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Package Title: Testbank

Course Title: pap14


Chapter Number: 12

Question type: Multiple Choice

1) Which of the following is NOT a function of the nervous system?

a) Sensory function
b) Integrative function
c) Motor function
d) All are functions of the nervous system

Answer: d

Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 12.1 Describe the structures and basic functions of the nervous system.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.1.2 Describe the three basic functions of the nervous system.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.1 Overview of the Nervous System

2) Which of the following are divisions of the peripheral nervous system?

a) Somatic nervous system


b) Autonomic nervous system
c) Enteric nervous system
d) All of these choices

Answer: d

Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 12.1 Describe the structures and basic functions of the nervous system.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.1.1 Describe the organization of the nervous system.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.1 Overview of the Nervous System

3) The motor portion of the autonomic nervous system can be divided into

a) somatic and sympathetic divisions.


b) somatic and parasympathetic divisions.
c) enteric and somatic divisions.
d) sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.
e) voluntary and involuntary divisions.
Answer: d

Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 12.1 Describe the structures and basic functions of the nervous system.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.1.1 Describe the organization of the nervous system.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.1 Overview of the Nervous System

4) Which of the following types of cells display the property of electrical excitability?

a) Muscle cells
b) Neurons
c) All of these choices
d) None of these choices

Answer: c

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 12.2 Compare the structures and functions of neurons and neuroglia and
white matter and gray matter.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.2.1 Contrast the histological characteristics and the functions of
neurons and neuroglia.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.2 Histology of Nervous Tissue

5) Which of following organelles is a common site of protein synthesis in neurons?

a) mitochondria
b) nucleus
c) Nissl body
d) Golgi apparatus
e) nucleolus

Answer: c

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 12.2 Compare the structures and functions of neurons and neuroglia and
white matter and gray matter.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.2.1 Contrast the histological characteristics and the functions of
neurons and neuroglia.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.2 Histology of Nervous Tissue

6) With respect to neurons, the term “nerve fiber” refers to

a) an axon.
b) a dendrite
c) a Nissl body.
d) both axons and dendrites.
e) all of these choices

Answer: d

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 12.2 Compare the structures and functions of neurons and neuroglia and
white matter and gray matter.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.2.1 Contrast the histological characteristics and the functions of
neurons and neuroglia.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.2 Histology of Nervous Tissue

7) This type of neuron has one dendrite and one axon emerging from the cell body.

a) Multipolar neuron
b) Bipolar neuron
c) Unipolar neuron
d) Purkinje cell
e) Renshaw cell

Answer: b

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 12.2 Compare the structures and functions of neurons and neuroglia and
white matter and gray matter.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.2.1 Contrast the histological characteristics and the functions of
neurons and neuroglia.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.2 Histology of Nervous Tissue

8) Schwann’s cells begin to form myelin sheaths around axons in the peripheral nervous system

a) when neurons are injured.


b) during fetal development.
c) after birth.
d) only in response to electrical stimulation by neuroglial cells.
e) during the early onset of Alzheimer’s disease.

Answer: b

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 12.2 Compare the structures and functions of neurons and neuroglia and
white matter and gray matter.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.2.1 Contrast the histological characteristics and the functions of
neurons and neuroglia.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.2 Histology of Nervous Tissue

9) This type of nervous tissue contains neuronal cell bodies, dendrites, unmyelinated axons, axon
terminals, and neuroglial cells.

a) Gray matter
b) White matter
c) Nissl bodies
d) Ganglia
e) Nuclei

Answer: a

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 12.2 Compare the structures and functions of neurons and neuroglia and
white matter and gray matter.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.2.2 Distinguish between gray matter and white matter
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.2 Histology of Nervous Tissue

10) Which of the following is NOT a type of channel used in production of electrical signals in
neurons?

a) Leakage channel
b) Voltage-gated channel
c) Ligand-gated channel
d) Mechanically gated channel
e) Ion-gated channel

Answer: e

Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 12.3 Describe the types of electrical signals that permit communication
among neurons.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.3.2 Compare the basic types of ion channels, and explain how they
relate to graded potentials and action potentials.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.3 Electrical Signals in Neurons

11) A polarized cell

a) has a charge imbalance across its membrane.


b) includes most cells of the body.
c) exhibits a membrane potential.
d) includes most cells of the body and exhibits a membrane potential.
e) All of these choices are correct.

Answer: e

Difficulty: Hard
Study Objective 1: SO 12.3 Describe the types of electrical signals that permit communication
among neurons.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.3.3 Describe the factors that maintain a resting membrane potential.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.3 Electrical Signals in Neurons

12) Na+/K+–ATPase is considered to be an electrogenic pump because

a) it contributes to the negativity of the resting membrane potential.


b) the sodium ions are negatively charged.
c) it exhibits low permeability.
d) both it contributes to the negativity of the resting membrane potential and the sodium ions are
negatively charged.
e) all of these choices

Answer: a

Difficulty: Hard
Study Objective 1: SO 12.3 Describe the types of electrical signals that permit communication
among neurons.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.3.3 Describe the factors that maintain a resting membrane potential.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.3 Electrical Signals in Neurons

13) A depolarizing graded potential

a) makes the membrane more polarized.


b) makes the membrane less polarized.
c) is considered a type of action potential.
d) is the last part of an action potential.
e) is seen when the cell approaches threshold.

Answer: b

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 12.3 Describe the types of electrical signals that permit communication
among neurons.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.3.3 Describe the factors that maintain a resting membrane potential.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.3 Electrical Signals in Neurons
14) When a depolarizing graded potential makes the axon membrane depolarize to threshold,

a) ligand-gated Ca+2 channels close rapidly.


b) voltage-gated Ca+2 channels open rapidly.
c) ligand-gated Na+ channels close rapidly.
d) voltage-gated Na+ channels open rapidly.
e) none of these choices occur.

Answer: d

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 12.3 Describe the types of electrical signals that permit communication
among neurons.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.3.4 List the sequence of events that generate an action potential.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.3 Electrical Signals in Neurons

15) During the resting state of a voltage-gated Na+ channel,


1. the inactivation gate is open.
2. the activation gate is closed.
3. the channel is permeable to Na+.

a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) 3 only
d) both 1 and 2 are true.
e) all of these choices are true.

Answer: d

Difficulty: Hard
Study Objective 1: SO 12.3 Describe the types of electrical signals that permit communication
among neurons.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.3.3 Describe the factors that maintain a resting membrane potential.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.3 Electrical Signals in Neurons

16) During this period, a second action potential can only be initiated by a larger than normal
stimulus

a) Latent period
b) Absolute refractory period
c) Relative refractory period
d) All of these choices
e) None of these choices

Answer: c

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 12.3 Describe the types of electrical signals that permit communication
among neurons.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.3.4 List the sequence of events that generate an action potential.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.3 Electrical Signals in Neurons

17) Saltatory conduction

a) can occur in unmyelinated axons


b) happens due to an even distribution of voltage-gated Na+ channels
c) encodes only action potentials that are initiated in response to pain.
d) occurs in unmyelinated axons and happens due to even distribution of voltage-gated Na+
channels
e) occurs only in myelinated axons

Answer: e

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 12.3 Describe the types of electrical signals that permit communication
among neurons.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.3.4 List the sequence of events that generate an action potential.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.3 Electrical Signals in Neurons

18) The nervous system can distinguish between a light touch and a heavier touch by

a) saltatory conduction.
b) continuous conduction of graded potentials.
c) changing the frequency of impulses sent to sensory centers.
d) propagation action potential in both directions.
e) modifying the length of the refractory period.

Answer: c

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 12.3 Describe the types of electrical signals that permit communication
among neurons.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.3.4 List the sequence of events that generate an action potential.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.3 Electrical Signals in Neurons
19) Faster communication and synchronization are two advantages of

a) chemical synapses
b) electrical synapses
c) ligand-gated channels
d) voltage-gated channels
e) mechanically-gated channels

Answer: b

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 12.4 Describe signal transmission at a chemical synapse, summation, and
excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.4.1 Explain the events of signal transmission at electrical and chemical
synapses.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.4 Signal Transmission at Synapses

20) An excitatory neurotransmitter _____ the postsynaptic membrane.

a) depolarizes
b) repolarizes
c) hyperpolarizes
d) does not affect the polarity of
e) moves across channels in

Answer: a

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 12.4 Describe signal transmission at a chemical synapse, summation, and
excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.4.1 Explain the events of signal transmission at electrical and chemical
synapses.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.4 Signal Transmission at Synapses

21) Diffusion, enzymatic degradation, and uptake by cells are all ways to

a) remove a neurotransmitter
b) stop a spatial summation
c) continue a temporal summation
d) inhibit a presynaptic potential
e) excite a presynaptic potential

Answer: a
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 12.4 Describe signal transmission at a chemical synapse, summation, and
excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.4.1 Explain the events of signal transmission at electrical and chemical
synapses.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.4 Signal Transmission at Synapses

22) When the summed total of postsynaptic potentials rises above threshold, creation of action
potentials occurs

a) in the synaptic cleft.


b) in the dendrites.
c) at the trigger zone.
d) in the neuron nucleus.
e) in the neuroplasm.

Answer: c

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 12.4 Describe signal transmission at a chemical synapse, summation, and
excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.4.1 Explain the events of signal transmission at electrical and chemical
synapses.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.4 Signal Transmission at Synapses

23) A postsynaptic neuron responds to neurotransmitters released by a presynaptic neuron by


creating

a) EPSPs
b) water-filled channels in its membrane
c) IPSPs
d) either EPSPs or IPSPs
e) All the choices are correct

Answer: d

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 12.4 Describe signal transmission at a chemical synapse, summation, and
excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.4.1 Explain the events of signal transmission at electrical and chemical
synapses.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.4 Signal Transmission at Synapses
24) This type of neural circuit consists of a single presynaptic neuron synapsing with several
postsynaptic neurons.

a) Diverging circuit
b) Converging circuit
c) Reverberating circuit
d) Parallel after-discharge circuit
e) Normal circuit

Answer: a

Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 12.6 Identify the various types of neural circuits in the nervous system.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.6 Neural Circuits

25) Plasticity means

a) ability to regenerate after being damaged.


b) sending a signal through a converging circuit.
c) signal transmission at a synapse.
d) ability to change based on experience.
e) ability to stretch and recoil without damage.

Answer: d

Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 12.7 Describe neurogenesis and explain the events involved in damage
and repair of peripheral nerves and the disorders that affect the nervous system.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.7.1 Define plasticity and neurogenesis.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.7 Regeneration and Repair of Nervous Tissue

Question type: Essay

26) What factors limit neurogenesis in the CNS of adults?

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 12.7 Describe neurogenesis and explain the events involved in damage
and repair of peripheral nerves and the disorders that affect the nervous system.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.7.1 Define plasticity and neurogenesis.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.7 Regeneration and Repair of Nervous Tissue
Solution: Neurogenesis in adults is limited by: 1) Inhibitory influences from neuroglia, mainly
from oligodendrocytes, and 2) the absence of growth-stimulating cues present during fetal
development.

27) Describe four ways drugs can modify the effects of neurotransmitters.

Answer:

Difficulty: Hard
Study Objective 1: SO 12.5 Describe the classes and functions of neurotransmitters.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.5 Neurotransmitters
Solution: Drugs can modify neurotransmitter effects by: 1) stimulating or inhibiting their
synthesis, 2) enhancing or blocking their release, 3) activating or blocking their receptor, and 4)
stimulating or inhibiting their removal.

28) List the three ways that neurotransmitters can be removed from a synapse.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 12.5 Describe the classes and functions of neurotransmitters.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.5 Neurotransmitters
Solution: Neurotransmitters can be removed by: 1) diffusion, 2) enzymatic degradation or 3)
uptake by cells.

29) List the three major factors that contribute to the creation of the resting membrane potential
in excitable cells.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 12.3 Describe the types of electrical signals that permit communication
among neurons.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.3.3 Describe the factors that maintain a resting membrane potential.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.3 Electrical Signals in Neurons
Solution: The major factors that lead to creation of resting potential are: 1) unequal distribution
of ions across the plasma membrane, 2) inability of most anions to leave the cell, and 3) the
electrogenic nature of the Na+,K+ -ATPase.

30) Briefly describe the events that occur during the depolarizing phase of an action potential.

Answer:
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 12.3 Describe the types of electrical signals that permit communication
among neurons.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.3.4 List the sequence of events that generate an action potential.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.3 Electrical Signals in Neurons
Solution: Voltage-gated Na+ channels open rapidly allowing Na+ to rush into the cell driven by
both the electrical and chemical gradient. The inward rush of Na+ causes the membrane potential
to become less negative, resulting in depolarization.

Question type: Multiple Choice

31) Which part of the diagram is considered nerve fiber?

a) A
b) D
c) I
d) Both A and D
e) All of these choices make up the nerve fiber

Answer: d

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 12.2 Compare the structures and functions of neurons and neuroglia and
white matter and gray matter.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.2.1 Contrast the histological characteristics and the functions of
neurons and neuroglia.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.2 Histology of Nervous Tissue

32) This part of the neuron contains the nucleus and Nissl bodies.

a) A
b) B
c) C
d) E
e) Both A and B
Answer: b

Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 12.2 Compare the structures and functions of neurons and neuroglia and
white matter and gray matter.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.2.1 Contrast the histological characteristics and the functions of
neurons and neuroglia.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.2 Histology of Nervous Tissue

33) This part of a neuron contains the nucleus and cytoplasm of the Schwann’s cell that has
formed a myelin sheath around the axon.

a) C
b) D
c) E
d) F
e) G

Answer: c
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 12.2 Compare the structures and functions of neurons and neuroglia and
white matter and gray matter.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.2.1 Contrast the histological characteristics and the functions of
neurons and neuroglia.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.2 Histology of Nervous Tissue

34) In the diagram, where are axon terminals?

a) F
b) G
c) H
d) I
e) None of these choices

Answer: c
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 12.2 Compare the structures and functions of neurons and neuroglia and
white matter and gray matter.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.2.1 Contrast the histological characteristics and the functions of
neurons and neuroglia.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.2 Histology of Nervous Tissue

35) Which of the neurons is considered to be a bipolar neuron?

a) A
b) B
c) C
d) All of the neurons.
e) None of the neurons.

Answer: d

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 12.2 Compare the structures and functions of neurons and neuroglia and
white matter and gray matter.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.2.1 Contrast the histological characteristics and the functions of
neurons and neuroglia.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.2 Histology of Nervous Tissue
36) This structure electrically insulates the axon of a neuron to increase the speed of nerve
impulse conduction.

a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D
e) E

Answer: e

Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 12.2 Compare the structures and functions of neurons and neuroglia and
white matter and gray matter.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.2.1 Contrast the histological characteristics and the functions of
neurons and neuroglia.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.2 Histology of Nervous Tissue
37) In the diagram, where is a node of Ranvier?

a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D
e) E

Answer: b

Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 12.2 Compare the structures and functions of neurons and neuroglia and
white matter and gray matter.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.2.1 Contrast the histological characteristics and the functions of
neurons and neuroglia.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.2 Histology of Nervous Tissue
38) In the CNS, this structure is produced by oligodendrocytes.

a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D
e) E

Answer: e

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 12.2 Compare the structures and functions of neurons and neuroglia and
white matter and gray matter.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.2.1 Contrast the histological characteristics and the functions of
neurons and neuroglia.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.2 Histology of Nervous Tissue
39) Which of the diagrams in the figure represents a ligand-gated channel?

a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D

Answer: b

Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 12.3 Describe the types of electrical signals that permit communication
among neurons.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.3.2 Compare the basic types of ion channels, and explain how they
relate to graded potentials and action potentials.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.3 Electrical Signals in Neurons
40) Which of these types of channels is involved in leaking sodium and potassium ions across
the membrane in order to establish the resting potential of a cell?

a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D

Answer: a

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 12.3 Describe the types of electrical signals that permit communication
among neurons.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.3.2 Compare the basic types of ion channels, and explain how they
relate to graded potentials and action potentials.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.3 Electrical Signals in Neurons
41) Which of the channels shown in the figure opens and closes randomly?

a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D
e) All of these choices

Answer: a

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 12.3 Describe the types of electrical signals that permit communication
among neurons.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.3.2 Compare the basic types of ion channels, and explain how they
relate to graded potentials and action potentials.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.3 Electrical Signals in Neurons
42) Which diagram represents a reverberating circuit?

a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D

Answer: c

Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 12.6 Identify the various types of neural circuits in the nervous system.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.6 Neural Circuits
43) Which of the types of circuits is commonly used to send sensory signals to multiple areas of
the brain?

a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D

Answer: a

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 12.6 Identify the various types of neural circuits in the nervous system.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.6 Neural Circuits
44) Which type of circuit is used to lengthen the output signal in physiological processes like
regulation of the breathing pattern?

a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D

Answer: c

Difficulty: Hard
Study Objective 1: SO 12.6 Identify the various types of neural circuits in the nervous system.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.6 Neural Circuits
45) Which type of circuit is involved in solving mathematical problems?

a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D

Answer: d

Difficulty: Hard
Study Objective 1: SO 12.6 Identify the various types of neural circuits in the nervous system.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.6 Neural Circuits

46) What is the structural classification of the neuron labeled A?

a) bipolar neuron
b) multipolar neuron
c) unipolar neuron
d) nonpolar neuron
e) pseudounipolar

Answer: b

Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 12.2 Compare the structures and functions of neurons and neuroglia and
white matter and gray matter.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.2.1 Contrast the histological characteristics and the functions of
neurons and neuroglia.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.2 Histology of Nervous Tissue

47) What is the structural classification of the neuron labeled B?

a) bipolar neuron
b) multipolar neuron
c) unipolar neuron
d) nonpolar neuron
e) pseudounipolar

Answer: a

Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 12.2 Compare the structures and functions of neurons and neuroglia and
white matter and gray matter.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.2.1 Contrast the histological characteristics and the functions of
neurons and neuroglia.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.2 Histology of Nervous Tissue
48) Which of the following structures is labeled A in the diagram?

a) axon terminal
b) trigger zone
c) cell body
d) peripheral process
e) dendrites

Answer: e

Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 12.2 Compare the structures and functions of neurons and neuroglia and
white matter and gray matter.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.2.1 Contrast the histological characteristics and the functions of
neurons and neuroglia.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.2 Histology of Nervous Tissue
49) Which of the following structures is labeled B in the diagram?

a) axon terminal
b) trigger zone
c) cell body
d) peripheral process
e) dendrites

Answer: d

Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 12.2 Compare the structures and functions of neurons and neuroglia and
white matter and gray matter.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.2.1 Contrast the histological characteristics and the functions of
neurons and neuroglia.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.2 Histology of Nervous Tissue
50) Which of the following structures is labeled C in the diagram?

a) axon terminal
b) trigger zone
c) cell body
d) peripheral process
e) dendrites

Answer: c

Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 12.2 Compare the structures and functions of neurons and neuroglia and
white matter and gray matter.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.2.1 Contrast the histological characteristics and the functions of
neurons and neuroglia.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.2 Histology of Nervous Tissue
51) Which of the following structures is labeled D in the diagram?

a) axon terminal
b) trigger zone
c) cell body
d) peripheral process
e) dendrites

Answer: b

Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 12.2 Compare the structures and functions of neurons and neuroglia and
white matter and gray matter.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.2.1 Contrast the histological characteristics and the functions of
neurons and neuroglia.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.2 Histology of Nervous Tissue
52) Which of the following structures is labeled E in the diagram?

a) axon terminal
b) trigger zone
c) cell body
d) axon
e) dendrites

Answer: a

Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 12.2 Compare the structures and functions of neurons and neuroglia and
white matter and gray matter.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.2.1 Contrast the histological characteristics and the functions of
neurons and neuroglia.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.2 Histology of Nervous Tissue

53) Which of the following types of neurons is the most common type of neuron found in the
brain and spinal cord?

a) bipolar neuron
b) multipolar neuron
c) unipolar neuron
d) nonpolar neuron
e) pseudounipolar
Answer: b

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 12.2 Compare the structures and functions of neurons and neuroglia and
white matter and gray matter.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.2.1 Contrast the histological characteristics and the functions of
neurons and neuroglia.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.2 Histology of Nervous Tissue

54) Which of the following types of neurons have one axon and one dendrite emerging from the
cell body and are found in the retina of the eye, inner ear, and olfactory region of the brain?

a) bipolar neuron
b) multipolar neuron
c) unipolar neuron
d) nonpolar neuron
e) pseudounipolar

Answer: a

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 12.2 Compare the structures and functions of neurons and neuroglia and
white matter and gray matter.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.2.1 Contrast the histological characteristics and the functions of
neurons and neuroglia.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.2 Histology of Nervous Tissue

55) Which of the following types of neurons is exclusively found in the cerebellum?

a) bipolar neuron
b) multipolar neuron
c) Purkinje cells
d) unipolar neuron
e) pyramidal cells

Answer: c

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 12.2 Compare the structures and functions of neurons and neuroglia and
white matter and gray matter.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.2.1 Contrast the histological characteristics and the functions of
neurons and neuroglia.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.2 Histology of Nervous Tissue
56) What specific type of unipolar neuron is shown in the diagram labeled B?

a) Type I cutaneous mechanoreceptor (Merkel disc)


b) Corpuscle of touch (Meissner corpuscle)
c) Lamellated (Pacinian) corpuscle
d) nociceptor
e) Purkinje cell

Answer: a

Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 12.2 Compare the structures and functions of neurons and neuroglia and
white matter and gray matter.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.2.1 Contrast the histological characteristics and the functions of
neurons and neuroglia.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.2 Histology of Nervous Tissue
57) Which of the labeled cells in the figure is NOT a neuroglial cell?

a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D
e) F

Answer: c

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 12.2 Compare the structures and functions of neurons and neuroglia and
white matter and gray matter.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.2.1 Contrast the histological characteristics and the functions of
neurons and neuroglia.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.2 Histology of Nervous Tissue
58) Which of the labeled cells in the diagram is a neuroglial cell that forms and maintains the
myelin sheath around CNS axons?

a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D
e) F

Answer: a

Difficulty: Hard
Study Objective 1: SO 12.2 Compare the structures and functions of neurons and neuroglia and
white matter and gray matter.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.2.1 Contrast the histological characteristics and the functions of
neurons and neuroglia.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.2 Histology of Nervous Tissue
59) Which of the labeled cells in the diagram is a neuroglial cell that forms and maintains the
myelin sheath around CNS axons?

a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D
e) F

Answer: a

Difficulty: Hard
Study Objective 1: SO 12.2 Compare the structures and functions of neurons and neuroglia and
white matter and gray matter.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.2.1 Contrast the histological characteristics and the functions of
neurons and neuroglia.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.2 Histology of Nervous Tissue
60) Which of the labeled cells in the diagram is a neuroglial cell that removes debris and acts as
a phagocyte?

a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D
e) F

Answer: b

Difficulty: Hard
Study Objective 1: SO 12.2 Compare the structures and functions of neurons and neuroglia and
white matter and gray matter.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.2.1 Contrast the histological characteristics and the functions of
neurons and neuroglia.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.2 Histology of Nervous Tissue
61) Which of the labeled cells in the diagram is a neuroglial cell that produces and assists in the
circulation of cerebrospinal fluid?

a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D
e) F

Answer: e

Difficulty: Hard
Study Objective 1: SO 12.2 Compare the structures and functions of neurons and neuroglia and
white matter and gray matter.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.2.1 Contrast the histological characteristics and the functions of
neurons and neuroglia.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.2 Histology of Nervous Tissue

62) Name the type of membrane channel that randomly opens and closes and is found in
dendrites, cell bodies, and axons of all types of neurons.
a) leakage channel
b) ligand-gated channel
c) mechanically gated channel
d) voltage-gated channel
e) pressure-sensitive channel

Answer: a

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 12.3 Describe the types of electrical signals that permit communication
among neurons.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.3.2 Compare the basic types of ion channels, and explain how they
relate to graded potentials and action potentials.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.3 Electrical Signals in Neurons

63) Name the type of membrane channel that opens in response to chemical binding and is found
in dendrites of some sensory receptors like pain receptors, and in the dendrites and cell bodies of
interneurons and motor neurons.

a) leakage channel
b) ligand-gated channels
c) mechanically gated channels
d) voltage-gated channels
e) pressure-sensitive channel

Answer: b

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 12.3 Describe the types of electrical signals that permit communication
among neurons.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.3.2 Compare the basic types of ion channels, and explain how they
relate to graded potentials and action potentials.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.3 Electrical Signals in Neurons

64) Name the type of membrane channel that opens in response to touch, pressure, vibration, or
tissue stretching and is found in the auditory receptors of the ear, and in touch and pressure
receptors in the skin.

a) leakage channel
b) ligand-gated channels
c) mechanically gated channels
d) voltage-gated channels
e) temperature-sensitive channel
Answer: c

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 12.3 Describe the types of electrical signals that permit communication
among neurons.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.3.2 Compare the basic types of ion channels, and explain how they
relate to graded potentials and action potentials.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.3 Electrical Signals in Neurons

65) Name the type of membrane channel that opens in response to changes in membrane
potential and is located in axons of all types of neurons.

a) leakage channel
b) ligand-gated channels
c) mechanically gated channels
d) voltage-gated channels
e) temperature-sensitive channel

Answer: d

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 12.3 Describe the types of electrical signals that permit communication
among neurons.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.3.2 Compare the basic types of ion channels, and explain how they
relate to graded potentials and action potentials.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.3 Electrical Signals in Neurons

66) Chromatolysis refers to

a) break up of lysosomes after neural injury.


b) Wallerian degeneration after neural injury.
c) plasticity of neuron.
d) break up of Nissl bodies after neural injury.
e) none of these choices

Answer: d

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 12.7 Explain neurogenesis and the events involved in damage and repair
of peripheral nerves.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.7.2 Describe the events involved in damage and repair of peripheral
nerves.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.7 Regeneration and Repair of Nervous Tissue
67) Wallerian degeneration refers to

a) degeneration of the proximal end of axon and myelin sheath after neural injury.
b) degeneration of the distal end of axon and myelin sheath after neural injury.
c) break of Nissl bodies after neural injury.
d) plasticity of neuron.
e) none of these choices

Answer: b

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 12.7 Explain neurogenesis and the events involved in damage and repair
of peripheral nerves.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.7.2 Describe the events involved in damage and repair of peripheral
nerves.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.7 Regeneration and Repair of Nervous Tissue

Question type: Essay

68) Describe the difference between spatial and temporal summation in a postsynaptic neuron.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 12.4 Describe signal transmission at a chemical synapse, summation, and
excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.4.2 Distinguish between spatial and temporal summation.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.4 Signal Transmission at Synapses
Solution: Spatial summation is summation of postsynaptic potentials in response to stimuli that
occur at different locations in the membrane of a postsynaptic cell at the same time. This
typically occurs when multiple presynaptic neurons synapse with one postsynaptic neuron and
fire simultaneously. Temporal summation is summation of postsynaptic potentials in response to
stimuli that occur at the same location in the membrane of the postsynaptic cell but at different
times. This typically occurs when one presynaptic neuron fires in rapid succession leading to a
summing of the resulting EPSPs, which then triggers the generation of action potentials in the
postsynaptic neuron as it moves above threshold.

Question type: Multiple Choice


69) Hearing your cell phone ring in an otherwise quiet lecture hall is an example of which of the
following types of nervous system functions?

a) Sensory function
b) Integrative function
c) Motor function
d) More than one of the types of nervous system functions
e) None of the types of nervous system functions

Answer: a

Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 12.1 Describe the structures and basic functions of the nervous system.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.1.2 Describe the three basic functions of the nervous system.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.1 Overview of the Nervous System

70) Which of the following types of electrical signals allow rapid long-distance communication
within the nervous system?

a) resting potential
b) nerve action potential
c) muscle action potential
d) graded potential
e) long-term potentiation

Answer: b

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 12.3 Describe the types of electrical signals that permit communication
among neurons.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.3.1 Describe the cellular properties that permit communication among
neurons and effectors.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.3 Electrical Signals in Neurons

71) In an action potential, the current that flows down the axon of a neuron is generated by the
movement of _____ across the membrane.

a) electrons
b) protons
c) ions
d) free radicals
e) neutrons

Answer: c
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 12.3 Describe the types of electrical signals that permit communication
among neurons.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.3.1 Describe the cellular properties that permit communication among
neurons and effectors.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.3 Electrical Signals in Neurons

72) In the process of spatial summation, _____ are added together and _____ are subtracted from
that total to determine whether _____ will be created at the trigger zone of the postsynaptic
neuron.

a) EPSPs; IPSPs; action potentials


b) IPSPs; EPSPs; action potentials
c) EPSPs; IPSPs; graded potentials
d) IPSPs; action potentials; EPSPs
e) EPSPs; action potentials; IPSPs

Answer: a

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 12.4 Describe signal transmission at a chemical synapse, summation, and
excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.4.2 Distinguish between spatial and temporal summation.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.4 Signal Transmission at Synapses

73) In temporal summation, a single presynaptic neuron stimulates the creation of action
potentials in a postsynaptic neuron when it

a) stops firing long enough to allow the postsynaptic neuron to recover.


b) fires at a fast enough rate that the sum of EPSPs in the postsynaptic neuron moves above
threshold.
c) fires at a steady rate that allows the postsynaptic neuron to return to resting potential.
d) recruits other presynaptic neurons to begin to fire.
e) runs out of neurotransmitter.

Answer: b

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 12.4 Describe signal transmission at a chemical synapse, summation, and
excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.4.2 Distinguish between spatial and temporal summation.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.4 Signal Transmission at Synapses
74) Which of the following neurotransmitters are used in virtually all of the inhibitory synapses
found in the spinal cord?

a) gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and acetylcholine


b) gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine
c) epinephrine and norepinephrine
d) serotonin and melatonin
e) glutamate and aspartate

Answer: b

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 12.4 Describe signal transmission at a chemical synapse, summation, and
excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters.
Study Objective 2: SO 12.4.3 Give examples of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, and
describe how they act.
Section Reference 1: Sec 12.4 Signal Transmission at Synapses

75) Which type of depression results in an individual with a manic-depressive illness.

a) major depression.
b) dysthymia.
c) bipolar disorder.
d) seasonal affective disorder.
e) all of these disorders.

Answer: c

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 12.8 Describe the disorders that affect nervous tissue.
Section Reference 1: Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances that Affect Nervous Tissue