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Specific Learning Disabilities

The IDEA defines a learning disability as a disorder in written or


spoken language that results in an imperfect ability to listen,
think, read, spell, write, or do mathematics.

Causes
As of now, no one is certain what causes learning disabilities. It is thought that
learning disabilities may be caused by;
 hereditary, teratogenic factors (for instance, alcohol or cocaine use during
pregnancy)
 medical factors (premature birth, diabetes, meningitis of mother or
offspring)
 environmental factors (malnutrition, poor prenatal healthcare, exposure to
lead or toxins, brain injuries).

A leading theory among scientists is that learning disabilities stem from subtle
disturbances in the way brain structures are formed. Researchers are also studying
genetic links.

Characteristics
 short attention span,
 poor memory,
 difficulty following directions,
 inability to discriminate between/among letters, numerals, or sounds,
 poor reading and/or writing ability,
 eye-hand coordination problems; poorly coordinated,
 difficulties with sequencing, and/or
disorganization and other sensory difficulties.
 performs differently from day to day,
 responds inappropriately in many instances,
 distractible, restless, impulsive,
 says one thing, means another,
 difficult to discipline,
Specific Learning Disabilities

 doesn’t adjust well to change,


 difficulty listening and remembering,
 difficulty telling time and knowing right from left,
 difficulty sounding out words,
 reverses letters,
 places letters in incorrect sequence,
 difficulty understanding words or concepts, and/or
delayed speech development; immature speech.

Prevalence Students With LD


LD is the largest category of students receiving special education services. • There
are 2.4 million American public school students (approximately 5 percent of the total
public school enrollment) identified with learning disabilities under the Individuals with
Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Forty-two percent of the 5.7 million school-age
children with all kinds of disabilities who receive special education services are served
in this category.
Two-thirds of students identified with LD are male.
Black and Hispanic students are overrepresented in many states while white and Asian
students are underrepresented in the LD category

Categories of Learning Disabilities

Input- This relates to how the child's brain translates the information that it receives.
This is the information perceived through the senses, such as visual and auditory perception.

Memory/Storage- Problems with memory can occur with short-term or working memory, or
with long-term memory.

Integration- This is the stage during which perceived input is interpreted, categorized, placed in
a sequence, or related to previous learning.

Output- Information comes out of the brain either through words, that is, language output, or
through muscle activity, such as gesturing, writing or drawing. Difficulties with language output can
create problems with spoken language, for example, answering a question on demand, in which one
must retrieve information from storage, organize our thoughts, and put the thoughts into words
before we speak. It can also cause trouble with written language for the same reasons.
Specific Learning Disabilities

F.A.T. City-video clips-Chapter one-explanation (3:35)

https://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=F.A.t.+City+Video+Part+1+E
ducation&&view=detail&mid=FA8C41D54A66105AE5B3FA8C41D54A
66105AE5B3&&FORM=VRDGAR

F.A.T.-frustration anxiety tension-4:48

https://app.schooltube.com/video/29f2376815b0407dac1a/F.A.T._City
_chapter_2_Anxiety%2C_frustration%2C

Types of Learning Disabilities


 Auditory Processing- Difficulties processing auditory information include
difficulty comprehending more than one task at a time and a relatively
stronger ability to learn visually.

Activity-GHOTI (on the board)


F.A.T. City-processing 5:15
https://app.schooltube.com/video/ae65d30d086543ed806b/the-
f.a.t.-city-video-chapter-3-processing

Discalculia- dyscalculia, a math disability can cause such


difficulties as learning math concepts (such as quantity, place
value, and time), difficulty memorizing math facts, difficulty
organizing numbers, and understanding how problems are
organized on the page.
Specific Learning Disabilities

Activity-sheet math sequence


Dsylexia- makes it difficult to read, write and spell. It is a neurological
problem, not an intellectual disability, where the brain mixes up letters and
words or the words appear to move on the page

activity-sheet reading
Dysgraphia- is often used as an overarching term for all disorders
of written expression. Others use the term “dysgraphia” exclusively
to refer to difficulties with handwriting .

Dispraxia (sensory integration disorder)- sometimes called motor


planning, dyspraxia refers to a variety of difficulties with motor
skills. Dyspraxia can cause difficulty with single step tasks such as
combing hair or waving goodbye
Non-Verbal Disability- Nonverbal learning disabilities often
manifest in motor clumsiness, poor visual-spatial skills,
problematic social relationships, difficulty with math, and poor
organizational skills

Aphasia/Disphasia- Speech and language disorders can also be


called Dysphasia/aphasia. Impaired written language ability may
include impairments in handwriting, spelling, organization of
ideas, and composition.

Visual perception/processing- Problems in visual perception include


missing subtle differences in shapes, reversing letters or numbers, skipping
words, skipping lines, misperceiving depth or distance, or having problems
with eye–hand coordination.

F.A.T City-(***go to 16:19)


https://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=Fat+City+Video+Special
+Education&&view=detail&mid=9A11F31830DE0577E38F9A11F3
Specific Learning Disabilities

1830DE0577E38F&rvsmid=97EE88611CAC78A031FF97EE88611CA
C78A031FF&FORM=VDRVRV

Eligibility Requirements
https://www.cesa7.org/sped/issues-eligibility/eligindex.htm

Resource for teachers/Parents


http://www.ldonline.org/