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Rima Murielle Nadeene A.

BS ACT 1622-A


Organelles with Membranes

 Nucleus – Protecting and controlling access o DNA

 Endoplasmic Reticulum – Routing, modifying new polypeptide chains; synthesizing
lipids; other tasks
 Golgi Body – Modifying new polypeptide chains, sorting, shipping proteins and lipids
 Vesicles – Transporting, storing , or digesting substances in a cell, other functions
 Mitochondrion – Making ATP by glucose breakdown
 Chloroplast – Making sugars in plants, some protists.
 Peroxisome – Detoxification of alchohol and other toxic compounds.

Organelles without Membranes

 Ribosomes – Assembling polypeptide chains

Other Structures

 Cytoskeleton – Contributing to cell shape, internal organization, movement.


Cell Organelle Community Counterpart

Nucleus Town Hall

Endoplasmic Reticulum Expressway

Golgi Body Postal Office

Vesicles Railway Transit

Mitochondrion or Chloroplast Meralco

Ribosomes Factory

Cytoskeleton Boarder Patrollers

Peroxisome Hospital
Myopia cell discovered in retina:
Dysfunction of cell may be linked to amount of time a child spends indoors.

Published in February 06, 2017 | By Marla Paul

CHICAGO - Northwestern Medicine scientists have discovered a cell in the retina that may
cause myopia when it dysfunctions. The dysfunction may be linked to the amount of time a child
spends indoors and away from natural light.

“This discovery could lead to a new therapeutic target to control myopia,” said Greg Schwartz,
lead investigator and assistant professor of ophthalmology at Northwestern University Feinberg
School of Medicine.

More than a billion people in the world have myopia, whose incidence is rising and is linked to
how much time people spend indoors as children.

The newly discovered retinal cell — which is highly sensitive to light — controls how the eye
grows and develops. If the cell instructs the eye to grow too long, images fail to be focused on
the retina, causing nearsighted vision and a lifetime of corrective glasses or contact lenses.

“The eye needs to stop growing at precisely the right time during childhood,” Schwartz said.

It has long been long known the retina contains a signal to focus the image in the eye, and this
signal is important for properly regulating eye growth during childhood.

“But for years no one knew what cell carried the signal,” Schwartz said. “We potentially found
the key missing link, which is the cell that actually does that task and the neural circuit that
enables this important visual function.”

Schwartz named the cell, “ON Delayed,” in reference to its slow responses to lights becoming
brighter. The cell was unique among many other cell types tested in its exquisite sensitivity to
whether an image was in focus.

He described the neural circuit as the diagram that reveals how this cell is wired to other cells in
the retina to acquire this unique sensitivity.

How too much time indoors may trigger myopia

The indoor light spectrum has high red/green contrast, which activates these clusters of
photoreceptors in the human eye, creating the equivalent of an artificial contrast image on the
retina. It’s likely the human version of the ON Delayed retinal ganglion cell would be
overstimulated by such patterns, causing aberrant over-growth of the eye, leading to myopia,
Schwartz said.
The study will appear in the Feb. 20 print issue of Current Biology. It was published online Jan.

To conduct the study, Schwartz and co-author Adam Mani, a postdoctoral fellow in
ophthalmology at Feinberg, used microscopic glass electrodes to record electrical signals from
cells in a mouse retina while presenting patterns of light on a digital projector.

The next goal is to find a gene specific to this cell. Then scientists can turn its activity up or
down in a genetic mouse model to try to induce or cure myopia.

The study is part of Schwartz’s larger body of research to reverse engineer the retina by
identifying new retinal cell types in mice. The retina has about 50 types of retinal ganglion cells,
which together convey all the information we use to perceive the visual world. Each of these
cells provides different visual information — such as color or motion — about any point in

Schwartz, who is funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), wants to identify the new
cells by their specific function, analyze their genetic signatures and understand how the cells
are interconnected within the retina and to their targets in the brain. His research could lead to
gene therapy to treat blindness and to improve the function of artificial retinal prosthetics.

The article is titled “Circuit Mechanisms of a Retinal Ganglion Cell with Stimulus-Dependent
Response Latency and Activation Beyond Its Dendrites.”

The study was funded by the NIH New Innovator Award DP2EY026770.

II. Relationship of this cell discovery to Accounting

Back in the day, when the sun’s shining brightly, it was the best time for most kids to
go outdoors and play with their fellow children. Glad I had experienced those good
old days. Today, most kids are locked up at home playing not with their neighbors
but with their various gadgets or any related indoor activities. This is also serves as a
precaution for parents since the streets are not that friendly and danger-free like they
used to be.

But as for the college students, accounting students in particular, many of us spend
most of our activities indoors, like in school or studying accounting matters at home.
Fortunately whenever we travel or do other extra-curricular activities we could still
enjoy the warm outdoors. It is still good for one to socialize and feel the sun’s warmth