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MASTER'S THESIS

Social Sustainability in Green Low-Cost


Housing Projects in Lima, Peru

Amanda Stefansson
2016

Master of Science in Engineering Technology


Architecture

Luleå University of Technology


Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering
SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY
IN GREEN LOW-COST HOUSING
PROJECTS IN LIMA, PERU

Amanda Stefansson Luleå University of Technology

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Title: Social Sustainability in Green Low-Cost Housing Projects in Lima, Peru
Author: Amanda Stefansson
Study Programme: Master of Science in Architectural Engineering
Specialization: House Building
Level: Master’s Thesis, 30 credits
Supervisor: Per Persson
Examinator: Anders Landström

Luleå University of Technology
Department of Civil, Environmental and
Natural Resources Engineering
Division of Architecture and Water

Photographs and illustrations without any reference are produced by the author.
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT
This research and MSc thesis is carried out within the framework of the Minor Field Studies Urbanization sets further pressure on the building industry. The migration from rural areas to
scholarship programme, funded by the Swedish International Development Cooperation cities continues to grow and in Latin America 90% of the population is estimated to live in
Agency (SIDA). Therefore, I first like to express my sincere gratitude to SIDA for making cities by 2050. In Peru more than a quarter of the total population lives in the capital Lima.
it possible to conduct field studies in Lima, Peru. The 8 weeks I spent in Lima have been Despite Peru’s unprecedented economic growth the last years many people lack adequate
essential for completion of my thesis. Big thanks to the professors of PUCP, especially Martín housing.
Wieser, and the board of the Fondo MiVivienda for answering all my questions.
In order to solve the housing deficit and to provide access to housing the State and the private
Special thanks go to my supervisor Per Persson for great advice and motivation along the way sector have to work together. Fondo Mivivenda (FMV) is an organisation addressing this
completing this project. issue. FMV works as a second-tier bank and have reached great success with the programme
Crédito MiVivienda, providing mortgage loans to low-incomers. FMV are today developing
a financial bonus programme in order to promote green social housing.

Amanda Stefansson To create sustainable houses, cities and communities it is essential with a comprehensive
Stockholm, 2016 approach. Recently the impact our buildings have on the environment is realized but often the
social sustainability is largely neglected while priority is given to economic and environmental
sustainability in the context of planning and housing. With Fondo MiVivienda’s Green
Bonus Programme as starting point, the research examines the importance of including social
sustainability in green social housing.

The outcomes of this research are presented in a design proposal exemplifying how social
sustainability can be achieved in low-cost housing projects situated in Lima. With means of
flexible apartments, smart greenery and mixed-functions we can create long-term sustainable
livelihoods with high level of local participation.

Further studies are recommended in order to receive greater understanding of social


sustainability applied on low-cost housing in Lima. To proceed and refine the proposal in this
paper, a research with involvement and close cooperation with present and future residents
of low-cost houses would be necessary to make design solutions contributing to a higher
level of local participation. Such research should be carried out with higher consideration
of the multiplying effect a good design may have on its occupants and their lifestyles.
Advantageously, a comparison with the Swedish way of working with early participation and
user involvement can be included in future studies.

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CONTENT
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 4 5. ANALYSIS 36
5.1 CHARACTERISTIC PROJECT OF FONDO MIVIVIEND 37
ABSTRACT 5 5.2 FLEXABILITY AND CHANGEABILITY OF PREVI 39
5.3 CULTURAL INFLUENCES 40
CONTENT 6 5.4 COMFORT 40
5.5 PARTICIPATION AND LOCAL ACTIVITIES 41
1. INTRODUCTION 8 5.6 FRESHWATER SHORTAGE 41
1.1 BACKGROUND 9 5.7 GREEN AREAS 42
1.2 RESEARCH BACKGROUND 9 5.8 GREEN CERTIFICATION IN PERU 42
1.3 PURPOSE AND AIM 10 5.9 SWOT-ANALYSIS 43
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 10
1.5 DELIMITATIONS 10 6. RESULT 44
6.1 FLEXABILTY AND CHANGEABILITY 46
2. METHODOLOGY AND METHODS 12 6.2 PARTICIPATION AND LOCAL ACTIVITIES 50
2.1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 13 6.3 GREEN AREAS 51
2.2 DESIGN METHODOLOGY 13 6.4 COMFORT 52
2.3 METHODS 14
7. CONCLUSION 54
3. THEORY 16 7.1 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 55
3.1 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 17
3.2 GREEN BUILDING 17 8. DISCUSSION 58
3.3 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY 18 8.1 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 59
3.4 FLEXABILITY AND CHANGEABILITY 19 8.2 PROPOSAL 59
3.5 COMFORT 20 8.3 VALIDITY AND RELABILITY 60
3.6 GREEN AREAS 21 8.4 FURTHER STUDIES 60
3.7 LOCAL ACTIVITIES AND PARTICIPATION 22
9. BIBLIOGRAPHY 62
4. CASE STUDY 24
4.1 CLIMATE AND NATURAL RESOURCES 25 10.
APPENDICES 66
4.2 THE YOUNG TOWNS OF LIMA 27 APPENDIX l 67
4.3 ECONOMY AND REAL ESTATE 29 APPENDIX ll 68
4.4 HOUSING DEFICIT 29 APPENDIX lll 70
4.5 PREVI 30
4.6 FONDO MIVIVIENDA 32

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1. INTRODUCTION
1. INTRODUCTION
This chapter explains the general global issues of climate change and
explains how it is connected to the urbanization and house deficit. From this
background the purpose and aim of the thesis been derived and research
questions defined.
lowest cost (Gupta, 2015). The construction of the
1.1 BACKGROUND building is the activity that causes the most damage
Climate change is an urgent problem in this century on the environment but buildings also continues to
(Roggema, 2009) and development has unfortunately consume resources, create waste and emit pollution

1.INTRODUCTION often harmed the environment (Seitz & Hite, 2012).


It started as a concern for global warming, meaning
during the entire life cycle. (Guerra Santin, 2008)

Predicted climate changes will have major implications


the measurable rapid warming of the earth’s surface
due to human activities. Global warming is identified for building planning in the future. Future architects
by temperature averages measured since 1880, while will have to design buildings based on detailed climatic
climate change measures changes in the state of climate analysis (Hausladen & Liedl, 2012). It is important
being identified by averages and/or variability of its that we learn not only how to mitigate the emission of
properties persisting for a longer period, even decades. green house gases but also how to adapt our buildings
Since the temperature of the Earth’s surface highly to the changes in climate.
impact the climate of the earth, the two phenomena
global warming and climate change cannot be 1.2 RESEARCH BACKGROUND
decoupled. Global warming is being associated with The rapid urbanization in many developing countries
several of extreme climate events and volatility such comes with the consequence of massive housing
as rainfall, sea level rise, drought, volcanic activities, shortages (Okeyinka, 2014). Latin America is more
hurricanes, loss of biodiversity, heightened storm urbanized than any other region in the emerging
intensity, frequent heat waves, altered precipitation markets world and the United Nations forecast an
patterns, reversal of ocean current and flooding. urban population of 90% in Latin America by the
(Booth et al., 2012) year of 2050 (Montealegre, 2013). The need for
human shelter increases along with the emissions of
These weather extremes effects million of people greenhouse gases causing climate change. Peru is one
around the world by damaging crops and coastlines of the countries suffering the most from the impact of
and making water security an issue (World Bank climate change even though the country is responsible
Group, 2014). The main reason of climate change is for only 0,1% of the global CO2 emissions (Peru
the high concentrations of greenhouse gases produced Support Group, 2015).
by human activities, such as deforestation and burning
of fossil fuels (Ching, 2014). The past decade we have The big challenge is to create sustainable cities, towns
become more aware about the impact our buildings and communities, which meet the challenges of
have on the environment (Magwood, 2014) and population growth, migration and climate change
the building sector is according to the International (Woodcraft, 2011). For a house to be sustainable a
Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) the sector with comprehensive approach is important to ensure it is
the highest potential to reduce the energy use at the not only environmentally sustainable and affordable

8 9
but also socially and culturally appropriate (Hannula, • The geographical region covered in the research is
2012). Unfortunately, social sustainability is largely Peru’s capital Lima.
neglected while priority is given to economic and • Due to time limitations only one finance
environmental sustainability in the context of mechanism for low-cost housing are examined.
planning and housing (Woodcraft, 2011). • The choice of materials used in the construction
is not investigated. Structual analysis and
1.3 PURPOSE AND AIM calculations are not made on the propsal.
The purpose of the master’s thesis is to promote • The visualized design proposal covers apartment
sustainable architecture in Lima, analyse challenges layouts and building blocks, not the site or
and opportunities for implementing sustainable neighborhood.
features in low-cost housing projects and to highlight
the importance of social sustainability. The aim of the
research is to present a proposal, which exemplify how
social sustainability could be implemented in green
low-cost housing projects in Lima.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS


To be able to define the research questions two initial
questions needed to be investigated and answered;
How is low-cost housing in Peru financed today and
is there opportunities in this finance mechanism to
support sustainable features?

Once these two questions were answered the research


questions could be defined.
• How can social housing be more flexible in order
to fit the residents’ changing needs?
• What concepts can be used to encourge an active
and living environment?
• How to plan green areas with Lima’s freshwater
shortage in consideration?
• How can the layout of an apartment impact
indoor air quality?

1.5 DELIMITATIONS
In order to limit the scope of the research and to define
boundaries a few delimitations have been decided.
• The master’s thesis focuses on residential houses
and not commercial buildings.
• It addresses new production only and affordable
housing.
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2. METODOLOGY AND METHODS
2. METHODOLOGY AND METHODS
This chapter explains the research methodology, how the information been
collected and the design process carried out in order to answer the research
questions.

2.1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 2.2 DESIGN METHODOLOGY


Architectural Research The Architectural research done in order to answer the
Research aim to gain greater knowledge and research questions is summarized in a design proposal,
understanding of a phenomenon (Walliman, 2011) which exemplifies how green social housing projects

2. METHODOLOGY and one well accepted definition of research is


“systematic inquiry directed toward the creation of
could be produced in Lima. This is meant to promote
sustainable residential building as well as motivate

AND METHODS knowledge” (Groat & Wang, 2013). Architectural


research covers a broad range of subjects that study the
built environment and deals with humanities as well
a higher consideration of the social sustainability
within projects. The design methodology is based on
a cyclical process of idea generation, evaluation and
as physical sciences (Van Der Hoeven, n.d.). Just like design improvement until the design requirement is
architecture integrates design, history, humanities and met (Wong & Park, 2010)
construction in one single artifact (Van Der Hoeven,
n.d.), this research considers several of different aspects
DEFINE
of the built environment. the problem

The research has been conducted through an iterative


process between literature, analysis and synthesis, IMPROVE COLLECT
involving the steps mentioned below: on your design information

• Review and systematic analysis of literature.


• Review of finance mechanisms and policy
THE DESIGN PROCESS
instruments for affordable housing projects in
Lima.
• Analysis of challenges and opportunities for social present your
idea to others for BRAINSTORM
housing projects in Lima. AND ANALYZE
FEEDBACK
ideas
• Design proposal based on the literature review
and analysis.
DEVELOP
Qualitative Approach solutions

A qualitative approach is chosen in order to reduce the


gap between reality and representation (Bapir, n.d.)
Qualitative research is a situated activity that locates The design goal has been to create a human-centered
the observer in the world and involves an interpretive, solution, focused on social sustainability and with
naturalistic approach to the world by representations, the end user in mind. According to the International
including field notes, interviews, conversations, Organization for Standardization’s (2010) ISO 9241-
photographs, recordings and memos to self (Flick, 210:2010 following benefits may be reached by
12 2007). 13
2. METODOLOGY AND METHODS
adopting a human-centered design. of hours. The interviews were semi-structured, where Case Studies
• Increased productivity of users the largest part of the interview were guided by a list Examples of qualitative research design are
• Easier to understand and use, thus reducing of questions or issues to explore (Merriam, 2009). experimental, cross-sectional, longitudinal and case
training and support costs This way of interviewing provides more flexibility studies. In order to catch the close up reality and thick
• Increased usability and accessibility for people and allows the researcher to respond to the situation description (Cohen et al., 2007) case studies have been
with a wider range of capabilities. at hand (Merriam, 2009). Before finalizing the report carried out. First, the organisation Fondo MiVivienda
• Improved user experience the interviewees were contacted in order to approve of and its two financing programmes Crédito MiVivenda
• Reduced discomfort and stress their citation and participation in the report. and Techo Propio have been studied. To find solutions
• Competitive advantage, for example by improving based on the past (Walliman, 2011) the experimental
brand image Interviewees
social housing project PREVI carried out in the late
• Contributing towards sustainability objectives. 60s, has been examined. The historical research is
• Andrea Ruiz De Somocurcio
(Fosmire & Radcliffe, 2013) Architect, Staff Manager at Peru Green used to inform about present and future trends and
Building Council stress the importance of interactions and their effect
2.3 METHODS (Walliman, 2011).
• Francesca Mayer Martinelli
Literature Review Senior Project Manager at Sumac Inc., Observations and Study Visits
The literature review is essential to introduce the LEED International Roundtable
A great amount of information is received by
research and underpin the reason for doing the research
• Susel Biondi observations. By living in Lima, walking around and
(Walliman, 2011). The gathering of information
Architect at Poggione+Biondi Arquitectos visit several of different districts, impressions could be
is done according the six stages of The Information
collected. The author was given the opportunity to
Search Process (ISP); initiation, selection, exploration, • Juan Reiser visit low-cost housing projects within the framework
formulation, collection and presentation. In the Professor in Architecture at Pontificia of Fondo MiVivenda social housing programmes
process it is important to evaluate information in Universidad Católica del Perú
Crédito MiVivenda and Techo Propio. Three projects
order to establish the validity, authority and relevance
• Martín Wieser in different price ranges and areas were studied. One
of the sources. (Fosmire & Radcliffe, 2013)
Professor in Architecture at Pontificia of the projects was currently in production while the
Universidad Católica del Perú other two was completed. Besides the mentioned
Field Studies
To be able to make a proper analysis of the challenges projects the experimental low-cost housing project
• Lucas Luis Sarmiento Lui
and opportunities of Lima a field study was conducted. PREVI was studied. The author had the privilege to
Department Supervisor at Fondo
For 8 weeks the author lived in Lima doing interviews, MiVivienda visit the site accompanied by one of the participating
case studies and observations. architects of PREVI.
• Mary Carmen Arroyo
Interviews Architect at DLPS Arquitecturos
In qualitative studies interviewing are probably the
most common form of data collection (Merriam, The interviews were objective but an exception was
2009). In this report interviews with professionals made in order to gain information about cultural
in the field of architecture and construction were values influencing the layout of homes. Many
done in order to analyse Lima’s building sector in cultural peculiarities are so evident that people are
its current state. Once it was done the author could not even aware of them. The author experienced that
easier specify the research questions. The interviews information about typical Peruvian layouts easier
were hold face-to-face in the office or working space of could be recieved if sharing the view on how Swedish
the interviewee and lasted from 30 minutes up to two culture influence the way we plan our buildings.
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3. THEORY
3. THEORY
This chapter presents the findings from the litterature review. The theoretical
framework presented is essential for answering the research questions.

3.1 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT generations and housing is therefore central to


The Brundtland Comission report (1987) introduced sustainable development (Golubchikov & Badyina,
the triangulated definition of sustainability 2012).
encompassing economic, environmental and social
Sustainable Housing
factor with sustainable development placed in the

3. THEORY
Housing influences the daily life of people, their
centre (Fig 1). Social sustainability, sometimes
health, security and wellbeing. It is also a part of the
called cultural sustainability, should be culturally
relationship between society and environment. While
sensitive and with a design proven safe and secure.
housing construction and operation consume large
Environmental sustainability addresses resource
amounts of natural resources, produce waste, air and
efficiency in handling waste, water and energy while
water pollution, the building itself is also affected
economic sustainability considers cost-efficiency over
by the surrounding environment. (Golubchikov &
time (Gupta, 2015).
Badyina, 2012)

3.2 GREEN BUILDING


What is green building? That is a question with an
answer still evolving. The goal with green building is
to substantially reduce the environmental impact of
the buildings. Some broaden the goals by including
social goals like access to affordable housing and access
for the disabled. (Ching, 2014)

The best case is to use local material harvested


and produced on site or nearby to avoid long
transportations. It is also important to avoid depletion
of natural resources during construction and operation
(Gupta, 2015).
Figure 1 The triangulated definition of sus-
tainable development Green Building in Latin America
Green building in Latin America is promoted
In the same report you may also read a second
through market instruments, public instruments and
definition where sustainable development is described
international cooperation. Examples of mechanisms
as “development which meets the needs of current
used are commercial loans, project financing,
generations without compromising the ability of
subsidies, building codes, multilateral and bilateral
future generations to meet their own needs” (Yao,
banking. These mechanisms are mainly used to
2013). Considering the long life of dwellings as
support development of green buildings in Latin
physical structures it effects both present and future
America, with focus on three broad categories:
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3. THEORY
1. Green labelling like LEED “Social sustainability in housing is Table 1 Human needs translated into spatial design qualities
2. International support and financing about creating affordable, good-
3. National government efforts to green low-income quality, inclusive and diverse (mixed-
HUMAN NEEDS SPATIAL QUALITIES IN DESIGN
housing (ELLA, 2013) tenure and mixed income), secure
and healthy dwellings, residential Physiological needs - Sufficient facilities
3.3 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL areas and communities, which are - Comfort (temperature, sun rain, microclimate adaption)
well-integrated into the wider socio- - Firmness and balance based on ecology
SUSTAINABILITY
Housing is essential for the social development of spatial systems of which housing is
communities and societies and it is critical for the part – urban and national”
Safety needs - Safety of passage
basic human need of shelter (Golubchikov & Badyina, - Stewardship and care
In the same book there is also a conceptual - Privacy
2012). Social sustainability at an architectural level
presentation of the social sustainability of housing - Permeability and flexibility
studies the relationship between the space and the
where the interrelation between human needs and
human with its needs and behaviours (Raeisi et al., Belonging needs - Social facilities
social sustainability is depicted (Fig 2).
2010). In Sustainable Housing for Sustainable Cities - Sense of place and identity
(2012) social sustainability in housing is described in - Intelligibility and visual proportions
Golkar (2001) have done a translation of the human
the following way:
needs, based on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, to spatial Esteem Needs - Place attachment
qualities in design (Table 1). - Personalization and belonging to groups

One challenge of making a case for building socially also be flexible enough to meet the needs of people
sustainable communities is the difficulty of measuring with limited mobility, as well as children and women
success in softer aspects such as wellbeing and sense of (Golubchikov & Badyina, 2012). It is crucial to
community (Woodcraft, 2011). provide affordable housing options for disabled people
including inside spaces that allow movement with a
3.4 FLEXABILITY AND wheelchair (Hannula, 2012).
CHANGEABILITY
It is vital to consider all groups of users including One of the four elements of the Young Foundation’s
different age groups and genders when designing framework of Design for Social Sustainability is Space
a house (Hannula, 2012). Housing should be to Grow. Included in this element is flexible planning
adaptable and responsive to various and changing and meanwhile spaces used to meet intermediate
needs of residents (Golubchikov & Badyina, 2012). needs. One example is flexible working spaces to
Various housing options including single apartments encourage home-working and local entrepreneurship
and shared apartments for collective use need to be (Woodcraft, 2011).
offered in addition to apartments for nuclear families
The Family Pattern
(Hannula, 2012).
The key to self-managed or self-completed
neighbourhood projects is the Family evolution
Many social housing projects lack resources like the
pattern, in which the family satisfies its changing
ability to adapt to a changing family (García-Huidobro
needs. The pattern follow three steeps as listed below.
et al., 2011) and to meet the needs of the elderly group
Figure 2 1. Installation
(Golubchikov & Badyina, 2012). Homes should
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3. THEORY
The family establish their identity and secure the amount of energy being used. The indoor thermal orientation taking advantage of cooling breezes. with 50-150mm build up height covered with moss,
property by minor modifications. comfort levels will be improved by a well-designed Besides that local geographic features (e.g. slopes, sedum, herbs and/or grass and the intensive roofs
2. Densification building, that encourage energy efficient and resource neighbouring buildings, trees) and climatic conditions with 150mm-1500mm build-up height including
The family grows and incorporate new family nuclei. friendly behaviour of the residents. (Gupta, 2015) (e.g. prevailing wind) should be considered. (Gupta, natural gardens, growing food and recreational
This stage demands the greatest building effort. 2015) space. The latter require more support, irrigation and
3. Consolidation and Diversification Passive designs take advantage of natural climate, maintenance than extensive roofs and are suitable for
The completed house is divided into different unit, create thermal comfort and reduce the energy use in 3.6 GREEN AREAS flat roofs. Flat roofs are cost-efficient and estimated to
often incorporating new uses. (García-Huidobro et houses (Gupta, 2015). Compared to air-conditioned One strategy for improving the health and the quality cost 22% less than a pitched roof but are vulnerable in
al., 2011) houses, natural ventilation creates a healthier living of life of the residents is to ensure a good network of terms of aesthetics, tendency for water to puddle and
environment (Hannula, 2012). green spaces in the neighbourhood (Golubchikov & with inability to shed snow (Ching, 2014).
Badyina, 2012). The physical and mental wellbeing
3.5 COMFORT is highly dependent on contact with the natural
Goals that strive towards improved human health “To ensure successful passive design, Urban Gardening
it is best to imagine the home will environment, which is a necessity rather than luxury Due to the urbanization and increased population
and comfort is included in green building. Green
have no power” for achieving lives of fitness and satisfaction in our more land will be needed to grow enough food. One
buildings should improve indoor air quality, indoor
Gupta, 2015 modern urban society (Almusaed, 2011). solution to this is vertically indoor farming. Successful
water quality and morale, increase thermal comfort
and reduce noise pollution. (Ching, 2014) vertical farming will be many stories high, cheap
Passive design principles may be applied in the site and By replacing a paved surface with a planted ground the to construct and operate, and enable sustainable
building configuration together with the orientation thermal stress of pedestrians can be decreased in several production of safe and varied food supply in urban
Almusaed (2011) have grouped the parameters
of buildings. It is essential to implement passive ways (Erell et al., 2012). Vegetation do not only have environments. (Despommier, n.d.)
influencing human comfort into three categories:
measures to the fullest before more complicated means a cooling effect but it is also a a cost-efficient solution
1. Physical parameters (e.g. air temperature, thermal
of cooling are explored. One simple way of reducing for improvement of urban air quality (Gupta, 2015). Dickson Despommier, prof. in environmental health,
conditions of the environment, relative humidity,
heat gain is using highly reflective surfaces on walls and Green areas can be included by open spaces, waterways, developed the concept and his firm uses hydrophonic
local air velocity, surrounding colours, light
roofs. Shading reduces thermal discomfort due to solar gardens, woodlands, green corridors, wildlife habitats, greenhouse methods to be able to grow upward. To
intensity and noise level)
gain and result in less, or in best case, no mechanical green walls, and street trees (Golubchikov & Badyina, give the plants enough light and nutrients the vertical
2. Physiological parameters (characteristics of the
cooling. Housing cluster can be used to provide 2012). Another strategy is to bring nature elements plans with plants are rotated on a conveyor belt. Not
occupants e.g. age and sex)
shade yet allow wind to flow through the cluster to indoors, both because they improve the indoor air only do it save space and provide locally sustainable
3. External parameters (e.g. human activity, clothing
cool the buildings. Whether clusters are beneficial or quality and because they evoke positive effects on food but it uses only 5% of the water needed for
and social conditions)
detrimental for passive efficiency is determined on the people (Almusaed, 2011). conventional agriculture. (Walsh, 2008)
Thermal Comfort location. (Gupta, 2015)
Green Roofs
Gupta (2015) emphasize that the concept of thermal
Indoor cooking is a significant source of heat gain and Another way of adding greenery in building design
comfort is more a state of mind rather than a technical
indoor pollution, contributing to thermal discomfort is through green roofs. Green or vegetated roof assist
certainty. In British Standard BS EN ISO 7730 thermal
during summer. Alternative solutions like outdoor in microclimate cooling, reduce global warming and
comfort is defined as following; “that condition of
cooking allow the heat to escape to the atmosphere increase biodiversity. Green roofs works as thermal
mind which expresses satisfaction with the thermal
rather than being trapped in the house. (Gupta, 2015) insulation reducing the heat that enters the building.
environment.”.
(Gupta, 2015)
Passive Design In outdoor spaces human thermal comfort depends
on both the load of radiance and the temperature There is potential for urban agriculture with green
In most climates the radiant heat is desired during the Figure 3 Hydroponic garden system (U-gro)
of the air to which the person is exposed (Erell et roofs used for urban food production increasing
winter but is detrimental during summers. We should
al., 2012). Passive cooling can be achieved by trees work opportunities (Hannula, 2012). Gupta (2015)
be aware that good behaviour practices and natural
and buildings providing shade and with a building describes two kind of green roofs; the extensive roofs
ability to adapt to a range of temperatures impact the
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3. THEORY
3.7 LOCAL ACTIVITIES AND (Woodcraft, 2011). Despite this residents often move routes, modest space dimensions and a clear hierocracy
into building sites with a lack of services to support pointing out the most important spaces (Gehl, 2010).
PARTICIPATION
social life.
Early Involvement of Occupants Work opportunities
Gupta (2015) states one challenge with green social To create flourishing and sustainable sites local services Micro-enterprises as part of the housing environment
housing being the lack of confidence about the real and support (e.g. schools, shops, public transport etc.) provide important livelihoods for households and
is essential and need to be provided at an early state. should be supported (Golubchikov & Badyina, 2012).
benefits of green building to individual homeowners.
The services can also be community owned or managed
Thus, it us crucial to involve future occupants These social supports are key to create opportunities
assets e.g. community shops and food production.
already in the planning and building process. Early for meeting other residents, build relationships and
(Woodcraft, 2011)
involvment ensure that the residents have maximum generate a sense of belonging. Young Foundation
information on how to live and use their new home. (2011) has developed a framework for Design of Social
Sometimes the dwelling is not only used as a residence
It is also beneficial in terms of capacity building, Sustainability, which suggests social architecture,
but also a workplace. These home-based enterprises
providing people with valuable skills and in planning shared spaces and collective activities in order to foster
are common in many urban low- to middle income
and building to apply locally. (Gupta, 2015) local networks, belonging and community identity.
households in developing countries. This phenomenon
(Woodcraft, 2011)
is important in order to provide income and generate
Healthy Lifestyle
self-employment and should be reflected in the design
Golubchikov & Badyina (2012) indicate one key To create socially successful neighbourhoods local
of houses. (Golubchikov & Badyina, 2012)
requirement for green neighbourhoods to be public activities and good relationships between residents are
facilities that ensure people do not need to rely on cars. of great importance. One approach to support strong
Along that reasoning, encouragement of walking and social networks, break down barriers and reduce tension
cycling as means of transport, amenities for physical is through neighbourhood workers. Neighbourhood-
exercise and recreation will promote healthy and safe based workers can create opportunities for people to
lifestyles. Recreation is a term referring to activities interact with neighbours and through local events,
carried out not far from home and within the normal street parties, public meetings, consultation and
daily routines (Almusaed, 2011). To give residents the planning work. (Woodcraft, 2011)
opportunity to move around safely by foot or bicycle
will not only improve the quality and attractiveness of Inclusion of public and congregational spaces
the area but also be beneficial for health, local cohesion (e.g. open spaces, parks and benches) can support
and the environment (Golubchikov & Badyina, 2012). community socialisation and activities with purpose
of improving the community. Examples of events are
Community Socialisation fundraising litter picking and planting. Other activities
Long-term social needs of new communities are like community-sporting competitions and gardening
often overlooked in order to deliver new houses on activities can be supported by placing affordable
large scale (Woodcraft, 2011). It is important to strive sporting facilities, playgrounds, play spaces and
towards social inclusion of different gender, ethnic and community gardening areas in the built environment.
income groups (Hannula, 2012). Thus, sustainable (Golubchikov & Badyina, 2012)
houses should be well connected to jobs, shops,
health- and child-care, education and other services In developing countries social segregation of different
(Golubchikov & Badyina, 2012). Evidence shows that groups can be decreased with dense settlements
communities with lack of adequate local facilities and (Hannula, 2012). To encourage life, the spaces between
support suffers from a wide range of social problems the buildings should have compact, direct and logical
22 23
2. CASE STUDY
4. CASE STUDY
The case study investigate the climatic conditions, the migration from rural to
urban areas and real estate market in Lima. It present the organistion Fondo
MiVivienda and the experimental low-cost housing project PREVI.

4.1 CLIMATE AND NATURAL The Andes mountain range divides the country into
RESOURCES three main geographical regions (Utrikespolitiska
institutet, n.d.) by altitude: coast, mountains and
Climate in Peru Amazon rainforest (Fig 4). In the Amazon rainforest

4. CASE STUDY
Peru is a Latin American country situated in the most of the country’s natural resources exist and as
west of South America, and has borders to Ecuador, you can tell by its name the rainforest experience hot
Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile and the Pacific Ocean. tropical weather with lots of rain (PROMPERU, n.d.).
Thanks to its geography, Peru is a diverse country in
terms of ecology and climate. Peru has no less than 11 In the middle of the country you can find the
ecological regions and 84 of the world’s 117 different highlands, being defined by the Andes mountain
types of “life zone”. With its diversity comes a great range. The weather in the highlands varies with season
amount of natural resources. (PROMPERU, n.d.) from sunny days with little rain (April to October) to
periods with heavy rain (November to March). The
temperature difference between day and night are
huge and can fall from 24° C during day to -3° C at
night. (PROMPERU, n.d.)

The third region, the one this research focuses on, is


the coastline of Peru. Located alongside the Pacific
Ocean this region is characterized by desert and fertile
valleys. Even if the climate is warm-temperate without
extreme heat or cold, the high humidity and dense
fog can make it feel very cold during winter (April
to October). During the summer there is less fog
and the temperatures can reach 30° C. The central
and southern coast has two very distinct seasons
while the north coast is hot almost all year around.
(PROMPERU, n.d.)

It is also a country that occasionally experience


earthquakes. Earthquake is the natural disaster that
affected and killed the most amounts of people in Peru
between 1900 and 2015 according to The International
Disaster Database (2015). It is also one of the most
frequent natural disasters in number of events and

24 25
4. CASE STUDY
4.2 THE YOUNG TOWNS OF LIMA since 1990s (Riofrio, 2013).
In the 1940s Peru began a demographic transition
process, forcing people to move from rural areas into The land of which Lima is built is basically flat but
the largest Peruvian cities. The migration changed most of the peublos jóvenes are founded in the
Peru from rural to eminently urban in few decades, slopes of the Andean foothills, climbing up towards
from 1940 to 1970. (Fernández-Maldonado & the higher part of the hills. (Riofrio, 2013). Jose
Bredenoord, 2010) Rodolfo (2015), who grew up in Villa El Salvador,
one of Lima’s biggest pueblos jóvenes clarifies that
In the 1960s and 1970s new neighbourhoods were the higher up the hills the family lives - the poorer
founded in order to escape the bad rental conditions the family. Today he works at a non-profit company
of the slums in the city centre, or to gain independence supporting communities through sustainable tourism.
from friends or families once a new family been He explains that the people moving from rural areas
formed. The new low-income settlements have had to the outskirts of Lima still try to follow their rituals
different names during time, barriadas (settlements or in their new communities. According to him Villa El
shantytowns) in 1950s, pueblos jóvenes from 1970s Salvador should be mention as an Inca community
and asentamientos humanos (human settlements) rather than a shantytown.
Villa El Salvador

Figure 4 Peru’s main geographical regions (PROMPERU, n.d.)

according to another database (PreventionWeb, n.d.), temperatures (SMHI, 2012). Recent climate model
flooding and wet mass movement are the only natural inter-comparison studies predict the global warming
disasters more common than earthquakes. Wet mass leading to more frequent occurrence of extreme El
movement due to heavy rain is increasing and causing Niño events over the 21st century (World Bank
big problems in the highlands of Peru (Mayer, 2015). Group, 2014).
Lima, the capital of Peru, is located in the Circum
Pacific Rim where more than 80% of the world Climate in Lima
seismic activity occurs (Meneses-Loja and Aguilar, Lima’s climate is characterized by its very high relative
2004). This places high demand on the materials and humidity and its absence of rain and wind (Riofrio,
techniques used for construction. 2013). Due to the climate change it is getting more
common with rain in Lima (Mayer, 2015) The
Another natural phenomena that impact Peru are El prevailing wind in Lima is coming from the south
Niño and La Niña events. These two events may be (Biondi, 2015). The predominantly wind at noon is
described as a change in the mean surface temperature located S-E to later in the evening change direction to
in the equatorial Pacific Ocean (NOAA, n.d.). More S-W (Appendix I). Furthermore March is the warmest
precisily, El Nino is characterized by unusually month reaching a maximum temperature of 28.7°C
warm temperatures and La Nina by unusually cool while August is coolest with a absolute maximum at
temperatures. These events have strong impact on the 20.7°C, medium of 16.4°C and an absolute minimum
global climate and can cause draught and heavy rain of 13.5°C.
in some regions, as well as unusually high and low
26 27
4. CASE STUDY
4.3 ECONOMY AND REAL ESTATE compared to January this year (INEI). The importance
In 2013 the current population of Peru was measured of the cars is also shown in how neighbourhoods are
by INEI to be 30 475 144 and as much as 75,6% planned and built.
of the total population were assumed to live in urban
areas. The same source estimates the urban population 4.4 HOUSING DEFICIT
to increase to 76,7% in the year 2015. Lima, the As a result of Peru’s economic growth the amount of
capital of Peru, inhabits more than a quarter of the Peruvians considered middle class doubled to 70% of
total population in Peru (Utrikespolitiska institutet, the population between 2005 and 2011. The Peruvians
n.d.). In Lima’s case the urbanization have led to vast who enter the emerging middle class tend to focus
urban sprawl (Weiser, 2015). On average high density on three main areas: housing, health and education.
cities have significantly lower emissions of greenhouse While the demand for housing increases, the supply
gases than sprawling suburbia (Bouillion, 2012). falls behind and Peru face a significant housing deficit.
(Diez et al., 2014)
In recent years Peru’s annually economic growth have
been as high 7% (Diez et al., 2014) and Bloomberg Although the situation has been improving the shortage
(2015) declare Peru to be one of the fastest growing of housing is still extremely large according to UN-
economies of 2015 with an estimated grow of 4,3%. HABITAT (2008). Numbers of the housing deficit
The real estate market in Peru has experienced explosive underestimate the actual scope of the problem. The
growth as a result of the country’s unprecedented estimation should not only consider the quantitative
economic growth. The economic growth does not housing deficit but also the number of inadequate
only impact the country in a good way. Since last year homes (UN-HABITAT, 2008).
January the use of vehicles have increased with 7,8%
In 2009 the number of urban housing deficit in Peru
was measured to be 46 percent of the total amount

Figure 5 Biggest housing problems in Latin


America and Caribbean cities
(Bouillion, 2012)

Informal settlements in Lima

28 29
4. CASE STUDY
of households. The biggest housing problems in Latin The original aim was to build 1,500 units of the The built PREVI project defined new urban unit. The connection between the self-organising
America are lack of sanitation, lack of secure tenure winning project on a deserted 40-hectare site north of principles like human scale and pedestrian oriented community and the plaza promotes collective
and lack of piped water (Fig 5). (Bouillion, 2012) Lima’s downtown (Ramis, 2012). Instead of choosing environment (Ramis, 2012). This is achieved thanks care and maintenance. It also allows the plaza
one single design the jury decided to build a collage to three main strategies; to serve as an extension of the domestic space.
4.5 PREVI neighbourhood of 467 housing units featuring all the
One of the most well known low-cost housing 26 proposals (García-Huidobro et al., 2011) within a 1. Pedestrian axis in the centre of the 3. Traffic separation achieved by perimeter roads
projects in Lima is PREVI. PREVI is Spanish initials masterplan defined by Peter Land (Ramis, 2012). The neighbourhood. Connecting educational and parking areas. This kind of layout doesn’t
for experimental housing project and was carried out reason for including all proposed designs as a part of and sports facilities with the main park and interrupt the pedestrian network of public areas,
through an international competition between 1968 PREVI was according to Peter Land (2012) the high allowing efficient public transportation. increase safety and significantly decrease the air
and 1975 (García-Huidobro et al., 2011). It started quality, progressive design and technologies of the and noise pollution. (García-Huidobro et al.,
in 1965, when the Peruvian Government and the submitted projects. 2. Small plazas and pedestrian passages based on the 2011)
United Nations invited the British architect Peter relationship between the urban unit and the social
Land to design a strategy for mass housing (Ramis, Unfortunately two projects were not built because of
2012). The intention with PREVI was to build viable their technical and material complexity. Construction
and affordable solutions to solve the existing social of these 467 dwellings was supposed to be first out of
housing problem in Latin America (Salas & Lucas, two phases of PREVI. The second phase, consisting
2012) and the informal settlements taking place in of further 1000 dwellings developed from the best
Lima during that period (Ramis, 2012). proposals, never got implemented due to political and
economic circumstances. (Ramis, 2012)
Peter Land chose thirteen foreign teams to invite to
the competition (Salas & Lucas, 2012) and an open PREVI resulted in a neighbourhood of different
national competition was held to for architects in Peru housing typologies to suit diverse family sizes and with
to obtain the same number of competitors (Ramis, various possibilities for expansion (García-Huidobro
2012). All the competitors were invited to visit Lima et al., 2011). The teams did not only present a finished
to receive a better understanding of local materials and house but a structured process able to accommodate
to connect with future residents (Catarino & Bakker, continued growth with the potential of expansion in
2013). The competition brief was based on the six order to provide living space for more inhabitants as
experimental principles listed below (Ramis, 2012). the family grow bigger (Salas & Lucas, 2012). Besides
design flexibility the competition also encouraged new
1. A neighborhood and design based upon the high- house-building methods in the construction process
density, low-rise concept, a module and model for (Ramis, 2012). This opened up for industrialised
future urban expansion. techniques, used in Europe at the time (Salas & Lucas,
2. A growing house concept, with integral courtyard. 2012). Those techniques had to be adjusted in order
3. Configurations of housing clusters within the to accommodate the flexibility required and to be
neighbourhood master plan. operative with the technical realities prevailing in Peru
4. An entirely human-scale pedestrian environment at that time (Salas & Lucas, 2012). Some proposals
in the neighbourhood. advocated large-scale industrialisation while others
5. Improved and new house-building methods with opted for rationalising construction and pre-casting
earthquake resistance. of small elements rather than huge three-dimensional
6. An overall neighbourhood landscape plan. members (Lucas et al., 2012).
Figure 6 The finalized masterplan of PREVI including all 26 proposals (Salas & Lucas, 2012)

30 31
4. CASE STUDY
4.6 FONDO MIVIVIENDA Crédito Mivivienda In order to qualify for a loan the beneficiaries and Techo Propio
To enable production of residential houses to low- to With acknowledgement to past mistakes FMV purchased properties must fulfil specific requirements. Techo Propio, basically means “roof over your head”
middle income families there is a need for a finance developed a number of characteristics and Crédito In order to receive mortgage loan in the framework of and is another financing programme lead by FMV.
mechanism. UN-HABITAT (2008) means that the MiVivienda differs from conventional loans by Crédito MiVivienda the applicant must be Peruvian, Different from Crédito MiVivenda, Techo Propio is a
only way to finance housing and infrastructure in offering: of age and with residence in the country. They should subsidy and not a mortgage loan. This programme is
the required scale is through partnership between the not been benefiting from another State housing fully sponsored by the State and granted for households
government and the private sector. • Cobertura de Riesgo Crediticio (CRC) program and neither they or their spouses or younger with an income below 1,000 soles (approximately
Credit Risk Insurance, which reimburses financial children can be owners of a home. According to UN- 312 USD). Techo Propio usually result in a small
The Peruvian Government have experienced difficulties institutions with 1/3 of subordinated loss in case of Habitat’s document Housing Finance Mechanism in apartment of 45m2 for the family being granted.
in promoting private finance systems and yet ensure default. Its purpose is to encourage banks to downscale Peru (2008) the beneficiaries need to be able to make a (Sarmiento, 2015)
the access of loans for middle to low income groups, and offer service to low-income groups. down payment of 10% of the final value of the house.
which is necessary to decrease the housing deficit. FMV clarifies that the most common case is that the
Traditionally this segment of the population has • Premio Buen Pagador (PBP) beneficiaries stands for 30%, the bank 40% and the CONSTRUCTION
been denied loans due to the high credit risk, which Premium for Good Payment, is a system which reward last 30% of the cost are covered by pre-sale from the FIRM
discouraged commercial banks from servicing middle the beneficiaries if they make their payment on time. construction firm.
to low-income individuals. (UN-HABITAT, 2008) The loan is divided into two segments where the
first segment accounts for 80% of the loan and has a FMV do nowadays collect their resources from the
The Fondo Hipotecario de Promoción de la Vivienda monthly quota calculated like any mortgage loan. The private banks they are cooperating with (FMV, 2015).
Bien Futuro
– Fondo MiVivienda (FMV) were created 1999 in second segment accounts for 20% of the loan and is
order to solve the financial problems and improve the calculated biyearly. When a borrower do the payment $
population’s access to housing. In initial operations on time and according to the first segment for six
FMV began as a state entity and gain their resources months s/he will be liberated from paying the second Credito MIVIVENDA
from one initial and single transfer of S/. 1,500 segment corresponding to that period of time. If the
million (USD 514 million) from Fondo Nacional de borrower instead is late for any of those six payments,
Vivienda (FONAVI). By law, FMV were directed and the second segment must be added on the payment $ PRIVATE $
given mandate to facilitate access to private housing for the following month. In summary, this means FONDO MIVIVENDA COMMERCIAL BENEFICIARIES
and promote mortgage loan with help from private that a borrower who does all the payments faultlessly Funding BANKS 20-year term
Mortage Loan
participation. (UN-HABITAT, 2008) will see the interest rate on the loan reduced by 20%.
(UN-HABITAT, 2008)
CRC PBP
With their mission of facilitating access to housing
• Futuro Bien Credit Risk Insurance Premium for Good Payment
through concerted management between the State,
the financial sector and real estate, FMV created Future House allows the beneficiaries to buy their
The process of Crédito MiVivienda Mortage Loan
Crédito MiVivenda (Fondo MiVivienda, n.d.). In homes on paper by giving a 12-month grace period
this innovative financing programme FMV works as on payment for houses being planned or under
a secondary bank providing the private commercial construction (UN-HABITAT, 2008). This allows the
banks with funds in order to offer long-term mortgage construction firms to sell their properties in advance
loans to the target group, being the middle and low and encourage them to construct low-cost housing
incomers. (Sarmiento, 2015) (Sarmiento, 2015)

32 33
4. CASE STUDY
Green Bonus Programme Table 2 The final 14 criteria Table 3 The initial 32 criteria stated by the AFD
FMV are currently working on an additional bonus
programme for sustainable solutions within their two
programmes; Crédito MiVivienda and Techo Propio.
1. Installation of low consumption sinks WATER 17 Low energy equipment (refrigerators
The Green Bonus Programme “Hipoteca Verde” is
and faucets (aerators). 1 Installation of low consumption sinks etc.)
financed by the French Development Agency (AFD) and faucets (aerators)
2. Installation of dual flush toilets or toilet 18 Collective solar baths
and the goal is for it to be operative in April 2015.
tank with 4.8 liters savings. 2 Installation of dual flush toilets
The target group for this bonus programme is the 19 Solar panels for lighting in common
3. Installation of low flow showers
construction firms, who will be given the funding 3 Installation of low flow showers areas
(aerators). (aerators)
needed to cover the additional cost due to inclusion 20 Installation of gas system
4. Installation of water storage tank (supply
of sustainable features (FMV, 2015). To be able to get 4 Installation of water storage tank
control). 21 Energy management plan for users
the funding, AFD had a list of 32 criteria (Table 3), of (control of supply)
5. Installation of irrigation systems for green BIOCLIMATIC
which 17 being mandatory. 5 Installation of irrigation systems
areas if there is no use of wastewater or 22 Bioclimatic analysis of site (incl.
(sprinklers) for green areas
rainwater. temperature, ventilation, orientation)
To increase the chance of a successful implementation 6 Water management plan for users
6. Installation of independent of meters 23 Analysis of shadows and daylight
of the sustainable bonus programme it is important
7 Independent meters to measure the
to set realistic goals. In order to do this the AFD and ENERGY MATERIALS
consumption
FMV agreed on 16 points instead of the initially 32 7. Installation of energy efficient lightning 24 Materials according to National code
8 Water management plan for the of Sustainable Construction
points. According to FMV this is needed to ensure in common areas (LED)
construction period
success of the programme, avoid failure and for their 8. Installation of energy efficient lightning 25 Realization of bioclimatic study (with
in apartments (LED) 9 Waste- and rainwater reuse use of simulation program)
sake, penalties. After some negotiation FMV and AFD
agreed on 16 mandatory points in the five topics: 9. Installation of natural gas 10 Tank for treated wastewater and/or 26 Use of local materials
water, energy, bioclimatic, waste and education. 10. Installation of gas heater storm water
27 Quantify CO2 emissions for the used
BIOCLIMATIC ENERGY materials
These 14 criteria (Table 2) must be fulfilled in order to 11. Bioclimatic analysis of the site 11 Energy efficient lightning in common 28 Use of eco-materials
achieve the first grade of the Green Bonus Programme. areas
(informative, not required to be WASTE
It is also possible to gain additional bonus and reach implemented in the design) 12 Motion sensors in common areas
29 Waste management plan for users
grade two and three. To achieve grade two the project WASTE 13 Energy efficient lightning in 30 Implement waste management plan
need to have wastewater treatment plants for irrigation 12. Waste Management plan for operation apartments
for operation?
of green/wetland areas. For grade three the wastewater 13. Installation of collection point and
14 Plan of communication and 31 Construct collection and recycling
from the treatment plants should be used to irrigate segregation of waste during operation socialization for users
landscaping and reused in toilets. EDUCATION center
14. Plan for communication and 15 Energy efficient elevators 32 Waste management plan for the
socialization for users. 16 Location plan of laundry room? construction

GRADE GRADE GRADE GRADE


GRADE 3
1 2 4
1

WATER
34 35
5. ANALYSIS
5. ANALYSIS
Analysis of projects within the framework of Fondo MiVivienda, the Green
Bonus Programme and PREVI with consideration to cultural influences and
climatic conditions.

5.1. CHARACTERISTIC PROJECT


OF FONDO MIVIVIENDA
In low-cost housing projects within the framework of
Crédito MiVivenda the complete structure is made

5. ANALYSIS of reinforced concrete and all the interior walls are


load bearing. The interior walls between apartments
have a thickness of 15 cm (Carmen Arroyo, 2015)
and the walls within the apartments are not more
than 7-8 cm thick (Sarmiento, 2015). It means no
walls can be removed in order to change the layout in
the apartment. Carmen Arroyo (2015), explains the
reason a post and lintel structure is not used is because
of the building height regulations in each district. The
constructor wants to maximize the number of stories
built and therefore not replace the 10 cm thin slab with
a beam with significantly thicker dimensions. Use of
prefabricated elements or pre-casting is not common
in Lima and the structure is casted on site (Sarmiento,
Rieser, 2015). Once the building is constructed the
responsibility of the house and apartments are left to
the owners (Sarmiento, 2015). The construction firm Low-Cost Housing Projects
is only responsible for a limited guarantee period of
two years.

The projects usually result with a so-called gated


community where you have to go through a security
control and identify yourself before entering the site.
The apartments in the Crédito MiVivenda programme
are usually around 65m2 with a layout containing:
kitchen, living room, three bedrooms and two
bathrooms. Techo Propio provides smaller apartments
of 45m2 with two bedrooms and one bathroom.

36 37
5. ANALYSIS
5.2 FLEXABILITY AND difficult to determine what is originally structured or
CHANGEABILITY OF PREVI new development (Reiser, 2015).
As mention earlier PREVI was designed for further
2,800 2,600 0,600 3,000 expansion and adaption to changing family needs. The plazas, passages and the absence of cars are pretty
Juan Reiser (2015), one of the architects involved in much the only things left in its original shape. As in
PREVI, explains that the houses in neighbourhood today the car free and pedestrian friendly environment
have gone through major changes. Dwellers have is one of its kind in Lima and much appreciated by the
remodelled and enlarged their houses (Salas & Lucas, residents as it creates a more secure area for children to

2,600
2012) and even for the architect of the house it is play in. (Reiser, 2015)

3,000
1,300
6,500

2,600
F
2,100

2,300

1,200 3,000 2,000

0,900 2,750 1,450

Characteristic layout of a project within the framework of Crédito MiVivenda

Figure 7 Dwelling designed by Aldo van Figure 8 The left side shows the possible
Eyck. The left side shows the proposed extensions as suggested by the designer
expansion made by the designer and James Stirling. The right side shows the tree
the right side shows the actual expansion step extension made (Catarino & Bakker,
carried out by the inhabitants. (Catarino 2013)
& Bakker, 2013)
38 39
5. ANALYSIS
5.3 CULTURAL INFLUENCES Therefore the social spaces (living room and acknowledge the high humidity but didn’t necessary that should be avoided to be able to ensure adequate
During the time spent in Lima some cultural kitchen) are quite small so the bedrooms may be see it as a significant problem of Lima. housing. To achieve a sustainable home there is a need
differences influencing the layout of the buildings sligthly bigger. for properly run and maintained, timely renovated
could be observed. Some cultural differences and The geographical disadvantage make Peru the country and retrofitted house (Golubchikov & Badyina,
values are pointed below: The assumptions above have been made by the author, indicated to suffer the greatest temperature rises due 2012). Since the full responsibility of the property
in discussion with Peruvian architects and by visiting to climate effect (Peru Support Group, 2013). Andrea and building will be on the residents (FMV, 2015) it
• All doors opens inwards, including entrance and and studying the layouts of low-cost housing projects. Ruiz De Somocurcio (2015) states that the global might be a conflict. FMV emphasize the importance
bathroom door. For example of layouts, see Appendix II. warming already is happening and it is only a matter of education and information for the residents.
• In Peru it is not unusual that an apartment of of time once fans and air-conditioners will be needed.
70 m2 have three bathrooms. One for the maid, “In order to make good green According to Carmen Arroyo (2015) this summer Adequate housing should consider employment
who usually lives with the family, a second one choices awareness and knowledge was particularly hot and she noticed a trend of people options and access to health-care services (Golubchikov
for visitors and a third one for the family or the of the various issues involved, local purchasing mini air conditioners. Wieser (2015) & Badyina, 2012). In Lima there is a tradition in
master bedroom. context and available options are agrees with the fact that some buildings like hospitals separating residential buildings from non-residential
• Bedroom doors do not open direct to the living essential” and educational buildings will need air-conditioning functions. Wieser (2015) emphasize the importance
room or other semi-public rooms. A small passage Gupta, 2015 but stands by his belief that residential houses can of people learning to live in high-rise buildings and
before bedrooms and bathrooms is preferred. be kept pleasant without mechanical cooling. It is together with commercial functions. The author of
• There is a tradition where privacy in the kitchen 5.4 COMFORT possible with means of passive ventilation strategies, this thesis visited projects carried out in the framework
is valued. Many people prefer the kitchen being To save energy and make the building more comfortable solar shading and double roofs. of FMV where room for local socialisation was
separated instead of an open floor plan layout. In for the users, the building should be adapted to the integrated in the project. Furthermore, some projects
low-cost housing it is also a matter of sanitation local conditions, such as radiation situation, rainfall Most of the building parts are made from concrete also included supportive services e.g. collective laundry
since there is no kitchen fan and only natural and humidity (Hausladen & Liedl, 2012). The Green in urban areas and adobe in rural areas (INEI, n.d.). room, fitness centre and child care.
ventilation (Sarmiento, 2015). Bonus Programme, currently being developed by According to Francesca Mayer (2015), senior manager
• Due to previous building codes bathrooms used Fondo MiVivienda, will require a bioclimatic analysis at architecture firm SUMAC, the most important 5.6 FRESHWATER SHORTAGE
to be natural ventilated through either a window including bioclimatic characteristics of the site, sun thing to consider is the use of right kind of materials. Due to Lima’s mild climate Sarmiento (2015)
or a duct. Recent changes in the restrictions do path and general design strategies. However, FMV do She means that even if the seismic activity require emphasize that the priority should be on water
now enable bathrooms and toilets being placed in not demand the recommendations of the study to be the use of concrete and steel it should be locally management rather than energy efficiency. It is also
the windowless core of the building. implemented in the design. manufactured and produced with recycled materials. reflected in the Green Bonus Programme where 6 out
• There is seldom any storage in the hallway. Since The concrete’s high thermal mass can be considered of 14 criteria concerns water management. Under
Peruvians keep their shoes on inside the house and Since the climate in Lima is mild and not extreme both as an advantage and disadvantage on the thermal pressures of climate change and population growth
doesn’t have specific outwear there is not the same either in summer or winter there is today no need for comfort of the residents. The thermal mass have the water management of metropolitan urban regions
need as in some other countries (Wieser, 2015). mechanical heating or cooling in residential houses. capacity of buffering heat gains during the day. Once is a challenging task (Schütze et al, 2011). Lima is
• The laundry is done in the kitchen and therefore Five architects, independently from each other, are it gets cooler during the night it releases the heat. This the second largest desert city in the world and the
the equipment, either if it is a washing mashine certain that the heat during summer are of much bigger effect increase indoor temperatures eligible during lack of water is an alarming problem in Lima that
or a sink, are placed there. Drying of clothes is concern than the cool and humid winters (Wieser, winter but causes unnecessary heating during summer. will continue to grow (Akester, 2014). Particularly
done in small places using only cross ventilation Mayor, Biondi, Reiser, Ruiz De Somocurcio, 2015). affected is the Metropolitan Lima and Callao (Schütze
(Sarmiento, 2015). Reiser (2015) explains that dehumidifier will increase 5.5 PARTICIPATION AND LOCAL et al, 2011), also being districts with high density of
• In Lima, most residential houses do not have the comfort during winter better than mechanical ACTIVITIES population.
mechanical heating or cooling. The residents are heating, which would only increase the level of The most common type of construction in Peru is not
used to adapt to the climate by layers of clothing. humidity. Also the summers in Lima are humid and build by professionals but carried out by the owners of Peru’s coastal cities rely on freshwater coming from
• The mild climate in Lima make it possible to use the majority of the interviewed architects experience it the house (Guerra Santin, 2008). According to Fondo the glaciers that are rapidly disappearing. According
the outdoors in larger extent for social gatherings. as a great concern causing thermal discomfort. Others Mivivenda (2015) this is bad practise and something to Science Daily Peru has lost 60% of its glaciers in
40 41
5. ANALYSIS
the Andes in the last 40 years. (Akester, 2014) Lima’s capture fog and transform the moisture into water. negotiate with the green building council to make the
water supply mainly comes from glaciers through The Spanish name for this vegetation is lomas. The certification more fair and adapted to Lima’s climate
the rivers Rimac, Chillión, Lurín. Parts of the water lomas is key to survival of the biodiversity and turn and resources.
supply also come from groundwater abstraction and the costal deserts of Peru into a lush green valley with
from the Amazon catchments by means of trans bursting life between July and November. These rare Another, not fully developed, certification method
Andean tunnels. The water is transported for long desert oases and fog occur through three features: is EDGE. It has been discussed whether EDGE
distances and sometimes stored in lakes (Wieser, • Coastal deserts occur in Peru in a long silver between certification could be applied for buildings within
2015). In recent years the use of seawater have been the Pacific Ocean and the western slopes of the high Fondo MiVivienda’s Green Bonus Programme.
made possible through removing the salt in a process Andes, which block moisture which would otherwise However, Sarmiento states that it won’t be possible
called desalination (Reiser, 2015). Countries like Saudi come from the west. since the EDGE is not yet fully developed and the
Arabia are already using the process in combination • The large wind current Pacific Anticyclone blows baseline is changing.
with solar energy (Akester, 2014). dry air into the region.
• The cold, northward-flowing waters of the Pacific 5.9 SWOT ANALYSIS

S W
5.7 GREEN AREAS Ocean’s Humboldt Current cool the air above the
Another perspective well connected to water ocean surface and form clouds that produce a fine
management is planning of green areas. Besides drizzle and fog that cover the coast up to an altitude
wastewater treatment plants for irrigation of green/ of approximately 1000 meters. (Torres, n.d.)
Low Flexability
wetland areas the Green Bonus Programme do
Market Position
not address the impact green areas have on water 5.8 GREEN CERTIFICATION Low Accessability
consumption. Lawn irrigation places a heavy burden One way of promoting green building is through the
Affordable
on water resources in terms of both quantity and possibility to certify the building. LEED is one of
Lack Work Opportunities
quality (Erell et al., 2012). In Lima green areas are the certification systems used in Peru and it is known
Target Low-Income Groups
usually equivalent with grass, which according to worldwide. Even though the certification might be Car-Centred
Martín Weiser (2015), professor in architecture at more appealing to companies striving to fulfil a green
PUCP, is not the most suitable choice considering policy it may also be used to private homes (Ruiz

O T
Lima’s water problem. The water loss from the grass De Somocurcio, 2015). LEED certification system
to the atmosphere may be significantly lower with is usually used in more complex buildings and may
help of shade from overhead elements or trees (Erell not be applicable to low-cost residential houses but
et al., 2012). Best suited for shading are large trees yet many features and inspiration may be gathered Global Warming
with spreading canopies (Almusaed, 2011) and with from LEED projects (Mayer, 2015). Martín Wieser
careful selection of plants the water savings achieved and Susel Biondi, both architecs, have doubts about Mild Climate Water Shortage
by shading trees can far outweigh the irrigation whether the LEED certification is appropriate to
requirements of the trees themselves (Erell et al., apply to all climates and cities. Wieser explains that Adaptive Mentality Towards High Humidity
2012). LEED still promotes many features not necessary in Temperature Changes
residential houses in Lima. One example is for example Urban Sprawl
Architect Susel Biondi (2015) tries to use alternative the use of mechanical ventilation. Furthermore,
vegetation to create green areas. Instead of grass she credits are given to inclusion of green areas addressing
have promoted use of native plants suitable for Lima’s the area of green grass rather than a proper selection
dry climate. In one project she also suggested trees of greenery adapted to the site. Ruiz De Somocurcio SWOT-analysis done on projects within Crédito MiVivienda in Lima
kept green thanks to mistifiers placed on the site (2015), representative of LEED, explains this issue is
(Biondi, 2015). Certain vegetation has the ability to something they are aware of and currently trying to
42 43
6. RESULT
6. RESULT

6. RESULT

“Affordable housing with social


sustainability integrated through flexibility
and adaptability for changing needs,
water-efficient greenery and supportive
services for community socialisation”

44 45
6. RESULT
6.1 FLEXABILITY AND CHANGEABILITY
MODULAR UNITS FLEXIBLE SPACES
In order to reduce waste in the construction of By placing one unit in between two apartments
buildings prefabricated elements and modular units Example layouts a flexible space is created. The space give the two
can be utilized. By working with modular units the adjacent apartments a possiblity for enlargement. The
design itself is forced to simplicity, which also is cost unit can also be used as a studio or workplace with
efficient. its own entrance.

In this proposal modular units with interior dimensions


of 4x6m and 3x6m, create usable spaces of 18m2 and
24m2. The exterior walls of the moduls are load-
bearing and constructed of reinforced concrete. while
the walls within each unit are constructed using steel
profiles and gypsum boards. The light weighted walls
3x6m 4x6m 1 Used as as a studio
in each unit create more flexibility and an opportunity
for changes in the layout.

The modular units can be combined in several different


ways to create apartments in different sizes. In turn,
the apartments may also be combined to create unique
building shapes. Example of modular units combined
into floorplans can be seen in Appendix III.
Used to enlarge the apartment to
2
the right
STUDIO 4 BDR
18 m2 78 m2
24 m2 84 m2
3 BDR 90 m2
2 BDR 54 m2
36 m2 60 m2
42 m2 66 m2
48 m2 72 m2 3 Used for local businesses

4 Used to enlarge the apartment to


the left

46 47
6. RESULT
VERTICAL EXPANSION ACCESSIBILITY
With a well-planned layout vertical expansion could be possible. By installing a stairway the modular unit above Since the layout within each unit can change it is therefore possible to adapt the apartments in order to improve
may be used to expand the living space of the unit beneath. Through vertical expansion two apartments can be the accessibility. An improved layout allows a wheelchair turning radius of 1300 mm and bathrooms measured
turned into one more spacious apartment. 2000 x 1700mm or 1700 x 1700 mm. In the latter the dimensions are retrieved from SBN80, previous building
regulations in Sweden, for a person with good mobility in wheelchair.

Floor plans

Floor plans with improved accessibility

Two floor apartment created through vertical expansion


F

48 49
6. RESULT
6.2 PARTICIPATION AND LOCAL ACTIVITIES 6.3 GREEN AREAS
EARLY INVOLVMENT
Since most homes in Lima are sold on paper before Storage for bicycles and peripheral parking of cars
built it creates an ideal basis for early involvement of suppose to encourge a healthier lifestyle and cycling as
the future occupants. Early participation strengthen a means of transport. It is also a way of creating safer
the sense of belonging and foster relationships between place for children to play and to encourge spontanious
neighbours. As well, it provides people with skills and meetings.
knowledge possible to use in local activities. It also
creates an oppurtunity for the occupants to impact The abundance of rain and precipitation in Lima
which functions to include in the neighbourhood. make flat roofs a natural choice. Not only does a flat
roof lower the cost, it creates another space to utilize
for local activities and/or green areas.
MIXED-USED
Besides the flexible spaces between apartments
additional locations for small local businesses are
provided on ground floors. It is suppose to encourage
self-employment in form of e.g. selling crafts or crops.
On the same floor, supportive services like collective
laundry rooms, childcare and sport facilities can be GREENHOUSES
found. Greenhouses placed on the roofs provide the
neighbourhood with vegetation of a more productive
characteristic. It provides the residents with fresh
VEGETATION food, create work opportunities and contribute to
& community socialization. Taking Lima’s freshwater
GREENHOUSES shortage in consideration, the vegetables are grown in
LOCAL a hydroponic system to save water. Besides the already
BUSINESSES mention benefits, the greenhouses works as insulation
& and have a cooling effect.
SUPPORTIVE
SERVICES NATIVE PLANTS
The rest of the landscaping uses trees and plants
native to Lima’s desert climate. Tara, Peruvian Pepper,
Bouganvilla are some of the trees used in design.
Regionally appropriate plants require low water use
once established. To further decrease the use of water
and avoiding overwatering the landscaping is divided
into zones where vegetation with similar water needs
are placed together. Another strategy used to limit the
irrigation water is to only place grass on areas where it
serve a purpose, like playgrounds.
50 51
6. RESULT
6.4 COMFORT
THERMAL COMFORT
All the apartments and rooms are naturally ventilated
besides the bathrooms. To enhance natural ventilation the
apartments are combined into buildings with irregular
shapes, creating corners which increase wind speed. The
irregular shape enable placement of windows in diffrent
orientations, permitting good air flow throughout
the apartments. All the bigger apartments, with three
bedrooms or more, have the possability to cross ventilate.

The lack of mechanical ventilation has made it a main


objective to achieve good airflow in the kitchen. To avoid
air pollution like smoke and odours from spreading out
in the apartment, windows are placed as close to the
cooking equipment as possible. Due to sanitary reasons
the bathrooms are the only room mechanically ventilated.

Cross-ventilated apartment

52 53
6. CONCLUSION
7. CONCLUSION
7.1 RESEARCH QUESTIONS residents an opportunity to express their needs and
influence what facilities to include in the community.
How can social housing be more It also provides the people with skills and knowledge
flexible in order to fit the residents’ to use for local activities.
changing needs?
To create more flexible apartments a post and lintel Public and shared spaces e.g. open spaces, parks,
system is beneficial. To compress the load-bearing benches and the outdoor environment is needed
elements and add non-bearing light weighted walls to support local socialisation and activities. Other
room for change in the layout is created. The light- necessary facilities are storage and parking lots. To
weighted walls may be altered or completely removed. encourage walking and cycling, bicycle storage can be

7. CONCLUSION For social housing projects low-cost and simplicity


in design is a perquisite to succeed in making the
given a place in the centre while car parking is placed
in the peripheral of the site.
apartments affordable. Even if a system of columns
and beams isn’t a legitimate choice for social housing Lastly, a green areas concept can improve the buildings
due to economic limitations, it should be an endeavour function and reduce the negative building impacts on
to replace at least some concrete walls with light- human health and improve the overall well-being of
weighted walls possible to remove or change. the occupants. For further information on how to
plan green areas in Lima, see next research question.
Furthermore flexible spaces without a determined
function can be integrated in the building to meet How to plan green areas with Lima’s
intermediate needs. If placed between apartments freshwater shortage in consideration?
these flexible spaces can also serve as a way to enlarge Green areas should be planned with its purpose and use
the two adjacent apartments. in mind. Urban gardening and greenhouses are great
examples of vegetation with productive characteristic.
What concepts can be used to create For gardening a hydroponic system limit the water use
an active and living environment? with up to 95%.
Mixed-used developments bring people closer to the
things they need on a day-today basis. Besides an Trees and vegetation should be adapted to Lima’s
adequate home other facilities play an important role abundance of rain and high humidity. Regionally
to achieve quality of life and supportive services are appropriate plants require less water and possess the
essential to create a living environment. Neighbouring ability to capture fog and transform the fog into water.
services need to be identified in order to plan the site The use of grass should be limited and only used when
and ensure proximity to shops, sport facilities, health- necessary, as for playgrounds or seated social activities,
and childcare. Facilities for intermediate needs and like picnic. To reduce the water lost from the grass
micro-enterprises are much needed to increase self- to the atmosphere trees and other overhead elements
employment. Moreover, it is equally important with a can be utilized. Furthermore, landscape zoning where
good social mix including people in terms of gender, plants with similar needs of irrigation are placed
ethnic group and income level. together will avoid overwatering.

To create social sustainability it is essential to involve


future occupants in an early state. It gives the future
54 55
How can the layout of an apartment
improve indoor air quality?
To achieve good indoor air quality a passive design
approach based on climatic analysis of the site must
be used. The apartment layout should be planned
in order to optimize natural ventilation using
fundamental strategies like cross-ventilation and in
best case, stack ventilation. Particular important is it
to prevent odours, smoke and other indoor pollution
from spreading out in the apartment. Therefore a
window placement close to the stove is preferred.

56 57
7. DISCUSSION
8. DISCUSSION sensitivity to thermal bridges the modular units can
8.1 RESEARCH QUESTIONS be stacked and cantilevered over each other.
The research questions are all connected to social
sustainability and chosen with Fondo MiVivienda’s The dimensions of the modular units are chosen
Green Bonus Programme in consideration. The in consideration of existing building methods. In
programme emphasize the importance of saving water, discussion with architect Carmen Arroyo (2015)
yet they do not consider possible savings through dimensions like 6 x 6 would require the use of a
well-planned greenery and life-style changes of the post and lintel system and therefore be much more
occupants. Useful greenery may not only decrease expensive to produce.

8. DISCUSSION
the need of water but also provide people with easily
accessible and sustainable food. Regarding the vertical expansion of apartments the
slab would need to be constructed strong enough to
Neither does the bonus programme cover the allow an opening without jeopardizing its durability.
importance and the impact the layout of the apartment Therefore this will also require some additional cost.
have on indoor climate. Due to the lack of mechanical
ventilation and hot summer a well-thought layout is a Compact Living
cost-efficient way to improve thermal comfort for the Living in smaller spaces is one way to obtain affordable
residents. Passive ventilation permeates the floor plans housing. Most of the apartments are very small in
and good air quality without air pollution has been a order to match the sizes being built today within the
basic requirement in the proposal. framework of Fondo MiVivienda. The dimensions of
the room influence the physical needs of comfort and
The research question covering flexibility and sufficient facilities. In compact living spaces, strategies
adaptability is motivated through studies of the like the use of use light colours and furniture with
existing way of building residential houses in Lima. simple lines can make a compact living space seem
Lack of universal design and changeability was larger. Windows provide natural ventilation improving
discovered. thermal comfort and natural light contributing to a
more spacious feeling. On the other hand, windows
will also reduce wall space that otherwise could be
8.2 PROPOSAL
used for storage.
The proposal shows apartments planned for Peruvians
with sensibility to their building traditions and way
Accessability
of living. In comparison to Sweden there is a level
The dimensions of the bathrooms with improved
of higher integrity and need for privacy in Peruvian
accessibility are still small compared to current
homes. According to the author, a more space efficient
regulations in Sweden. Still it is a huge improvement
and open layout without dead spaces in form of
from how low-cost housing projects built in Lima
passages could have been done if the project been
today. To further improve the accessibility, flexible
designed for Swedish residents.
furniture e.g. turnable wash basin, slidable toilet
seats and moveable walls could contribute to a better
Construction
solution.
Lima’s lack of weather extremities is thankful when
it comes to construction of buildings. With less

58 59
8.3 VALIDITY AND RELABILITY 8.4 FURTHER STUDIES
Since the author has knowledge and experience from The studied organisation, Fondo MiVivienda, works
the Swedish building sector it have influenced the in the same way as a bank and focuses mostly on the
result. It is also a possibility that the author failed measurable values. As mention in the literature review
to identify some important features in planning it is difficult to measure many of the values and soft
residential houses for Lima. Therefore, the author has aspects within social sustainability compared to factors
reservations about possible errors or misinterpretations in environmental and economic sustainability. There
about the Peruvian culture. is a need for new indicators in order to measure the
social sustainability.
During the research the selection of references has
not always been easy since the thesis covers research For further studies a more in depth study of social
about a country, which do not have English as its sustainability applied on low-cost housing in Lima is
official language. A simplification would have been if recommended. To proceed and refine the proposal a
the author’s Spanish skills were sufficient enough to research with involvement and close cooperation with
confidently use work written in Spanish. present and future residents of low-cost houses would
be necessary to make design solutions contributing to
It has been an endeavour to use fairly updated and a higher level of local participation of the residents.
newly published references. In particular when Such research should be carried out with higher
gathering information about Lima and Peru since the consideration of the multiplying effect a good design
last years economic growth is connected to changes in may have on its occupants and their lifestyles. The
the building and real estate industry. concept of early participation and user involvement
is already established in Sweden and therefore a
A large amount of information addressing how comparison between Sweden and Peru would be a
to plan, design and develop successful socially great addition to future studies.
sustainable houses are gathered from the same source,
Design for Social Sustainability, published by the Since this report focus mainly on new production of
Young Foundation. Since the ideas and examples sustainable buildings it would be interesting to study
in the paper are drawn from a large scale review of how already existing and inadequate housing may be
evidence about what makes communities flourish and remodelled to fulfil basic needs and lower its impact
with practical examples and approaches gathered from on the environment.
new settlements around the world the reliability of the
findings considered high. Another field of studies could be the problematic
urban planning in Lima. Since over a quarter of the
Besides the above mention source, documents and total population of Peru lives in Lima and it is seemed
books are to a great extent collected from UN- as the only big city in Peru, it would be necessary to
Habitat, the United Nations programme for human develop strategies in urban planning for other cities
settlements. UN-Habitat continuously update and in Peru. Most people coming from rural areas choose
publish new work with focus on the developing Lima in belief that there are greater opportunities for
world, which makes it a source with high reliability work and education (Ruiz De Somocurcio, 2015).
and validity.

60 61
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64 65
67

LIMA (Jesús María)


Latitud: 12º 05' S
Longitud: 77º 02' W
Altitud (m.s.n.m.): 110
Enero Febrero Marzo Abril Mayo Junio Julio Agosto Setiembre Octubre Noviembre Diciembre
Temperaturas (ºC)
Máxima Absoluta 27,7 27,7 28,7 27,5 24,3 22,7 21,5 20,7 21,0 22,2 23,7 26,3
Máxima media 25,4 26,1 26,1 24,6 22,3 20,4 19,0 18,4 18,6 19,9 21,6 24,0
Media 22,3 22,9 22,7 21,3 19,4 18,2 16,9 16,4 16,3 17,3 18,9 21,0
Mínima media 20,0 20,4 20,2 18,9 17,2 16,5 15,3 14,8 14,7 15,4 16,9 18,7
Mínima Absoluta 18,5 19,2 19,0 17,1 15,6 14,6 13,7 13,5 13,8 14,2 15,4 17,0
Amplitud u oscilación térmica1 5,4 5,7 5,9 5,7 5,1 3,9 3,7 3,6 3,9 4,5 4,7 5,3
Humedad Relativa (%)
Máxima media 93 93 92 93 93 93 91 93 94 93 88 90
Media 82 83 82 83 84 84 84 85 86 84 82 82
Mínima media 67 69 63 64 68 69 72 72 69 72 71 68
Horas de sol (horas)2 6,7 6,5 6,8 7,7 5,1 2,4 1,5 1,6 1,6 2,7 3,8 5,5
Precipitaciones (mm.) 3 0,6 0,6 0,5 0,6 0,5 0,8 1,6 2,9 2,1 1,0 0,9 0,5
Vientos más 07:00 hrs. C-0 C-0 C-0 C-0 C-0 C-0 C-0 C-0 C-0 C-0 C-0 C-0
frecuentes (m/s) 13:00 hrs. SW - 2 SW - 2 SW - 2 SW - 1 SW - 1 SW - 1 SW - 1 SW - 1 SW - 1 SW - 2 SW - 2 SW - 2
19:00 hrs. SE - 2 SE - 2 SE - 1 SE - 1 SE - 1 SE - 1 SE - 1 SE - 1 SE - 1 SE - 1 SE - 1 SE - 1
1
Se reconoce una amplitud térmica baja cuando es menor a 10 Cº, media cuando es entre 10 y 18 ºC y alta cuando es mayor a 18 ºC.
2
Horas de sol promedio por día.
3
Cantidad mensual acumulada.
Nota: Los datos presentados no han sido obtenidos de fuentes oficiales. Su utilización debe ser únicamente para fines académicos.
APPENDIX I

10. APPENDICES

66
APPENDIX II

approx. 67 sqm apartment approx. 58 sqm apartment

F W

F
approx. 65 sqm apartment approx. 65 sqm apartment

Skala 1:100
GSEducationalVersion

68 69
APPENDIX III

F
F

F
F
F

F
Skala 1:200
GSEducationalVersion

70 71
F

F
F

F
F
F

F
Skala 1:200
GSEducationalVersion

72 73
F
F

F F
F

F F
F F

Skala 1:200
GSEducationalVersion

74 75
F
F

F
F

F
F

F
F

Skala 1:200
GSEducationalVersion

76 77