms of cancer [55].
Dietary fiber can also impart some functional properties to foods, e.g., increase water
holding capacity, oil holding capacity, emulsification and/or gel formation. When
incorporated into food dietary fiber can modify i.e., improve its functional properties such as
water and oil holding capacity, viscosity, texture, sensory characteristics, gel forming
capacity, antioxidant capacity and shelf-life [55]. Generally, by-products derived from the
manufacturing or processing of plant based foods are sources of abundant dietary fiber. These
fiber-rich by-products can fortify foods, increase their dietary fibre content and result in
healthy products, low in calories, cholesterol and fat.
Sugar beet shreds have high both dietary fiber and soluble fiber content originating
exclusively from their cell walls. The structure and composition of the dietary fiber from
sugar beet is different of that from cereals which leads to very different physico-chemical
properties, with high hydration capacities and a high proportion of soluble dietary fiber. As
such, beet fiber can be considered as an intermediate between the insoluble dietary fibers
from cereals and the soluble dietary fibers [6].
Among dietary fiber which can be obtained from sugar beet shreds, pectic substances
seem to be the most interesting to be investigated regarding their structure, functional
properies and enzymatic conversion. It have to be poined out that sugar beet pectins differ
from pectins from other plant sources having high arabinose and relatively high rhamnose
content, notably high acetic acid content and presence of phenolic esters on their side chains
mainly with ferulic acid [6, 56, 57]. On the other side, fractions originated from pectic
polysacharides extracted from sugar beet shreds showed relatively small amounts of
glucomannans and xyloglucans [56]. The pectins from sugar beet do not form gels in the
102 Mirjana Antov, Darjana Ivetić and Zorica Kneţević Jugović

usual conditions, i.e., either with calcium or with high sugar concentrations and acidic
conditions [6, 57].
Several studies have been carried out addressing the enzymatic modification of sugar beet
pectins. One of them focused on enzymatic removal of acetyl groups from acid extracted
sugar beet pectins. As a result gelling properties of these pectins were improved [58].
Arabinan extracted from sugar beet shreds could be used e.g., for fat replacer after
debranching with enzyme arabinofuranosidase [59].
With the aim to promote new uses of products derived from agroindustrial wastes, pectin
extracted from sugar beet shreds after enzymatic treatment with commercial preparation
containing pectinolytic activity was examined for its antiproliferative activity on the breast
cancer cell line [57]. The structure of pectins, which depends on the extraction method, is
known to have strong capacity to induce apoptosis on several cancer cell lines like colon,
prostate and breast. In such way obtained pectin exhibited a higher antiproliferative activity
than referent anticancer drug on breast cancer cell line.
Some structures that were obtained by hydrolysis with mixture of selected enzymes
degrading pectic polysaccharides were characterized as recalcitrant oligosaccharides [56]
which are interesting for food and pharmaceutical applications [60]. Oligosaccharides derived
from sugar beet pectin by enzymatic hydrolysis are potential ingredients for functional foods
or feed and were subjected to investigation on their prebiotic properties [61]. Previously,
tailored enzymatic conversion of sugar beet pectin indicated that pectic oligosaccharides with
only slightly different structures have significantly different biological effects [62].
In addition, rhamnogalacturonans, arabinans and pectins from sugar beet shreds were
treated with different enzymes degrading their structures in order to modify their physico-
chemical properties associated to their fiber characteristics [59]. It was shown that enzymatic
modification of pectin with glycanases can be used for changing its structural characteristic
without significant loss of viscosity. In this way glycanases can be used for the removal of
structural elements of pectic polysaccharides which limit their physico-chemical and
consequently functional properties such as viscosity [59].

3.3. Bionanofiber

Thanks to their renewable and biodegradable nature, availability and abundance, low
weight and relatively low cost combined with high strength and rigidity, there is increased
interest for isolation of nanoscale cellulose fiber materials from different lignocellulosic
sources. Potential fields of application of cellulose nanofibers are quite diverse ranging from
pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry, over chemicals production to food industry.
Relatively new and promising usage of these fibers in production of nanocomposites in which
they serve as polymers reinforcement gained great attention lately [63]. Being hydrophylic in
nature, cellulose nanofibers are suitable to combine with hydrophylic polymers making
composites with enhanced features. On the other side, when combination with hydrophobic
polymers is needed, cellulose nanofibers can undergo various chemical modification and
functionalization in order to become compatible with hydrophobic matrix. In such way
prepared nanocomposites are superior regarding their mechanical properties as well as
biodegradable. When used for making nanocomposite films they, besides holding
environmental friendly feature, can enable high transparency and more efficient oxygen
Enzymatic and Microbial Conversion of Sugar Beet Shreds into Valuable Products 103

barrier thus fulfilling requirements for food and pharmaceuticals so-called green packaging.
Although it is still at the beginning, application of bio-nanocomposites with cellulose fibers in
the field of optoelectronic is also promising [64].
There are reports describing isolation of cellulose nanofibers from sugar beet shreds and
their usage in fabrication of nanocomposites. In the case of cellulose filled nanocomposites a
large mechanical reinforcement effect was observed which could be explained by the
formation of a rigid nanofibril network linked by strong hydrogen bonds [65]. Leitner et al.
[66] reported cellulose isolation from sugar beet chips and their further processing by high-
pressure homogenizer. Cellulose sheets obtained by casting and slow evaporation of water
showed higher strength and stiffness when homogenized cellulose was used compared to
unhomogenized one. These cellulose sheets showed significantly better mechanical
performance than Kraft paper tested for reference. Furthermore, the addition of cellulose
nanofibrils to a polyvinyl alcohol and a phenol-formaldehyde matrix, respectively,
demonstrated excellent reinforcement properties.
Cellulose nanofibers were successfully prepared from de-pectinated sugar beet shreds
using chemical (alkali and bleaching) treatments and high-pressure homogenization [67].
Chemical composition, morphological features, crystallinity and thermal degradation
characteristics of the resultant cellulose nanofibers were characterized. The application of
high-pressure homogenizer disrupted sugar beet shreds cell wall and helped in the release of
the cellulose nanofibers while their crystallinity index was increased due to the dissolution of
amorphous fraction. The cellulose nanofibers had improved thermal stability because of what
they can be preferably used as a biocompatible material which can be applied at high
temperatures.
Suitability of sugar beet cellulose microfibrils for obtaining composite materials with
latex of poly-(styrene-co-butyl acrylate) was also studied [68]. The mechanical performances
of these materials were analyzed as a function of the hydrolysis level of the cellulose fibers. It
was shown that the mechanical properties of fibrillated cellulose reinforced nanocomposites
can be adjusted by varying the strength of the acid hydrolysis step. Furthermore, the influence
of hemicellulose present in aqueous suspension of cellulose nanofibers was discussed. The
properties of the aqueous suspensions of homogenized cellulose fibrils obtained by mild
chemical treatment from sugar beet shreds and consequent high-pressure homogenization was
also investigated in correlation with their susceptibility toward specific acid and basic
reagents [69]. It was interesting that suspension characteristics were dependent on the
presence of hemicellulose and pectin on the surface of cellulose fibrils.
In another study dealing with cellulose nanofibers from sugar beet shreds, mechanical
behavior of films cast from cellulose microfibrils was investigated [70]. Depending on their
purification level, individualization state, and moisture content, differences in mechanical
characteristics were observed. It was found that non-removed pectins acted as a binder
between the cellulose microfibrils thus influencing mechanical behavior of obtaining
materials.
It is not only that pectin can influence features of nanocompostes fabricated from
cellulose fibers obtained from sugar beet shreds, as it was reviewed above, but also can be
introduced itself as a bio-nanofiber into polymer matrix. An interesting approach was made to
isolate pectin form sugar beet shreds by electrospinning and blend it with polyethylene oxide
to obtain less toxic and biodegradable nanocomposites with desired properties regarding
mechanical characteristics [71].
104 Mirjana Antov, Darjana Ivetić and Zorica Kneţević Jugović

Although there have been many promising achievements in fabrication of bio-


nanocomposites from cellulose and pectin fibers isolated from sugar beet shreds, there are
several issues to be addressed to in order to accomplish economically efficient production of
nanocomposites at larger scale. The most important one is high energy consumption during
the step of mechanical disruption of fibers to nanofiber which is usually conducted in high-
pressure homogenizator.
One of the ways to solve this problem could be combination of mechanical disintegration
with enzyme treatments which can be conducted at mild and controlled conditions. Although
use of enzymes has not yet been studied for such purposes on sugar beet shreds, results of
several studies indicate this approach as promising one for successful production of cellulose
nanofibers. In one of them, cellulosic wood fiber pulp was treated by endoglucanases or acid
hydrolysis in combination with mechanical shearing in order to disintegrate cellulose
nanofibers from the wood fiber cell wall. Enzyme treatment was found to be more efficient in
facilitating disintegration than acidic one, enabling production of cellulose fibers with
favorable characteristics for nanocomposite fabrication [72].
In another study, mild enzymatic hydrolysis has been introduced and combined with
mechanical shearing and a high-pressure homogenization, leading to a controlled fibrillation
down to nanoscale from softwood pulp. The milder hydrolysis as provided by enzymes in
comparison to more aggressive acid hydrolysis allowed longer and highly entangled
nanoscale fibrils, whose feasibility in reinforcing multicomponent mixtures was here
manifested by the observed strength of the gel networks down to low concentrations.
Resulting material of nanoscale cellulose fibrils showed superior characteristics for
application for reinforcement of nanocomposites and as templates for surface modification
[73]. In addition, nanoscale cellulose fibrils produced after enzymatic treatment open several
challenging options for materials science not only to tune the aqueous properties but also for
totally new applications, such as templates for functional nanostructures as novel high-value
product.

CONCLUSION
Thanks to their chemical composition reflecting in high content of polymer carbohydrates
and low lignin content, sugar beet shreds represent an excellent substrate wether they are
subjected to enzymatic or microbial conversion. Bioconversions of sugar beet shreds by
bacteria, yeasts anf fungi allow their utilization as value-added feed and soil fertilizers with
environmentally safe fungicide characteristics, as well as production of valuable products
such as food/feed grade enzymes and biogas. Converted by enzymes to monosaccharides,
sugar beet shreds are interesting as a renewable source for bioethanol production which is
much easily degradable than other lignocellulosic substrates. Newertheless, the most
promising new applications of biotechnology for coversions of sugar beet shreds into high-
value products seem to be directed towards development of products in pharmaceutical and
nanotechnology sectors such as dietary fiber and nanofiber and pharmacologically active
compounds.
Enzymatic and Microbial Conversion of Sugar Beet Shreds into Valuable Products 105

REFERENCES
[1] Harland, J. I., Jones, C.K., & Huffors, C. (2006). Co-products. In A.P. Draycott (Ed.),
Sugar Beet (1st edition, pp. 443-465). Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
[2] Čobić, T., Kasapović, S., Antov, G., & Krajinović, M. (1994). Sugar Beet By-Products
in Feeding of Ruminants (in Serbian, 1st edition). Novi Sad, Serbia: University of Novi
Sad, Faculty og Agriculture.
[3] Kelly, P. (1983). Sugar beet pulp – a review. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 8,
1-18.
[4] Dinand, E., Chanzy, H., & Wrignon, M.R. (1996). Parenchymal cell cellulose from
sugar beet pulp: preparation and properties. Cellulose, 3, 183-188.
[5] Mary, M., McCann, M.C. Kolpak, F., White, A.R., Stacey, N.J, & Roberts, K. (2000).
Extraction of pectic polysaccharides from sugar beet cell walls. Journal of the Science of
Food and Agriculture, 80, 17-28.
[6] Thibault, J.F., Renard, C.M.G.C., & Guillon, F. (2001). Production, composition,
physicochemical properties, physiological effects, safety and food application. In S.S.
Cho, & M.L. Dreher (Eds.) Handbook of Dietary Fiber (1st edition, pp. 553-582). New
York and Basel: Marcel Dekker.
[7] Zheng, Y., Yu, C., Cheng, Y.S., Zhang, R., Jenkins, B., & VanderGheynst, J.S. (2011).
Effects of ensilage on storage and enzymatic digestibility of sugar beet pulp.
Bioresource Technology, 102, 1489-1495.
[8] Xue, M., Liu, D., Zhang, H, Qi, H., & Lei, Z. (1992) A pilot process of solid state
fermentation from sugar beet pult for the production of microbial proteins. Journal of
Fermentation and Bioengineering, 73, 203-205.
[9] Spagnuolo, M., Pizzigallo, M.D.R., & Ruggiero, P. (1997). Synergistic effects of
cellulolytic and pectinolytic enzymes in degrading sugar beet pulp. Bioresource
Technology, 60, 215-222.
[10] Zheng, Y., Yu, C., Cheng, Y.S., Zhang, R., Jenkins, B., & VanderGheynst, J.S. (2013).
Improving the efficiency of enzyme utilization for sugar beet pulp hydrolysis.
Bioprocess and Biosystem Engineering, 35, 1531-1539.
[11] Kuhnel, S., Schols, H.A., & Gruppen, H. (2011). Aiming for the complete utilization of
of sugar beet pulp: Examination of the effects of mild acid and hydrothermal
pretreatment followed by enzymatic digestion. Biotechnology for Biofuels, 4, 14.
[12] Edwards, M.C., & Doran-Petersen, j. (2012). Pectin-rich biomass as feedstock for fuel
ethanol production. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 95, 565-575.
[13] Vandamme, E,J. (2009). Agro-industrial residue utilization for industrial biotechnology
products. In : P.S. Nigam, & A. Pandey (Eds.), Biotechnology for Agro-Industrial
Residue Utilization (1st edition, pp. 3-12). Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
[14] Ugwuanyi, J.O., McNeil, B., & Harvey, L.M. (2009). Production of protein enriched
food using agro-industrial residue as substrates. In: P.S. Nigam, & A. Pandey (Eds.),
Biotechnology for Agro-Industrial Residue Utilization (1st edition, pp. 77-104). Springer
Science+Business Media B.V.
[15] Peričin, D.M., Antov, M.G., & Popov, S.D. (1998-1999). Simultaneous production of
biomass and pectinases by Polyporus squamosus. Acta Periodica Technologica, 29-30,
183-189.
106 Mirjana Antov, Darjana Ivetić and Zorica Kneţević Jugović

[16] Jyothi, A.N., Sasikiran, K., Nambisan, B., & Balagopalan, C. (2005). Optimization of
glutamic acid production from cassawa strarch factory residues using Brevibacterium
divaricatum. Process Biochemistry, 40, 3576-3579.
[17] Nigam, P. (1994}. Process selection for pretein-enrichment: Fermentation of the sugar
industry by-products molasses and sugar beet pulp. Process Biochemistry, 29, 337-342.
[18] Shojaosadati, S.A., Faraidouni, R., Madadi-Nouei, A., & Mohamadpour, I. (1999).
Protein enrichment of lignocellulosic substrates by solid state fermentation using
Neurospora sitophila. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 27, 73-87.
[19] Nigam, P., & Vogel, M. (1991). Bioconversion of sugar industry by-products – molasses
and sugar beet pulp for single cell protein production by yeasts. Biomass and Bioenergy,
1, 339-345.
[20] Pandey, A. (1988). Process selection for bioconversion of sugar beet pulp into microbial
protein. Biological Wastes, 26, 71-75.
[21] Vassilev, N., Franco, I., Vassileva, M., & Azcon, R. (1996). Improved plant growth with
rock phosphate solubilized by Aspergillus niger grown on sugar-beet waste. Bioresource
Technology, 55, 237-241.
[22] Rodriguez, R., Vassilev, N., & Azcon, R. (1999). Increases in growth and nutrient upake
of alfalfa grown in soil amended with microbially-treated sugar beet waste. Applied Soil
Ecology, 11, 9-15.
[23] Vassilev, N., Requena, A.R., Nieto, L.M., Nikolaeva, I., & Vassileva, M. (2009).
Production of manganese peroxidase by Phanerochaete chrysosporium grown on
medium containing agro wastes/rock phosphate and biocontrol properties of the final
product. Industrial Crops and Products, 30, 28-32.
[24] Medina, A., Jakobsen, I., Vassilev, N., Azcon, R., & Larsen, J. (2007). Fermentation of
sugar beet waste by Aspergillus niger facilitates growth and P uptake od external
mycelium of mixed populations of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Soil Biology and
Biochemistry, 35, 485-492.
[25] Arntz, H.J., & Buchholz, K. (1988). Prodution of extracellular enzymesby anaerobic
mixed cultures. Annals New York Academy of Science, 542, 126-134.
[26] Poidevin, L., Berrin, J.G., Bennati-Granier, C., Levasseur, A., Harpoel-Gimbert, I.,
Chevret, D., Coutinho, P.M., Henrissat, B., Heiss-Blanquet, S., & Record, E. (2014).
Comparative analysis of Podospora anserina secretomes reveal a large array of
lignocellulose-active enzymes. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 98, 7457-
7469.
[27] Kracher, D., Oros, D., Yao, W., Preims, M., Rezic, I., Haltrich, D., Rezic, T., & Ludwig,
R. (2014). Fungal secretomes enhance sugar beet pulp hydrolysis. Biotechnology
Journal, 9, 483-492.
[28] Antov, M.G., Peričin, D.M., & Dimić, G.R. (2001). Cultivation of Polyporus squamosus
for pectinases production in aqueous two-phase system containing sugar beet extraction
waste. Journal of Biotechnology, 91, 83-87.
[29] Bai, Y.H., Yhang, H.X., Qi, H.Z., Peng, X.W., & Li, B.J. (2004). Pectinase production
by Aspergillus niger using wastewater in solid state fermentation for eliciting plant
disease resistance. Bioresource Technology, 95, 49-52.
[30] Li, Z., Bai, Z., Zhang, B., Xie, H., Hu, Q., Hao, C., Xue, W., & Zhang, H. (2005).
Newly isolated Bacillus gibsonii S-2 capable of using sugar beet pulp for alkaline
Enzymatic and Microbial Conversion of Sugar Beet Shreds into Valuable Products 107

pectinase production. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 21, 1483–


1486.
[31] Li, Z., Bai, Z., Zhang, B., Li, B., Jin, B., Zhang, M., Lin, F., & Zhang, H. (2012).
Purification and characterization of alkaline pectin lyase from a newly isolated Bacillus
clausii and its application in elicitation of plant disease resistance. Applied Biochemistry
and Biotechnology, 167, 2241–2256.
[32] Tepe, O., & Dursun, A.Y. (2014). Exo-pectinase production by Bacillus pumilus using
different agricultural wastes and optimizing of medium components using response
surface methodology. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 21, 9911-9920.
[33] Peričin, D., Antov, M., Markov, S., Karlović, D., & Latkovska, M. (1996).. Effects of
phosphate, pH and sugar beet shreds on pectinolytic activity of Polyporus squamosus.
Proceedings on 1st Congress of Biologists of Macedonia (with international,
participation), Ohrid, Macedonia, 85.
[34] Pandey, A. (2003) Solid state fermentation. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 13, 81–
84.
[35] Krishna, C. (2005). Solid-state fermentation systems – an overview. Critical Reviews in
Biotechnology, 25, 1–30.
[36] Thomas, L., Larroche, C., & Pandey, A. (2013). Current developments in solid-state
fermentation. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 81, 146– 161.
[37] Hutnan, M., Drtil, M., & Mrafkova, L. (2000). Anaerobic biodegradation of sugar beet
pulp. Biodegradation, 11, 203–211.
[38] Suhartini, S., Heaven, S., & Banks, C.J. (2014). Comparison of mesophilic and
thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sugar beet pulp: Performance, dewaterability and
foam control. Bioresource Technology, 152, 202–211.
[39] Hunter, W.J., Manter, D.K., & van der Lelie, D. (2012). Biotransformation of ferulic
acid to 4-vinylguaiacol by Enterobacter soli and E. aerogenes. Current Microbiology,
65, 752–757.
[40] Lesage-Meessen, L., Stentelaire, C., Lomascolo, A., Couteau, D., Asther, M., Moukha,
S., Record, E., Sigoillot, J-C., & Asther, M. (1999). Fungal transformation of ferulic
acid from sugar beet pulp to natural vanillin. Journal of the Science of Food and
Agriculture, 79, 487–490.
[41] Yoo, S.D., & Harcum, S.W. (1999). Xanthan gum production from waste sugar beet
pulp. Bioresource Technology, 70, 105-109.
[42] Alvira, P., Tomas-Pejo, E., Ballesteros, M., & Negro, M.J. (2010). Pretreatment
technologies for an efficient bioethanol production process based on enzymatic
hydrolysis: a review. Bioresource Technology, 101, 4851-4861.
[43] Hendriks, A.T.W.M., & Zeeman, G. (2009). Pretreatments to enhance the digestibility
of lignocellulosic biomass. Bioresource Technology, 100, 10-18.
[44] Borjesson, J., Engqvist, M,, Sipos, B., & Tjerneld, F. (2007) Effect of poly(ethylene
glycol) on enzymatic hydrolysis and adsorption of cellulase enzymes to pretreated
lignocellulose. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 41, 186-195.
[45] Aho, A., Kaldstrom, M., Kumar, N., Eränen, K., Hupa, M., Holmbom, B., Salmia, T.,
Fardim, P., & Murzin, D.Y. (2013). Pyrolysis of beet pulp in a fluidized bed reactor.
Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 104, 426–432.
[46] Yilgin, M., Deveci Duranay, N., & Pehlivan, D. (2010). Co-pyrolysis of lignite and
sugar beet pulp, Energy Conversion and Management, 51, 1060–1064.
108 Mirjana Antov, Darjana Ivetić and Zorica Kneţević Jugović

[47] Doran, J.B., Cripe, J., Sutton, M., & Foster, B. (2000). Fermentations of pectin-rich
biomass with recombinant bacteria to produce fuel ethanol. Applied Biochemistry and
Biotechnology, 84-86, 141-152.
[48] Edwards, M.C., & Doran-Peterson, J. (2012). Pectin-rich biomass as feedstock for fuel
ethanol production. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 95, 565–575.
[49] Bai, F.W., Anderson, W.A., & Moo-Young, M. (2008). Ethanol fermentation
technologies from sugar and starch feedstocks. Biotechnology Advances, 26, 89-105.
[50] von Sivers, M., & Zacchi, G., (1995). A techno-economical comparison of three
processes for the production of ethanol from pine. Bioresource Technology, 51, 43–52.
[51] Zykwinska, A., Rondeau-Mouro, C., Garnier, C., Thibault, J.F., & Ralet, M.C. (2006).
Alkaline extractability of pectic arabinan and galactan and their mobility in sugar beet
and potato cell walls. Carbohydrate Polymers, 65, 510-520.
[52] Ivetić, D.Ţ., Šćiban. M.B., & Antov, M.G. (2012). Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated
sugar beet shreds: Statistical modeling of the experimental results. Biomass and
Bioenergy, 47, 387-394.
[53] Ivetić, D.Ţ., Vasić, D.M., Šćiban, M.B., & Antov, M.G. (2011). Analysis of
pretreatments of sugar beet shreds for bioethanol production in respect of cellulose
hydrolysis and waste flows. Acta Periodica Technologuca, 42, 223-230.
[54] Šćiban, M., Kukić, D., Ivetić, D., Prodanović, J., & Antov, M. (2013). Possibility of
using of treated beet shreds from process of bioethanol production for animal feed.
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture, 17, 124-126.
[55] Elleuch, M., Bedigian, D., Roiseux, O., Besbes, S., Blecker, C., & Attia, H. (2011).
Dietary fibre and fibre-rich by-products of food processing: Characterisation,
technological functionality and commercial applications: A review. Food Chemistry,
124, 411–421.
[56] Oosterveld, A., Beldman, G., Schols, H.A., & Voragen, A.G.J. (2000). Characterization
of arabinose and ferulic acid rich pectic polysaccharides and hemicelluloses from sugar
beet pulp. Carbohydrate Research 328, 185–197.
[57] Concha, J., Weinstein, C., & Zuniga, M.E. (2013). Production of pectic extracts from
sugar beet pulp with antiproliferative activity on a breast cancer cell line. Frontiers in
Chemical Science and Engineering, 7, 482–489.
[58] Oosterveld, A., Beldman, G., Searle-van Leeuwen, H.A., & Voragen, A.G.J. (2000).
Effect of enzymatic deacetylation on gelation of sugar beet pectin in the presence of
calcium. Carbohydrate Polymers, 43, 249-256.
[59] Oosterveld, A., Beldman, G., & Voragen, A.G.J. (2002). Enzymatic modification of
pectic polysaccharides obtained from sugar beet pulp. Carbohydrate Polymers, 48, 73-
81.
[60] Sivapragasam, N., Thavarajah, P., Ohm, J.B., & Thavarajah, D. (2014). Enzyme
resistant carbohydrate based micro-scale materials from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.)
pulp for food and pharmaceutical applications. Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary
Fibre, 3, 115-121.
[61] Leijdekkers, A.G.M., Aguirre, M., Venema, K., Bosch, G., Gruppen, H., & Schols, H.A.
(2014). In vitro fermentability of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides using human
and pig fecal inocula. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 62, 1079-1087.
[62] Holck, J., Hgjerno, K., Lorentzen, A., Vigsnes, L.K., Hemmingsen, L., Licht, T.R.,
Mikkelsen, J.D., & Meyer, A.S. (2011). Tailored enzymatic production of
Enzymatic and Microbial Conversion of Sugar Beet Shreds into Valuable Products 109

oligosaccharides from sugar beet pectin and evidence of differential effects of a single
DP chain length difference on human faecal microbiota composition after in vitro
fermentation. Process Biochemistry, 46, 1039–1049.
[63] Siro, I., & Placket, D. (2010). Microfibrillated cellulose and new nanocomposite
materials: A review. Cellulose, 1, 459–494.
[64] Iwamoto, S., Nakagaito, A.N., Yano, H., & Nogi, M. (2005). Optically transparent
composites reinforced with plant fiber-based nanofibers. Applied Physics. A: Material
Science and Processing, 81, 1109–1112.
[65] Dalmas, F., Cavaille, J.Y., Gauthier, C., Chazeau, L., & Dedievel, R. (2007).
Viscoelastic behavior and electrical properties of flexible nanofiber filled polymer
nanocomposites. Influence of processing conditions. Composites Science and
Technology, 67, 829-839.
[66] Leitner, J., Hinterstoisser, B., Wastyn, M., Keckes, J., & Gindl, W. (2007). Sugar beet
cellulose nanofibril-reinforced composites. Cellulose, 14, 419-425.
[67] Li, M., Wang. L., Li, D., Cheng, J.L., & Adhikari, B. (2014). Preparation and
characterization of cellulose nanofibers from de-pectinated sugar beet pulp.
Carbohydrate Polymers, 102, 136– 143.
[68] Samir, M.A.S.A., Alloin, F., Paillet, M., & Dufresne, A. (2004). Tangling effect in
fibrillated cellulose reinforced nanocomposites. Macromolecules, 37, 4313-4316.
[69] Dinand, E., Chanzy, H., & Vignon, M.R. (1999). Suspensions of cellulose microfibrils
from sugar beet pulp. Food Hydrocolloids, 13, 275–283.
[70] Dufresne, A., Cavaille, J.Y., Vignon, M.R. (1997). Mechanical behavior of sheets
prepared from sugar beet cellulose microfibrils. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 64,
1185-1194.
[71] Rockwell, P.A., Kiechel, M.A., Atchison, J.S., Toth, L.J., & Schauer, C.L. (2014).
Various-sourced pectin and polyethylene oxide electrospun fibers. Carbohydrate
Polymers, 107, 110–118.
[72] Henriksson, M., Henriksson, G., Berglund, B.A., & Lindstrom, T. (2007). An
environmentally friendly method for enzyme-assisted preparation of microfibrillated
cellulose (MFC) nanofibers. European Polymer Journal, 43, 3434–3441.
[73] Paakko, M., Ankerfors, M., Kosonen, H., Nykanen, A., Ahola, S., Osterberg, M.,
Ruokalainen, J., Laine, J., Larsson, P.T., Ikkala, O., & Lindstrom, T. (2007). Enzymatic
hydrolysis combined with mechanical shearing and high-pressure homogenization for
nanoscale cellulose fibrils and strong gels. Biomacromolecules, 8, 1934-1941.
In: Sugar Beets ISBN: 978-1-63463-499-1
Editor: Lindsey Brooks © 2015 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Chapter 5

ENVIRONMENTAL, HEALTH AND FOOD


ISSUES RELATED TO SUGAR BEET
BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION

Rok Fink1, Sebastjan Filip2 and Sašo Medved3


1
University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ljubljana, Slovenia
2
University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Ljubljana, Slovenia
3
University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Ljubljana, Slovenia

ABSTRACT
Energy sources of mankind are changing due to intense research, technology and
serious global consequences. The present energetic paradigm of our society, based on the
massive use of fossil fuels, has to be changed rapidly, due to the serious influence on the
environment. Since mobility is essential to our modern industrialized society, the known
oil reserves are limited and consumption is still growing, liquid biofuels can represent
potential substitute for fossil fuels. Bioethanol from sugar beet is one of the candidates
among first generation liquid biofuels as feedstock grows on wide geographical regions
and implementations do not demand special engine modification.
Some biofuels can lead to substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emission when
compared to fossil fuels. Nevertheless, there are also other environmental considerations
like acidification, eutrophication, photo smog, ozone depletion, loss of biodiversity and
impact on ground water. Moreover, there are also some concerns based on liquid biofuel
security, such as whether the production of biofuels will meet the projected energy
consumption. The world population growth is increasing exponentially as the famine in
both developing and developed countries. Sustainable development must balance
environmental, economic, and social concerns at multiple scales, which includes also the
health impacts. The by-products of biofuels combustion include carbon dioxide and water
vapour, along with a variety of trace gasses and aerosol emissions that have many
impacts on air quality and consequently on human health. Several studies indicate that the
combustion of biofuels can result in adverse health.
Biofuels have attracted considerable attention in the past decade as renewable,
biodegradable, and nontoxic fuels.
112 Rok Fink, Sebastjan Filip and Sašo Medved

Keywords: Bioethanol, sugar beet, environment, health, food

INTRODUCTION
Energy sources in history of mankind have been changing due to exploration, technology
and development. Some evidences exists that mankind learned to control fire more than
500,000 years ago. In early 1600`s people in Europe discovered how useful coal for heating is
and after 1850, when steam engine was discovered, the coal consumption increased
exponentially. In the 1900`s so called age of the combustion engine that is based on petrol
extensive consumption began [1-3]. The need upon quick changes has crucial importance for
direct problems: increase of oil prices, limited of reserves [2, 4] and political instability in the
main oil producers‟ countries and also indirect problems that are shown as impact on the
climate and environment. These impacts to the environment are consequence of releasing
large amount of emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) into the atmosphere [5-8].
The mobility has crucial importance in our modern industrialized society [9]. Apart from
a few exceptions, the transport of people and goods is sustained by liquid fuels. Despite the
known fact, of limited petroleum resources, the consumption is still growing. Therefore a
number of various studies put the date of the global peak in oil production between 1996 and
2035 [10-13]. The transport sector accounts for more than 30% of final energy consumption
in the European Union (EU) and is expanding, along with carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions.
The main source is road transport, which accounts for 84 % of those CO2 emissions.
Additionally, the transport sector depends to 98 % on fossil oil [14, 15].
On the other hand, the world population keeps growing and improving the standard of
living, are the facts that lead to a significant increase of energy consumption [16].
Renewable energy sources, unlike fossil fuels, can be used without ever being used up.
By that it is important to point out that the renewable energy sources release the equal amount
of CO2 when being burned as it is used in process of photosynthesis [17-20]. Promoting the
use of biofuels together with sustainable agriculture and forestry practices laid down in the
rules governing the common agricultural policy could create new opportunities for
sustainable rural development in a more market orientated common agriculture policy and to
respect for flourishing country life and multifunctional agriculture, and could open a new
market for innovative agricultural products with regard to present and future [7].
Nevertheless, renewable energy sources represent only 13.6% of the global energy
production. By that biomass, feedstock for liquid biofuels presents only 0.4% [21].
A variety of common sugar crops can be used as the feedstock for producing ethanol fuel,
including sugar cane stalks, sugar beet tubers and sweet sorghum stalks, all of which contain
a large portion of simple sugars. Once these sugars have been extracted they can be fermented
easily into ethanol [22]. Although several microbial hosts have been investigated for ethanol
production, S. cerevisiae, E. coli and Z. mobilis remain the most mature platforms. With
multiple steps distillation the necessary fortification of the ethanol to a purity level of 96%
can be achieved [23]. The remaining wash consists of water and organic materials [12, 24].
First generation biofuels like bioethanol, the current potential candidate as a petroleum
replacement for internal combustion engines, is a fuel generally derived from food crops such
as sugar beet [25].
Environmental, Health and Food Issues Related to Sugar Beet … 113

The vast majority of first generation biofuel feedstock‟s, especially in the case of
bioethanol, constitute comestible materials, which has led to concerns about biomass
previously destined for human consumption being diverted to fuel production. The most
significant concern, however, relates to the inefficiency of first generation biofuels [26, 27].
Large amount of energy is expended on cultivating, harvesting and processing the biomass,
even though only a relatively small proportion is used to derive energy [28, 29]. Some authors
pointed out that usage of first generation biofuels has impact on food prices worldwide [30-
36].
One of the major arguments behind support for biofuel developments worldwide is the
concern about global climate change which is primarily caused by burning fossil fuels and
potential of biofuels to reduce it [37]. Some biofuels can lead to substantial GHGs emission
reductions when compared to fossil fuels [38, 39], particularly with the development of
advanced technologies that rely on agricultural wastes and dedicated cellulosic crops such as
switch grass [40]. But there are also other environmental considerations like acidification,
eutrophication, photo smog, health hazards, ozone depletion, loss of biodiversity and impact
on ground water [19, 36]. These environmental impacts are mainly associated with agriculture
and the production process of feedstock. But also impacts of biomass transport, biofuel
production, distribution, and consumption have to be considered [19, 41]. Finally, biofuels
also consume a significant amount of energy that is derived from fossil fuels. Inputs to
production include tillage, fertilizers, pesticides, irrigation, operation of machinery for
transport, steam and electricity for processing [42, 43].
Therefore some concerns appeared that expansion of biofuels market will increase
pressure to intensify agriculture and also to expand agriculture into natural habitats [44].

ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF BIOETHANOL


First generation liquid biofuels have multiple impacts on environment, expanding from
agricultural issues related to crop production, followed by biofuel production and
consumption [45].

Environmental Impacts Related to Bioethanol Feedstock Production

The growth of agricultural crops is influenced by multitude factors such as climate, soil
texture, nutrient availability and the occurrence of pests and diseases, and their interactions
[46]. Data about the effect of weather conditions on plant growth can be induced in yield
prediction mode, which have recently gained in importance for examining the impact of
future climate change on crop production [47].

Solar Irradiation
Biofuels are ultimately based on the ability of photosynthetic organisms to use solar
irradiation for the conversion of CO2 into glucose and subsequently into biomass. In practice
only part of incident solar radiation is captured by plants. And of the solar irradiation captured
by plants approximately 43 – 45% of radiation in the visible part is photo synthetically active
114 Rok Fink, Sebastjan Filip and Sašo Medved

[48]. The average daily solar irradiation varies; depend on latitude, climate and season. When
on the equator, maximum solar irradiation is on a horizontal plane, but away from the
equator, for the maximum intercept of solar radiation by a fixed plane, the plane should have
angle corresponding latitude [49]. Average daily solar irradiation that may support feedstock
for biofuel production varies roughly between 7 and 25 MJ m-2. The daily worldwide average
irradiation is about 15.5 MJ m-2, or 180 Wm-2. Differences between days can be large [50].
The greatest annual input of solar radiation tends to occur in subtropical regions at latitudes
between 20° and 30° and little could cover. Humid tropical regions have somewhat lower
irradiation. When going pole-ward from latitude of about 30°, solar irradiation tends to
decrease. The relative importance of individual weather variables depends on the
development stage of the plant and is also site specific. The early growth of sugar beet in
Central Europe was found to be strongly influenced by temperature [51] and in England the
crop growth rate was proportional to absorbed solar radiation [52].

Temperature
Temperature is an important climatic factor which can have profound effects on the yield
of crops. Changes in seasonal temperature affect the grain yield, mainly though phonological
development processes. Winter crops are especially vulnerable to high temperature during
reproductive stages and differential response to temperature change to various crops has been
noticed under different production environments [53].

Water
Unlike temperature and radiation, the water supply to plants is not affected by weather
conditions alone, but is a function of rainfall and temperature together with evaporative
demand and the water holding capacity of the soil [54-56]. Of the four soil physical factors
that affect plant growth e.g., mechanical impedance, water, aeration, temperature, water is the
most significant. Soil moisture plays an important role in plant productivity by controlling
transpiration between soil, plant and atmosphere. Several studies in various geographical
regions [33, 57] have demonstrated that soil moisture is often one of the main stress factors
for vegetation and crop yield. In most parts of the world, crop production depends on rainfall.
However, not all rainfall is effectively used in crop growth, as some is lost by runoff,
infiltration and evaporation. Heavy and high intensity rainfalls are lost most from soils
because of losses from surface run off or to groundwater. Among other factors, the
effectiveness of rainfall is strongly influenced by topography, which determines the
redistribution of summer precipitation as runoff [58].
Water consumption for the production and processing of bioethanol is not negligible. The
amount of water used for agriculture depends on the aridity of the cultivated region and on the
water demand of the feedstock type. But also for the conversion process much water is
needed [19]. Bio energy crops optimized for rapid growth generally consume more water than
natural flora or many food crops. Certain practices, like harvesting residues, cultivating tree
crops without undergrowth, and planting species that do not generate adequate amounts or
types of litter, can reduce the ability of rainfall to infiltrate the soil and replenish groundwater
supplies, enhancing problems of water overconsumption [59].
Agricultural water use is a serious concern, especially in southern parts of Europe, where
water is scarce and highly variable from year to year and where agricultural use of total water
consumption exceeds 50 %.
Environmental, Health and Food Issues Related to Sugar Beet … 115

The irrigable area in EU increased from 12.3 million ha to 13.8 million ha between 1990
and 2000. In the Mediterranean countries like France, Greece and Spain, the irrigable area
increased by 29 % during the same period. Irrigation is also important for arable production in
the south eastern EU [60]. Yang et al. [61] pointed out that in China meeting the biofuels
targets for 2020 will be difficult since extremely small per capita arable land in China; it is
very difficult to spare this amount of land from currently cultivated land for feedstock. The
associated water requirement further lowers the possibility because much of the northern land
already endures serious water shortage. Meanwhile Renouf et al. [62] find out that sugar beet
show great advantages according to low eutrophication potential due to other crops like
sugarcane or corn. In EU there is a recent trend towards reducing pesticide residue in water.
Nevertheless, the occurrence of pesticides in water bodies above regulated standards remains
a problem. The main negative effects of pesticide pollution are on aquatic, terrestrial flora and
fauna [60, 63]. Therefore carful crop selection can affect both water use and quality by
reducing the need to irrigate, and lowering if not elimination the need for chemical fertilizers
and pesticides, meaning that the water draining from their soils will have lower
concentrations of chemicals [64].

Agricultural Operations
The quality of land use practices strongly influences habitat and biodiversity aspects, as
well as soil, water and air quality [65]. Expansion of monocultures could irreversibly destroy
the unique and complex ecosystems [19]. Soil erosion risks are particularly high in the
Mediterranean region, which is characterised by long dry periods followed by heavy bursts of
rainfall falling on steep slopes with unstable soils. As a result of dry summers in these areas,
soil cover is also limited in summer which increases the risk of erosion in autumn when
rainfall starts. In northern parts of Europe erosion by water is not such a problem as rainfall is
spread out more evenly over the year and there are fewer regions with steep slopes and
shallow soils. Severe erosion incidents were observed in Northeast Germany, with soil losses
of more than 40 t/ha/yr [60]. The risk of soil compaction depends on the use of heavy
machinery, soil texture, soil particle size and characteristics of plant rooting. Compaction can
reduce water infiltration capacity and increase erosion risk by accelerating run off. In
addition, it has adverse effects on the soil biodiversity and soil structure and may lead to
problems such disturbed root growth [60]. Associated emissions also vary depending upon
where the feedstock is grown because climate, solar resources and soil productivity all affect
crop yields and fertilizer application rates [39]. Biomass feedstocks are generally transported
from fields to bio refineries by truck, travelling a few dozen to a few hundred kilometres [66].
Transport by train or pipeline, where feasible, could significantly reduce associated
emissions, but today the fuels requirements and associated emissions are minimal for
distribution of biofuels to the refuelling station [67]. Hamelinck et al. [14] concluded that
shipping of refined solid biomass and biofuels is possible at relatively low costs and modest
energy losses. Most important will be minimizing the transport of wet untreated biomass [14].

Environmental Impacts Related to Bioethanol Consumption

For Europe, ethanol production from sugar beets is important, due to its high dominance
in several European countries.
116 Rok Fink, Sebastjan Filip and Sašo Medved

The use of E10 achieves a 25% or greater reduction in carbon monoxide (CO) than petrol
fuel. Meanwhile ethanol blended petrol emits higher evaporative hydrocarbons (HC) and
others volatile organic compounds (VOCs) than petrol. This is primary due to increase of
higher vapour pressure of ethanol mixture.
Nevertheless, raising the ethanol concentrations further does not lead to significant
further increases. Impacts of ethanol on nitrogen oxides (NOx) are generally minor, and can
either be increased or decreased, depending on conditions [18]. Composition of gasoline and
ethanol increase emission of most toxic air pollutants like benzene, 1,3-butadiene, toluene and
xylene. This is consequence of dilution effect of ethanol which substitutes some part of
gasoline, which emits toxic air pollutants [19].
Nevertheless it must be considered that the wider environmental impacts of biofuels are
as variable as the potential GHG savings and depend very much on location and production
method. A case by case assessment might therefore be required [38]. With the exception of a
few studies that report associated increase in GHG emissions, most studies find a significant
reduction in both global warming emissions from both ethanol relative to conventional
transport fuels [42]. There are several equations to establish the overall conversion efficiency
of technologies for the conversion of solar energy, there should be a correction for the
cumulative energy demand associated with the biofuel life cycle and the life cycle of physical
conversion technologies [26].
For instance, if the lower heating value of fossil fuel inputs amounts to 20% of the lower
heating value of a biofuel, the solar energy conversion efficiency will be corrected by this
percentage. Assessments of the environmental impact of biofuels often significantly differ in
methodological choices and consequently in their results [68].
The most common definition of sustainability was given by the World Commission on
Environment and Development in 1987. It means to satisfy our present needs without
compromising the future generations‟ ability to meet their own needs. The definition implies
the balance of three components, stated in the Declaration of Rio on Environment and
Development in 1992; environmental protection, economic growth and social development
[69]. Consequently, the sustainable production of bio energy is defined as the production of
biomass based fuels for transportation, heat and electricity generation that allows an
economic growth preserving the natural environmental and promoting a well-balanced social
development. Due to the exponential growth in biofuels production, significant concerns have
been raised about the sustainability of the production strategy.
Certain risks to the economic growth, the preservation of natural environment and the
social development have been identified. The economic performance of the biofuel
production strategy depends on oil prices.
Due to the instability and fluctuation of the oil markets, the sustainable economic growth
of the biofuel production system is not always guaranteed. Moreover, the scale economy
plays an important role in achieving the economic viability. The life cycle emission,
deforestation for feedstock production, the degradation of soils, and consumption of water
and loss of biodiversity may impact more or less severely the natural environment.
Finally, the food availability, the working conditions, and the distribution of benefits
introduce risks of imbalances in the social development.
Hence, a consistent framework and robust methodology are needed to verify that biofuels
are produced in a sustainable way [68].
Environmental, Health and Food Issues Related to Sugar Beet … 117

FOOD ASPECTS OF BIOFUELS


Sugar beets are primary a raw material for the production of sugar for human
consumption as table sugar, food ingredient in huge varieties of semi prepared as well as
prepared food, beverages and source for fermentation to ethanol find in vine and other alcohol
beverages and distilled products. The root of the beet contains 75% water, about 20% sugar,
and 5% pulp (the exact sugar contents can vary between 12 and 21% sugar, depending on the
cultivar and growing conditions) [46]. In average 20% of beet mass represent disaccharide
sucrose whit its 17 kJ of energy per gram.
New and more efficient and therefore less ethical criticized technologies produced
bioethanol from food as case study making bioethanol from sugar beet. As reported the
conventional raw beet juice extraction in food-grade crystal sugar production is a highly
involved and energy intensive process, which includes beets washing, thawing of frozen
beets, cassettes slicing, and high temperature denaturation and diffusion. Industrial beets, a
new feedstock bred for non-food industrial use, processing for biofuel and bio products
applications can use less stringent quality requirements and simplify the juice extraction
process [70, 71]. A novel simplified front end processing, which is less expensive, energy
efficient, and involved only common equipment (hammer mill and basket press), was
developed and tested. The hammer mill pulverized the beets and basket press extracted the
juice. Four beet conditions (fresh, frozen, thawed and fresh-frozen) and four presses with
water addition were tested for juice extraction. The juice concentration had decreased with the
increased number of presses, and the fitted exponential equations determined the juice
concentration as a function of number of presses.
Frozen beets consistently produced significantly high concentration juice followed by
fresh-frozen, thawed, and fresh beets. Freezing had a beneficial effect in increasing the
cumulative approximate sugar extracted. Two presses for fresh (92%) and three for frozen
(97%) beets extracted the most available sugars. Future research may focus on water
temperature, beet particle size, juice for extraction, microbial stability, energy economics, and
products utilization. This new efficiently extracts industrial beet juice and has direct scope in
industry deployment as well as enhances the potential of the fuel generated being recognized
as an advanced biofuel by the renewable fuel standards [70, 72].
There is also serious doubt about direct impact of biofuels on food prices. As reported by
Ajanovic [73] in recent years the share of bioenergy-based fuels has increased moderately,
but continuously, and so did feedstock production, as well as yields.
As reported no significant impact of biofuels production on feedstock prices can be
observed. Numerous analyses and researches attributed at least part of the food price spikes of
2007/2008 to liquid biofuels [74, 75]. Hence, a co-existence of biofuel and food production
seems possible especially for 2nd generation biofuels. However, sustainability criteria should
be seriously considered [73].
On one hand the authorities facing huge food lost as waste that is estimated on 40% from
farm to fork for US and Europe (some reports 30-50%), meanwhile, 925 million people suffer
from chronic hunger. On other hand some authorities even promote and financially support
with subsidies agriculture to produce food as or for fuel like bioethanol.
Worldwide, we produce 4,600 kilocalories per person per day, and yet only 2,000 to
2,800 kilocalories are available for consumption.
118 Rok Fink, Sebastjan Filip and Sašo Medved

In the United States alone, consumers waste 10 times more food per capita than those in
Southeast Asia. The first there is a lot to be done for reduce unneeded food waste and then if
food waste appears as a by-product this could be the reasonable source for biofuels
production. Overall food losses and waste are higher in developed countries than those in
developing countries, with an average of 280-300 kg per capita per year food loss in Europe
and North America and an average of 120-170 kg per capita per year food loss in Sub-
Saharan Africa and South and Southeast Asia. In developing countries, the majority of the
food losses occur in the first stages of the food supply chain [72]. This is due to poor
harvesting technologies, lack of transport and poor storage in combination with extreme
climatic conditions. In developed countries food waste during the consumption stage accounts
for over 40% of the total food losses and waste in the food supply chain. This challenge of
food security will only increase, while the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization
(FAO) forecasts that food production must increase by 70 percent by 2050 to feed an
expected global population of 9.1 billion people with increasingly meat-dependent diets.

HEALTH ASPECTS OF BIOFUELS


As mention before, sustainable development must balance environmental, economic, and
social concerns at multiple scales [76]. This also includes health-related impacts. Many
developing countries are expanding biofuel production as a strategy to reduce their
dependence on petroleum, increase opportunities for the agricultural sector, and mitigate
global climate changes. The total area planted to biofuel crops has been growing rapidly, but
the health consequences of biofuel production are not studied in details [77]. Since it was first
discovered that we could control fire and combust fuels, we have had to deal with the by-
products of organic fuel combustion including carbon dioxide along with a variety of trace
gasses and aerosol emissions that have many impacts on human health [78].
Although there is scarce of biofuels health research, some of the studies indicates that the
combustion of biofuels can result in adverse health effects [79-81]. Studies that analyse
impact of biofuel combustion on human health take account of only combustion emissions of
biofuels, but do not take into account the emissions that are released in production stage.
Since in the process of biofuel feedstock cultivation and processing, several substances that
are hazardous to health are released, the whole life cycle of the fuel should be included [82].
Inorganic respirable compounds like PM10, PM2.5, SO2, CO, NOx, which are emitted during
the production of fossil and biofuels, can result in adverse health effects including asthma,
lung cancer, cardiovascular issues and premature death [83]. On the positive side, the use of
alcohols and alcohol/petroleum blends in diesel engines has been shown to reduce emissions
of potentially carcinogenic carbonaceous soot particles [84, 85]. Fewer studies have dealt
with the effects of moderate long-term particle concentrations that cause most of the years of
life lost due to air pollution. Several epidemiological studies of health impact mechanisms
have shown that exposure is mostly associated with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. It
is usually assumed that most of the negative effects are caused by fine particles [86]. Fine
particles, usually measured as mass concentration with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5
μm, (PM 2.5) can reach the lung alveoli and are likely the dominant factor in health effects
(Nel, 2005).
Environmental, Health and Food Issues Related to Sugar Beet … 119

Therefore, we can conclude that alternative fuels like bioethanol are not necessarily
advantageous in terms of human health impacts, solely because they are derived from a
renewable source [82].

How to Assess Environmental and Health Impacts of Bioethanol Production?

Adverse environmental consequences of fossil fuels and concerns about petroleum


supplies have spurred the search for renewable transportation biofuels. To be a viable
alternative, a bioethanol should provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits, be
economically competitive, and be producible in large quantities without reducing food
supplies [87].
According to ISO 14040 and 1042 Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is essentially meant to
improve the understanding of the results of the inventory phase. In order to determinate the
interaction between a product and the environment it is necessary to understand the
environmental aspects of products. Therefore in the method Eco indicator 99 environment is
definite as set of biological, physical and chemical parameters influenced by man, that are
conditions to the functioning of man and nature. These conditions include human health,
ecosystems quality and sufficient supply and resources. From this definition it follows that
there are basically three damage categories; human health, ecosystem quality and resources
[88].

Human Health
Human health can be damaged either by reducing its duration of life by premature death
or by causing a temporary or permanent reduction of body functions. According to current
knowledge, the environmental sources for such damages are mainly following; infections
disease, cardiovascular and respiratory disease, as well as forced displacement due to the
climate change, cancer as result of ionising radiation, cancer and eye damages due to ozone
layer depletion, respiratory disease and cancer due to toxic chemicals in air, drinking water
and food. These damages represent the most important damages to human health caused by
emissions from product systems [88].

Ecosystem Quality
Ecosystems are very complex, and it is very difficult to determine all damages inflicted
upon them. The species diversity is used as an indicator for ecosystem quality. Therefore
damage is expressed as a percentage of species that are threatened or that disappear from a
given area during a certain time [88].

Ecotoxicity
This method determines the potentially affected fraction (PAF) of species in relation to
the concentration of toxic substances. PAFs are determined on the basis of toxicity data for
terrestrial and aquatic organisms. The PAF expresses the percentage of species that is exposed
to concentrations above no observed effect concentration. The higher the concentration is the
larger is the number of species that are affected. The PAF damage function has a typical S-
curve [88].
120 Rok Fink, Sebastjan Filip and Sašo Medved

Acidification and Eutrophication


This method is based on observed affects from acidification and eutrophication on plants.
From these observations the probability that a plant species still occurs in an area can be
determined. This is called probability of occurrence, which is translated to potentially
disappeared fraction. Since acidification and eutrophication do not necessary reduce number
of species, target species were used. Those are the species that should occur on a specific type
of ecosystem if there would have been no anthropogenic changes in the nutrient level or
acidity. The damage model calculates to what extend the numbers of target species increase
or decreases if an additional deposition is added to the background. It is not possible to
determine whether damage is caused by changes in the nutrient level or the acidity. For this
reason the impact categories have been combined [88].

Land Use
For land use potentially disappeared fraction was used. The damage model is rather
complex as four different models; local affect on land occupation, conversion, regional effect
on land occupation and conversion. The local affect refers to changes in species numbers
occurring on the occupied or converted land itself, while the regional effect refers to changes
on the natural areas outside the occupied or converted area [88].

Resources
In the Eco indicator 99 methodology only models of mineral and fossil fuels are
available. The use of agricultural biotic resources and the mining of resources such as sand or
gravel are considered to be adequately converted by the effects on land use. In the case of
non-renewable resources, it is obvious that there is a limit on the human use of these
resources, but it is rather arbitrary to give figures in the total quantity per resources existing in
the accessible part of the earth crust. Because of this problem, the Eco indicator 99
methodology does not consider the quantity of resources as such, but rather the qualitative
structure of resources [88].

Normalisation
The three damage categorise all have different units. In order to use a set of
dimensionless weighing factors from the panel we must make these damage categories
dimensionless. Standard Eco indicators are numbers that express the total environmental load
of a product or process. The standard Eco indicator values can be regarded as dimensionless
figures. As name we use Eco indicator point (Pt). The absolute value of the points is not very
relevant as the main purpose is to compare relative differences between products or
components. The scale is chose in such way that the value of 1 Pt is representative for one
thousandth of the yearly environmental load of one average European inhabitant [88].

CASE STUDIES OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH


ASSESSMENT OF SUGAR BEET BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION
In this chapter we present environmental and health assessment of sugar beet bioethanol
production for three different locations e.g., Belgium, France and United Kingdom.
Environmental, Health and Food Issues Related to Sugar Beet … 121

At first stage of the assessment data on bioethanol energy and inventories flow were
obtain from research [62, 89, 90]. For impacts assessment of liquid biofuels production on
different aspects of environment, software Sima Pro 7.1 and method Eco indicator 99 was
used. The software has been chosen because it is a widely used Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)
tool, both by professionals and researchers. Its main advantages are the several available
databases and the ability to produce and evaluate results, which can be translated into a
number of impact categories, such as acidification, climate change etc., and demonstrate the
environmental impacts. Results of sugar beet bioethanol LCA were compared to fossil diesel,
petrol and other sources of energy for road transport LCA since bioethanol is considered to be
substitute for fossil fuels. All fuels were compared per functional unit, which means
consumption of fuel per one hundred kilometres, since the efficiency of internal combustion
engine and electric motors are different.
Flowchart shows that production of ethanol from sugar beet in Belgium is the most
affected by production of feedstock, especially nitrogen fertilizer and fossil diesel are playing
important role (Figure 1).
Figure 2 show that production of ethanol from sugar beet is affecting health and
acidification/eutrophication. The most contributed inventories are feedstock cultivation and
natural gas.
In France as well as in most selected countries production of feedstock is a major
contributor to whole process of ethanol production. Other inventories are negligible can be
seen on Figure 3.

Figure 1. Flowchart of sugar beet`s bioethanol production in Belgium.


122 Rok Fink, Sebastjan Filip and Sašo Medved

Figure 2. Damage assessment of sugar beet`s bioethanol in Belgium.

Figure 3. Flowchart of sugar beet`s bioethanol production in France.

Ethanol production from sugar beet is affecting health and acidification/eutrophication,


mostly due to feedstock production and fossil fuels use (Figure 4).
In UK, the process of ethanol production from sugar beet is the most abundant by sugar
beet production, especially due to nitrogen fertilizer. Figure 5 is showing that large amount of
fossil fuels are used for fertilizers production.
Environmental, Health and Food Issues Related to Sugar Beet … 123

Figure 4. Damage assessment of sugar beet`s bioethanol production in France.

Figure 5. Flowchart of sugar beet`s bioethanol production in UK.

Figure 6 shows that in UK bioethanol production from sugar beet is affecting health,
mostly by respiratory inorganic compounds. Figure 7 show that ethanol obtained from sugar
beet in Belgium and UK has similar impact on selected categories. Comparing results of
fossil diesel and petrol to various sources of electricity for cars in litters per one hundred
kilometres show significant differences.
124 Rok Fink, Sebastjan Filip and Sašo Medved

Figure 6. Damage assessment of sugar beet`s bioethanol in UK.

Figure 7. Comparison of damage assessment for sugar beet`s ethanol from Belgium, France, UK and
diesel, petrol and electricity from various sources per impact category and per FU.

Figure 8 show huge total environmental load for sugar beet`s bioethanol in comparison
with other sources of energy in litters per one hundred kilometres.
Environmental, Health and Food Issues Related to Sugar Beet … 125

Figure 8. Comparison of damage assessment for sugar beet`s ethanol from Belgium, France, UK and
diesel, petrol and electricity from various sources per FU and total impacts.

DISCUSSION
Literal meaning of biomass from which biofuel is obtained is “mass made of life” (gr.
bios- life; maza- mass) and although “life” of combustion engine started by liquid biofuels,
their consumption decrease due to the chipper oil. But in recent years consumption of biofuels
grows exponentially. This biofuels consumption increase can be assigned on one hand to the
concerns about climate changes and on second hand to limited resources of petrol. Therefore,
liquid biofuels are revived as potential substitution for fossil fuel.
Although liquid biofuels are made of renewable energy sources, it is not necessary that
do not represent damage to environment. At the same time two main concerns appeared. One
is dealing with ethical issues e.g., combusting the food for power the vehicles, while billions
are starving, and the second, is based on sustainable production. And above all will we be
capable to produce enough quantities of biofuels to achieve goals that were set by policy
while meeting the projected climate changes.
Since 1906, global air temperature has increased in average for 0.74 C ± 0.2. For the
next two decades it is expected that the air temperature will arise for about 0.2 C per decade.
According to the recent observed trends [91] it is expected that the highest temperature arise
will occur over the land. There have been numerous studies caries out to find out the possible
impacts of air temperature increase or decrease [46, 47, 58, 92-94]. These results pointed out
that the most affected sector by climate change and variability will be agriculture. This fact is
due to the crop‟s production dependence on climate [95, 96]. It is expected that the length of
growing season for crops in agriculture will extend [97].
126 Rok Fink, Sebastjan Filip and Sašo Medved

Many countries are struggling to reduce GHGs emissions, using different approaches. EU
has created favourable framework on promotion of biofuels.
Nevertheless some extensive studies should be done on environmental impact of new
fuels that may replace the fossil ones. Therefore before new pollution sources are established,
it is important to assess their potential effects on environment, health and food production
(Figure 9). Although most of liquid biofuels studies shows lower emissions in internal
combustion engines regarding to fossil diesel or petrol, in assessment of most studies the
production process of these fuels are not included. In recent years so call “from cradle to
grave” or LCA assessment was developed, where not only consumption, but also production
is included. Several different methods for estimating environmental impacts are available.
Method “Eco indicator 99” is one of the objective ones. In this method social values like,
damage to historical heritage and such kind values are not included since they are hard to
estimate. Several authors are showing results of one or two biofuels obtained from different
feedstock [43, 87, 89]. As described sustainable biofuels can be address only if the satisfying
environmental, economic and social criteria. Sugar beet bioethanol have issues related to the
environmental impacts like pesticides and fertilizers use, water and fossil fuels consumption
for agricultural operations. Also health impacts are not negligible ranging from VOCs,
particles to carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. And above all use of monocultures have
impact of diversity, land use, famine and food prices (Figure 9).
Therefore sustainable sugar beet bioethanol should take into the account all issues raised
above and then can be implemented as long term fossil fuel substitute.

Figure 9. Environmental, health and food issues of sugar beet bioethanol production.
Environmental, Health and Food Issues Related to Sugar Beet … 127

CONCLUSION
Alarming global climate changes and limited reserves of fossil fuels expanded the market
with biofuels. Despite the rapid marked expand there are still some questions to be answered
before fully substituting the fossil fuels with liquid biofuels. One of these questions is
environmental sustainability of biofuels.

 feedstock yield for biofuels production are strongly influenced by local


meteorological conditions like temperature and precipitation;
 environmental impacts are distinguished, due to location of feedstock production;
 assessment of liquid biofuels should include the whole LCA, from feedstock
production to the biofuel production and consumption. Only when all inventories and
energy flows are taken in to the account real environmental, health and social
assessment of acceptability can be done;
 since the environmental impacts are related to yield of feed stocks, it is questionable
whether the countries would assure enough quantities of biofuels to meet the policy
goals. The challenge is being addressed also to reach increasing demand to biofuels
and at the same time decrease environmental impacts;

Nowadays the question is not whether renewable biofuels will play a significant role in
providing energy for transportation, but rather what the implications of their use will be for
economy, for the environment, for global security and for the health of whole mankind.

REFERENCES
[1] Aviv, M., Berdicevsky, I., Zilberman, M. Gentamicin-loaded bioresorbable films for
prevention of bacterial infections associated with orthopedic implants. Journal of
Biomedical Materials Research - Part A 2007; 83: 10-19.
[2] Demirbas, A. Biofuels sources, biofuel policy, biofuel economy and global biofuel
projections. Energy Conversion and Management 2008; 49: 2106-2116.
[3] Ho, D. P., Ngo, H. H., Guo, W. A mini review on renewable sources for biofuel.
Bioresource Technology 2014.
[4] Demirbas, A. Biodiesel: A realistic fuel alternative for diesel engines; 2008.
[5] Stern, N. The Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review 2007.
[6] Baruch, J. J. Combating global warming while enhancing the future. Technology in
Society 2008; 30: 111-121.
[7] Koh, L. P., Ghazoul, J. Biofuels, biodiversity, and people: Understanding the conflicts
and finding opportunities. Biological Conservation 2008; 141: 2450-2460.
[8] Liew, W. H., Hassim, M. H., Ng, D. K. S. Review of evolution, technology and
sustainability assessments of biofuel production. Journal of Cleaner Production 2014;
71: 11-29.
[9] Lomborg, B. Reasons to be cheerful. New Scientist 2013; 220: 26-27.
[10] Demirbas, A. Biofuels securing the planet's future energy needs. Energy Conversion
and Management 2009; 50: 2239-2249.
128 Rok Fink, Sebastjan Filip and Sašo Medved

[11] Pimentel, D., Patzek, T., Cecil, G. Ethanol production: Energy, economic, and
environmental losses. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 2007;
189: 25-41.
[12] Chang, M. C. Harnessing energy from plant biomass. Current Opinion in Chemical
Biology 2007; 11: 677-684.
[13] Goh, S. G., Leili, A.-H., Kuan, C. H., et al. Transmission of Listeria monocytogenes
from raw chicken meat to cooked chicken meat through cutting boards. Food Control
2014; 37: 51-55.
[14] Hamelinck, C. N., Suurs, R. A. A., Faaij, A. P. C. International bioenergy transport
costs and energy balance. Biomass and Bioenergy 2005; 29: 114-134.
[15] IEA. Biofuels for transport: An international perspective. In. Paris, France:
International Energy Agency; 2004:33-50.
[16] IEA. Key world energy statistics. In. Paris, France: International Energy Agency;
2008:28-35.
[17] Clair, S. S., Hillier, J., Smith, P. Estimating the pre-harvest greenhouse gas costs of
energy crop production. Biomass and Bioenergy 2008; 32: 442-452.
[18] Chauhan, S. K., Gangopadhyay, S., Singh, N. Environmental aspects of biofuels in road
transportation. Environmental Chemistry Letters 2009; 7: 289-299.
[19] Rutz, D., Janssen, R. BioFuel Technology Handbook. 1. Aufl. Sylvesterstrasse 2. 81369
München, Germany: WIP Renewable Energies; 2007.
[20] Grafton, R. Q., Kompas, T., Long, N. V., et al. US biofuels subsidies and CO2
emissions: An empirical test for a weak and a strong green paradox. Energy Policy
2014; 68: 550-555.
[21] Lomborg, B. The Skeptical Environmentalist: Measuring the Real State of the World.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2001.
[22] IEA. Biofuels for transport: An international perspective. In. Paris, France:
International Energy Agency; 2004.
[23] Thatoi, H., Dash, P. K., Mohapatra, S., et al. Bioethanol production from tuber crops
using fermentation technology: a review. International Journal of Sustainable Energy
2014.
[24] James, M., Loessner, M. J., Golden, D. A. Modern Food Microbiology 2005: 790.
[25] Maxwell, I. E. Managing sustainable innovation: The driver for global growth; 2009.
[26] Reijnders, L., Huijbregts, M. A. J. Biogenic greenhouse gas emissions linked to the life
cycles of biodiesel derived from European rapeseed and Brazilian soybeans. Journal of
Cleaner Production 2008; 16: 1943-1948.
[27] Reijnders, L., Huijbregts, M. A. J. Palm oil and the emission of carbon-based
greenhouse gases. Journal of Cleaner Production 2008; 16: 477-482.
[28] Charles, M. B., Ryan, R., Ryan, N., et al. Public policy and biofuels: The way forward?
Energy Policy 2007; 35: 5737-5746.
[29] Communities Cote. Communication from the Commission to the Council and the
European Parliament. In. Brusless: Commission of the European Communities; 2007:
16.
[30] Pimentel, D., Marklein, A., Toth, M. A., et al. Food versus biofuels: Environmental and
economic costs. Human Ecology 2009; 37: 1-12.
[31] Stein, C., Kuchenmüller, T., Henrickx, S., et al. The Global Burden of Disease
assessments - WHO is responsible? PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 2007; 1.
Environmental, Health and Food Issues Related to Sugar Beet … 129

[32] Srinivasan, S. The food v. fuel debate: A nuanced view of incentive structures.
Renewable Energy 2009; 34: 950-954.
[33] Srinivasan, G., Robock, A., Entin, J. K., et al. Soil moisture simulations in revised
AMIP models. Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres 2000; 105: 26635-
26644.
[34] Kessler, E. Our food and fuel future. In: Biofuels, Solar and Wind as Renewable Energy
Systems: Benefits and Risks; 2008:259-294.
[35] Alexander, C., Hurt, C. Biofuels and their imacts on food prices. In. Purde University:
BioEnergy; 2007:4.
[36] Rajagopal, D., Zilberman, D. Review of Environmental, Economic and Policy Aspects
of Biofuels. Policy Research Working Paper. In; 2007:11-13.
[37] Soetaert, W., Vandamme, E. J. Biofuels Wiley Series in Renewable Resources 2009.
[38] Zah, R., Böni, H., Gauch, M., et al. Life Cycle Assessment of Energy Products:
Environmental Impact Assessment of Biofuels. Bern: Bundesamt für Energie BFE,
Bundesamt für Umwelt BAFU, Bundesamt für Landwirtschaft BLW; 2007.
[39] Institute, W. Biofuels for transport: global potential and implications for sustainable
energy and agriculture. In. London; 2007:159-230.
[40] Smeets, E. M. W., Lewandowski, I. M., Faaij, A. P. C. The economical and
environmental performance of miscanthus and switchgrass production and supply
chains in a European setting. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2009; 13:
1230-1245.
[41] Lal, R. Carbon emission from farm operations. Environment International 2004; 30:
981-990.
[42] Farrell, A. E., Plevin, R. J., Turner, B. T., et al. Ethanol can contribute to energy and
environmental goals. Science 2006; 311: 506-508.
[43] Pimentel, D., Patzek, T. W. Ethanol production using corn, switchgrass, and wood;
Biodiesel production using soybean and sunflower. Natural Resources Research 2005;
14: 65-76.
[44] Institute, W. Biofuels for Transport: Global Potential and Implications for Sustainable
Energy and Agriculture 2007.
[45] Fink, R., Medved, S. Global perspectives on first generation liquid biofuel production.
Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 2011; 35: 453-459.
[46] Kenter, C., Hoffmann, C. M., Märländer, B. Effects of weather variables on sugar beet
yield development (Beta vulgaris L.). European Journal of Agronomy 2006; 24: 62-69.
[47] Jones, P. D., Lister, D. H., Jaggard, K. W., et al. Future climate impact on the
productivity of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) in Europe. Climatic Change 2003; 58: 93-
108.
[48] Vasudevan, P. T., Briggs, M. Biodiesel production - Current state of the art and
challenges. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology 2008; 35: 421-430.
[49] Çelik, A. N. Analysis of Ankara's exposure to solar radiation: Evaluation of
distributional parameters using long-term hourly measured global solar radiation data.
Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences 2006; 30: 115-126.
[50] Akkerman, I., Janssen, M., Rocha, J., et al. Photobiological hydrogen production:
Photochemical efficiency and bioreactor design. International Journal of Hydrogen
Energy 2002; 27: 1195-1208.
130 Rok Fink, Sebastjan Filip and Sašo Medved

[51] Boiffin, J., Durr, C., Fleury, A., et al. Analysis of the variability of sugar beet (Beta
vulgaris L) growth during the early stages. I. Influence of various conditions on crop
establishment. Agronomie 1992; 12: 515-525.
[52] Scott, R. K., Jaggard, K. W. Crop physiology and agronomy. In: Cooke, D. A., Scott, R.
K., Hrsg. The Sugar Beet Crop: Springer Netherlands; 1993:179-237.
[53] Kalra, N., Chakraborty, D., Sharma, A., et al. Effect of increasing temperature on yield
of some winter crops in northwest India. Current Science 2008; 94: 82-88.
[54] Freckleton, R. P., Watkinson, A. R., Webb, D. J., et al. Yield of sugar beet in relation to
weather and nutrients. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 1999; 93: 39-51.
[55] Rok, F., Sašo, M. Environmental impacts of the first generation liquid biofuels
production and emerging global climate changes. In: Journal for the theory and
aplication in mechanical engineering; 2009:537-545.
[56] Fink, R., Medved, S. Environmental impacts of the first generation liquid biofuels
production and emerging global climate changes. Stroj 2009; 51: 537-545.
[57] Ridolfi, L., D'Odorico, P., Porporato, A., et al. Impact of climate variability on the
vegetation water stress. Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres 2000; 105:
18013-18025.
[58] Saue, T., Kadaja, J. Modelling crop yield response to precipitation redistribution on
slopes. Biologia 2009; 64: 502-506.
[59] Hazell, P. B. R., Pachauri, R. K. Bioenergy and agriculture: Promises and challenges.
In: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI); 2006:2-3.
[60] EEA. Estimating the environmentally compatible bioenergy potential from agriculture.
In. Copenhagen: EEA (European Environment Agency); 2007:39-54.
[61] Yang, H., Zhou, Y., Liu, J. Land and water requirements of biofuel and implications for
food supply and the environment in China. Energy Policy 2009; 37: 1876-1885.
[62] Renouf, M. A., Wegener, M. K., Nielsen, L. K. An environmental life cycle assessment
comparing Australian sugarcane with US corn and UK sugar beet as producers of
sugars for fermentation. Biomass and Bioenergy 2008; 32: 1144-1155.
[63] FAO. Fertilizers use by crop. Italy. Rome; 2006.
[64] Powlson, D. S., Riche, A. B., Shield, I. Biofuels and other approaches for decreasing
fossil fuel emissions from agriculture. Annals of Applied Biology 2005; 146: 193-201.
[65] Clay, J. World Agriculture and the Environment. Washington DC: Island Press; 2004.
[66] Aden, A., Ruth, M., Ibsen, K., et al. Lignocellulosic Biomass toEthanol Process Design
and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic
Hydrolysis for Corn Stover. In. Colorado: National Renewable Energy Laboratory;
2002.
[67] Arnold, K., Ramesohl, S., Fischedick, M., et al. Synopsis of German and European
experience and state of the art of biofuels for transport: submitted report. In.
Wuppertal: Wuppertal Inst. for Climate, Environment and Energy; 2005.
[68] Gnansounou, E., Dauriat, A., Villegas, J., et al. Life cycle assessment of biofuels:
Energy and greenhouse gas balances. Bioresource Technology 2009; 100: 4919-4930.
[69] Mawhinney, M. Sustainable Development: Understanding the Green Debates: Wiley-
Blackwell; 2002.
[70] Pothula, A. K., Igathinathane, C., Faller, T., et al. Novel front end processing method of
industrial beet juice extraction for biofuels and bioproducts industries. Biomass and
Bioenergy 2014; 68: 161-174.
Environmental, Health and Food Issues Related to Sugar Beet … 131

[71] Magaña, C., Núñez-Sánchez, N., Fernández-Cabanás, V. M., et al. Direct prediction of
bioethanol yield in sugar beet pulp using Near Infrared Spectroscopy. Bioresource
Technology 2011; 102: 9542-9549.
[72] Gustavsson, J., Stage, J. Retail waste of horticultural products in Sweden. Resources,
Conservation and Recycling 2011; 55: 554-556.
[73] Ajanovic, A. Biofuels versus food production: Does biofuels production increase food
prices? Energy 2011; 36: 2070-2076.
[74] Tyner, W. E. Biofuels and food prices: Separating wheat from chaff. Global Food
Security 2013; 2: 126-130.
[75] Scovronick, N., Wilkinson, P. The impact of biofuel-induced food-price inflation on
dietary energy demand and dietary greenhouse gas emissions. Global Environmental
Change 2013; 23: 1587-1593.
[76] Daily, G. C., Ellison, K. The New Economy of Nature 2002.
[77] Orru, H., Kaasik, M., Merisalu, E., et al. Health impact assessment in case of biofuel
peat - Co-use of environmental scenarios and exposure-response functions. Biomass
and Bioenergy 2009; 33: 1080-1086.
[78] Gaffney, J. S., Marley, N. A. The impacts of combustion emissions on air quality and
climate - From coal to biofuels and beyond. Atmospheric Environment 2009; 43: 23-36.
[79] Bakeas, E. B., Argyris, D. I., Siskos, P. A. Carbonyl compounds in the urban
environment of Athens, Greece. Chemosphere 2003; 52: 805-813.
[80] Uriarte, M., Yackulic, C. B., Cooper, T., et al. Expansion of sugarcane production in
São Paulo, Brazil: Implications for fire occurrence and respiratory health. Agriculture,
Ecosystems and Environment 2009; 132: 48-56.
[81] Naeher, L. P., Brauer, M., Lipsett, M., et al. Woodsmoke health effects: A review.
Inhalation Toxicology 2007; 19: 67-106.
[82] Fink, R., Medved, S. Health impact assessment of liquid biofuel production.
International Journal of Environmental Health Research 2013; 23: 66-75.
[83] Mukhopadhyay, K., Forssell, O. An empirical investigation of air pollution from fossil
fuel combustion and its impact on health in India during 1973-1974 to 1996-1997.
Ecological Economics 2005; 55: 235-250.
[84] Gaffney, J., Sapienza, R., Butcher, T., et al. Soot Reduction in Diesel Engines: a
Chemical Approach. Combustion science and technology 1980; 24: 89-92.
[85] Wang, W. G., Clark, N. N., Lyons, D. W., et al. Emissions comparisons from
alternative fuel buses and diesel buses with a chassis dynamometer testing facility.
Environmental Science and Technology 1997; 31: 3132-3137.
[86] Krahl, J., Baum, K., Hackbarth, U., et al. Gaseous compounds, ozone precursors,
particle number and particle size distributions, and mutagenic effects due to biodiesel.
Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers 2001; 44: 179-191.
[87] Hill, J., Nelson, E., Tilman, D., et al. Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and
benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels. Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of America 2006; 103: 11206-11210.
[88] Goedkoop, M., Spriensma, R. The eco-indicator 99. A damage oriented method for life
cycle impact assessment. Methodology Report 2000.
[89] Halleux, H., Lassaux, S., Renzoni, R., et al. Comparative life cycle assessment of two
biofuels: Ethanol from sugar beet and rapeseed methyl ester. International Journal of
Life Cycle Assessment 2008; 13: 184-190.
132 Rok Fink, Sebastjan Filip and Sašo Medved

[90] Malça, J., Freire, F. Renewability and life-cycle energy efficiency of bioethanol and
bio-ethyl tertiary butyl ether (bioETBE): Assessing the implications of allocation.
Energy 2006; 31: 3362-3380.
[91] IPPC. Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. In. Valencia, Spain: Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change; 2007:26-53.
[92] Almaraz, J. J., Mabood, F., Zhou, X., et al. Climate change, weather variability and
corn yield at a higher latitude locale: Southwestern Quebec. Climatic Change 2008; 88:
187-197.
[93] Lobell, D. B., Field, C. B. Global scale climate-crop yield relationships and the impacts
of recent warming. Environmental Research Letters 2007; 2.
[94] Lobell, D. B., Cahill, K. N., Field, C. B. Historical effects of temperature and
precipitation on California crop yields. Climatic Change 2007; 81: 187-203.
[95] Salinger, M. J. Climate variability and change: Past, present and future - An overview.
Climatic Change 2005; 70: 9-29.
[96] Motha, R. P., Baier, W. Impacts of present and future climate change and climate
variability on agriculture in the temperate regions: North America. Climatic Change
2005; 70: 137-164.
[97] Bootsma, A., Anderson, D., Gameda, S. Potential Impacts of Climate Change on
Agroclimatic Indices in Southern Regions of Ontario and Quebec. In; 2004.
In: Sugar Beets ISBN: 978-1-63463-499-1
Editor: Lindsey Brooks © 2015 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Chapter 6

SUGAR BEET QUALITY IN DEPENDENCE


ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF FUNGICIDES AND
GENOTYPE ON CERCOSPORA BETICOLA SACC

A. Kristek1, S. Kristek1, R. Bažok2, I. Rešić1 and I. Varga1


1
University of J. J. Strossmayer, Faculty of Agronomy, Osijek, Republic of Croatia
2
University in Zagreb, Faculty of Agronomy, Zagreb, Republic of Croatia

ABSTRACT
Sugar beet is one of two the most important industrial cultures for sugar production.
A large number of factors have an impact on the achieved results in the sugar beet
production, whereby the most important one is the appearance and development of leaf
disease caused by C. beticola Sacc. In the area where sugar beet is grown, the damage by
this fungal plant patogen is large. It depends on the cropping practices, abiotic factors,
quality and quantity of the composition of microorganisms in the soil and the disease
control measures. Application of tolerant hybrids has become a rule in the areas where it
is cultivated sugar beet. By breeding were obtained tolerant hybrids against this pathogen,
on the other side, this tolerance did not influence the yield reduction, as it was the case
with the first obtained tolerant hybrids to fungus C. beticola Sacc. Application of
fungicides is necessary for sensitive and tolerant sugar beet hybrids. The efficiency of the
treatment depends on the application time, number of applications and the choice of
fungicide - contact or sistemic. Furthermore, it is extremely important to choose the right
active substance of fungicide, which means do not use twice the same active substance,
or combine two or more active substances in order to avoid the development of
resistance. For these reasons, the aim of this study was to determine root yield and root
quality of sugar beet under different climate and soil conditions in dependence of
fungicide efficiency and the tolerance to fungus Cercospora beticola Sacc. of the studied
hybrids. Research of production values 8 hybrids were performed on eutric brown soil in
eastern Croatia in the conditions of natural infection with a pathogenic fungus
Cercospora beticola Sacc. with and without fungicide application since 2010. until 2012.
Hybrids involved in the experiments are unequal tolerance to the fungus C. beticola and


E – mail: akristek@pfos.hr
134 A. Kristek, S. Kristek, R. Baţok et al.

they are ownership of four selection houses that sell sugar beet seed in the Republic of
Croatia. Weather conditions during the research were significantly different. The first
was with increased, while the remaining two with small amounts of rainfall compared to
the long term average. In all three years monthly air temperatures during the growing
period were elevated, especially 2012th year. The obtained results show strong
dependence of yield and quality of the roots of through vegetation of conservation leaf,
hybrids and year. Because of damage to the leaves, on variants where no treatment was
carried out in relation to the well-preserved variant with three treatments, root yield was
reduced by an average of 15.92 t ha -1 (20,64%), sugar content 1,61 (rel. 10,37%) and
sugar yield for 3,07 t ha-1 (30,67%). Damages due to omitted fungicide application were
highly significant for all hybrids, and the repeated use of fungicides to combat C. beticola
Sacc., it is still mandatory and highly cost-effective measures in sugar beet production.
On average of research by highest root yields hybrids were Boomerang, Colonia, KWS
and Sandor. The highest sugar content were found in Colonia KWS, Asketa and
Boomerang. Content of sugar in molasses best hybrid was Colonia KWS. By pure sugar
yield significantly better than the others were hybrids Colonia KWS and Boomerang.

Keywords: sugar beets, hybrids, Cercospora beticola Sacc., yield, root quality

INTRODUCTION
Sugar beet is one of the most important industrial cultures in Croatia and the only raw
material for sugar production. Sugar beet is grown on about 25.000 ha annually. In the last
five years, the average root yield was about 52.0 t ha-1, while the sugar content was about
15.67%. Neither the producers nor the root processors are satisfied with such results. A large
number of factors have an impact on the achieved results in the sugar beet production,
whereby the most important one is the appearance and development of leaf disease caused by
C. beticola Sacc. In the area where sugar beet is grown, the damage by this fungal plant
patogen is large. It depends on the cropping practices, abiotic factors, quality and quantity of
the composition of microorganisms in the soil and the disease control measures. Sugar beet
leaf spot is very harmful in all European countries with warm and humid summers (Ruppel,
1995). The most obvious damages are on the leaf surfaces. Generally, higher loss of leaf-mass
is registered in cases of early and strong infections. Leaf-mass reduction leads to lower
photosynthesis activity which results in lower yields and quality of sugar beet. Root yield
reduction might be about 15-30% (Hoffman and Schmulterer, 1999, Sharifi et al., 2007, Wolf
et al., 1998), but it might be also about 60% (Yoshimura et al., 1992). Kristek et al. (2006,
2008), testing a number of hybrids in conditions of natural infection with and without
fungicide treatment, recorded a root yield loss of about 13%. Sugar content decrease might be
about 2% (Wolf et al., 1998), or about 3-7% according to Yoshimura et al. (1992). Kristek et
al. (2006, 2008) reported about mean sugar content decrease of 1.35%. Rešić (2003) reported
that sugar content of the control plot was 0.40 - 1.35% lower in comparison with the once
treated plot and 0.74 - 1.83% lower in comparison with the twice treated plot. Root yield loss
and sugar content decrease in combination with increase of molasses elements at the same
time results in pure sugar yield loss of 40 - 50% (Wolf, 1998). Biancardi et al. (2001) tested
six hybrids with different levels of tolerance without fungicide application and with fungicide
applications every 10 and 20 days after the incidence of disease and registered that the impact
of genotype on pure sugar yield was always lower than the impact of fungicide applications
Sugar Beet Quality in Dependence on the Effectiveness of Fungicides … 135

on pure sugar yield. Control measures in leaf spot suppression includes cultural practices,
seeding of tolerant hybrids and the use of fungicides. Preventive cropping practices include
sowing of healthy and fungicide treated seeds, proper crop rotation and timely soil
preparation, as well as timely organised fertilisation and weed control. A quality nutrition
directly affects the sugar beet's health.
Application of tolerant hybrids has become a rule in Croatia. By breeding were obtained
tolerant hybrids against this pathogen, on the other side, this tolerance did not influence the
yield reduction, as it was the case with the first obtained tolerant hybrids to fungus C. beticola
Sacc. Application of fungicides is necessary for sensitive and tolerant sugar beet hybrids
aswell (Kristek et al., 2006, 2008). The efficiency of the treatment depends on the application
time, number of applications and the choice of fungicide - cantact or sistemic. Furthermore, it
is extremely important to choose the right active substance of fungicide, which means do not
use twice the same active substance, or combine two or more active substances in order to
avoid the development of resistance.
As regards the development of genetic tolerance, it is important to note that breeders tried
to increase the genetic potential of hybrids, in the first place, and hybrids for most important
quantity and quality properties, thereafter they tried to increase their resistance to most
important diseases (Rhizomania, C. beticola, R. solani). Breeding for resistance to C. beticola
and other diseases at all is very complicated because it is a relation between sugar beet, as a
host plant, and the pathogen. Difficulties come from the fact that both organisms have their
own heratibility and variability. Resistance to pathogenic fungus C. beticola is a very
complex trait. Smith and Gaskill (1970) reported that the resistance to this fungus is
controlled with 4-5 pairs of genes. In breeding it is often not possible to unite resistance with
maximum root yield and root quality. As root yield and root quality have priority we still can
not talk about totally tolerant sugar beet hybrids. So Kristek et al. (2006), testing the
resistance of 26 sugar beet hybrids owned by the most significant plant breeding houses in
Europe, concluded that the used hybrids do not show sufficient tolerance to fungus C.
beticola and that in sugar beet production the application of fungicides can not be excluded.
The aim of this study was to determine root yield and root quality of sugar beet under
different climate and soil conditions in dependence of fungicide efficiency and the tolerance
to fungus Cercospora beticola Sacc. of the studied hybrids.

MATERIALS AND METHODS


The research was conducted during the field experiments set up in eastern Croatia in the
period from 2010 to 2012.
The experiment involved 8 different hybrids (Table 1) and 3 ways to suppress the
pathogenic fungus Cercospora beticola Sacc. via fungicides (1-3 treatments). Considering the
technical side of performing experiments, i.e., the use sowing machines and sprayers, the
experiment was set up in a split-block scheme with 4 replications. Hybrids used in the
experiment were declared as tolerant to C. beticola and remain the property of companies
selling seed in Croatia. Only one, slightly older hybrid Belinda is declared sensitive to this
disease.
136 A. Kristek, S. Kristek, R. Baţok et al.

Table 1. Hybrids of sugar beet in the study and declared their properties

No. Hybrid Company Type* Tolerance**


1 Belinda KWS Z R
2 Colonia KWS KWS Z R, Cr
3 Elvis Strube Z R, Cr
4 Sandor Strube NZ R, Cr, Aph
5 Boomerang SES - Van der Have N R, Cr, Rh
6 Giraf SES - Van der Have Z R, Cr
7 Asketa Syngenta Seed - Hilleshög Z R, Cr, Rh
8 Gazeta Syngenta Seed - Hilleshög Z R, Cr, Rh
**R - Rhizomania; Cr – Cercospora beticola Sacc.; Rh – Rhizoctonia solani Kühn;
Aph - Aphanomyces cochlioides Drechsler
* Z = low yield and high sugar („Sweet type“)
N = intermediate in root yield and sugar content („normal type“)
NZ = between the N type and Z type.

We investigated three variants of fungicide application in protecting against pathogen C.


beticola Sacc.:

1. control (not treated)


2. treated with fungicide one times
3. treated with fungicide three times

Experiments were set up on the eutric brown soil with the following characteristics:
pHKCl - 5.22; pHH2O - 6.48; humus content - 2.39%; AL – P2O5 - 21.40 mg/100g soil; AL –
K2O - 26.63 mg/100g soil. Size of the basic plots in the experiment was 72 m2, and consisted
of 12 rows: width – 6 m, length – 12 m. The rounded plot was 20 m2 (8 rows = 4 m wide x 5
m long).
Sugar beet sowing was conducted via pneumatic seed drill in the second half of March
with the sowing row of 15.7 cm. Ordinary fertilization for this area was conducted; with the
primary tillage was added up to 500 kg ha-1 of NPK 5:15:30 and 80 kg ha-1 of urea, before
sowing was added up to 150 kg ha-1 of KAN (27% N) and 70 kg ha-1 of KAN was added in
top- dressing. In total was added up to 121 kg ha-1 of N2, 75 kg ha-1 of P2O5 and 150 kg ha-1
of K2O. Weed control was obtained by applying herbicides after emergence and hand hoeing
in the stand regulation. Herbicides which were used: Betanal Progress OF (Fenmedifam 9% +
desmedifam 7% + etofumesat 11%) – 0,6 l ha-1, Lontrel 300 SL (Klopiralid) – 0,25 l ha-1 and
Safari WG (Triflusulfuron metil) – 30 g ha-1, and combined on many occasions. Pest control
was not necessary as the seeds of hybrids were processed by synthetic insecticide Gaucho FS
600 (imidaklopirid, 600 g l-1), which has full protection in sensitive stages of growth and
development of sugar beet. Protection against C. beticola Sacc. pathogens was performed
when 10% of leaves showed the presence of symptoms. The first fungicide treatment was
performed on July 7 (2010), August 2 (2011) and July 27 (2012) in variant 2 and 3 with - 0.8
l ha-1 of Eminent 125 EW (tetrakonazol 125 g l-1). The second treatment with 0.4 l ha-1 of
fungicide Sphera 535 EC (trifloksistrobin 375 g l-1 + ciprokonazol 160 g l-1) was performed
on July 28 (2010), August 22 (2011) and August 20 (2012) only in variant 3. The third
Sugar Beet Quality in Dependence on the Effectiveness of Fungicides … 137

treatment with 1.2 l ha-1 of fungicide Opus team (epoksikonazol 84 g l-1 + fenpropimorf 250 g
l-1) was applied only in variant 3 on August 20 (2010), August 15 in 2011 and August 12 in
2012. In mid-September was performed the visual assessment of C. beticola Sacc. pathogens
presence and leaf damages using the scale Kleinwanzlebener Cercospora Tafel with a grade
from 0 to 5.
The harvest was carried out in mid (16-18) October. After harvest the samples were taken
to determine the root yield and quality. Using standard methods were determined the content
of sugar, potassium, sodium and alpha-amino nitrogen (AmN) in the laboratory "Venema".
Sugar content was determined by saccharimeter by cold digestion, the content of potassium
and sodium via flame photometer and AmN content was determined by colorimetric method
"blue number". Sugar yield and sugar content in molasses was determined according to
Braunschweiger formula (Buchholz and associates, 1995).
The obtained data were processed by modern statistical methods (variance analysis) using
computer programs for each year separately and the total for all three years. The year in
which the experiments were carried out with each other were significantly differ by weather
conditions.
Two years were dry with below-average monthly precipitation, and one (2010) was damp
with 654 mm of rainfall in vegetation, which is even more than the average 244 mm/year.
Particularly unfavorable for sugar beet growth and development was 2012 year that followed
after dry 2011 as it came with a small reserve of water in the soil, and rainfall in the
vegetation was less than the standard average. Besides, monthly mean temperature in the
vegetation was significantly higher (2-3 °C) than the multi-year average temperature; in July
and August it exceeded 24 °C, which is 6 °C higher than is needed for sugar beet in this
period. During all three years of study in the first part of growing season (from emergence to
the development of maximum leaf area), weather conditions were favorable for steady
emergence and rapid foliage growth. The growth of broad roots significantly varied from year
to year. Lack of precipitations in 2010 and now at the development stage is favorable for
broad root growth, but in 2012 in two months (July, August) the precipitations amounted only
52 mm of rainfall. So little rainfall and very high temperatures almost completely prevented
from the broad roots growth. The remaining two years at this stage provided equal and
average conditions for the mass beets growth. At the stage of maximum sugar concentration,
sugar beet needs little rainfall, only 35-40 mm per month. Poor conditions for maturation
provided in moist 2010 and very dry 2012 thickened the root which was very dehydrated so
precipitation that fell in September and October led only to a dilution of cell sap, and not to
an increase in sugar content. As a result this year extracted beets turned out to be not mature
enough because of high content of sodium and alpha-amino nitrogen.

RESEARCH RESULTS
Achieved research results significantly varied depending on the weather conditions
among the years and explored factors, such as the number of fungicide applications in
measures of protection against leaf spot caused by Cercospora beticola Sacc. and hybrids.
The impact of these factors will be analyzed through the most important parameters that
determine the results in the production and processing of sugar beet.
138 A. Kristek, S. Kristek, R. Baţok et al.

ROOT YIELD
During a three-years research an average root yield of about 69.41 t ha-1 was realized
(Table 2), which considering to the soil characteristics and production technology did not
show particularly good production results.

Table 2. Root yield (t ha-1) depending of hybrid, protection of fungicides and year

Hybrid (A) Variant (B) Year (C) Average


2010 2011 2012
Belinda 1 73.38 51.03 42.91 55.77
2 85.63 64.12 50.73 66.83
3 96.07 68.48 57.30 73.95
Average 85.03 61.21 50.31 65.52
Colonia KWS 1 83.10 78.72 52.75 71.52
2 93.07 82.00 57.15 77.41
3 105.53 91.53 59.32 85.46
Average 93.90 84.08 56.41 78.13
Elvis 1 58.09 58.61 35.12 50.61
2 63.91 66.20 42.84 57.65
3 65.27 68.17 45.30 59.58
Average 62.42 64.33 41.09 55.95
Sandor 1 82.71 73.20 48.96 68.29
2 97.80 85.79 51.62 78.40
3 118.27 86.44 58.40 87.70
Average 99.59 81.81 52.99 78.13
Boomerang 1 84.45 77.08 55.08 72.20
2 98.69 79.44 63.55 80.56
3 106.20 83.72 60.30 83.41
Average 96.45 80.08 59.64 78.72
Giraf 1 62.08 58.96 46.00 55.68
2 75.71 72.75 55.42 67.96
3 87.80 76.73 61.20 75.24
Average 75.20 69.48 54.21 66.29
Asketa 1 69.35 72.07 43.15 61.51
2 76.96 79.25 49.65 68.62
3 95.07 84.64 52.80 77.50
Average 80.45 78.65 48.53 69.21
Gazeta 1 60.02 61.25 40.93 54.07
2 70.20 69.23 46.03 61.82
3 98.67 72.95 50.98 74.20
Average 76.30 67.81 45.98 63.36
Total average 1 71.64 66.37 45.61 61.21
Total average 2 82.75 74.85 52.12 69.91
Total average 3 96.61 79.08 55.70 77.13
Total average 83.67 73.43 51.15 69.41
LSD0,05 A - 4.25 A - 4.08 A - 3.83 A – 4.98
B - 3.49 B - 3.99 B - 2.74 B – 4.23
C – 3.95
LSD0,01 A – 5.59 A – 5.38 A – 5.06 A - 6.58
B – 4.61 B – 5.27 B – 3.60 B - 5.59
C - 5.26
Sugar Beet Quality in Dependence on the Effectiveness of Fungicides … 139

Main reason for this, primarily, were unfavorable weather conditions (drought stress and
high air temperatures) during two years of research. This is the main reason for great yield
variability among years. The highest mean root yield was 83.67 t ha-1 in 2010, where during
the vegetation the largest amount of rainfall was registered. The smallest mean root yield was
achieved in 2012 and was about 51.15 t ha-1, in that year the amount of rainfall was below
long term average with unfavourable water distribution and higher mean air temperatures.
Achieved mean root yield in the favourable year (2010) was about 63.58% higher than the
mean root yield in the less favourable year (2012).
This data tells about very strong influence of weather conditions on sugar beets root
yield. An significant impact on the root yield had the protection of leaf disease caused by C.
beticola Sacc. On the treatment without fungicide application (variant 1), in research average,
the lowest root yield of 61.21 t ha-1 was achieved. The yield reduction of beets on this
treatment, because of leaf damages in regard to the treatment with repeated fungicide
applications (variant 3), where was mostly little damages at the end of vegetation, was in
average about 15.92 t ha-1 or 20.64%. Already one fungicide application (variant 2) reduced
leaf damages, so the yield reduction on variant 1 compared to variant 2 was about 8.70 t ha-1
or 12.45%. These data show that by such agro-climatical conditions one fungicide application
is not enough. This is especially valid for humid years like 2010 where on treatments with
one application the root yield was lower by 13.86 t ha-1 or 14.05% compared to treatments
with three applications. In the remaining two years the difference between variant 2 and
variant 3 was much smaller (about 4 t ha-1 or by 6-7%). The differences in root yield and
between studied hybrids are significant. In research average, the highest root yield (78 t ha-1)
was achieved with the following hybrids: Boomerang, Colonia KWS and Sandor. At the same
time in the climatic favourable year 2010 with good protection against C. beticola Sacc. these
hybrids achieved high root yields - over 100 t ha-1. The lowest root yields on treatments
without fungicide application, in an three-years average, were achieved with hybrid Belinda
which is declared to be sensitive to C. beticola (55.77 t ha-1 ), but also with tolerant hybrids to
C. beticola like Elvis (50.61 t ha-1), Gazeta (54.07 t ha-1) and Giraf (55.68 t ha-1).

Sugar Content

The average sugar content in sugar beets during all years of research and for all hybrids
was low and amounted only 14.88% (Table 3). Weather conditions had significantly affected
on sugar content in roots. The highest sugar content of 15.52% was achieved in 2012, in
which the lowest, only 13.93%, was achieved in 2010. During the research highest sugar
content average was achieved by hybrid Colonia KWS and amounted 15.40%. In the same
range, with no significant differences in sugar content, were two more hybrids (Asketa i
Boomerang). The lowest sugar content average during the research was achieved by hybrids
Sandor and Giraf.
Fungicide application significantly affected on sugar content. Lowest mean sugar content
of about 13.92% was achieved on treatments without fungicide application and highest mean
sugar content of about 15.53% was achieved on treatments with three fungicide applications.
With just one fungicide application against disease caused by Cercospora beticola Sacc. the
sugar content was, compared to the control, significantly increased, in average by 1.27%. The
largest increase was in humid 2010 and the average for all hybrids amounted 1.47%.
140 A. Kristek, S. Kristek, R. Baţok et al.

Table 3. Sugar content (%) depending of hybrid, protection of fungicides and year

Hybrid (A) Variant (B) Year (C) Average


2010 2011 2012
Belinda 1 11.90 13.65 14.95 13.38
2 13.81 15.10 15.75 14.89
3 14.59 15.21 16.07 15.29
Average 13.43 14.65 15.47 14.52
Colonia KWS 1 14.01 14.72 15.00 14.58
2 15.08 15.77 16.10 15.65
3 15.65 15.99 16.31 15.98
Average 14.91 15.49 15.80 15.40
Elvis 1 12.29 14.95 14.51 13.92
2 13.80 16.12 15.78 15.23
3 14.44 16.44 16.17 15.68
Average 13.51 15.84 15.49 14.94
Sandor 1 12.23 13.47 14.07 13.26
2 14.12 14.98 15.41 14.84
3 14.49 15.00 15.72 15.07
Average 13.61 14.48 15.07 14.39
Boomerang 1 12.82 14.83 15.52 14.39
2 14.62 15.94 15.70 15.42
3 14.93 16.11 15.94 15.66
Average 14.12 15.63 15.72 15.16
Giraf 1 12.40 13.69 14.17 13.42
2 13.91 15.39 15.49 14.93
3 13.14 15.99 15.70 14.94
Average 13.15 15.02 15.12 14.43
Asketa 1 14.07 14.58 15.12 14.59
2 14.97 15.66 16.00 15.54
3 15.33 16.03 16.08 15.81
Average 14.74 15.42 15.73 15.32
Gazeta 1 12.50 14.19 14.88 13.89
2 13.69 15.39 15.98 15.02
3 15.54 15.51 16.30 15.78
Average 13.91 15.03 15.72 14.89
Total average 1 12.78 14.26 14.73 13.92
Total average 2 14.25 15.44 15.78 15.19
Total average 3 14.76 15.79 16.04 15.53
Total average 13.93 15.20 15.52 14.88
LSD0,05 A – 0.34 A – 0.25 A - 0.18 A – 0.35
B – 0.45 B – 0.36 B - 2.74 B – 0.33
C – 0.39
LSD0,01 A – 0.50 A – 0.33 A – 0.31 A – 0.46
B – 0.45 B – 0.47 B – 0.24 B – 0.44
C – 0.51

A significantly increase in sugar content was also achieved on treatments with three
fungicide applications. This treatment compared to the one with only one fungicide
application showed that sugar content was in average increased by 0.34%. The increase in
Sugar Beet Quality in Dependence on the Effectiveness of Fungicides … 141

sugar content due to implemented disease control depended also largely on hybrids. In three-
years average during the research, variant 3 compared to variant 1, highest increase in sugar
content was achieved with hybrids Belinda (1.91%), Gazeta (1.89%) and Sandor (1.81%),
which in the lowest increase in sugar content was achieved with hybrids Asketa (1.22%),
Boomerang (1.27%) and Colonia KWS (1.40%). It follows that neither the increase in sugar
content within fungicide application does not depend on the characteristics of declared
tolerance to C. beticola, also the lowest mean sugar content on treatments without fungicide
application was achieved with three hybrids (Sandor, Belinda and Giraf). With three
fungicide applications in 2012 achieved mean sugar content was about 16.04% with highest
values by following hybrids: Colonia KWS (16.31), Gazeta (16.30%) and Elvis (16.17%).

SUGAR IN MOLASSES
The average sugar content in molasses during the research was about 2.57% per beet
(Table 4), which can be assessed as a good result. This indicator was mostly influenced by
weather characteristics during growing season, then by hybrid, in which the influence of
fungicide application was small. The highest sugar content in molasses per beet (3.20%) was
achieved in 2012, where beets because of unfavourable weather characteristics (high air
temperatures and drought) during the second half of vegetation had disrupted flow of
development, so the sugar beets at harvest were unripe with high content of sodium and
alpha-amino nitrogen. During 2013 in average 1% more sugar was lost compared to 2012.
Hybrids with extremely high sugar content in molasses values were: Gazeta, Asketa, Belinda
and Giraf (3.39% - 3.25%), whereby significantly better results were achieved with hybrid
Colonia KWS (2.68%). The average loss of sugar in molasses per beet in 2010 was about
2.21%, which is a very good result. Highest losses in 2010 were achieved with hybrids
Sandor and Elvis (2.51% and 2.46%), which are still good results.

Sugar Yield

The average pure sugar yield during the research was about 8.58 t ha-1 (Table 5) with
high variations among years which cannot be evaluated as satisfactorily. Yield variations are
mainly result of extreme weather characteristics, but also of unequal hybrid reactions to
stressful conditions.
Highest pure sugar yield average of about 9.92 t ha-1 was achieved in 2010 with above-
average amounts of rainfall during the vegetation, whereby the lowest yield average of about
6.33 t ha-1 was achieved in 2012 with very low amounts of rainfall and high air temperatures
during the vegetation. Compared to other hybrids in the trial, significantly higher pure sugar
yield average during three years of research was achieved with hybrids Colonia KWS (10.25 t
ha-1) and Boomerang (9.92 t ha-1).
Analyzed by individual years of research, during the most favourable year of research
(2010) significantly higher sugar yields, compared to other hybrids in the trial, were achieved
with hybrids Colonia KWS (12.13t ha-1) followed by Boomerang (11.63 t ha-1) and Sandor
142 A. Kristek, S. Kristek, R. Baţok et al.

(11.19 t ha-1). In the year with the lowest yields (2012), highest yields (higher than 7 t ha-1)
were achieved with hybrids Colonia KWS and Boomerang.

Table 4. Sugar in molasses (% per beet) depending of hybrid, protection


of fungicides and year

Hybrid (A) Variant (B) Year (C) Average


2010 2011 2012
Belinda 1 2.04 2.25 3.24 2.51
2 2.29 2.14 3.34 2.59
3 2.01 2.28 3.42 2.57
Average 2.11 2.22 3.33 2.55
Colonia KWS 1 2.00 2.21 2.67 2.29
2 1.90 2.21 2.64 2.25
3 2.26 2.14 2.71 2.37
Average 2.05 2.19 2.68 2.30
Elvis 1 2.18 2.23 3.14 2.52
2 2.75 2.14 3.07 2.65
3 2.47 2.28 3.17 2.64
Average 2.46 2.22 3.12 2.60
Sandor 1 2.51 2.39 3.21 2.70
2 2.56 2.23 3.12 2.63
3 2.48 2.14 3.18 2.60
Average 2.51 2.25 3.17 2.65
Boomerang 1 2.03 2.28 3.32 2.55
2 2.27 2.17 3.26 2.56
3 2.12 2.27 3.35 2.58
Average 2.14 2.24 3.31 2.56
Giraf 1 2.05 2.54 3.29 2.62
2 2.35 2.43 3.19 2.66
3 1.75 2.26 3.27 2.43
Average 2.05 2.41 3.25 2.57
Asketa 1 2.25 2.54 3.42 2.74
2 2.34 2.47 3.26 2.69
3 2.15 2.44 3.36 2.65
Average 2.25 2.48 3.35 2.69
Gazeta 1 2.14 2.62 3.40 2.72
2 2.28 2.52 3.37 2.72
3 1.99 2,39 3.41 2.59
Average 2.14 2.51 3.39 2.68
Total average 1 2.15 2.38 3.21 2.58
Total average 2 2.34 2.29 3.16 2.59
Total average 3 2.15 2.28 3.23 2.55
Total average 2.21 2.31 3.20 2.57
LSD0,05 A – 0.08 A – 0.10 A - 0.08 A – 0.09
B - n.s B – 0.06 B - n.s. B - n.s.
C – 0.07
LSD0,01 A – 0.11 A – 0.13 A – 0.10 A – 0.12
B - n.s. B – 0.08 B - n.s. B - n.s.
C – 0.09
Sugar Beet Quality in Dependence on the Effectiveness of Fungicides … 143

Table 5. Sugar yield (t ha-1) u zavisnosti od hibrida, zaštite fungicidima i godine

Hybrid (A) Variant (B) Year (C) Average


2010 2011 2012
Belinda 1 7.24 5.82 4.87 5.97
2 9.89 8.13 6.30 8.16
3 12.09 8.86 7.25 9.40
Average 9.73 7.66 6.14 7.84
Colonia KWS 1 9.98 9.85 6.50 8.78
2 12.27 11.12 7.69 10.36
3 14.13 12.68 8.07 11.62
Average 12.13 11.21 7.42 10.25
Elvis 1 5.87 7.45 3.99 5.77
2 7.06 9.25 5.45 7.25
3 7.82 9.65 5.89 7.79
Average 6.92 8.79 5.11 6.94
Sandor 1 8.04 8.11 5.32 7.16
2 11.31 10.94 6.35 9.53
3 14.21 11.11 7.32 10.88
Average 11.19 10.05 6.33 9.19
Boomerang 1 9.11 9.67 6.72 8.50
2 12.19 10.94 7.91 10.35
3 13.60 11.58 7.59 10.93
Average 11.63 10.73 7.41 9.92
Giraf 1 6.43 6.58 5.01 6.00
2 8.75 9.43 6.81 8.33
3 10.00 10.54 7.61 9.38
Average 8.39 8.85 6.48 7.91
Asketa 1 8.20 8.68 5.05 7.31
2 9.72 10.45 6.33 8.83
3 12.53 11.50 6.72 10.25
Average 10.15 10.21 6.03 8.80
Gazeta 1 6.60 7.09 4.70 6.00
2 8.01 8.91 5.81 7.58
3 13.37 9.57 6.57 9.84
Average 9.20 8.52 5.69 7.81
Total average 1 7.64 7.91 5.27 6.94
Total average 2 9.90 9.92 6.58 8.80
Total average 3 12.22 10.69 7.13 10.01
Total average 9.92 9.50 6.33 8.58
LSD0,05 A – 0.55 A – 0.25 A - 0.62 A – 0.54
B – 0.52 B – 0.41 B - 0.37 B – 0.46
C – 0.39
LSD0,01 A – 0.72 A – 0.33 A – 0.81 A – 0.71
B – 0.68 B – 0.54 B – 0.49 B – 0.60
C – 0.58

Significant impact on sugar yield had also fungicide apllication. Already one fungicide
application resulted in sugar yield average increase by 1.86 t ha-1, which in three fungicide
applications increased the average by 3.06 t ha-1 compared to the control and by 1.21 t ha-1
144 A. Kristek, S. Kristek, R. Baţok et al.

compared to variant 2. Because of leaf damages caused by C. beticola Sacc. sugar yield on
the control was decreased by 21.14% compared to the variant with one fungicide application
and by 30.67% compared to the variant with three fungicide applications. Higher losses due
to disease development were expected during the humid year 2010 and smaller in the
remaining two dry years.
The lowest sugar yield on treatments without fungicide application in three-years average
was achieved with hybrids Elvis, Belinda, Gazeta and Giraf. The pure sugar yield increase
with three fungicide applications was lowest with hybrid Elvis (2.0 t ha-1), then Belinda and
Giraf (3.4 t ha-1) and highest with hybrid Gazete (3.8 t ha-1), what shows that the effectiveness
of fungicide application is not dependent on declared tolerance to C. beticola Sacc.

Analysis of Sugar Beet Leaf Damage Caused by the Attack of Cercospora beticola Sacc
The intensity of sugar beet leaf damage caused by C. beticola Sacc. depended on the
number of fungicide applications, hybrid and year of research. In average, the sugar beet leaf
damage, during all the three years of research, caused by C. beticola Sacc. was relatively high
and ranged up to 2.67 (Table 6).

Table 6. Analysis of sugar beet leaf damage caused by the attack


of Cercospora beticola Sacc

Hybrid (A) Variant (B) Year (C) Average


2010 2011 2012
Belinda 1 4.75 4.25 4.15 4.38
2 3.56 3.38 3.45 3.46
3 1.75 1.42 1.12 1.43
Average 3.35 3.02 2.91 3.09
Colonia KWS 1 4.10 3.60 3.13 3.61
2 2.70 2.50 2.63 2.61
3 0.75 0.43 0.50 0.56
Average 2.52 2.18 2.09 2.26
Elvis 1 4.50 4.10 4.24 4.28
2 3.84 3.10 3.25 3.40
3 2.54 1.52 1.63 1.90
Average 3.63 2.91 3.04 3.19
Sandor 1 5.00 4.00 4.30 4.43
2 3.10 3.13 3.10 3.11
3 0.62 0.83 0.75 0.74
Average 2.91 2.65 2.72 2.76
Boomerang 1 4.75 4.23 4.00 4.33
2 3.16 2.75 2.73 2.88
3 1.10 0.86 1.10 1.02
Average 3.00 2.61 2.61 2.74
Giraf 1 5.00 4.25 4.35 4.53
2 3.95 3.55 2.78 3.43
3 2.75 1.33 1.50 1.86
Average 3.90 3.04 2.88 3.27
Sugar Beet Quality in Dependence on the Effectiveness of Fungicides … 145

Hybrid (A) Variant (B) Year (C) Average


2010 2011 2012
Asketa 1 3.90 3.45 3.35 3.57
2 2.54 2.25 2.30 2.36
3 0.53 0.45 0.35 0.44
Average 2.32 2.05 2.00 2.12
Gazeta 1 3.75 3.50 3.25 3.50
2 2.75 2.34 2.00 2.36
3 0.50 0.28 0.53 0.44
Average 2.33 2.04 1.93 2.10
Total average 1 4.47 3.92 3.84 4.08
Total average 2 3.20 2.88 2.78 2.95
Total average 3 1.15 0.89 0.94 0.99
Total average 2.94 2.56 2.52 2.67
LSD0,05 A – 0.43 A- 0.41 A - 0.49 A – 0.47
B – 0.42 B- 0.33 B - 0.27 B – 0.46
C – 0.28
LSD0,01 A – 0.56 A – 0.54 A – 0.64 A – 0.62
B – 0.55 B – 0.43 B – 0.36 B – 0.60
C – 0.37

The highest leaf damages were during the humid year 2010 with an average grade for all
hybrids and treatments of about 2.94. In 2010 the average grade on the variant without
fungicide application was 4.47 and 1.15 on the variant with three fungicide applications. The
grades on variant 1 ranged in that year from 3.75 (hybrid Gazeta) to 5.0 (hybrids Giraf and
Sandor), to 4.75 (non tolerant hybrid Belinda) respectively. At the same time, grades on
variant 3 ranged from 0.50 (hybrid Gazeta) to 2.75 (hybrid Giraf), while the grade of sensitive
hybrid Belinda was below 1.75. Already these data show the insufficient tolerance of today's
hybrids to sugar beet leaf disease caused by Cercospora beticola Sacc. in climates with warm
and humid summers and the incorrect labeling of tolerance which cannot be accepted in
practice. The lowest leaf damages were achieved in dry 2012 with an average grade of 2.52 in
a range from 3.13 (Colonia KWS) to 4.35 (Giraf) on the variant without fungicide application
and in range from 0.35 (Asketa) to 1.63 (Elvis) on the variant with three fungicide
applications.
Within the research, hybrid Giraf was the most sensitive hybrid to leaf disease caused by
C. beticola Sacc., whereby hybrids Gazeta and Asketa showed significantly higher tolarance
compared to other hybrids. However, the tolerance of these hybrids is still insufficient under
such weather conditions, so the application of fungicides in sugar beet production is still an
obligatory measure. Furthermore, achieved results show that the declared tolerance of hybrids
is not accurate which is proved by the fact that hybrid Belinda, as the only sensitive hybrid,
did not show more leaf damages compared to some hybrids declared as tolerant.

DISCUSSION
Weather conditions during vegetation have considerable effects on the growth and
development of sugar beets, but also on infections, incubation period and sporulation of
146 A. Kristek, S. Kristek, R. Baţok et al.

fungus Cercospora beticola Sacc., as well as the level of damages caused by. According to a
conducted research, the mean root yield and sugar yield, as well as the sugar content and the
sugar in molasses was significantly depended on weather characteristics during the growing
season. Root yield and sugar yield ranged from 51.15 t ha-1 and 6.33 t ha-1, respectively, in
2012 to 83.67 t ha-1 and 9.92 t ha-1, respectively, in 2010. At the same time sugar content
during the dry year was 15.52% followed by higher sugar in molasses of about 3.32%, while
during the wet year best production results were achieved. This year also provided favorable
conditions for the development of disease, so in 2010 were registered the greatest damage, in
which fungicide application recorded the highest increase of analyzed production results.
Obtained results about the impact of weather characteristics on achieved root and pure sugar
yield, as well as on the root quality are in line with the results registered by Pospišil et al.
(2006), Kristek et al. (2006) and Kristek et al. (2013).
Realization of increasing root yield and root quality of sugar beet is constantly a desire
and an effort of sugar beet producers. That is why they launch numerous measures to improve
the production, among them, one of the most important measures is to preserve leaf health in
order to reduce leaf restoring processes and to keep photosynthesis processes as high as
possible. The impact of leaf preserve by fungicide applications is given by the achieved
results. On the treatment without fungicide application the lowest results were achieved, so
the mean root yield was 61.21 t ha-1, mean sugar content was 13.92% and mean sugar yield
was 6.94 t ha-1. One fungicide application increases the root yield by 8.7 t ha-1 (14.22%),
sugar content by 1.27% (relative 9.13%) and sugar yield by 1.86 t ha-1 (26.84%), whereas
three fungicide applications increases root yield by 15.92 t ha-1 (26.01%), sugar content by
1.61% (relative 11.57%) and sugar yield by 3.07 t ha-1 (44.24%). In a two years research
included two locations and one fungicide application Rešić (2003) achieved, in the first year
of research, an increase of root yield by 8.02 t ha-1 (15.79%) compared to the control, with
two fungicide applications the increase was even higher by 12.74 t ha-1 (24.50%). At the same
time with one and two fungicide applications the sugar content was increased by 0.40%
(relative 2.85%) and 0.74% (relative 5.29%) respectively. Sugar yield was increased by 1.33 t
ha-1 (18.32%) with one fungicide application and by 2.16 t ha-1 (29.85%) with two fungicide
applications. In the second year of research one fungicide application increased root yield by
6.40 t ha-1 (16.26%), sugar content by 1.35% (relative 10.55%) and sugar yield by 1.33 t ha-1
(18.32%), which in the increase with two fungicide applications was by 7.81 t ha-1 (19.94%),
1.83% (relative 14.30%) and 1.12 t ha-1 (21.52%). In a similar research with 26 sugar beet
hybrids Kristek et al. (2006) achieved, in treatment with fungicides application compared to
the control, an increase of root yield by 11.07 t ha-1 (14.08%), sugar content by 1,00%
(relative 7,1%) and sugar yield by 2.08 t ha-1 (23.00%). Glavaš-Tokić (2009) reported that
with one fungicide application the sugar yield was increased by 1.01 t ha-1 (10.8%) compared
to the control and with two fungicide applications by 1.84 t ha-1 (19.6%), as well as fungicide
efficiency depended on genotype. In sensitive hybrids with one fungicide application the
sugar yield was increased by 1.30 t ha-1 (15.5%) and with two fungicide applications by 2.33 t
ha-1 (29.5%). Application of fungicides is necessary in Croatia as concluded Kristek et al.
(2008) after a three years research with 23 sugar beet hybrids in conditions of natural
infection with and without fungicide applications. On treatment without fungicide application,
because of leaf damages, compared to treatment with fungicide application and preserved
leaves the decrease was by 11.5 t ha-1 (13.0%) for root yield, 1.35% (relative 8.4%) for sugar
content and 2.5 t ha-1 (20.3%) for sugar yield. In favorable year for disease development
Sugar Beet Quality in Dependence on the Effectiveness of Fungicides … 147

losses in production were even higher, so root yield was lower for 15 t ha-1, sugar content for
1.88% and sugar yield for 3.72 t ha-1. Also with other hybrids similar results were achieved in
this research where the largest decrease was in 2010. In a two year field trial on two locations
Kristek et al. (2006) reported a visual rating of leaf damages caused by C. beticola in a scale
from 0-5, for all hybrids on treatment without fungicides application the grade was 3.17 and
for the hybrids on treatment with fungicides application the grade was only 1.53. Three
hybrids showed higher tolerance: Canaria, Palma and Europe. Within the research the average
grade for all hybrids in condition without use of fungicide was 4.08, in conditions with one
fungicide application the average grade was 2.95 and in conditions with three applications the
average grade was 0.99. Significantly higher tolerance compared to other hybrids showed
Gazeta, Asketa and Colonia KWS, while most sensitive showed to be Giraf, Elvis and
Belinda. According to sugar yield significantly better, compared to other hybrids, were
Colonia KWS and Boomerang. Kristek et al. (2011) achieved the highest sugar yield using
the hybrids Gazeta, Merak and Severina.

CONCLUSION
Based on the three-year research production values of 8 sugar beet hybrids grown on
eutric brown soil in eastern Croatia under conditions of natural infection by pathogenic
fungus Cercospora beticola Sacc. in variants with and without fungicide application, the
following can be concluded:

- Root yield, sugar content and sugar yield as well as leaf damages depended on the
number of fungicide treatments, hybrids and weather conditions during the growing
season;
- On variant without fungicide application (1) lower root yield of about 8.7 t ha-1
(12.45%) was achieved, sugar content was lower for 1.27% (relative 8.36%) and
sugar yield was lower for 1.86 t ha-1 (21.14%) compared to variant with one
fungicide application (2). Compared to variant with three fungicide applications (3)
root yield was lower for 15.92 t ha-1 (20.64%), sugar content was lower for 1.61%
(relative 10.37) and sugar content was lower for 3.07 t ha-1 (30.67%);
- In 2010, when we had favourable weather conditions for plant growth but also for
leaf disease attack (warm and humid summer), best production results were achieved,
but also greatest decrease in root yield, pure sugar yield and sugar beet quality was
recorded on variant without funigicide application;
- Hybrids in research differed among themselves, but the impact of hybrids on
production values is less than the impact of fungicide application. During the
research, highest root yields were achieved with hybrids Boomerang, Colonia KWS
and Sandor. The highest sugar content were found in Colonia KWS, Asketa and
Boomerang. The lowest content of sugar in molasses had hybrid Colonia KWS.
According to pure sugar yield hybrids Colonia KWS and Boomerang were better
then the others;
148 A. Kristek, S. Kristek, R. Baţok et al.

- The highest tolerance to leaf spot disease caused by Cercospora beticola Sacc. with a
minimum average grade of leaf damages have shown hybrids Gazeta, Asketa and
Colonia KWS.
- Damage because of omitted fungicide applications were highly significant for all
hybrids, so the regular fungicide application against C. beticola Sacc., in these
climates, it is still obliged and very cost effective measure in sugar beet production.

REFERENCES
[1] Biancardi, E., Colombo, M., De Biaggi, M., Ghedini, R., Stevanato, P. (2001.):
Protektive, Curative and eradikant aktivity of the Strobilurin fungicide Azoxystrobin
against C. beticola and Erisiphe betae. Journal of Phytopathology 151 (11-12): 647-
651.
[2] Buchholz, K., Märländer, B., Puke, H., Glattkowski, H., Thielecke, K. (1995.):
Neubewertung des technischen Wertes von Zuckerrüben. Zuckerindustrie 120:113–121.
[3] Glavaš-Tokić, R.(2009.): Utjecaj genotipa, mikroflore tla i zaštite od parazitne gljive
Cercospora brticola Sacc. na elemente prinosa i kvalitete šećerne repe. Master of
Science Thesis. University of J. J. Strossmayer. Faculty of Agriculture in Osijek.
[4] Hoffman, G. M., Schmutterer, H. (1999.): Parasitäre Krankheiten und Schädlinge an
landwirtschaftlichen Nutzpflantzen. Verlag Eugen Ulmer, 657:384-391.
[5] Kristek, A., Glavaš-Tokić, R., Kristek, S., Antunović, M. (2006.): Značaj izbora sorte i
primjene fungicida u sprječavanju pjegavosti lišća šećerne repe Cercospora beticola
Sacc. i ostvarivanju visokih prinosa kvalitetnog korijena. Poljoprivreda, 12 (1): 27-34.
[6] Kristek, A., Glavaš-Tokić, R., Kristek, S., Antunović, M. (2008.): Utjecaj oštećenja
lišća šećerene repe u vegetaciji na prinos i kvalitetu korijena. Zbornik radova sa 43.
hrvatskog i 3. meĎunarodnog simpozija agronoma. Pospišil, M. (ur.). Zagreb.
Agronomski fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, Opatija, 18.-21. 02. 2008. 641- 645.
[7] Kristek, A., Kristek, S., Glavaš-Tokić, R, Antunović, M., Rašić,S.,Rešić,I., Varga, I.
(2013.): Prinos i kvaliteta korijena istraţivanih hibrida. Poljoprivreda, 19 (1): 33-40.
[8] Pospišil, M., Pospišil, A., Mustapić, Z., Butorac, J., Tot, I., Ţeravica, A. (2006.):
Proizvodne vrijednosti istraţivanih hibrida šećerne repe. Poljoprivreda, 12 (1): 16-21.
[9] Rešić, I. (2003.): Djelotvornost fungicida i tolerantnost sorata šećerne repe na gljivu
Cercospora beticola Sacc. Master of Science Thesis. University of J. J. Strossmayer.
Faculty of Agriculture in Osijek.
[10] Ruppel.,E.G., (1995.): Cercospora leaf spot. U Compendium of Beet Diseases and
Insects, ed. By Whitnej, E.D., Duffus, E.J., APS Press, 8-9.
[11] Sharifi, Hamid; Urazi Zade, Mohammad Reza; Hossein Pour, Mostafa; Abdollahian
Nuqabi, Mohammad; Bbaba`i, Babak; Mansouri; Mandani, Hassan (2005): Effects of
cercospora leaf spot on the yield losses of sugar beet lines varied in disease resistance in
Dezful area. Agricultural Scientific Information and Documentation Centre,
Agricultural Research and Education Organization (Iran (Islamic Republic of)) ASIDC
Yaman Avenue, Chamran Highway, P.O. Box 19835-111. Tehran.
[12] Sharifi, Hamid; Gaforzadeh dabagh,; Mandani, H.; Reza ghareb, M.; Abdollahian
Noghabi, M.; Babaee, B. (2007): effect of planting date,sugar beet cultivar and
Sugar Beet Quality in Dependence on the Effectiveness of Fungicides … 149

frequency of fungicide application on leaf spot of sugar beet at safi abad agricultural
research center Dezful _Iran . Agricultural Scientific Information and Documentation
Centre, Agricultural Research and Education Organization (Iran (Islamic Republic of))
ASIDC. Yaman Avenue, Chamran Highway, P.O. Box 19835-111. Tehran.
[13] Smith, G.A.,Gaskill, J.O. (1970.): Inheritance of Resistance to Cescospora Leaf Spot in
Sugarbeet. J. Am. Sugar Beet Technol. 16: 172-180.
[14] Wolf, P.F.J., Weiss, F. J. (1995.): Principles of an integrated pest menagemend of
Carcospora beticola (Sacc.) in sugar beets. Journal of plant disease and protection 102
(6): 578-592.
[15] Wolf, P.F.J., Kraft,R., Verreeti, J.A. (1998.): Characteristics of damage caused by
Carcospora beticola (Sacc.) in sugar beet as a base of yield loss forecast. Journal of
plant disease and protection 105(5): 462-474.
[16] Yoshimura, Y.,,Abe, H., Ohtuschi, K. (1992.): Varietal Difference in the Susceptibility
to Cercospora Leaf Spots and its Effect on Quality of Sugar Beets. Proc. Japan soc.
Sugar Beet Tehnol. 34: 112-116.

Reviewed by Ph.D. Milan Pospišil, full professor


University in Zagreb, Faculty of Agronomy
Svetošimunska cesta 25, 10000 Zagreb
Republic of Croatia, EU
In: Sugar Beets ISBN: 978-1-63463-499-1
Editor: Lindsey Brooks © 2015 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Chapter 7

OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION KINETICS


OF SUGAR BEET PULP

Aleksandar Jokić1, Zoltan Zavargo, Zita Šereš,


Jovana Grahovac and Jelena Dodić
University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technology,
Novi Sad, Republic of Serbia

ABSTRACT
Osmotic dehydration is a process of partial removal of water from plant tissues by
submerging into hypertonic (osmotic) solutions. Driving force for diffusion of water from
the tissue to the solution provides a higher osmotic pressure of hypertonic solution in
relation to the osmotic pressure that exists within the cells of plant tissue. The diffusion
of water is accompanied by a simultaneous counter diffusion of solute from the osmotic
solution into the tissue. Just how membrane responsible for osmotic transport has no ideal
selectivity and other dissolved substances present in the cell may also pass to the osmotic
solution. The rate of diffusion of water from a plant tissue depends on several factors
such as temperature and concentration of the osmotic solution, the size and shape of the
plant material, the weight ratio of the solution and the material and many other factors.
Osmotic dehydration was carried out in the sucrose solutions and in combined sucrose -
sodium chloride solutions. The mass transfer that occurs during osmotic dehydration
process was monitored through water loss and solid gain. In order to describe the kinetics
of the process two parameter Peleg equation as empirical model was used. It was proven
that it is good model to adequately represent the experimental results of water loss and
solid gain for both sucrose and combined osmotic solutions. By use of the response
surface methodology in finding a polynomial dependence of reciprocal values of the
Peleg equation parameters it is possible to determine the influence of process parameters
on the equilibrium and the initial velocity of the mass transfer.

1
Corresponding author‟s email: jokic@uns.ac.rs
152 Aleksandar Jokić, Zoltan Zavargo, Zita Šereš et al.

INTRODUCTION
Osmotic dehydration is a process of partial removal of water, mostly from plant tissues
(fruits and vegetables), in the hypertonic solutions. Driving force for removal of water is the
difference in osmotic pressure between the plant material and the surrounding fluid. The
complex cellular structure of plant tissue behaves as a permeable membrane. The membrane
is not completely selective and as a result we have two opposing mass flow: the diffusion of
water from plant tissues in the surrounding solvent and solute diffusion from the solution in
plant tissue. The goal of osmotic dehydration is to achieve as greater flux of water from the
plant tissue, while reducing the flux of solute into the tissue. The most commonly used
solutions of sucrose and sodium chloride, as well as their combined solutions.
Osmotic dehydration as a pretreatment has the advantage over conventional drying
methods, since there is no change in the nutritional and functional properties of food, as well
as in its appearance (color, texture, sensory characteristics, etc.). Another important advantage
of osmotic dehydration over other drying methods is that it takes place without changing the
physical condition of the water, so that it is much more efficient in terms of energy savings to
the conventional drying methods that include water phase change.
Dietary fibers are edible parts of plants or analogous carbohydrates that are not digestible
and cannot be absorbed in the small intestine, but instead they are partially or completely
fermented in the colon of the human body. Fiber has the primary effect of the water uptake
and its introduction into the digestive system. Products rich in dietary fiber in the mouth give
a feeling of fullness, while in the stomach fibers slow down the movement of food to the
small intestine, causing a feeling of satiety. In the small intestine fibers slow down the
absorption of nutrient and in that way normalize lipid and glucose metabolism as the main
source of energy which in turn regulate energy balance between meals. In some cases, a diet
rich in fiber helps control diabetes, but it is one of the best-documented effects of their
positive effect on diverticulitis of the small or large intestine. Fibers often have a preventive
role, but they are part of a therapeutic diet.
The richest sources of dietary fiber from fruits: apples, oranges and bananas; vegetables:
cauliflower, cake, carrot, potato, tomato and boiled sweet corn. Sugar beet also represents a
significant source of dietary fiber. Primarily used fiber obtained from the extracted pulp
cossettes, but can be used and sweet beet cossettes that are added after drying to the cereal
mixtures for breakfast. In addition to the enrichment of such mixtures dietary fiber content,
adding sugar beet cossettes to such mixtures improves its taste due to present of sugar and
further sweetening is not required.

OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION
Driving force for diffusion of water, during osmotic dehydration, from the tissues into the
solution provides a higher osmotic pressure of hypertonic solution compared to the osmotic
pressure that exists within the cells of plant tissue. Diffusion of water is accompanied by the
simultaneous counter diffusion of solute from the osmotic solution into the tissue. Since the
Osmotic Dehydration Kinetics of Sugar Beet Pulp 153

membrane responsible for osmotic transport is no ideal selectivity and other dissolved
substances present in the cell may also exceed the osmotic solution (Lerici et al., 1985). The
diffusion rate of water from the material composed of such a tissue depends on several factors
such as temperature and osmotic solution concentration, size and shape of the material, the
weight ratio of the solution and the material and many other factors. Mass transfer takes place
through a semipermeable membrane that represents the dominant resistance to the process of
osmotic dehydration. Condition of the cell membrane can be changed from partial to full
permeability due to changes in its structure. Loss of contact between the outer membrane of
the cell and cell wall is the most likely cause of damage to the cells and is triggered by the
loss of water during the osmotic treatment (Rastogi et al., 2000). It is assumed that during the
osmotic dehydration formation of a surface layer of 2-3 mm in a product has a great influence
on the mass transfer by favoring water loss, while limiting the diffusion of the solute in the
tissue and loss of dissolved cell substances into the osmotic solution (Raoult-Wack et al.,
1991).
Explanation of differences between the mechanism of osmotic dewatering of the
homogeneous (non-biological) and biological material is suggested by Rastogi et al. (2000).
In a homogeneous material it is assumed that constant rate of diffusion occurs due to a
uniform gradient of humidity. Yet this is not entirely true especially after the initial steps of
the process when it comes to change in the physical structure of the material during the
progression of osmotic dehydration. In the case of biological materials is assumed that
dehydration front progressively advance towards the center of the material (Rastogi et al.,
2000), resulting in the disintegration of the cell membrane in a dehydrated region.
Characteristic of water transport is the existence of the three regions as follows:

 diffusion from the center of the material to the front of dehydration,


 diffusion through the front and
 diffusion through osmotic treated material into the surrounding solution.

Process of water diffusion from the outer layers of the sample into an osmotic medium, in
the early stages of the osmotic dehydration, leads to an increase in osmotic pressure at the
surface. When the osmotic pressure reaches a certain critical value cell membrane disrupts
and cell shrinks, which results in the reduction of the number of unchanged cells inside of
plant tissue. As the osmotic dehydration continues, dehydration front moves toward the center
of the product. On this front the cells are in the process of disintegration and hence the rate of
mass transfer increases rapidly. In this section a relatively large amount of water diffuses out
of the cells, while the cells in the center of the material remained unaltered, the diffusion of
water from the center is much smaller compared to the front of dehydration. Part of osmotic
solution does not enter the cells but is retained in the intercellular space of the tissue. This
effect the so called impregnation of plant tissue is essential, as it can alter the sensory quality
of the sample. The essential difference of osmotic dehydration as compared to other processes
of dehydration lies precisely in said impregnation food osmotic solution. To a certain extent
impregnation allows changing nutritional, functional and sensory properties of food that
undergoes the process of osmotic dehydration.
154 Aleksandar Jokić, Zoltan Zavargo, Zita Šereš et al.

Dehydration rate of the treated cell material is a function of several factors such as
temperature and concentration of osmotic solution, properties of used substances (solute), the
size and shape of the material, the mass ratio of the solution and materials and mixing rate of
solution etc. It is important to note that these parameters can be changed within certain limits
beyond which they influence the quality, although the rate of mass transfer can be increased.
The effect of concentration and temperature of osmotic solution is much studied and
showed that the velocity of osmotic dehydration increases with increasing both parameters.
At higher temperatures, solubility of components in osmotic solution is bigger and in that
manner osmotic pressure is higher, which increases water loss. However, it is necessary to
determine the optimum temperature performance of osmotic dehydration process, because at
higher temperatures cell membrane during prolonged exposures to an osmotic solution loses
its selectivity (Saputra, 2000).
Selection of osmotic solution plays a very important part, and the specific effects of
individual solutions must be considered. The choice largely depends on the taste, price and
availability. Process of osmotic dehydration of fruits commonly used solutions of sugars
(sucrose, glucose and fructose), while the vegetables using solutions of sodium salts primarily
chloride. However, it was observed that a combination of sucrose and sodium chloride have a
tendency to produce better effects on osmotic dehydration than individual solutions of these
components (Sacchetti et al., 2001).
Dehydration rate increases with increasing agitation. It is one of the key factors and
providing an adequate level of mixing will minimize or even eliminate the mass transfer
resistance on the side of the liquid. As dehydration progresses osmotic solution is diluted, and
the driving force for further removal of water drops. It is therefore necessary to have a larger
mass ratio of the sample and the solution, in order to ensure uniform driving force; it was
observed that the increase in the ratio fruit sugar (from 1:1 to 1:4.5) leads to an increased loss
of mass during osmotic dehydration of banana (Bongirwar and Srinivasan, 1977). The shape
and size of the food being treated osmotic changes significantly from case to case, and the
usual forms of cylinders, cubes, discs, spheres, etc. If the material has bigger dimensions,
dehydration will be lower due to increase in the length of water diffusion path; similarly
smaller samples will dry faster. The shape of the solid material is another important factor. To
assess the effect of the size and shape of the mass transfer during osmotic dehydration, Lerici
et al. (1985) investigated the osmotic dehydration of apple in the form of bars, slices, cubes
and rings; the results showed that mass loss and solid gain increased simultaneously with the
increase ratio of outer surface to the characteristic length of the sample.
The choice of the process parameters also depends on the further application of the
product. So impregnation of foods (process of candying or salting) requires a high solid gain,
which is favored with small molecular weight osmotic solutes and the high solution
concentrations. On the other hand dehydration requires a high water loss, which is favored
with high molecular mass solutes. It is therefore necessary to determine the balance between
these process parameters, so that a speed of two main mass transfers satisfies the quality
needs of the product.
Osmotic Dehydration Kinetics of Sugar Beet Pulp 155

MATERIALS AND METHODS


Materials

Sugar beets were obtained from “Senta” sugar factory (Senta, Serbia). Prior to
o
experiments, sugar beets were stored at 4 C. Sugar beets were thoroughly washed with water
to remove soil and other debris. After peeling it was cut into long thin strips. The cossettes
thus obtained are usually about 3 mm to 4 mm thick and 4 cm to 5 cm long. The average
moisture content of the sugar beet was found to be 75% on a wet basis. Fresh cossettes were
placed in ascorbic acid solution (1%) in order to avoid non-enzymatic browning before
osmotic dehydration. Sucrose and sodium chloride were food grade commercial products and
purchased from local supermarket.

Osmotic Treatment

The osmotic dehydration was carried out in shaker fitted inside a thermostatically
controlled space. 250 ml beakers, filled with osmotic solution, were used as dehydration
vessels, in which samples (about 20 g) were placed. Sugar beet cossettes were totally
submerged in solution during the osmotic treatment, whilst the weight ratio between sample
and osmotic solution was 1:10, in order to avoid dilution of osmotic solution and subsequent
decrease of driving force for osmotic dehydration (Saputra, 2000). In each of the experiments
fresh osmotic solutions were used. At predetermined sampling time cossettes were taken out
and washed with fresh running water to remove excess solution. After washing samples were
drained and gently blotted with adsorbent paper and weighed. Moisture and dry matter
o
content of the samples were determined by vacuum oven drying for 24 h at 70 C. All
experiments were done in triplicate and the average value was taken for further calculations.

Calculations

Water loss (WL) was expressed as the net loss of water from the fresh cossettes after
osmotic treatment based on initial sample weight and solids gain (SG) was calculated as net
uptake of solids by osmosed sample based on initial sample weight (Le Marguer, 1988):

M0  Mi
WL(%)   100
W0 (1)
Si  S0
SG(%)   100
W0 (2)

where: M0 is moisture content of fresh sample (g); Mi is moisture content of osmosed sample;
S0 is solids content of fresh sample (g); Si is solids content of osmotically treated sample (g)
and W0 is total weight of fresh sample (g).
156 Aleksandar Jokić, Zoltan Zavargo, Zita Šereš et al.

The Peleg equation was used to predict kinetics of osmotic dehydration process. It is
suitable for describing kinetics of various processes, such as water transfer in foods during
soaking or osmotic dehydration (Ganjloo, 2012). Peleg (1988) proposed a two-parameter
sorption equation and tested its prediction accuracy during water vapor adsorption of milk
powder and whole rice, and soaking of whole rice and this equation has since been known as
the Peleg model. In this chapter Peleg equation was adapted to represent water loss (WL) and
solids gain (SG):

t
WL 
k WL
1  k2WL  t (3)
t
SG  SG
k1  k2SG  t (4)

WL WL SG SG
where: k1 i k2 - represents model parameters for water loss, k1 i k2 - represents
model parameters for solids gain and t - time in minutes.
This kinetic model offers the advantage that by calculating the inverse of the two
constants (k1 and k2) it is possible to obtain the initial rate of mass transfer parameters and the
mass transfer parameters values at the equilibrium. The rate of osmotic dehydration process
specific parameters (WL and SG) can be obtained from the first derivative of the Peleg
equation. The Peleg rate constant k1 (its reciprocal value) relates to osmotic dehydration rate
at the very beginning in the case of water loss or in the case of solid gain it refers to rate of
solid gain at the very beginning of osmotic dehydration process, i.e., t = t0. Correspondingly
to that, the Peleg capacity constant k2 relates to a maximum attainable dependent variable. In
this study inverse values of the secound Peleg parameter can be related to equilibrium water
loss or solid gain.

Experimental Design and Statistical Analysis

Response surface methodology (RSM) is useful model for studying the effect of
several factors influencing the responses by varying them simultaneously and carrying out
limited number of experiments (Morgan, 1991). The best combination of process parameters
(solute concentration and temperature) was investigated. For the description of the responses
Y (inverse values of k1 and k2 for water loss as well as solid gain) a second-degree
polynomial model was fitted to data:

Y   bi X i   bii X ii2   bij X i X j


(5)

where bi represents the linear, bii the quadratic and bij the interaction effect of the factors.
In the case of sucrose solution, full factorial experimental design was used and the factor
variables and their range are: X1 - sucrose concentration (30 – 70%, w/w) and X2 -
temperature (30 - 50oC). When combined solutions of sucrose and sodium chloride were used
as osmotic medium central composite experimental design was applied. It comprises of 17
Osmotic Dehydration Kinetics of Sugar Beet Pulp 157

experiments (three factors at five levels): X1 – sucrose concentration (30 – 70%, w/w), X2 –
sodium chloride concentration (0- 8%, w/w) and X3 - temperature (30 - 50oC).
Statistical analysis was performed using Statistica software (Statsoft, 1995). Plotting
responses as a function of two factors drew response surface plots; the third factor was set to
its medium values. Plots were generated with the same software.

RESULTS AND DISSCUSION


In this study, the kinetics of WL and SG during osmotic dehydration of sugar beet
cossettes has been investigated. The experimental data for water loss and solid gain during
osmotic dehydration at different solutes concentrations and operating temperatures have
typical shapes of the curves (Moreira et al. 2007). The nonlinear increase of both water loss
and solid gain was observed at all concentrations and temperatures during the process. The
same conclusion can be drawn for both types of osmotic solution used, i.e., sucrose solutions
as well as combined solutions. In all cases, an initial swift rate of mass transfer and then a
reduction in rate were observed which point toward a conclusion that system is getting closer
to the end of the osmotic dehydration process. This kind of behavior suggests that Peleg
equation may be used as modeling tool for the kinetics of osmotic dehydration of sugar beet
cossettes.
The R2 range of fitting Peleg equation to experimental results for WL and SG was 0.976
to 0.999 in the case of sucrose solutions (from 0.921 to 0.999 in combined solutions case),
indicates a good fit. Therefore, the high values of coefficient of determination (R2) and the
small values of root square error suggest that Peleg equation adequately describes mass
transfer kinetics terms during osmotic dehydration of sugar beet cossettes at given solution
concentrations (both pure sucrose or combined sucrose/sodium chloride solutions) and
temperatures over immersion time. The inverse values of obtained Peleg equation parameters
were further subjected to the response surface methodology to find out influence of process
parameters at mass transfer kinetics of osmotic dehydration process.

Sucrose Solutions

The ANOVA results are reported in Table 1 for responses of kinetic parameters in the
case of sucrose solution osmotic dehydration. High values of R2, obtained for all responses
indicate good fit of experimental data to Eq. (5). All polynomial models tested for the
selected responses were significant at 95% confidence level (p-value; 0.05, Table 1). These
results suggest that is appropriate to represent experimental data of osmotic dehydration
kinetics parameters with response surface models. For the response of initial water loss rate
(WL 1/k1) coefficient of determination was found to be 0.958 while for initial solid gain it
was 0.955, which indicates that only 4.2% of the variations could not be explained by the
model for initial WL rate and 4.5% for the initial SG rate. As for equilibrium values of water
loss and solid gain coefficient of determination was found to be 0.986 and 0.978, which
indicates that only 1.4% and 2.2% of the variations could not be explained by the model for
equilibrium WL and SG, respectively.
158 Aleksandar Jokić, Zoltan Zavargo, Zita Šereš et al.

Table 1. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the responses in sucrose solutions

Rezidual Model
Response
SS DF MS SS DF MS F p-value R2
WL 1/k1 0.109 3 0.036 23.566 6 3.923 107.682 0.00134 0.958
WL 1/k2 16.990 3 5.656 8678.769 6 1446.437 255.384 0.00038 0.986
SG 1/k1 0.002 3 0.001 0.081 6 0.014 23.143 0.01312 0.955
SG 1/k2 173.040 3 57.678 16717.525 6 2786.246 48.305 0.00448 0.978

The results of the statistical analysis according to the experimental plan are presented in
Table 2. The significance of each coefficient was determined by Student‟s t-test. The larger
the magnitude of the t-value the more significant is the corresponding coefficient. As for
significance of the polynomial coefficients, its t-values suggest that the most important factor
influencing initial water loss rate is sucrose concentration, both linear and quadratic effects.
The quadratic effect of osmotic solution temperature is also significant, while the interaction
of sucrose concentration and temperature is less significant. On the other side when
equilibrium water loss is analyzed it can be seen that again sucrose concentration, both linear
and quadratic effects, are significant. The linear effects of temperature has significant
influence at the equilibrium water loss, as well as its interaction with sucrose concentration,
which can be attributed to prolonged time needed to achieve equilibrium values, i.e., the end
of the osmotic dehydration process. As for solid gain initial rate the most influence is
arbitrated to the linear and quadratic effect of the temperature, while the effect of sucrose
concentration is less important. The same results are obtained for the equilibrium values of
solid gain.

Table 2. Regression equation coefficients for responses in sucrose solutions

Response WL 1/k1 (1/min) WL 1/k2 (g/g) SG 1/k1 (1/min) SG 1/k2 (g/g)


Effects coefficient t-value coefficient t-value coefficient t-value coefficient t-value
Intercept
b0 -7.6773 -3.1592 -138.2717 -4.5652 -1.8055 -5.8642 395.7323 4.0943
Linear
b1 0.1270 3.2585 3.7122 7.6413 -0.0035 -0.7025 -1.2292 -0.7929
b2 0.3104 2.7987 4.6240 3.3454 0.1039 7.3968 -20.9500 -4.7497
Quadratic
b11 -0.0013 -3.9427 -0.0291 -5.1715 0.00002 0.6036 -0.0049 -0.3546
b22 -0.0044 -3.2906 -0.0218 -3.0287 -0.0013 -7.6128 0.2700 5.0279
Interaction
b12 0.0008 1.6007 -0.0510 -4.8961 -0.000005 -0.0736 0.0492 2.5894

Plotting responses as a function of two factors drew response surface plot. In this
manner graphical representation of process parameters on the selected responses can be
represented. The effects of sucrose concentration and temperature on water loss initial rate are
given in Figure 1. As it was noticed initial rate of water loss is increased with the increase of
sucrose concentration to the value of about concentration of 50% w/w. Increase in sucrose
concentrations, above 50% w/w, had smaller influence on the initial water loss and it can be
neglected. Increase in temperature values showed a positive effect on the water loss initial
o
rate. At the temperatures higher than 45 C decrease of water loss initial rate was observed
Osmotic Dehydration Kinetics of Sugar Beet Pulp 159

that can be attributed to the changes in the cell membrane structure at higher temperatures. On
the other side positive interaction between two independent variables (sucrose concentration
and temperature, reported in Table 2.) although small permit to asses that there is synergetic
effect.

Figure 1. Effects of sucrose concentration and temperature on water loss initial rate.

At equilibrium water loss is positively influenced by increase in sucrose concentration,


but in this case concentrations above 60% w/w, did not promote further water loss (Figure 2.).
Single effect of temperature on the water loss at equilibrium was the same as for initial water
loss rate as higher temperatures tend to promote increase in water loss. One of the possible
explanations for this can be found in the structure of the plant tissue. Sugar beet tissue has
porous structure and at higher temperatures trapped air from the plant tissue during osmotic
dehydration can be released which in turn may promote water removal by solution osmotic
pressure.
Another reason for this behavior is in fact that higher temperatures cause swelling and
plasticizing of cell membrane, in that way membrane becomes more permeable to water
coming out of the product (Saputra, 2000). In the same time higher temperatures lower the
osmotic solution viscosity which results in better water transfer characteristics on the product
surface, i.e., the water diffusion is more rapid (Contreras & Smyral, 1981). Decrease in
equilibrium WL values was observed for temperatures above 40oC. Probable explanation for
this may be the structural modifications of sugar beet tissue due to long contact with osmotic
solution at high temperatures. An interaction between sucrose concentration and temperature
has opposite effect to the water loss at equilibrium when compared to interaction effect at the
water loss initial rate. As it can be seen in Table 2., negative interaction between these two
variables the conclusion that there is an antagonistic effect, may be drawn. The simultaneous
increase of sucrose concentration and temperature may cause the decrease of equilibrium
water loss during osmotic dehydration process.
160 Aleksandar Jokić, Zoltan Zavargo, Zita Šereš et al.

Figure 2. Effects of sucrose concentration and temperature on water loss at equilibrium.

Figure 3. Effects of sucrose concentration and temperature on solid gain initial rate.

The effects of sucrose concentration and temperature on solid gain initial rate are given in
Figure 3. The increase of sucrose concentration results in a slight decrease of solid gain initial
rate, probably due to increase of solution viscosity as well as the accumulation of sucrose
molecules inside a plant cell. On the other side influence of temperature is more complex.
Osmotic Dehydration Kinetics of Sugar Beet Pulp 161

With the increase of temperature up to 40oC initial rate of solid gain sharply rises and after
with further temperature increase values are sharply declining towards a minimum value
obtained for the highest temperature.
In Figure 4. the effects of sucrose concentration and temperature on solid gain at
equilibrium are given. At higher temperatures solid gain at equilibrium has higher values at
all selected sucrose concentrations. As it was said earlier, prolonged exposure of plant
material at high temperatures may cause decrease in cell membrane permeability. The
positive interaction effect between these two factors on solid gain at equilibrium showed to be
synergetic.

Figure 4. Effects of sucrose concentration and temperature on solid gain at equilibrium.

Combined Solutions

In Table 3. the ANOVA results for the osmotic dehydration in combined osmotic
2
medium (sucrose/sodium chloride) are reported. Obtained values of R indicate good fit of
experimental data to Eq. (5). All polynomial models tested for the selected responses were
significant at 95% confidence level (p-value; 0.05, Table 3), the exception is second order
model solid gain at equilibrium that is significant at 90% confidence level. These results
suggest that is appropriate to represent experimental data of osmotic dehydration kinetics
parameters with response surface models when combined solutions are used. For the response
of initial water loss rate (WL 1/k1) coefficient of determination was found to be 0.982 while
for initial solid gain it was 0.972, which indicates that only 1.2% of the variations could not
be explained by the model for initial WL rate and 2.8% for the initial SG rate. As for
162 Aleksandar Jokić, Zoltan Zavargo, Zita Šereš et al.

equilibrium values of water loss and solid gain coefficient of determination was found to be
0.991 while for initial solid gain it was 0.778, which indicates that less than 1% and 22.2% of
the variations could not be explained by the model for equilibrium WL and SG, respectively.

Table 3. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the responses in combined solutions

Rezidual Model
Response
SS DF MS SS DF MS F p-value R2
WL 1/k1 0.301 7 0.043 108.223 10 10.812 252.042 <0.00001 0.982
WL 1/k2 12.424 7 1.777 32037.134 10 3203.702 1803.202 <0.00001 0.991
SG 1/k1 0.001 7 0.001 0.069 10 0.014 52.813 0.000012 0.972
SG 1/k2 2200.478 7 314.335 8700.94 10 870.093 2.771 0.094858 0.778

The results of the statistical analysis according to the experimental plan for the osmotic
dehydration in combined solutions are presented in Table 4. The significance of each
coefficient was determined by Student‟s t-test. As for significance of the polynomial
coefficients, its t-values suggest that the most important factor influencing water loss initial
rate is quadratic effect of salt concentration followed by the interaction between salt
concentration and temperature. Among linear effects the most significant is effect of sodium
chloride concentration. As for equilibrium water loss the most significant effects has sucrose
concentration, both linear and quadratic effects. The interaction between sucrose and sodium
chloride is the most significant interaction followed by the interaction of sucrose
concentration and temperature. As for solid gain initial rate the most influence is arbitrated to
the linear and quadratic effect of the sodium chloride concentration, while the effect of
sucrose concentration is less important. The similar results are obtained for the equilibrium
values of solid gain.

Table 4. Regression equation coefficients for responses in combined solutions

Response WL 1/k1 (1/min) WL 1/k2 (g/g) SG 1/k1 (1/min) SG 1/k2 (g/g)


Effects coefficient t-value coefficient t-value coefficient t-value coefficient t-value
Intercept
b0 1.2062 0.2463 -77.4953 -2.4596 0.4200 1.5546 -84.2509 -0.2010
Linear
b1 -0.0680 -0.8851 2.1071 4.2670 -0.0042 -0.9933 -4.0747 -0.6203
b2 1.0562 2.9411 4.6709 2.0221 -0.0918 -4.6341 15.3674 0.5001
b3 -0.0838 -0.4916 2.1542 1.9654 -0.0095 -1.0062 9.5306 0.6537
Quadratic
b11 0.0018 3.7862 -0.0162 -5.3352 -0.000001 -0.0526 0.0392 0.9731
b22 0.0542 4.6012 -0.0347 -0.4583 0.0065 10.0374 -1.1625 -1.1543
b33 0.0065 3.4403 -0.0397 -3.2753 -0.00001 -0.0934 -0.0953 -0.5915
Interaction
b12 -0.0079 -2.1600 -0.0556 -2.3587 -0.0001 -0.5212 -0.0103 -0.0328
b13 -0.0030 -2.0544 0.0154 1.6374 0.0001 1.6208 -0.0177 -0.1408
b23 -0.0311 -4.2443 -0.0188 -0.3985 0.0015 3.5861 -0.1407 -0.2244

In this chapter graphical representation of parameter influences in the case of combined


solutions as osmotic medium was restricted to the combined influence of sodium chloride and
sucrose concentrations. As for other interactions the effects of temperature and solute
Osmotic Dehydration Kinetics of Sugar Beet Pulp 163

concentration is similar to the influences presented in the case when sucrose solutions were
used. The difference compared to the previous discussion is in magnitude of effect as result of
the salt presence which results in increased osmotic pressure.
The effects of sucrose and sodium chloride concentration on the WL initial rate are given
in Figure 5. At low concentrations of both solutes water loss initial rate is slowed down by
increasing concentrations of single solute. In absence of sodium chloride the water loss initial
rate was not significantly influenced by increasing sucrose concentration. This behavior can
be explained by the enhancement of the solution viscosity. On the other hand, at low sucrose
concentrations increase of salt concentration led to the slight decrease of initial water loss
rate, compared to the sharp decrease at higher values of sucrose concentration. At the early
stages of osmotic dehydration process sodium chloride molecules cannot penetrate deep
inside the cossettes tissue in order to increase the water loss from the deeper layers, that fact
is especially pronounced by more viscose high sucrose concentrations.

Figure 5. Effects of sucrose and sodium chloride concentration on water loss initial rate.

At equilibrium completely different behavior can be observed (Figure 6). The increasing
of sucrose concentration led to increase in values of water loss at equilibrium; the same
conclusion is valid for the increase of salt concentration. At low sucrose concentration
influence of salt concentration is more pronounced, compared to higher concentration around
60% w/w. At cellular level, the influence of adding salt into osmotic solution can be
explained by the difference in molecular dimensions of solutes. Both sucrose and sodium
chloride can pass through the cellular membrane of the sugar beet tissue, while only small salt
ions (NaCl) can diffuse through cytoplasmic membrane (Isse and Schubert, 1992). Limited
diffusion of sucrose is the reason for molecules to accumulate at the surface of the cytoplasm
164 Aleksandar Jokić, Zoltan Zavargo, Zita Šereš et al.

and create crusting that acts like a barrier to water transfer out of the cell. Diffusion of the salt
into the cytoplasm generates concentration gradients at the vacuole level and in the cytoplasm
and thus allowing transfer of additional water from deep inside the cell thus increasing water
loss at equilibrium. Data reported in literature suggests that presence of salt inhibits the
formation of crust (barrier) by sucrose molecules and in that way increasing the dehydration
of the plant tissue (Lenart and Flink, 1984).

Figure 6. Effects of sucrose and sodium chloride concentration on water loss at equilibrium.

Figure 7. Effects of sucrose and sodium chloride concentration on solid gain initial rate.
Osmotic Dehydration Kinetics of Sugar Beet Pulp 165

Taking into account solid gain initial rate (Figure 7) it showed to positively influenced by
solute concentrations. It can be seen that solutes have synergetic effect, which could be
expected due to increase of solution osmotic pressure. The increasing of sucrose
concentration without presence of salt resulted in slight increase of solid gain initial rate and
in the presence of the salt this increase was slowed down further. Small amounts of sodium
chloride (up to 4%, w/w) did not affect solid gain initial rate significantly, even slight
decrease of rate value can be found. Additional rise of sodium chloride concentration
increased solid gain initial rate significantly probably due to fact that small NaCl molecules
can diffuse deep inside the cell.
The effects of sucrose and sodium chloride concentration on the solid gain at equilibrium
are given in Figure 8. The increasing of sucrose concentration led to the decrease of solid gain
at equilibrium values. This conclusion is the same as for sucrose only osmotic solutions. The
reason for this behavior of the system can be found in sucrose crust creation at cytoplasmic
membrane that in return limits the diffusion of salt into the tissue, especially, at high sucrose
concentrations with high viscosity. On the other hand, influence of the increasing sodium
chloride concentrations was more complex. Sodium chloride concentrations up to 4%, w/w
resulted in increased solid gain at equilibrium, whilst concentrations above it resulted in its
decrease. The reason for this can be found in the fact that small salt molecules can diffuse
deeper inside the cell and provoke release of water from inside the cell, in this manner water
loss is increased (Figure 6.) and the equilibrium is reached through intense water loss rather
than solid gain.

Figure 8. Effects of sucrose and sodium chloride concentration on solid gain at equilibrium.

CONCLUSION
Temperature had a positive influence on the mass transfer, but at sugar found to
temperature should not exceed 50°C because there are changes in the permeability of the cell
membrane. The presence of sodium chloride in the osmotic solutions leads to an increase in
the effects of dehydration due to small molecules that are capable of penetrating into the
166 Aleksandar Jokić, Zoltan Zavargo, Zita Šereš et al.

interior of the cell which leads to a combination of concentration gradients responsible for the
process of osmotic dehydration. Second order polynomial proved to be a good choice for
fitting the initial rate or equilibrium of dehydration process values of the mass transfer during
osmotic dehydration, slightly worse fitting was obtained for solid gain responses.
Concentration of sucrose and sodium chloride had a positive impact on the loss of water as
well as solid gain.

REFERENCES
Bongirwar D. R., Srinivasan A. (1977): Study on osmotic dehydration of banana. Journal of
Food Science and Technology, 14: 104-112
Contreras J. E., Smyral T. G. (1981): An evaluation of osmotic concentration of apple rings
using corn syrup solids solutions. Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology
Journal, 14: 310-314
Ganjloo ., Abdul Rahman S., BakarJ., Osman ., Bimakr M. (2012): Kinetics Modeling of
Mass Transfer Using Peleg Equation During Osmotic Dehydration of Seedless Guava
(Psidium guajava L.): Effect of Process Parameters, Food Bioprocess Technology,
5:2151–2159
Isse M. G., Schubert H. (1992): Osmotic dehydration of mango: mass transfer between
mango and syrup. In D. Behrens (Ed.), Proceedings of fourth world congress of chemical
engineering, 728–745
Le Marguer M. (1988): Osmotic dehydration: review and future directions. In Proceedings of
the symposium in food preservation process, vol. 1 (pp. 283-309). Brussels: CERFCI
Lenart A., Flink J. N. (1984): Osmotic concentration of potatoes: Criteria for the end point of
the osmotic effect. Journal of Food Technology 19: 65-89
Lerici C. L., Pinnavaia G., Dalla Rosa M., Bartolucci L. (1985): Osmotic dehydration of fruit:
influence of osmotic agents on drying behavior and product quality. Journal of Food
Science, 50: 1217-1219
Moreira, R., Chenlo, F., Torres, M. D., & Vazquez, G. (2007). Effect of stirring in the
osmotic dehydration of chestnut using glycerol solutions. LWT Food Science and
Technology, 40, 1507–1514
Morgan E., (1991): Chemometrics and experimental design, John Wiley i Sons, NY
Peleg M .(1998): An empirical model for the description of moisture sorption curves. Journal
of Food Science, 53 (4): 1216-1219
Raoult – Wack A. L., Botz O., Guilbert S., Rios G. (1991): Simultaneous water and solute
transport in shrinking media part 3: a tentative analysis of spatial distribution of
impregnating solute in the model gel. Drying Technology, 9: 630-642
Rastogi N. K., Angersbach A., Knorr D. (2000): Evaluation of mass transfer mechanisms
during osmotic treatment of plant materials. Journal of Food Science, 65: 1016-1021
Sacchetti G., Gianotti A., Dalla Rosa M. (2001): Sucrose – salt combined effects on mass
transfer kinetics and product acceptability. Study on apple osmotic treatments. Journal of
Food Engineering, 49: 163-173
Saputra D. (2000): Osmotic dehydration of pineapple. Drying technology, 19: 415-425
StatSoft Inc. (1995): STATISTICA for Windows (computer program manual). Tulsa. OK
In: Sugar Beets ISBN: 978-1-63463-499-1
Editor: Lindsey Brooks © 2015 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Chapter 8

EFFECT OF DRYING CONDITIONS ON REHYDRATION


KINETICS OF SUGAR BEET PULP

Aleksandar Jokić*, Zoltan Zavargo, Zita Šereš,


Bojana Prodanić and Dragana Šoronja-Simović
University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technology,
Novi Sad, Republic of Serbia

ABSTRACT
Dietary fibers are used for making numerous food products in various quantities and
can be of different origin. The high moisture content of the sugar beet dietary fibers is
suitable for the development of microorganisms, subsequently in order to extend the shelf
life of sugar beet fibers they are dried. The drying process, which is necessary in order to
obtain a product with high solid content, can significantly damage the sensory properties
of dietary fiber (color, taste, texture, etc.). Therefore, it is important to pay special
attention to the choice of modes and parameters of the drying process. Rehydration of
dried food products is one of the most important characteristics of this type of product.
The changes that are monitored during the process of rehydration are the result of water
penetration into the structure of the product. This process is based on diffusion, thus it is
very dependent not only on the temperature of rehydration but also on the drying process
parameters. For the purpose of modeling the rehydration process different models are
applicable, among which the most commonly used are empirical models such as Peleg
and Weibull model. The aim of this chapter is the examination of the influence of
classical convective and microwave drying on rehydration of dietary fibers from sugar
beet. Another goal was to investigate the effect of decolorizing pretreatment on the
rehydration of sugar beet fibers. The experimental results suggest that Weibull and Peleg
equations are good tool for description of the rehydration kinetics of sugar beet dietary
fibers. The coefficients of determination (R2) are in range from 0.987 to 0.999 for Peleg
equation whiles the Weibull equation within the limits of 0.984 to 0.999. Reciprocal
values of Peleg equation parameters can be used to find dependences of the initial rate of
rehydration and the equilibrium moisture content in the function of the drying

*
Corresponding author: email: jokic@uns.ac.rs.
168 Aleksandar Jokić, Zoltan Zavargo, Zita Šereš et al.

temperature or power microwave drying and rehydration temperature using response


surface methodology.

INTRODUCTION
Dietary fiber are usually defined as 'ingredients of plant cells which are resistant to
digestive enzymes of man', however this definition is general and does not include the
physical characteristics of the individual components of dietary fiber, and does not disclose
all of the physiological effects that are associated with the action of the fibers in the body, so
that in practical work total dietary fiber defined as 'values obtained by AOAC analytical
method (AOAC 1995, method 985.29)'. This definition of dietary fiber include major
constituents of food, such as cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, gum, modified cellulose, mucus,
oligosaccharides and pectin, and associated ancillary components such as wax, kutina and
suberin (DeVries et al., 1999). There are numbers of dietary fiber classifications that are
based on their different characteristics. According to Stauffer (1993) dietary fiber can be
divided into two groups: insoluble dietary fiber (cellulose, lignin, resistant starch products of
Maillard's reaction, and other materials of vegetable origin) and soluble dietary fiber, mucus
that may be endogenous and exogenous origin.
Until recently it was thought that the fibers pass through the digestive tract without any
importance in the diet, and was designated as ballast matters. However, beneficial
physiological effect of fiber is determined; so much research in medicine is directed toward
defining the physiological mechanisms of dietary fiber action (Wisker et al. 1985, Stauffer
1993, Reickhoff et al., 1999). Dietary fibers bind bile acids and cholesterol, preventing their
reabsorption. High concentrations of bile acids in the intestine, especially secondary bile
acids, increases the risk of intestine cancer. Dietary fiber lowers cholesterol levels in the
blood, and thus the possibility of blood vessels blocking. It was found that dietary fibers have
good effect on the micro flora of the colon. Fibers water and various cancer metabolism
products (products of oxidation of fatty acids, amines, phenolic) binding properties increase
the weight of the feces, accelerating the digestive tract discharge, thereby reducing the
possibility of cancer. In addition, the use of fibers in diet may lower frequency of formation
of hemorrhoids, bleeding and inflammatory processes in the intestine.
A particular physiological effect of dietary fiber exerts a slowing of gastric passage,
which increases the feeling of satiety, and therefore foods rich in dietary fiber limits the need
for calories (Pribiš 1999). The negative effects of consuming foods rich in dietary fiber are
mainly related to the initial period of use of such food (soft stool, diarrhea), and it disappears
after a few days. Tolerance to dietary fiber, in general, is good, but in order to eliminate any
possible negative effects, for the organism to adopt the products rich in fiber it is necessary
that intake should be increased gradually (Thibault 1994).
The main sources of dietary fiber are the cell walls of plants, i.e., fresh or dried fruits and
vegetables, and grain cultures. Nowadays, significant sources of dietary fiber are industrial
plants that contain a high percentage of fiber. The richest sources of dietary fiber from fruits
are: apples, oranges and bananas; vegetables: cauliflower, carrot, potato, tomato, boiled sweet
corn, and various types of lenses, beans, green beans and peas; of products based on cereals
and legumes commonly referred as bran it is all kinds of grain, with special emphasis on oat
Effect of Drying Conditions on Rehydration Kinetics of Sugar Beet Pulp 169

bran, oat flakes, breakfast cereals, wheat bread and whole wheat pasta. Also, the products
obtained from the treatment of sugar beet and other industrial plants rich in cellulose,
hemicellulose, lignin, tires, pectin and similar components are attractive sources of dietary
fiber.
Sugar beet pulp is obtained in the processing of sugar beet as a fibrous residue of sugar
beet root after the extraction of sucrose by use of warm water. The amount and chemical
composition of the sugar beet pulp are primarily defined by the quality, variety and growing
conditions of sugar beet. The dry matter content of sugar beet pulp after extraction is
approximately 8-11%. In order to reduce the moisture content of sugar beet pulp is dried to
dry matter content 87-90% for longer storage of sugar beet pulp (Šušić et al., 1994).
Sugar beet pulp is almost completely used as feed for livestock. Finding new possibilities
of using the extracted pulp is particularly challenging in the sugar refining industry due to the
abundance of pulp obtained during the processing of beet and a number of new ways have
been proposed for the application to sugar beet pulp as well as for some of its constituents
(Thibault, 2000). The different physical, chemical and biological treatments are used to
transform the extracted pulp or extraction of components from pulp and the use of made
refined products. Physical treatments are applied mainly to eliminate impurities and beet
characteristic earthly taste and aroma. The goal of chemical treatment is a modification of
some beet pulp properties or obtaining basic ingredients such as pectin, cellulose and araban
(Vogel 1991, Broughton et al. 1995, Micard et al. 1996). Numerous studies have been
devoted to the processes of dietary fiber from sugar beet production for obtaining additives
intended for the food industry, as well as the dietary fiber, and this is certainly one of the most
important forms of their application, in addition to use as fodder (Persson 1986, Fasatiova
1988, Gyuri et al., 1991, Rede et al., 1992, Šereš et al., 2005).

MATERIALS AND METHODS


Materials

Sugar beet pulp was obtained from “Senta” sugar factory (Senta, Serbia). Before the
experimental procedure, sugar beet pulp was stored at 4oC. For the chemical treatment of the
extracted pulp commercially available hydrogen peroxide was used (22,6%.). To maintain the
base environment, or an appropriate pH value sodium hydroxide was used, concentration 10
M. In the neutralization of the reaction mixture hydrochloric acid was used, p.a. 36.2%.

Drying and Rehydration

For dietary fibers production as a raw material sugar beet pulp derived from a process of
sugar production can be used. From the mas of sugar beet pulp larger pieces were separated
because they were inadequate for conducting experiments. Two types of dietary fiber
untreated (raw) and treated fibers (decolorized with hydrogen peroxide) were analyzed.
Chemical treatment of sugar beet pulp in order to decolorize them was conducted by the use
of hydrogen peroxide solution in alkaline media (pH=11) adjusted with sodium hydroxide (10
170 Aleksandar Jokić, Zoltan Zavargo, Zita Šereš et al.

M). Chemical treatment lasts for 24 hours at room temperature. After completing the
chemical treatment decolorized sugar beet pulp were neutralized (pH 6-7) with hydrochloric
acid (36.2%). After separation of the liquid phase pulp was pressed. After pressing beet pulp
was dried and in order to investigate process of beet fiber rehydration two types of drying
were selected: convective and microwave drying.
Convective drying: sugar beet pulp was placed in tray dryer (Iskraterm 2K, manufacturer
Iskra Kranj, Slovenia). Samples of beet pulp were put into the chamber of the trey drier and
the thickness of the layer was about 1 cm. Before drying chamber was warmed up to selected
temperature, after which the samples are placed into it. Drying of dietary fiber was performed
at temperatures of 65oC, 85oC and 105oC. This temperature range was chosen to minimize
changes in the dietary fibers properties during drying (Thibault 2000). Air velocity was set to
1 m s-1.
Microwave drying: for microwaving drying domestic microwave oven was used. It
possesses a regulatory circuit for defining the energy of microwave radiation as well as a
timer to control the length of the process. Inside the dryer is located in the sample holder
which rotates during the drying process. The presence of the rotating carrier is necessary to
achieve optimum operation of the dryer and reduce reflections of microwaves (Khraisheh et
al. 1997). Sample preparation for microwaving dry counterparts is preparing for convective
drying. Drying in a microwave oven was carried out at three different powers 150 W, 250 W
and 350 W.
Rehydration of sugar beet pulp at atmospheric pressure was performed in a thermostat.
Plain and treated sugar beet cossettes are immersed in a laboratory jars (150ml) at
temperatures of 20, 40 and 60°C. In each jar 3g sample (accuracy ± 0.01g) was placed.
During the process of rehydration the samples were completely immersed in distilled water,
which was heated at the proper temperature. The samples were then taken out at
predetermined time intervals, ranged from 5 to 90 min. After the excess water was removed
the weight of rehydrated samples was measured on a technical scale (accuracy ± 0.01g).
Moisture content of the samples at each time step was calculated based on the increase in
sample mass at corresponding times. Dry basis (d.b.) moisture content was used in
calculations. The results were fitted to the selected mathematical models.

Calculations

Mathematical models for explanation of rehydration process can be divided into three
groups: diffusion models, empirical and semi-empirical models and multidisciplinary models.
Empirical models because of their simplicity are greatly used in the modeling of rehydration
process. The most commonly used models of this type are Peleg and Weibull model. Peleg
equation is two-parametric empirical equation proposed to describe the rehydration of dried
food products (Peleg 1988), but it found its application to describe other processes as well.
The Peleg equation is characterized by the existence of a dynamic period after which follows
the equilibrium period, i.e., asymptotic convergence to the equilibrium values:

t
Mt  M0  (1)
k1  k 2  t
Effect of Drying Conditions on Rehydration Kinetics of Sugar Beet Pulp 171

where: M0 - moisture content at time t=0 (g/g), Mt - moisture content at time t (g/g), k1and k2
- the parameters of the model (k1 is the Peleg rate constant and k2 is is the Peleg capacity
constant) and t - time, min. In equation (1) “±” becomes “+” if the process is absorption or
adsorption and “–” if the process is drying or desorption.
This kinetic model offers the advantage that by calculating the inverse of the two
constants (k1 and k2) it is possible to obtain the initial rate of mass transfer parameters and the
mass transfer parameters values at the equilibrium:

  t 
 d 
 dM    k1  k 2  t  
 1
   lim    (2)
 dt  t 0  dt  k1
 
  t o

 
lim M t   M   lim 
t 1
  (3)
 k1  k 2  t t  k 2

Weibull equation takes the form:

Mt  M0   t β 
 1  exp     (4)
Me  M0   α  

where: Mt - moisture content at time t, (g/g), Me - equilibrium moisture content (g/g), α and β
– parameters of Weibull equation (α is the scale parameter (s) and β is the dimensionless
shape parameter. The scale parameter α is a kinetic coefficient.), t - time, (min).
The disadvantage of this equation is that next to the parameters which have no particular
physical meaning and the equilibrium moisture content is a variable that has to be determined,
so that in this case is determined by three parameters.
Response surface methodology (RSM) is useful model for studying the effect of several
factors influencing the responses by varying them simultaneously and carrying out limited
number of experiments (Morgan, 1991). For the description of the responses Y (inverse
values of k1 and k2 for convective and microwave drying) a second-degree polynomial model
was fitted to data:

Y   bi X i   bii X ii2   bij X i X j (5)

where bi - represents the linear, bii - the quadratic and bij - the interaction effect of the factors,
X1 - convective drying temperature (or in case of microwave drying microwaves power) and
X2 – rehydration temperature.
Statistical analysis was performed using Statistica software (Statsoft, 1995). Plotting
responses as a function of two factors drew response surface plots. Plots were generated with
the same software.
172 Aleksandar Jokić, Zoltan Zavargo, Zita Šereš et al.

Table 1. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the responses for


convective dried sugar beet pulp

Rezidual Model
Response
SS DF MS SS DF MS F p-value R2
UT 1/k1 0.5150 3 0.1717 51.939 6 8.657 50.429 0.00421 0.896
UT 1/k2 0.0320 3 0.0107 141.889 6 23.648 2213.932 0.00002 0.918
CT 1/k1 0.9131 3 0.3044 47.034 6 7.839 25.755 0.01124 0.807
CT 1/k2 0.3391 3 0.1130 1264.502 6 210.750 1864.452 0.00002 0.967
UT – untreated (plain dried sugar beet pulp); CT – chemically treated sugar beet pulp

RESULTS AND DISSCUSION


Convective Dried Sugar Beet Pulp

Empirical models that are commonly used for mathematical representation of the process
of rehydration, Peleg and Weibull equation, proved to be adequate to fit the kinetic data of
convective dried sugar beet pulp, both untreated and treated. The coefficient of determination
(R2) was within the limits of 0.987 to 0.999 for Peleg equations while the Weibull equation
within the limits of 0.984 to 0.999. The predicted equilibrium moisture content values were
comparable for both models. As both given empirical equations satisfactory represent the
experimental results for further analyzing Peleg equation is selected, because for its
application it is necessary to determine only two parameters k1 and k2 are, while for the
Weibull equation necessary to determine three parameters α, β and equilibrium moisture
content (Me). Another reason for choosing this equation is the fact that in addition to the
equilibrium moisture content which can be obtained from both equations, Peleg equation
provides an opportunity to estimate the initial speed of rehydration.
The ANOVA results are reported in Table 1. for responses of kinetic parameters in the
case of convective dried samples. High values of R2, obtained for all responses indicate good
fit of experimental data to Eq. (5). All polynomial models tested for the selected responses
were significant at 95% confidence level (p-value; 0.05, Table 1). Second-order polynomial is
fitted well the experimental results for both the rehydration initial rate as well as the
equilibrium moisture content of untreated and treated sugar beet pulp subjected to convective
drying.
Finding polynomial dependence of these values it is possible to estimate the impact of
these two temperatures on the initial rate and the equilibrium values of the mass transfer, i.e.,
sugar beet pulp rehydration. Table 2. shows the values of the coefficients of the polynomial
regression. The significance of individual factors and their square influence but also their
mutual interaction was measured by the t-values (Djuric et al. 2004). The larger the
magnitude of the t-value the more significant is the corresponding coefficient.
The greatest linear effect on the initial speed of rehydration for untreated sugar beet pulp
has rehydration temperature, while its quadratic influence is even more significant when
compared with the linear. However, the most important factor in the quadratic polynomial is
Effect of Drying Conditions on Rehydration Kinetics of Sugar Beet Pulp 173

regression is interaction effect illustrating the connection of the drying temperature and the
temperature of rehydration. Similar conclusions of the regression coefficients significance
analysis of the polynomial model for the equilibrium moisture content for untreated sugar
beet pulp can be drawn. In this case, the most important factor is the rehydration temperature,
but it can be seen that its effect was reduced in comparison to that of the initial speed
rehydration. In fact, looking at the t-values of regression coefficients it can be concluded that
the effect of drying temperature is more pronounced at equilibrium moisture content. The
most important coefficient for the model of the equilibrium moisture content is intercept
which indicates that the calculated value of the equilibrium moisture content does not diverge
much from the calculated values of b0 (Djuric et al. 2004). The main linear effect on the
rehydration initial rate of treated sugar beet pulp has a rehydration temperature, while its
quadratic influence is even more significant compared with the linear. The most important
coefficient in the equilibrium moisture content model is intercept, same as untreated sugar
beet pulp.
The effects of rehydration and convective drying temperature on rehydration initial rate
of untreated sugar beet pulp are given in Fig. 1. The rehydration initial rate of untreated sugar
beet pulp sharply rises with increasing rehydration temperature. Explanation of this
phenomenon lies in the fact that with the increase of water temperature in which rehydration
occurs, water viscosity decreases so that the resistance to water diffusion into the structure of
dietary fiber is smaller. At the beginning of the rehydration water penetration is limited to the
outer layer of the pulp, and it first fills larger channels and cavities, so that the dominant
resistance to mass transfer is external and in that connected to the viscosity of water. The
effect of drying temperature is less pronounced at lower rehydration temperatures, while at
higher temperatures the effect is significantly more pronounce. In fact, at lower rehydration
temperatures due to higher viscosity, as already mentioned the dominant resistance to mass
transfer is external. With increasing temperature, these resistances are reduced so that internal
resistances are notable. The increase of the resistance with increasing drying temperature is
associated with changes in the structure of the pulp that may occur during drying process. At
higher drying temperatures, shrinkage of the sugar beet pulp occurs; as result of that
collapsing of the channel network in the structure of plant tissue is present. Thus, an increase
in mass transfer resistance inside the plant tissue the rehydration initial rate decreases. For the
same reason, the effect of rehydration temperature increase is less pronounced for dietary
fibers dried at higher temperatures.
As said before, the most significant regression coefficients of the polynomial in the case
of equilibrium moisture content b0, which means that the values obtained by the model,
although statistically speaking different, not much differ from the calculated values of b0 (Fig.
2.). The effect of drying temperature has the same trend at higher and lower rehydration
temperatures. With increase in rehydration temperatures the equilibrium moisture content has
gradually an increase that is much smaller in comparison with the increase in rehydration
initial rate. The reason for this difference may be found in a longer duration of rehydration
process during which is dominated by internal resistance to mass transfer, associated with the
structure of sugar beet pulp. Higher drying temperatures are the cause of changes in the fibers
tissue and thus increase the internal mass transfer resistance which results in the reduction of
the equilibrium moisture content.
174 Aleksandar Jokić, Zoltan Zavargo, Zita Šereš et al.

Table 2. Regression equation coefficients for convective dried sugar beet pulp

Response UT 1/k1 (1/min) UT 1/k2 (g/g) CT 1/k1 (1/min) CT 1/k2 (g/g)

coefficient

coefficient

coefficient

coefficient
t-value

t-value

t-value

t-value
Effects

Intercept
b0 2.1275 0.38410 2.9950 2.1677 1.6049 0.2176 19.0261 4.2331
Linear
b1 -0.0011 -0.00890 0.0159 0.5031 0.0187 0.1108 -0.1583 -1.5420
b2 0.0343 0.46468 0.0273 1.4853 -0.0208 -0.2113 -0.0008 -0.0130
Quadratic
b11 0.0001 0.08534 -0.0001 -0.7070 -0.0001 -0.1111 0.0006 1.0306
b22 0.0009 1.22881 -0.0002 -0.9807 0.0011 1.1578 0.0002 0.4206
Interaction
b12 -0.0010 -1.84641 0.0001 -0.3870 -0.0004 -0.6254 0.0004 0.8477

Figure 1. Effects of rehydration temperature and convective drying temperature on rehydration initial
rate of untreated sugar beet pulp.

Changes in the rehydration initial rate of treated sugar beet pulp has trends similar to
those of untreated fibers (Figure 3). The increase in rehydration temperature leads to the rise
of rehydration initial rate (Cunningham et al. 2007), but unlike untreated fibers that increase
is more pronounced. Specifically, during the early rehydration phase it takes place in the
larger channels and voids, or on the surface layer of dietary fiber, as hydrogen peroxide
treatment disrupts the structure of the tissue slices it can be concluded that the emerging
Effect of Drying Conditions on Rehydration Kinetics of Sugar Beet Pulp 175

structure is more porous (Filipović, 2005), so the internal mass transfer resistance is smaller.
The reason for this phenomenon lies in changing of the fibers structure during chemical
treatment, when the esterification of pectin present in them and increased water binding
(Feeney et al. 1989), therefore reduced water viscosity with increasing rehydration
temperature leads to higher rehydration initial rates compared to untreated fibers.
The effect of drying temperature on the rehydration initial rate of treated sugar beet pulp
is more pronounced in relation to its effect in untreated fibers (Figure 1). The reason for this
is already mentioned changes in the pulp structure with the fact that increased porosity results
in lower internal resistance. In fact, even at low rehydration temperatures increase in drying
temperature result in the reduction of the rehydration initial rate compared to untreated fibers
where the effect of drying temperature on the initial rate is limited to higher rehydration
temperatures. The values of the rehydration initial rate for treated fibers are roughly equal to
those that are obtained for untreated fibers which, however, suggest that in this case the
dominant resistance to mass transfer is external.
The equilibrium moisture content of the treated dietary fiber is significantly higher than
the moisture content of the untreated fiber (Figure 4). In contrast to the untreated fibers in
treated one, the effect of drying temperature is more significant factor in relation to the
equilibrium moisture content. The reason for this behavior is in the change of fiber structure,
by increasing the drying temperature degradation of the porous properties of the treated fibers
is greater and it reduces the equilibrium moisture content. For that reason it is necessary to
choose the correct drying temperature so that decrease in equilibrium moisture content should
be kept as small as possible, while at the same taking into account that the drying process
does not last too long at low temperatures.

Figure 2. Effects of rehydration temperature and convective drying temperature on equilibrium


moisture content rate of untreated sugar beet pulp.
176 Aleksandar Jokić, Zoltan Zavargo, Zita Šereš et al.

Figure 3. Effects of rehydration temperature and convective drying temperature on rehydration initial
rate of treated sugar beet pulp.

Figure 4. Effects of rehydration temperature and convective drying temperature on equilibrium


moisture content rate of treated sugar beet pulp.
Effect of Drying Conditions on Rehydration Kinetics of Sugar Beet Pulp 177

Table 3. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the microwave dried sugar beet pulp

Rezidual Model
Response
SS DF MS SS DF MS F p-value R2
UT 1/k1 0.568 3 0.189 42.434 6 7.072 37.368 0.006533 0.904
UT 1/k2 0.064 3 0.021 148.598 6 24.766 1154.963 0.000039 0.964
CT 1/k1 0.102 3 0.034 8.067 6 1.344 39.373 0.006052 0.867
CT 1/k2 1.819 3 0.606 714.516 6 119.086 196.374 0.000558 0.904
UT – untreated (plain dried sugar beet pulp); CT – chemically treated sugar beet pulp

Microwave Dried Sugar Beet Pulp

In the case of rehydration data for the microwave dried untreated and treated sugar beet
pulp the coefficient of determination (R2) was within the limits of 0.985 to 0.999 for Peleg
equation while the Weibull equation within the limits of 0.986 to 0.999. Both equations are
adequate for representation of rehydration data, but Peleg equation was chosen for further
analysis for the same reasons mentioned earlier. In Tables 3. and 4. results of fitting the
experimental data of microwave dried sugar beet pulp to the polynomial model are given.
All polynomial models tested for the selected responses for microwave dried sugar beet
pulp were significant at 95% confidence level (p-value; 0.05, Table 3). Second-order
polynomial is fitted well the experimental results for both the rehydration initial rate as well
as the equilibrium moisture content of untreated and treated sugar beet pulp subjected to
microwave drying.
The results of the statistical analysis according to the experimental plan are presented in
Table 4. The significance of each coefficient was determined by Student‟s t-test. The highest
linear effect on the rehydration initial rate has rehydration temperature, while its square
influence even more significant. For the equilibrium moisture content of untreated sugar beet
pulp the most important factor is the strength of microwave power during drying. In fact,
looking at the t-values of regression coefficients it can be concluded that the influence of
microwave power more pronounce for equilibrium moisture content than for rehydration
initial rate. In the case of treated sugar beet pulp for rehydration initial rate the most important
effect is linear influence of rehydration temperature followed by quadratic influence of the
power of microwave drying. The most important factor for the equilibrium moisture content
is b0 which indicates that the calculated value of the equilibrium moisture content are close to
the calculated values of b0 (Djuric et al. 2004).
The rise in power of microwave drying leads to an increase in the rehydration initial rate
due to the formation of porous structure of the tissue fibers during drying at higher
microwave powers (Figure 5.). On the other hand, the same effect has the rise in rehydration
temperature during process, i.e., with increasing rehydration temperature rehydration initial
rate is increasing due to reduced water viscosity at higher temperatures.
The equilibrium moisture content increases with rehydration temperature increase, while
the influence of microwave power is more complex. In fact, with the increase in power from
150W to 250W there is a drop in the equilibrium moisture content. The reason for this is
likely a higher temperature of the sample during drying at higher microwave power, and the
consequent disruption of the tissue structure at these higher temperatures (Figure 6.). On the
178 Aleksandar Jokić, Zoltan Zavargo, Zita Šereš et al.

other hand, a further rise in power of microwave drying leads to a rise of equilibrium
moisture content.

Table 4. Regression equation coefficients for microwave dried sugar beet pulp

Response UT 1/k1 (1/min) UT 1/k2 (g/g) CT 1/k1 (1/min) CT 1/k2 (g/g)

coefficient

coefficient

coefficient

coefficient
t-value

t-value

t-value

t-value
Effects

Intercept
b0 -1.9102 -0.8124 5.8327 7.3696 0.3425 0.3429 8.5349 2.0278
Linear
b1 0.0063 0.3913 -0.0220 -4.0628 -0.0042 -0.6172 -0.0353 -1.2262
b2 0.1108 1.6329 0.0330 1.4431 0.0314 1.0880 0.1734 1.4275
Quadratic
b11 0.00001 -0.2185 0.00004 4.1772 0.00001 0.7653 0.0001 1.1229
b22 -0.0014 -1.8786 -0.0001 -0.4242 -0.0003 -0.8036 -0.0012 -0.8929
Interaction
b12 0.0001 1.0095 0.00004 -1.0687 0.0000 0.3518 0.00002 0.0899

Figure 5. Effects of rehydration temperature and microwave drying power on rehydration initial rate of
untreated sugar beet pulp.
Effect of Drying Conditions on Rehydration Kinetics of Sugar Beet Pulp 179

Figure 6. Effects of rehydration temperature and microwave drying power on equilibrium moisture
content of untreated sugar beet pulp.

Figure 7. Effects of rehydration temperature and microwave drying power on rehydration initial rate of
treated sugar beet pulp
180 Aleksandar Jokić, Zoltan Zavargo, Zita Šereš et al.

During microwave drying water vapor flow from the interior of the cossettes is formed,
so this vapor flow leads to the formation of porous (puff) tissue that can later support
rehydration. During microwave drying, there are two opposing effects. The first overheating
of the sample because of the large amount of energy absorbed, while the other is the
formation of porous tissue structure caused by the buildup of moisture extraction from the
pulp interior. So the combination of these two effects produces a minimum in the values of
the sugar beet pulp equilibrium moisture content of.
The rise in microwave power leads to an increase in the rehydration initial rate due to the
formation of porous structure of the tissue fibers during drying at higher powers. On the other
hand, the same effect has the rise in rehydration temperature, i.e., with increasing rehydration
temperature rehydration initial rate increases due to reduced water viscosity at higher
temperatures (Figure 7.). Compared to untreated pulp, lower values of rehydration initial rate
can be explained by the presence of air in the more porous structure of the treated fiber
created during microwave drying.
The equilibrium moisture content increases with rehydration temperature, while the
influence of microwave power is more complex and has the same trend as for untreated
fibers. With increase in microwave power from 150 W to 250 W equilibrium moisture
content decreases. This is probably connected to increase in temperature due to intense
heating of the samples during microwave drying. Further microwave power increase causes
additional equilibrium moisture content rise, due to fact that at this power level increase of
temperature is not so important because high flux of steam from the sample is responsible to
changes in the tissue structure making it more porous.

Figure 8. Effects of rehydration temperature and microwave drying power on equilibrium moisture
content of treated sugar beet pulp.
Effect of Drying Conditions on Rehydration Kinetics of Sugar Beet Pulp 181

CONCLUSION
Influence of the drying temperature is less apparent at the lower rehydration
temperatures, whereas at the higher values of this temperature its influence is more apparent
(McMinn, 2004). As it was mentioned, at lower rehydration temperatures water viscosity is
higher, so the dominant resistance to mass transfer is external. Increase of this type of
resistance with increase of drying temperature is connected with structural changes that can
occur at higher drying temperatures. At higher drying temperatures shrinking of the sugar
beet fibers becomes important because of the collapse of channel network in the plant tissue.
During chemical treatment with hydrogen peroxide, decolorization of sugar beet fibers with
hydrogen peroxide, more opened tissue structure is formed and as result of such new more
porous created matrix, resistance to water diffusion into fiber tissue is reduced and in that way
the rate of rehydration is increased as well as equilibrium moisture content. Even though it
could be expected that microwaves should create more porous dried tissue structure due to
fact that they cause steam flux from within the tissue, this was not the case in our study
probably because of high level of microwave power that causes increase in sample
temperature and in that way transform its matrix. When compared to untreated sugar beet
pulp chemically treated pulp has equilibrium moisture content more dependent on drying
temperature. Decolorized (treated) fibers have more porous structure so the drying
temperature has more impact to this type of tissue matrix. Equilibrium moisture content in the
case of treated sugar beet pulp is 2 to 3 times greater compared to untreated pulp.

REFERENCES
AOAC Official Method 985.29, Total Dietary in Foods-Enzymatic-Gravimetric Method.
Official Methods of Analysis, 16th ed. AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD (1995)
DeVries, J. W., Prosky, L., Li, B. & Cho, S. (1999). A Historical Perspective on Defining
Dietary Fiber. Cereal Foods World, 44, 367-369
Djuric, M., Gyura, J. & Zavargo Z. (2004). The analysis of process variables influencing
some characteristics of permeate from ultra- and nanofiltration in sugar beet processing.
Desalination, 169, 167-183
Fasatiova, L. (1988). Vlaknina pro potravinarkse učely-Sinecal I (Fibrous material for food
purposes I). Listy cukrovarnicke, 104, 201-205
Feeney, R., Prosise, R., McGrady, J. & Niehoff, R. (1989). Potato based dough containing
highly pectinated cellulosic fibers. Patent Number: US4876102
Filipović, J. (2005). Prehrambena vlakna iz šećerne repe za pekarsku industriju, Magistarski
rad, Tehnološki fakultet, Novi Sad, in Serbian
Gyura, J., Petrov, S., Sekulić, R. & Psodorov, Đ. (1991). Primena aditiva dobijenih iz
izluţenih rezanaca šećerne repe u pekarskim proizvodima, I deo: Dobijanje i svojstva
aditiva. Ţito-hleb, 3, 73-76
Khraisheh, M. A. M., Cooper, T. J. R. & Magee, T. R. A. (1997). Microwave and air drying I.
Fundamental considerations and assumptions for the simplified thermal calculations of
volumetric power absorption. Journal of Food Engineering, 33, 207-219
182 Aleksandar Jokić, Zoltan Zavargo, Zita Šereš et al.

McMinn, W. A. M. (2004). Thin-layer modeling of the convective, microwave, microwave-


convective and microwave-vacuum drying of lactose powder. Journal of Food
Engineering, 10, 30-41
Morgan, E. (1991). Chemometrics and experimental design, John Wiley i Sons, NY
Persson, K. (1986). Dietary fiber from sugar beet-Fibrex. Ernahrungs-Umschau, 3, 98-99
Peleg, M. (1988). An empirical model for the description of moisture sorption curve. Journal
of Food Science, 53(4), 1216–1219
Pribiš, V. (1999). Nutritivne osobine hrane. Tehnološki fakultet, Novi Sad, in Serbian.
Rede, R., Gyura, J. & Petrov, S. (1992). Celulozno pektinski aditiv iz izluţenih rezanaca
šećerne repe - Primena u proizvodima od oblikovanog usitnjenog mesa i u fementovanim
kobasicama. Tehnologija mesa, 34, 1, 28-31 in Serbian
Reickhoff, D., Trautwein, E. A., Malkki, Y. & Erbersdobler, H. F. (1999). Effects of
Different Cereal Fibres on Cholesterpl and Bile Acid Metabolism in the Szrian Golden
Hamste. Cereal. Chem., 76, 788-795
StatSoft Inc. (1995). STATISTICA for Windiws (computer program manual). Tulsa. OK
Stauffer, C. E. (1993). Dietary fibre: Analysis, Physiology and Calorie reduction. Chapt. 14 in
Advances in Backing Technology, ed. by B.S. Kamel and C.E. Stauffer, Blackie
Academic & Proffesional, London
Šereš, Z., Gyura, J., Filipović, N. & Šoronja Simović, D. (2005). Application of
decolourization on sugar-beet pulp in bread production. European Food Research and
Technology, 6, 1-14
Šušić, S., Kukić, G., Sinobad, V., Perunović, P., Koronsovac, B. & Bašić, Đ. (1994). Osnovi
tehnologije šećera. Industrija šećera Jugoslavije “Jugošećer” D.D., Beograd, in Serbian
Thibault, J. F., Renard, C. & Guillon, F. (1994). In Linkens, H. F., Jackon, J. F. (eds) Modern
methods of plant analysis, 16, Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York, 23-55
Thibault, J. F. (2000). New ways to valorize sugar beet pulp, SPRI Conference, Porto,
Portugal
Thibault, J. F., Renard, C. & Guillon, F. (2001). Sugar Beet Pulp – Production, Composition,
Physicochemical Properties, Physicological Effects, Safety and Food Applications.
Institut National de la Recherce Agronomique, Nantes, France.
Vogel, M. (1991). Alternative utilization of sugar beet pulp. Zuckerindustrie, 116, 265-270
Wisker, E., Feldheim, W., Pomeranz, Y. & Meuser, F. (1985). Dietary Fibre in Cereals.
Chapt. 4 in Advances in Cereal Science and Technology, VII, AACC, St. Raul Minn
INDEX
ANOVA, 157, 158, 161, 162, 172, 177
# anticancer drug, 102
antioxidant, 101
20th century, vii, 1, 2
apoptosis, 102
21st century, 84
apples, 152, 168
aqueous suspension, 103
A arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, 94, 106
ascorbic acid, 155
acetic acid, 92, 101 Asia, 82, 118
acid, viii, 13, 26, 29, 30, 90, 91, 92, 94, 96, 97, 98, assessment, viii, 29, 30, 32, 38, 46, 85, 116, 120,
100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 155, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 130, 131, 137
169, 170 asthma, 118
acidic, 32, 40, 41, 91, 94, 98, 99, 102, 104 atmosphere, 46, 112, 114
acidity, 120 atmospheric pressure, 170
acrylate, 103
active compound, 104
B
additives, 92, 169
adsorption, 32, 35, 36, 107, 156, 171
bacteria, 91, 92, 96, 97, 100, 104, 108
adverse effects, 115
bacterial fermentation, ix, 89
aerobic bacteria, 91
bacterial infection, 127
Africa, 85, 118
bacteriocins, 91
agricultural sector, 118
barriers, 38
agriculture, vii, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12, 25, 92, 95,
base, 90, 109, 117, 128, 149, 169
112, 113, 114, 117, 125, 129, 130, 132
beef, 19
agro-ethanol, vii
beer, 12, 15, 17, 18
air pollutants, 116
beet molasses, 8, 18, 39
air quality, ix, 111, 115, 131
beet producers, vii, 1, 2, 6, 146
air temperature, x, 125, 134, 139, 141
Belgium, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125
alcohol production, 3, 6, 85
beneficial effect, 117
alcohols, 6, 7, 23, 92, 118
benefits, 2, 40, 116, 119, 131
alfalfa, 106
benzene, 116
alkaline earth metals, 60
beverages, 97, 117
alkaline media, 169
bile acids, 168
alternative energy, 96, 97
bioactivity, viii, 29, 32, 33
alveoli, 118
bioassay, vii, viii, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35
amines, 168
bioavailability, 32
amino, 56, 137, 141
biocatalysts, 91
ammonia, 13, 26, 91
bioconversion, 91, 92, 93, 106
ammonium, 26, 56
biodegradable materials, 46
anaerobic digestion, 18, 42, 107
184 Index

biodegradation, 107 category a, 124


biodiesel, 26, 128, 131 cattle, 19, 41, 45, 47
biodiversity, ix, 111, 113, 115, 116, 127 cell lines, 102, 108
bioenergy, 26, 117, 128, 130 cellulases, ix, 89, 94, 99, 100
biofuel, ix, 83, 111, 113, 114, 116, 117, 118, 125, cellulose, ix, 45, 83, 89, 90, 91, 92, 94, 97, 98, 100,
127, 129, 130, 131 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 108, 109, 168, 169
biogas, 46, 86, 96, 104 Central Europe, 114
bioindicator plant, vii, 29, 30, 34 challenges, 92, 129, 130
biological control, 95 chemical, 13, 18, 30, 34, 41, 43, 56, 85, 86, 91, 92,
biomass, ix, 7, 38, 39, 44, 53, 56, 59, 60, 62, 63, 64, 94, 96, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 115, 119, 166,
76, 77, 79, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 92, 93, 95, 96, 97, 169, 170, 175, 181
105, 107, 108, 112, 113, 115, 116, 125, 128 chemical properties, 41, 101, 102
biomass materials, ix, 38 chemicals, 7, 11, 33, 96, 100, 102, 115, 119
biotechnology, ix, 41, 89, 91, 92, 94, 104, 105 China, 5, 6, 115, 130
biotic, 120 chirality, 91
bleaching, 103 cholesterol, 101, 168
bleeding, 168 classes, 98, 100
blends, viii, 37, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, climate, x, 2, 3, 5, 21, 23, 85, 112, 113, 114, 115,
57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 81, 118 118, 119, 121, 125, 127, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133,
blood vessels, 168 135, 145, 148
boilers, 43, 44, 83, 85 climate change, 3, 85, 113, 118, 119, 121, 125, 127,
bonds, 66, 103 130, 132
Brazil, 2, 3, 6, 7, 41, 43, 83, 131 coal, viii, ix, 37, 38, 39, 40, 43, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51,
breast cancer, 102, 108 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64,
breeding, x, 133, 135 65, 66, 67, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 76, 77, 78, 80,
BTU, 43 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 112, 131
burn, 21, 44, 50, 64, 73 coal-pulp blends, viii, 37, 48, 52, 53, 57, 58, 59, 60,
burnout, 64, 84 61, 63, 64, 65
butadiene, 116 coke, 44, 82
Butcher, 131 cold compress, 44
butyl ether, 8, 132 colon, 102, 152, 168
by-products, vii, viii, ix, 37, 38, 40, 47, 49, 52, 80, colonization, 94
81, 93, 101, 106, 108, 111, 118 color, iv, xi, 152, 167
combined effect, 50, 60, 166
combustion, viii, ix, 2, 37, 38, 40, 41, 42, 43, 45, 46,
C 47, 49, 50, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61,
63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 69, 70, 71, 72, 77, 80, 81, 82,
C. beticola Sacc., x, 133, 134, 135, 136, 139, 144,
83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 97, 111, 112, 118, 121, 125,
145, 148
126, 131
calcium, 14, 26, 39, 41, 45, 60, 61, 70, 77, 102, 108
commercial, 43, 49, 102, 108, 155
calcium carbonate, 39
commodity, 23
cancer, 101, 102, 108, 118, 119, 168
common agricultural policy, 112
cane sugar, 40, 46
compaction, 46, 115
carbohydrate, ix, 89, 90, 100, 101, 108
competition, 2
carbohydrate polymers, ix, 89, 100, 101
compilation, 85
carbohydrates, ix, 89, 91, 92, 94, 97, 100, 104, 152
composites, 102, 109
carbon, ix, 4, 32, 36, 38, 42, 43, 46, 48, 57, 59, 61,
composition, x, 10, 38, 42, 43, 44, 46, 69, 77, 85, 90,
63, 81, 93, 111, 112, 116, 118, 126, 128
100, 101, 103, 104, 105, 109, 133, 134, 169
carbon dioxide (CO2), ix, 38, 39, 63, 65, 69, 70, 73,
composting, 41
76, 93, 111, 112, 113, 118, 128
compounds, 33, 53, 59, 62, 72, 74, 94, 101, 104, 118,
carbon monoxide, 116, 126
123, 131
cardiovascular disease, 118
compression, 17, 18, 19
casting, 103
condensation, 17
catalytic effect, 61
Index 185

conservation, x, 11, 134 dependent variable, 156


constant rate, 153 deposition, 77, 85, 120
constituents, 10, 41, 168, 169 deposits, 66, 69, 74, 75
consumers, 118 depth, 13
consumption, vii, ix, 1, 3, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, desorption, 35, 171
18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 46, 81, 97, 99, 104, destruction, 54, 58, 59, 87
111, 112, 113, 114, 116, 117, 118, 121, 125, 126, detection, vii, viii, 29, 30, 34
127 developed countries, ix, 111, 118
contact time, 60 developing countries, 118
control measures, x, 133, 134 devolution, 3
convergence, 170 diabetes, 152
conversion rate, 15 diarrhea, 168
cooking, 38, 85 diesel engines, 118, 127
cooling, 43, 49, 50 diet, 152, 168
corn stover, 7 dietary fiber, xi, 101, 104, 152, 167, 168, 169, 170,
correlation, 103 173, 174, 175
cosmetics, 102 diffusion, x, xi, 40, 117, 151, 152, 153, 154, 159,
cost, x, 12, 21, 23, 24, 46, 97, 102, 134, 148 163, 165, 167, 170, 173, 181
critical value, 153 digestibility, ix, 89, 92, 105, 107
Croatia, x, 133, 134, 135, 146, 147, 149 digestion, 18, 23, 42, 96, 105, 107, 137
crop, 2, 3, 4, 6, 21, 30, 34, 35, 113, 114, 115, 125, digestive enzymes, 168
128, 130, 132, 135 discs, 154
crop production, 113, 114, 128 diseases, 12, 95, 113, 118, 135
crops, vii, viii, 1, 2, 3, 7, 9, 12, 27, 29, 30, 33, 34, 35, displacement, 119
112, 113, 114, 115, 118, 125, 128, 130 dissociation, 32
crude oil, vii, 1, 2, 3, 7, 13, 22, 23, 24 dissolved oxygen, 41
crust, 13, 120, 164, 165 distillation, 8, 10, 12, 15, 16, 17, 18, 112
crystalline, 97 distilled water, 170
crystallinity, 103 distribution, 15, 21, 41, 42, 80, 96, 113, 115, 116,
crystallisation, 43, 44 139, 166
crystallization, 8 diversity, 119, 126
crystals, 39, 42 diverticulitis, 152
cultivation, 22, 24, 92, 93, 95, 96, 118, 121 DOI, 82
cultural practices, 135 dominance, 49, 115
culture, 2, 5, 7, 9, 12, 14, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 94 dough, 181
cycles, 12, 15, 128 dried food products, xi, 167, 170
cytoplasm, 163 drinking water, 119
drought, 139, 141
dry matter, vii, viii, 1, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15, 20, 23, 37,
D 45, 49, 52, 60, 90, 91, 92, 97, 155, 169
drying, xi, 16, 19, 30, 46, 63, 152, 155, 166, 167,
damages, 119, 134, 137, 139, 144, 145, 146, 147,
170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179,
148
180, 181, 182
deacetylation, 108
decomposition, 10, 61
deconstruction, 97 E
deduction, 7
deforestation, 116 economic growth, 116
degradation, 33, 36, 77, 97, 98, 100, 103, 116, 175 economic performance, 116
dehydration, x, 18, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, economics, 42, 117
157, 158, 159, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166 ecosystem, 119, 120
denaturation, 117 EEA, 130
Denmark, 83 effluent, 10, 16, 83, 93
Department of Agriculture, 25 election, 115
186 Index

electrical properties, 109 eucalyptus, 60, 82


electricity, vii, 2, 11, 12, 13, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22, Europe, 2, 22, 112, 114, 115, 117, 118, 129, 135, 147
24, 26, 44, 113, 116, 123, 124, 125 European Parliament, 128
electrospinning, 103 European Union (EU), 3, 5, 6, 112, 115, 126, 149
emission, ix, 3, 24, 38, 54, 59, 63, 82, 85, 86, 111, evaporation, 44, 80, 103, 114
113, 116, 128, 129 evidence, 67, 76, 77, 109
emulsions, 43, 44, 82 evolution, 8, 53, 63, 64, 82, 127
endothermic, 69 experimental condition, 72
energy, vii, viii, ix, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, experimental design, 156, 166, 182
16, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 37, 38, 39, 40, exposure, 98, 118, 129, 131, 161
45, 46, 47, 49, 50, 54, 63, 65, 80, 81, 83, 86, 93, extraction, viii, ix, 10, 15, 16, 22, 37, 42, 89, 90, 91,
96, 97, 100, 104, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 94, 95, 96, 98, 101, 102, 106, 117, 130, 169, 180
117, 119, 121, 124, 125, 127, 128, 129, 131, extracts, 108, 117
132,152, 170, 180 extrusion, 85
energy consumption, ix, 10, 20, 23, 24, 46, 104, 111,
112
energy efficiency, 4, 25, 27, 132 F
Energy Independence and Security Act, 2, 7
fabrication, 103, 104
energy input, 49
factories, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 21, 45, 46
energy recovery, viii, ix, 37, 38, 40, 45, 46, 47, 54,
famine, ix, 111, 126
65, 80, 81
farms, 96
energy supply, 46
fat, 90, 101, 102
engineering, 130, 166
fatty acids, 168
England, 114
fauna, 115
environment, ix, 92, 98, 111, 112, 113, 116, 119,
feedstock, ix, 6, 17, 40, 45, 47, 105, 108, 111, 112,
121, 125, 126, 127, 130, 131, 169
113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 121, 122, 126, 127
environmental aspects, 119
feedstocks, 97, 108, 115
environmental conditions, 33
fermentation, ix, 7, 10, 15, 17, 18, 41, 42, 87, 89, 91,
environmental impact, 86, 91, 113, 116, 121, 126,
92, 94, 97, 98, 100, 101, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109,
127
117, 128, 130
environmental protection, 116
fermentation technology, 128
environmental regulations, 22
fertility, 41, 94
environmental sustainability, 127
fertilization, 136
environments, 3, 33, 34, 114
fertilizers, 13, 19, 104, 113, 115, 122, 126
enzymatic conversions, ix, 89
fiber, vii, xi, 1, 90, 101, 102, 104, 109, 152, 167,
enzyme, 94, 95, 96, 98, 99, 100, 102, 104, 105, 109
168, 169, 170, 173, 174, 175, 180, 181, 182
enzymes, ix, 89, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 100,
fiber content, 101, 152
101, 102, 104, 105, 106, 107, 168
fibers, xi, 10, 21, 101, 102, 103, 104, 109, 152, 167,
EPA, 85
168, 169, 170, 173, 174, 175, 177, 180, 181
equilibrium, xi, 151, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161,
fibrillation, 104
162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 170, 171, 172, 173,
field crops, 25
175, 176, 177, 179, 180, 181
films, 102, 103, 127
equipment, 11, 12, 16, 17, 23, 117
financial, 4, 11, 40
erosion, 115
fires, 70
ester, 131
first generation, ix, 111, 113, 129, 130
ethanol, vii, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15,
fish, 41
17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 97, 98,
fixation, 60
100, 105, 108, 112, 115, 116, 117, 121, 122, 123,
flame, 42, 43, 49, 54, 55, 63, 71, 85, 137
124, 125, 131
flexibility, 10, 24
ethical issues, 125
flora, 114, 115, 168
ethyl alcohol, 85
fluctuations, 5, 64, 65
ethylene, 6, 107
flue gas, 43, 44, 48, 49, 53, 59, 61, 63, 64, 70, 71, 72,
ethylene glycol, 107
74, 80
Index 187

fluid, 152 global warming, 116, 127


fluidized bed, viii, 37, 38, 40, 44, 45, 47, 49, 54, 55, glucose, 90, 98, 100, 113, 152, 154
57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 67, 69, 70, 76, 77, 80, glutamic acid, 106
81, 82, 84, 85, 86, 87, 107 glycerol, 166
food, xi, 4, 7, 46, 92, 93, 96, 97, 101, 102, 104, 105, glycol, 99, 107
108, 112, 113, 114, 116, 117, 118, 119, 125, 126, grades, 145
129, 130, 131, 152, 153, 154, 155, 166, 167, 168, granules, 42, 86
169, 170, 181 grass, 7, 30, 79, 113
food industry, 92, 96, 102, 169 Greece, 115, 131
food production, 117, 118, 126, 131 greenhouse, ix, 3, 24, 25, 111, 112, 128, 130, 131
food products, xi, 167, 170 greenhouse gas, ix, 3, 24, 25, 111, 112, 128, 130,
food security, 118 131
force, x, 65, 67, 70, 151, 152, 154, 155 greenhouse gas emissions, 25, 128, 131
formaldehyde, 103 greenhouse gases, 3, 24, 112, 128
formation, 42, 43, 52, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 63, 67, groundwater, 114
69, 70, 73, 81, 83, 84, 86, 87, 98, 101, 103, 153, growth, viii, ix, 26, 29, 30, 31, 34, 38, 91, 92, 94, 96,
164, 168, 177, 180 106, 111, 113, 114, 115, 116, 128, 130, 136, 137,
formula, 5, 137 145, 147
fossil fuels, ix, 3, 24, 38, 111, 112, 113, 119, 120, growth rate, 114
121, 122, 126, 127
France, vii, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 13, 14, 17, 19, 22,
23, 24, 82, 115, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, H
128, 182
habitats, 113, 115
friction, 21
harvesting, 38, 113, 114, 118
frost, 15
hazards, 113
fructose, 154
health, vii, ix, 111, 112, 113, 118, 119, 120, 121,
fruits, 152, 154, 168
122, 123, 126, 127, 131, 135, 146
fuel consumption, 14
health effects, 118, 131
fuel dispenser, vii, 1, 20, 23
heat value, vii, 1, 3, 11, 12, 13, 18, 19, 22
fuel prices, 23
heating rate, 46, 55
functional food, 102
heavy oil, 44
functionalization, 102
height, 44, 46, 60
fungi, ix, 89, 92, 93, 94, 96, 104, 106
hemicellulase, ix, 89, 100, 101
fungicide, x, 94, 104, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 139,
hemicellulose, ix, 89, 90, 91, 92, 94, 97, 98, 103,
140, 141, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149
168, 169
fungicide efficiency, x, 133, 135, 146
hemorrhoids, 168
fungus, x, 93, 94, 96, 133, 135, 146, 147
herbicide, vii, viii, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35
herbicide bioactivity, viii, 29, 32
G herbicides, vii, viii, 14, 29, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 136
high strength, 41, 102
gel, 101, 104, 166 homogeneity, 72
gel formation, 101 hot spots, 67
gelation, 108 human body, 152
genes, 135 human health, ix, 111, 118, 119
genome, 94 humidity, 14, 153
genotype, 134, 146 humus, 4, 136
Georgia, 87 Hunter, 107
Germany, 115, 128 hybrid, x, 134, 135, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 144,
GHG, 38, 112, 116 145, 147
global climate change, 113, 118, 127, 130 hydrocarbons, 22, 54, 56, 81, 116
global consequences, ix, 111 hydrogen, 57, 72, 103, 129, 169, 174, 181
global markets, 3 hydrogen bonds, 103
global security, 127 hydrogen peroxide, 169, 174, 181
188 Index

hydrolysis, 92, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104,
105, 106, 107, 108, 109
J
hydroxide, 169
Japan, 83, 86, 87, 149

I
K
IEA, 82, 83, 86, 128
Kenya, 44
imbalances, 116
kinetic model, 84, 156, 171
impact assessment, 131
kinetic parameters, 157, 172
Impact Assessment, 129
kinetics, xi, 46, 151, 156, 157, 161, 166, 167
imports, 22, 47
KOH, 90
impregnation, 153, 154
Kyoto Protocol, ix, 38
improvements, 23, 38
impurities, 39, 169
in vitro, 109 L
incomplete combustion, 63, 64, 69, 72
incubation period, 145 labeling, 145
incubation time, 33 lactic acid, 91, 92
independent variable, 99, 159 lactose, 182
India, 6, 85, 130, 131 landscape, 35
individualization, 103 large intestine, 152
industrial wastes, 41 leaching, 44
industrialized countries, 3 lead, ix, 56, 90, 91, 111, 112, 113, 115, 116
industrialized society, ix, 111, 112 leaf disease, x, 133, 134, 139, 145, 147
industry, vii, viii, ix, 1, 2, 8, 10, 11, 13, 21, 22, 23, life cycle, 116, 118, 128, 130, 131
24, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 44, 49, 52, 65, 81, 85, 89, lignin, ix, 82, 89, 91, 97, 98, 101, 104, 168, 169
90, 92, 93, 96, 102, 106, 117, 130, 169 lignocellulosic bioethanol, ix, 89
inefficiency, 113 liquid fuels, 112
infection, x, 133, 134, 146, 147 liquid phase, 170
inflation, 131 liquids, vii, viii, 1, 7, 37
ingredients, 102, 168, 169 Listeria monocytogenes, 128
inhibition, 31, 32, 34, 100, 101 livestock, 91, 94, 169
inhibitor, viii, 29, 30 Louisiana, 42, 85
injury, viii, 29, 30, 33, 34, 35 low temperatures, 175
insecticide, 136 lung cancer, 118
integration, 11
interaction effect, 156, 159, 161, 171, 173
International Energy Agency, 128 M
intestine, 19, 101, 152, 168
intrinsic viscosity, 83 Macedonia, 107
investment, 18, 23, 38 machinery, 14, 113, 115
ionising radiation, 119 magnitude, 158, 163, 172
ions, 41, 163 management, ix, 34, 35, 38
Iran, 148, 149 manganese, 94, 106
irradiation, 113 manufacturing, 46, 101
irrigation, 14, 84, 113 mass, xi, 5, 9, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 21, 24, 48, 49, 52,
isobutylene, 8 59, 60, 62, 65, 66, 69, 74, 91, 117, 118, 125, 134,
isolation, 102, 103 137, 151, 152, 153, 154, 156, 157, 165, 166, 170,
Italy, 130 171, 172, 173, 175, 181
mass loss, 154
materials, viii, ix, 7, 37, 38, 39, 40, 46, 82, 86, 91,
93, 96, 97, 98, 100, 102, 103, 104, 108, 109, 112,
113, 153, 154, 166, 168
Index 189

materials science, 104


matrix, 102, 103, 181
N
matter, vii, viii, 7, 18, 19, 21, 32, 33, 37, 40, 43, 45,
NaCl, 74, 163, 165
46, 47, 49, 52, 60, 61, 70, 72, 87, 90, 91, 92, 97,
nanocomposites, 102, 103, 104, 109
155, 169
nanofibers, 102, 103, 104, 109
measurement, 32, 63, 84
nanostructures, 104
meat, 118, 128
nanotechnology, 104
mechanical performances, 103
National Academy of Sciences, 131
mechanical properties, 102, 103
National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 86,
media, 95, 166, 169
130
medicine, 168
natural gas, 7, 13, 23, 24, 38, 43, 46, 65, 70, 71, 72,
Mediterranean countries, 115
73, 77, 96, 121
melting, 69, 77
natural habitats, 113
membrane permeability, 161
NCV, 48
metabolism, 15, 97, 152, 168
negative effects, 115, 118, 168
metabolized, 91
neglect, 14
metals, 60, 77, 83
Netherlands, 22, 130
methanol, 45
neutral, ix, 38, 90
methodology, xi, 5, 30, 107, 116, 120, 151, 156, 157,
nitric oxide, 81
168, 171
nitrogen, 14, 40, 45, 46, 52, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59,
Mexico, 84
60, 70, 72, 76, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 90, 93, 94, 116,
microbial conversion, ix, 89, 92, 93, 94, 96, 104
121, 122, 126, 137, 141
microbiota, 109
nitrogen compounds, 59, 72
microorganism, 95, 97, 98
non-renewable resources, 120
microorganisms, x, xi, 92, 94, 96, 101, 133, 134, 167
nontoxic fuels, x, 111
microstructure, 61
North America, 118, 132
microwave drying, xi, 167, 170, 171, 177, 178, 179,
nuclei, 67
180
nutrient, 12, 19, 30, 91, 92, 94, 106, 113, 120, 130,
microwave radiation, 170
152
microwaves, 170, 171, 181
nutrition, 92, 135
mineralization, 20
missions, 38, 61, 116, 128, 131
mixing, 59, 61, 63, 64, 72, 154 O
modelling, 83, 84
models, xi, 99, 120, 129, 157, 161, 167, 170, 172, oil, vii, ix, 1, 3, 6, 7, 13, 20, 22, 23, 33, 34, 39, 40,
177 42, 43, 81, 82, 92, 97, 101, 106, 111, 112, 113,
modifications, viii, 37, 40, 159 115, 116, 125, 128
moisture, viii, xi, 15, 19, 21, 30, 33, 34, 37, 38, 39, oil production, 112
40, 44, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 53, 56, 57, 58, 60, 62, oil samples, 33
63, 64, 65, 81, 91, 103, 114, 129, 155, 166, 167, oilseed, 26
169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 175, 176, 177, 179, 180, oligosaccharides, ix, 89, 101, 102, 108, 109, 168
181, 182 operations, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22,
moisture content, viii, xi, 15, 30, 33, 34, 37, 38, 40, 23, 24, 126, 129
46, 47, 48, 50, 53, 57, 58, 60, 63, 64, 65, 81, 103, opportunities, 112, 118, 127
155, 167, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 175, 176, 177, optimization, 95
179, 180, 181 organic compounds, 33, 116
moisture sorption, 166, 182 organic matter, 12, 13, 32, 33
molasses, x, 39, 40, 41, 44, 83, 106, 134, 137, 141, organism, 168
142, 146, 147 osmosis, 100
molecular mass, 154 osmotic dehydration, xi, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155,
molecular weight, 91, 99, 154 156, 157, 158, 159, 161, 162, 163, 166
molecules, 160, 163, 165 osmotic pressure, x, 151, 152, 153, 154, 159, 163,
mycelium, 106 165
190 Index

osmotic solutions, xi, 151, 155, 165 polysaccharides, 85, 90, 94, 97, 101, 102, 105, 108
oxidation, 13, 54, 59, 64, 85, 168 polyvinyl alcohol, 103
oxygen, 18, 41, 49, 56, 57, 58, 59, 63, 64, 65, 91, population, ix, 38, 91, 111, 112, 118
102 population growth, ix, 111
ozone, ix, 111, 113, 119, 131 porosity, 175
ozone layer, 119 Portugal, 182
potassium, viii, 38, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 69, 77, 79, 80,
81, 83, 137
P potato, 108, 152, 168
power generation, 26, 42
Pacific, 82
precipitation, 114, 127, 130, 132, 137
pastures, 4
premature death, 118, 119
pathogens, 136
preservation, 92, 116, 166
pathways, 54
producers, vii, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 23, 96, 112, 130,
peat, 86, 131
134, 146
pectinases, ix, 89, 94, 96, 100, 105, 106
production technology, 138
Peleg and Weibull model, xi, 167, 170
professionals, 121
penalties, viii, 37, 40
profitability, 100
permeability, 153, 161, 165
project, 16, 18, 39, 44
permeable membrane, 152
protection, 116, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 142, 149
permit, 10, 159
protectionism, 2, 3
peroxide, 169, 174, 181
proteins, 10, 19, 105
pesticide, 115
prototype, 46
pests, 113
public administration, 4
petroleum, vii, 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 14, 19, 21, 22,
pulp, viii, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 24, 37,
82, 112, 118, 119
38, 39, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 52, 53, 54, 57, 58,
pH, 32, 33, 35, 36, 40, 41, 91, 93, 95, 107, 169
59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 76, 77, 78, 79, 81, 83,
pharmaceutical, 6, 8, 102, 104, 108
85, 86, 87, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 117,
pharmaceuticals, 103
131, 152, 169, 170, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177,
phenol, 103
178, 179, 180, 181, 182
phosphate, 13, 94, 95, 106, 107
pumps, 18
phosphates, 94
purification, 8, 15, 23, 103
phosphorus, 45, 94
purity, 112
photosynthesis, 112, 134, 146
pyrolysis, 46, 85, 87, 97, 107
physical characteristics, 168
pyroxasulfone, viii, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34
physical structure, 153
pyroxsulam, viii, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34
physicochemical properties, 105
physiological mechanisms, 168
physiology, 130 Q
pipeline, 14, 27, 115
plant diseases, 95 quartz, 87
plant growth, 94, 106, 113, 114, 147
plant tissue, x, 151, 152, 153, 159, 164, 173, 181
plants, vii, viii, 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 9, 12, 13, 21, 22, 29, 30, R
32, 34, 86, 90, 94, 113, 114, 120, 152, 168
radiation, 113, 114, 119, 129, 170
Poland, 84
radicals, 54, 56, 57, 58, 63, 87
policy, 112, 125, 127, 128
raffinate, viii, 37, 38, 39, 44, 45, 65, 66, 67, 69, 70,
political instability, 112
71, 72, 73, 76, 77, 79, 80, 81
pollutants, 63, 85, 116
rainfall, x, 41, 114, 115, 134, 137, 139, 141
pollution, 87, 93, 115, 118, 126, 131
aw materials, 97
polymer, 95, 103, 104, 109
reaction mechanism, 55
polymer matrix, 103
reactions, 9, 13, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 63, 91, 92, 94,
polymer nanocomposites, 109
141
polymers, ix, 83, 85, 89, 100, 101, 102
Index 191

reactivity, 59 secretion, 94, 95


reagents, 103 security, ix, 111, 118, 127
recovery, viii, ix, 37, 38, 39, 40, 45, 46, 47, 54, 65, seed, x, 134, 135, 136
66, 80, 81, 93, 96 seeding, 135
recovery process, 40 selectivity, x, 151, 153, 154
recovery technology, viii, 37 sensitivity, vii, 29, 30, 98
rectification, 8, 15 Serbia, 89, 105, 151, 155, 167, 169
recycling, 8, 41 SES, 136
redistribution, 114, 130 sewage, 41
reducing sugars, 98, 99 shape, xi, 151, 153, 154, 171
regression, 172, 173, 177 shelf life, xi, 167
rehydration, xi, 167, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, shoot, viii, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34
176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181 shortage, 115
reinforcement, 102, 103, 104 showing, 72, 94, 96, 122, 126
renewable energy, 112, 125 signs, 65, 76, 81
renewable fuel, 117 silica, 59, 69
reparation, 102, 105 simulations, 129
reserves, ix, 3, 111, 112, 127 SiO2, 44, 69
residual herbicides, viii, 29, 30, 35 sludge, 45
residues, vii, 2, 7, 10, 13, 20, 21, 23, 24, 29, 34, 35, small intestine, 101, 152
86, 91, 93, 97, 106, 114 smog, ix, 111, 113
resistance, x, 71, 95, 106, 107, 133, 135, 148, 153, social development, 116
154, 173, 175, 181 society, ix, 111, 112
resources, 112, 115, 119, 120, 125 sodium, xi, 35, 44, 45, 69, 77, 137, 141, 151, 152,
response, vii, xi, 29, 30, 31, 33, 94, 99, 107, 114, 154, 155, 156, 157, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 169
130, 131, 151, 157, 158, 161, 168, 171 sodium hydroxide, 169
restoration, 21 software, 121, 157, 171
retention tests, 87 soil fertilizer, ix, 89, 94, 104
revenue, 4, 23 soil properties, viii, 29, 30, 32, 35
reverse osmosis, 100 soil type, 35
rice husk, 60, 82, 84 solid state, 93, 95, 96, 105, 106
rings, 154, 166 solid waste, 96
risk, 15, 34, 101, 115, 116, 168 solidification, 66
room temperature, 170 solubility, 154
root, viii, x, 5, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15, 19, 24, 29, 30, 31, solution, x, 7, 82, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157,
32, 33, 34, 35, 94, 115, 117, 133, 134, 135, 136, 158, 159, 160, 163, 165, 169
137, 138, 139, 146, 147, 157, 169 sorption, 35, 36, 156, 166, 182
root growth, 115 sorption curves, 166
roots, x, 9, 12, 14, 15, 23, 31, 90, 134, 137, 139 Southeast Asia, 118
runoff, 114 sowing, 135, 136
rural development, 112 soybeans, 128
Russia, 3, 5 Spain, 115, 132
species, 41, 54, 59, 63, 114, 119, 120
specific surface, 61
S specifications, vii, 2, 8
stability, 38, 96, 103, 117
safety, 105
standard of living, 112
salt concentration, 162, 163
starch, 7, 9, 101, 108, 168
salt production, 44
state, 93, 95, 96, 103, 105, 106, 107, 129, 130
salts, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 83, 154
storage, 14, 39, 42, 92, 105, 118, 169
savings, 116, 152
stress, 114, 130, 139
sawdust, 60, 82
stress factors, 114
Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), viii, 38, 67,
structural changes, 181
68, 69, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 80
192 Index

structural modifications, 159 techniques, 25, 35


structure, xi, 32, 56, 90, 101, 102, 115, 120, 152, technologies, 38, 92, 107, 108, 113, 116, 117
153, 159, 167, 173, 174, 175, 177, 180, 181 technology, viii, ix, 25, 37, 38, 40, 43, 44, 81, 84, 85,
styrene, 103 92, 93, 111, 112, 127, 128, 131, 138, 166
suberin, 168 temperature, xi, 6, 11, 17, 30, 33, 42, 43, 46, 47, 49,
substrate(s), ix, 89, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 50, 53, 54, 56, 58, 59, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67,
100, 104, 105, 106 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 76, 77, 81, 84, 85, 98, 99, 114,
sucrose, xi, 10, 15, 16, 90, 91, 117, 151, 152, 154, 117, 125, 127, 130, 132, 137, 151, 153, 154, 156,
156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 165, 167, 170, 171, 172,
166, 169 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181
sugar beet, vii, viii, ix, x, xi, 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 10, 21, 23, test data, 47
29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 37, 39, 46, 47, 50, 76, texture, xi, 101, 113, 115, 152, 167
83, 85, 86, 87, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, Thailand, 6, 44
98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, thermal degradation, 103
108, 109, 111, 112, 114, 115, 117, 120, 121, 122, thermal energy, 46
123, 124, 125, 126, 129, 130, 131, 133, 134, 135, thermal stability, 103
136, 137, 139, 141, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), 46
152, 155, 157, 159, 163, 167, 169, 170, 172, 173, toluene, 116
174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182 total energy, 12, 49
sugar beet shreds, ix, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 96, 97, toxic substances, 119
98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 107, 108 toxicity, 35, 119
sugar cane, vii, 1, 2, 21, 22, 24, 26, 83, 84, 85, 86, transformation, 9, 13, 94, 107
112 transparency, 10, 102
sugar industry, viii, ix, 37, 39, 40, 49, 52, 65, 81, 85, transpiration, 114
89, 93, 106 transport, x, 11, 13, 14, 15, 21, 25, 112, 113, 115,
sugar market, vii, 1, 2, 24 116, 118, 121, 128, 129, 130, 151, 153, 166
sugar production, vii, viii, x, 3, 8, 23, 37, 46, 117, transport costs, 128
133, 134, 169 transportation, vii, 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 19, 21, 22, 23, 38,
sugarcane, 26, 42, 115, 130, 131 116, 119, 127, 128
sulfonylurea, 35 treatment, x, 16, 44, 46, 82, 83, 87, 91, 94, 96, 100,
sulfuric acid, 13, 92 102, 103, 104, 133, 134, 135, 136, 139, 140, 146,
sulphur, 45, 52, 53, 60, 61, 62, 74, 81, 82, 87 153, 155, 166, 169, 174, 181
supply chain, 118, 129 Turkey, 46
suppression, 135
surface area, 32, 61
surface layer, 153, 174 U
surface modification, 104
Ukraine, 5
surplus, vii, 2, 3, 24
UNFCCC, 44, 86
susceptibility, 103
United Kingdom (UK), viii, 37, 41, 42, 81, 85, 105,
sustainability, 116, 117, 127
120, 122, 123, 124, 125, 130
sustainable development, 85, 118, 130
United Nations, 4, 118
sustainable economic growth, 116
United States (USA), 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 22, 25, 85, 118,
sustainable energy, 129
131
Sweden, 131
urban, 15, 131
Switzerland, 18, 26
urea, 136
synthesis, 91, 96
(USA), 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 22, 25, 85, 118, 131

T
V
tanks, 17, 18
vacuole, 164
tar, 22, 56
vacuum, 18, 39, 155, 182
taxes, 3
Valencia, 132
technical efficiency, 47
Index 193

valorization, 92, 100 water, viii, ix, x, xi, 7, 10, 11, 12, 13, 16, 17, 18, 20,
valuation, 129 31, 32, 33, 35, 37, 39, 40, 41, 43, 45, 69, 70, 72,
vapor, 18, 156, 180 76, 83, 87, 90, 91, 92, 100, 101, 103, 111, 112,
variables, 10, 61, 63, 99, 114, 129, 156, 159, 181 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 119, 126, 130, 137, 139,
variations, 57, 61, 64, 70, 72, 141, 157, 161 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160,
vegetables, 86, 152, 154, 168 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170,
vegetation, x, 114, 130, 134, 137, 139, 141, 145 173, 175, 177, 180, 181
vehicles, 125 water diffusion, 153, 154, 159, 173, 181
velocity, xi, 21, 49, 61, 65, 151, 154, 170 water vapor, 156, 180
vessels, 155, 168 waterways, 41
vinasse, viii, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 72, weight loss, 46
73, 74, 76, 77, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 85 weight ratio, xi, 151, 153, 155
viscose, 163 WHO, 128
viscosity, 45, 65, 83, 101, 102, 159, 160, 163, 165, wood, 38, 79, 82, 86, 104, 129
173, 175, 177, 180, 181 working conditions, 116
volatile organic compounds, 116

X
W
xanthan gum, 97
Wales, 37
Washington, 85, 130
waste, ix, 11, 16, 38, 41, 43, 44, 82, 86, 89, 92, 94, Y
95, 96, 97, 100, 106, 107, 108, 117, 118, 131
yield, x, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 24, 45,
waste heat, 11, 16, 43, 44
97, 98, 99, 101, 113, 114, 127, 129, 130, 131,
waste management, ix, 38
132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 141, 143,
wastewater, 40, 100, 106
144, 146, 147, 148, 149