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TABLE OF CONTENTS:

Introduction.................................................................................. 2
Measurements and units................................................................3
Introduction to mechanics.......................................................... 17
Force, Energy, Work, and Power of the body............................ 23

Pressure in the body................................................................... 34

Energy changes in the body....................................................... 43

Electric signals of the body....................................................... 46


Sound in medicine......................................................................52
Light and vision ……………………………………………….57

1
Introdution:
Medical physics : (also called biomedical physics, medical biophysics or
applied physics in medicine) is generally speaking, the application of
physics concepts, theories and methods to medicine or healthcare. Medical
physics departments may be found in hospitals or universities .

Medical Physicists: are often found in the following healthcare specialties:


diagnostic and intervention radiology (also known as medical imaging),
nuclear medicine, radiation oncology (also known as radiotherapy), and
radiation protection or health physics

Physics:- is the branch of science that study the behavior and the structure
of matter and energy and the interaction between them .

- Classical physics (before 1900) e.g. Newtonian mechanics

thermodynamics, EM (electromagnetic)

- Modern (after 1900) e.g. special relativity, general relativity, quantum


mechanics

-The Goal of physics to quantitatively and qualitatively describe the world


around us

Classification of physics:

Typically physics is classified into traditional areas of study, these include:

 Atomic/nuclear- the study of the very small object's


 Mechanics/Dynamics - how things move
 Electromagenetics (EM)- including light and radio waves.
 Thermodynamics - heat and temperature
 Quantum physics - movements of single atoms or particles
 Light/sound (Acoustics)- waves
2
Chapter (1)

(Measurements and units)


Introduction to measurements: Real science cannot exist without
measurement. Experiments in Physics involve the measurement of various
quantities and a great deal of effort has gone into making these
measurements as accurate and reproducible as possible. So certain basic
standards of measurements have been established and units agreed upon
internationally.

Quantitative description: - based strictly on Numerical measurements.

Qualitative description: - based on some quality or characteristic rather


than on some quantity or measured value, so it's relies one observation and
interpretation.

- Physics is an experimental science:

- Fined the relation between physical quantities

- Express these relation in the language of mathematics (Laws and


Theories)

Physical Quantities and units:-

- Physical quantity can be expressed as the combination of a


magnitude expressed by a number – usually a real number – and a
unit.

There are two types of physical quantities:-

1) Basic quantity: are those quantities on the basis of which other


quantities can be expressed and must be defined in terms of a
standard (Length, mass, times)

3
2) Derived quantity: Defined in terms of combination of basic

quantities ex: Unit of Speed.


m
Speed = distance = meter
=
Time second S

 There are three (Standard Units Systems):

(A) International System (SI): also called (MKS) system.

Parameter Unit Symbol * We use (SI) in the


measurements and units
Length Meter M
of this Book and
Mass Kilogram Kg (Studying material).

Time second S

(B) Gaussian System (C) British System:-

Parameter Unit Symbol Parameter Unit Symbol

Length Centimeter Cm Length Foot (ft)

Mass gram G Mass = Force Pound (lb)

Time second S Time second (S)

* foot (ft) = inch = 2.54 × 10-2 m


0.3048 (m)
1 pound – mass =
foot (ft) = 12 0.4535 kg
inches

4
- Larger and Smaller units defined from SI standards by power of
(10) and Greek prefixes.

Prefix Abbreviation Value

Tera T 1012

Giga G 109

Mega M 106

Kilo K 103

Hector h 102

Deka da 101

Deci d 10-1

Centi c 10-2

Milli m 10-3

Micro µ 10-6

Nano n 10-9

pico p 10-12

Femto f 10-15

* The Uncertainty in measurements:-

- There is no such thing as perfectly accurate measurement each and every


measurement has an uncertainty due to (1) the observer (2) instrument (3)

the procedure used, for example The Smaller division on ruler is (1 mm).

5
There are two main types of errors:

Random errors: occur in all measurements. They arise when observers


estimate the last figure of the reading on an instrument. These include the
noise in the room or the mechanical vibrations in the room. These are
called random, because they cannot be predicted. The best way of
minimizing the error is to take the average of many readings.

Systematic errors: Such mistakes are not random, but constant. They may
cause an experimenter to under estimate or over estimate a reading.
Systematic errors may be due to defective equipment - for instance, an
incorrectly marked ruler; or they may be due to environmental factors - for
instance, the weather conditions on a particular day. While recording time
using a stop-watch, your reaction time in starting or stopping the stop-
watch will certainly vary at times significantly if you are tired or distracted.
At times the variation will be more than a few hundredth of a second.

Percentage Error (uncertainty):

If we are asked to measure the length (L) of object with ruler the
uncertainty (δL) in (L) is (1 mm) if (L) is found to be 21.6 cm we write this
as (L = 21.6 ± 0.1 cm) this simply means that the real value is same where
between (21.5) and (21.7) cm we can (L) three Significant Figures

L 0.1
Percentage of uncertainty =  100   100  0.5%
L 21.6

6
Significant figures (Sig Figs):-
These express the degree of accuracy of measurements. It is a statement
which gives number of digits up to which we are sure about their accuracy.
It gives the degree of accuracy or precision made with the instrument

 Significant figures rules:

(1) All the digits from 1, 2, 3, 4, …., 9 are significant digits

e.g. (37.5)  3 (Sig Figs)

(2) Zero’s that comes between significant figures (Sandwiched) Zero is


considered significant
For example, in the number: (325007) (2409) ( 308)

(3) 0s (zeros) before (Sig figs) which are used only to locate the decimal
point are non-significant e.g., (0.007 ) (0.09) (0.4)

(4) Zero’s after (Sig figs) and there is no decimal is not significant
(5) The final zeros (0s) of an approximated number when expressed as
decimal are significant, e.g. (8.70) meters means approximation is
to the nearest centimeters (i.e., three Sig .fig).

Examples:

E.g.1: 1000  1 (S. F)

E.g. 2: 0.00012  2 (S. F)

E.g. 3: 2002  4 (S. F)

E.g. 4: 0.00102  3 (S. F)

E.g. 5: 0.00120  3 (S. F)

7
 Calculation involving several Numbers (multiplication and
division): The Number of sig figs in result = number of (sig figs) of the
number containing the Smallest number of (sig figs) which enter the
calculations

e.g.: suppose we want to find the Area of Label by multiplying the two
measured values
6.4 cm
Area = Length ×
5.5 cm
width

- We will Round the result to smaller (sig – figrs)

Area = 5.5 × 6.4 = 35.2 cm2 ≈ 35 cm2

35.2 > (5.5) and (6.4)

(5.5 ± 0.1) and (6.4 ± 0.1)

(5.4) (6.3) = 34 cm2

(5.6) (6.5) = 36 cm2

e.g.: Area board dimensions:

6.8 cm

Area = 11.3 × 6.8 = 76.84 cm2 11.3 cm

11.3 has 3 (sig fig) and 6.8 has 2 (sig figs) but (76.84) has 4 (sig figs) so
proper number of sig figs of answer = 2

Round of 76.84 to 77 cm2 so the reliable answers is 77 cm2

→ Conversion of units: ex convert 80 km/hr to m/s

80 km 1000 m 1 hr
( × × = 22 m / s
hr km 3600 s

8
 Dimension and Dimensional analysis:-

- Dimensions mean physical nature of quantity whether

(E.g.): distance measured in units of (feet, meter, inches distance) we


say its dimension of Length.

- The symbols we use to specify the primary dimension of length, mass,


and time (L, M , T) we use [ ] to Represent dimensions [L] [M] [T]

(E.g.): v = x / t write the dimensional analysis of this equation?

[L]
[v] = = [L] [T]-1
[T]

(e.g.) Area [A] = [L] × [L] = [L]2

Scalars

Physical Quantities

Vectors

(1) Scalar quantity: Completely described by a number

(E.g.): (mass, temperature, time…ext)

(2) Vector quantity: Completely described by its magnitude and its


direction example: (displacement, velocity, acceleration)

 Vector notations:-

A vector is a mathematical object consisting of a magnitude (size)

and a direction

(1) A vector is denoted either by an arrow atop or by bold print



(E.g.): the vector of acceleration is written by a , a Both methods are
used.

9
(2) Magnitudes of the vector is defined either by the symbol | | or vector
written with regular type.

(e.g.): acceleration a , a

(3) A vector represented by an arrow whose length is proportional to the



vector magnitude the arrow has the same direction as the vector a

Vector addition (geometric method)

R=A+B

(1) The tip of the first vector (A) place at the tail of second vector (B)

(2) Join the tail of the first vector (A) with the tip of the second vector

B , (A + B = B + A) note the above method can be used for more than


tow vector.
Resultant
B A
R=A+B

→ → A B
A B

(B) Negative Vector:

If we are give vector B and we are as ked to determine – B

(1) Vector – B has the same magnitude to B

(2) Vector – B has the opposite direction

–B
10
(C) Vector Sub traction:-

T=A–B

(1) – B from B
B
–B
B
T

A
T
–B



u
(D) Unit Vector u
u

 
u u unit vector is parallel to u

(E) Vector Component :

ex) vectors V in x-y plan.


 
V  Vx i  Vy j

Vx is the projection of V in x-axis

Vy is the projection of V in y-axis

Vx = V cos θ 
Vy j v
Vy = V sin θ θ

Vx i x
11
Mathematical equations:-
[1] Simple Geometry

(A) The distance between two points hawing coordinates x , y 


1 1 and
x , y 
2 2

x , y 
1 1 x , y 
2 2

d x
2  x1    y2  y1 
2 2

(B) Radian: The arc length(s) at a circular arc is proportional to the radian
® for affixed value of  (in radians)

S  r S

S
 r 
r

(C) The equation of the straight line:

y
m = Slope
y  mx  b

y b
m
0 x
0 x

(2) Trigonometry: mathematics based on the special properties of the


right triangle is called trigonometry right triangle is one containing (90°)
angle

12
a = opposite Side
90°  Φ
b = adjacent Side C
α
C = hypotenuse

Φ 90°

sin    Side opposite


hypo tenuse

cos    Side adjacent


hypo tenuse

tan    Side opposite


Side adjacent

adj  opp opp


cos 1   sin1    tan1  
hyp  hyp  adj 

 The Pythagorean Theorem provides the following relationship


among the sides of the right triangle.

C 2  a 2  b2

C  a 2  b2

sin 
sin  2  cos2   1 , tan  
cos

The cosecant , secant , cotangent functions

1 1 1
Csc  , sec  , cot 
sin  cos tan 

[ex] consider the right triangle, a  2 , b  5 find C ,  ?

C 2  a 2  b2  22  52  4  25  29
13
C  29  5.39

a 2
To Find the angle  , tan     0.400 C
b 5 α=2

  tan 1 0.400   21,8 b=5

Differential calculus:
(First invented by Newton in 17th century)

 Function: is a relation between on variable to another suppose one of


the variable is called (y) and the other (x)

y( x)  ax3  bx2  cx  d

a, b, c  are specified constant


* The derivative of y with respect to x is defined as the limit.

dy
 lim
y
 lim y
x  x  yx 
dx x 0 x x 0 x
“approaches”

* So in General we have this rule to derivate of function

y( x)  axn

a  constant

n  any positive or Negative Number

Then the derivative of the function is

dy
 na x n 1
dx

If y  x   a , the derivative = 0

dy
a   0
dx
14
For example : suppose y  x  (y as a function of x) is given by

yx   8x 5  4 x 3  2 x  7 Find the derivative of the function?

dy
 8(5) x 4  4(3) x 2  2(1) x 0  0
dx

dy
 40 x 4  12 x 2  2 x 2  2
dx

Integral calculus:-

 integration is inverse of differentiation.

y  x   4 x 3  bx  c, f  x  
dy
 39 x 2  b
dx

This a result of differentiating the function mathematically we can write


this inverse operation

yx    3ax2  b dx  ax 3  bx  c

We called it “in definite integrals”.

 Integration describe the area under the curve bounded by f  x  and x ,


and
between the limits x1  x2

15
x2

Area = lim  f  xi xi   f  x  dx


x  0
x1

This type of integral called defined integrals.

x n 1
So in general  x dx  n
c n  1
n 1

* if the limits of the integral is known

x n 1 x 2 x2n 1  x1n 1
x2

 x dx  | 
n

x1
n  1 x1 n 1

x2 3 3
x 3 x 2 x2 x
x  |   1
2
e.g. [1] x dx
1
3 x1 3 3

5
x 2 5 53 33
e.g. [2] 3 x dx  2 3|  2  2  8
spher
(Surface area)
α eeee
= 4 πr2
Rectangle
b
(area = αb) 4 r 3
(Volume)=
3

Circle L Lateral Surface


r
(Area = πr2) r Area = 2πrL
Circumference (2πr)
Volume = πr2L
Cylinder

16
Chapter (2)

(Introduction to mechanics)
Mechanics:- is the science that study motion of the particles.

- Motion in one dimension (straight line) this involves study of the


motion in straight line this line is horizontal or vertical.

 Position:- is the location of the particle with respect to a chosen


reference point that we can consider to be the Origin of coordinate
system.

 Displacement:- of particles (is defined as it's change in position in


some time interval as it move from initial xa  position to a final
position xb  xa xb 

 x  xb  xa Z
A

 r  r2  r1 ∆r B
r2
ex) x

A B  x  xb  xa y
x
 x 000
xa xb 
The displacement is Zero.

 Distance:- is the length of a path followed by a particle.

a b

* Displacement is an example of vector quantity a/s (position, velocity,


acceleration) in this chapter we use positive (+) and negative () signs to
indicate vector direction (+28m, -28m).

17
 Velocity:- is defined as particle displacement  x divided by the time
interval  t 

(1) Average velocity:-


 x m
x 
t s

- Average velocity could be positive or Negative.

- Average velocity could be Zero depends an displacement

(2) Average speed of a particle:-

Is a total distance traveled divided by the total time interval.

d disance m
Vx   
t time s

[e.g.] find the displacement, average velocity, average speed.


to
from position A  F ?

if you know that distance from A  F  127m

xA  30m , t A  0

xF  53m , tF  50s

(1)- displacement: x  xF  xA

 53  30

x  83 m

t  tF  t A

t  50  0  50s

 x x f  xi  53  30  83
(2)- average velocity:  x      1.7m / s
t t f  ti 50  0 50

18
(3)- average speed:-

Total distance from A  F  127m so

127m
the average speed =  2.5 m / s
50s

 Instantaneous Velocity:-

The speed of the object at a given time and it can be written as:

x dx
  lim  (Derivative at distance with time)
t  0 t dt

For example: if a particle moves along the x  ax is it's position varies


with time according to the expression

xt   t 4  3t 2  5 Find the instantaneous Velocity after (2) sec?

dx
[Answer]  4t 3  6t
dt

at t  2

dx
  42  62  32  12  44m / s
3

dt

 Acceleration:-

- Average acceleration:- ax of the particle is defined as the change in
velocity  x  divided by the time interval t 

  x  xf   xi
ax  
t t f  ti

- Instantaneous acceleration:- is a particle acceleration

 x d x
a x  lim  at a given time
t  0
t dt

19
- When the object velocity and acceleration are in same direction the
object is speeding up on the other hand, when the object velocity and
acceleration is opposite to direction, the object is slowing down.

- Force is proportional to acceleration.

[e.g.] if the speed of a object moving on straight horizontal line is given by


V t   6t 2  5 (V1 = 5 m/s and V2 = 221 m/s) find?

a- The average acceleration at (t = 6s)

b- Object acceleration at (t = 10s)

c- The distance covered after (t = 2s)

d- The time needed for the object acceleration to be (12 m/s)

a) after t = 6s

v V2  V1 221  5 216
a     36m / s 2
t t 2  t1 60 6

b) at t = 10s

v d
a  lim   12t at t  10  a  12(10)  120 m / s 2
t  0
t dt

c) distance covered after t = 2s


2
 6t 3 
xt   0 6t  5 dt  
2 2
 5t 
 3 0

 2(23 )  5(2)  2(0)1  5(0)  16  10  26m / s 2

d) time to acceleration (12 m/s2)

d
a  12t , a  12t , 12 = 12 t
dt

t=1
20
 motion laws:- in straight line (with constant acceleration)

 horizontal:

(1) V  V0  at

1
(2) x  x0  V0  V  t
2

1
(3) x  x0  V0t  at 2
2

(4) V 2  V02  2ax  x0 

 Motion in vertical line:

We use the acceleration due to gravity  g  instead of a  and  y  instead


of x .

 If the motion is with the direction of gravity the g  is positive

otherwise  g  is negative.

(1) V  V0  gt

1
(2) y  y0  V0  V  t
2

1
(3) y  y0  V0t  gt 2
2

(4) V 2  V02  2g  y  y0 

[e.g.] a stone thrown from the top of building is given an initial velocity of
20 m/s as straight upward, the building is (50 m) high and we use t A  0 as
the time the stone leaves the thrower's hand at position (A) determine?

A) The time at which the stone reaches it's maximum height?

B) Maximum height from ground?

21
C) The time at which the stone returns to the height from which it was
thrown?

D) The velocity of the stone at this instant ©?

Maximum
B
tB  2s
height
tA  0 yB  20m
g   g  10m / s 2
yA  0  yB  0
g   g  10m / s 2
 yA  20m / s 2 a yB  10m / s 2
a yA  10m / s 2
a)  yB   yA  gt
C tc  4 s
 yB  0 yc  0
 yc  20m / s
0  20 m / s  (10 m / s 2 ) t
a yc  10m / s
20  10 t
D t D  5s
20m / s yD  22.5m
t  2s
2
10m / s  D  10m / s 2
1 a yD  10m / s 2
b) y max  y B  y A   yAt  gt 2
2

1
y B  0  ( 20m / s ) ( 2 s )  ( 10 m / s 2 ) ( 2 s ) 2 =20 m
2
E

and building height is 50 m so 20+50 = 70 m t E  5. 8 s


C) time going upward = time going downward yE  50m
 yE  371m / s 2
1 2
y c  y A   yAt  gt a yE  10m / s 2
2

t 20  5t   0
20
0  0  20t  5t 2
t0 t  4s
5
20  5t  0

D) the velocity of when the object reached the same level is the same

 c   a  20m / s  yc   yA  g y t  20  10m / s 2 (4s)


 20m / s

22
Chapter (3)

(Force, Energy, Work, and Power of the body)


Mass: measure the amount at matter it comprises (its inertia)

Weight: is the force excreted by the earth on a body this force is mainly
due to earth attraction.

 w
w  mg , m 
g

w is weight is Newton (N) 1w  k.g . m / s  2

m : mass (kg)


 g  : the gravitational acceleration m / s 
2

 Force and unit of force:

(N): is the force that gives a mass of (kg) an acceleration of 1 m/s 2

- force controls all motion in the world

there is four main forces in Nature:-

(1) Gravitational forces:-


Which state: (there is a force of attraction between any two object) ex
(weight is due to the attraction between the earth and our bodies, and
mathematically given by this equation:-

 G m1 m2
F
r2

m1 m2 : is the mass of the objects in (kg)

r : is the distance between their centers (m)

23
G : gravitational constant (G  6.7 10 11 N.m2 / kg 2 )

* Medical application for gravitational forces:- the formation of varicose


veins in the leg as the venous blood travels against the force of gravity on
it's way to the heart

e.g.: the centers of two objects are apart by (0.1m) and the mass is (10 kg)
for both objects calculate:-

(1) Gravitational force between them, given (6=6.7 × 10-11 N.m2/kg2)

 G m1 m2
(Solution) F
r2

 (6.7  1011 ) 1010 


F 2
, F  6.7  107 N
(0.1)

(e.g.: 2) assume (m) is an object on the surface of Earth and the radivs of
the earth is (6.4 × 106 m)

calculate the mass of earth?



F  w  mg..............(1)

 GmM
Gravitational forces F
R2

- Substitute (1) in to (2)

GmM
mg 
R2 m

R
R 2  mg  G m M

R2m g R2 g M
M 
Gm G

24
(2) EM (electromagnetic) forces:-

- Force between static electrical charges as well as magnetic force produced


by moving electrical charges (electrical current)

- EM force is greater than gravitational force.

(3) Strong nuclear forces:-

(it's much larger than the other, it's acts as (glue) to hold the Nucleus
together against the repulsive forces produced by the protons) for example.

(4) Weak Nuclear forces:- which binds Quarks with Nucleons (proton and
Neutron)

(5) Tension (7) elastic force

(6) Normal force (8) frictional forces

(Newton's Laws of Motion)


* Dynamics:- the relationship of motion to the forces that cause it

- Laws of motion stated for the first time by sir Isaac Newton.

(1) Newton's first law:-

(Every object continues in a state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight


line unless it is compelled to change that state by force acting upon it).

F  0
[E.g.] a woman has a mass of (60 kg) she is standing on a floor and
remains at Rest, Find the Normal exerted on her by the floor?

F  0 , w  mg W

w N  0 w  60  10  600 w
W
Then N  w  600

25
Normal forces:- for every object touch the surface of other object (a force
acting on his surface).

(2) Newton second law:-

(The acceleration of an object is proportional directly to the resultant


acting on it and inversely proportional to it mass).

 F  ma
[e.g.] object mass (2 kg) moves from rest on the straight line at constant
acceleration, it moves (8 m) during two minutes the it moves 20m at
constant speed find the acting force on every phase?

[Solution] First we will find object acceleration during first phase.

1 1
x  v.t  at 2  8  at
2 2

a  4 m / s2

So F  ma  2  4  8

F  8N

(3) Newton's third law:-

(The action force is equal in magnitude to the reaction force and opposite in
direction, the action and reaction must be of the same type)

F12  F21

* Frictional forces:- (produced when one or both moving object touch each
other and it always in the opposite direction of the moving object), it's
appears everywhere in our everyday life, such as rubber tires and
automobile breaks.

26
There are two types of frictional forces:
(1) Static friction: (friction between two objects in contact with each
other and not moving)  f s 

(2) Kinetic friction: (between two moving objects)  f k 

* Friction effect on the bodies as the heel of f k the foot touches the ground
resolved in to horizontal and vertical component

a- Vertical supplied by the surface and labeled Normal forces

b- The horizontal component supplied by frictional forces.

fk   N

N : Normal forces

 : Coefficient of friction between two surfaces essentially


independent of the surface area

 : hasn’t unit (not unit)

[e.g.]:- compute the horizontal force that make the object (0.5 kg) motion at
constant acceleration (3 m/s2) on the smooth surface (  s  0.2 )

f k  0 because of a smooth surface

f  ma  F  f k  ma

F  0.5 3  1.5 N

27
- Momentum:-

Is the object's product of it's mass and velocity.

* when two object's collide for brief time the momentum of each changes
but total momentum of the system after collision remain constant.

- Suppose there are two bodies m1 , m2 move at speed, v1 , v 2 respectively


and it collides together by F12 , which equal and opposite the force F21 ,
then we can describe the principle as equation.

P=mv P1 = P2 = kg . m/s

m1 , v1  m2 , v2 = M 1 ,V1  M 2 ,V2

Impulse:- is defined as the action of a force acting over some time

Impulse (I)= force × time

a
v  v  ……………………… (1)
t
F  ma ……………………… (2)

mv mv
F 
t t
F t  mv  mv

- impulse I  F t  p  p  m      N . sec  kg . m / sec

[e.g.] a ball mass (0.5 kg) moves at speed (4 m/s) it's strikes with wall and
rebound at the same speed find the impulse force?

I  F .t   m     

F .t  0.5 (4  4)  F .t  4 N .S

28
* Work: is the product of force and distance

- if the applied force is not in the direction of displacement we take cos  of


the angle.

w  F r w  F r

w  F r cos

F : ferce acting on an object

r : displacement in the direction of a force

- Some case where work in not Zero:-

(1) Work is Zero if applied force is Zero (w = 0 if F = 0)

(2) Work is Zero if cas  is Zero (  = 90  cos 90 = 0)

(3) Work is Zero when displacement is Zero ( r  0  w  0 )

* Unit’s of work:

w  f r  Newton meter (N.m) or (Jaule (J)

| (N.m) = | (J)

- If the angle between the force and displacement is 180 the work
done by the gravitational force on the body is Negative
F
r
  180 

29
Example[1] a box is dragged across a floor by a [100N force] direction 60
above the horizontal line, How much work done the force do in pulling the
object 8m?

1
w  f r . cos  100  8  cos60   100  8   400 J
2 F = 100

60

∆r= 8 cm

Example [2] A horizontal force (F) pulls a (10)kg of carton across the floor
at constant speed if coefficient frictional between the carton and the floor is
(0.3) calculate the work done after (5 m)? force affect the body:

  0.3 , r  5m
f  .w  w  mg  10  10  100 N
f  0.3  100  30 N
w  f r  30  5m  150 J

* Gravity:-
(There are two types of problem involving forces on the body those where
the body is in equilibrium (static) and those where the body accelerated
(dynamic) friction forces involved in both types).

(1) Static the sum of all forces in any direction is equal Zero

[ex]

F: fulcrum point or center of gravity point

30
(2) Dynamic (acceleration or deceleration)

* we will use Newton's second law.

(mv)
F  ma , F 
t

* The forces affected the body:- N

(1) body weight. N

(2) Normal force.

(3) frictional force. w

- To solve such kinds that related to Newton's 2 law

a- Define all forces that affect the body on proper drawing.

b- Write down the motion equation in parallel with surface.

(A)– force is parallel with the sun face on horizontal plane

* motion equation
w
 F  ma
f F
F  f  ma

* Normal equation w

F  0
N w0 ; N w

(B) – forces makes an angle with the surface on horizontal plane

31
* motion equation Fy  F sin 
N F
 F  ma
F cos  f  ma. Fx  Fcas 
f 
* Normal equation

F  0
N  F sin   w  0
N  w  F sin 
N
F

w sin  f

w
* motion equation: w cos

 F  ma
F  f  w sin   ma

* Normal equation:

F  0
N  w cos  0

32
[Ex] A fork lift started to pull a box (160 kg) from rest by rope an angle of
(37) above the horizontal if the pulling force is constant and the box
moved on a smooth horizontal surface for (12s) in order for it's velocity to
become (3 m/s) find? A (acceleration)? Tension forces?

Normal forces? (g= 10 m/s2) Fy  F sin 

N F

f 
[answer]
F  Fx cas
w
Vs  Vi 3  0
(A) a   0.25 m / s 2
t 12

(B) Tension force:

Fx  F cos37  0.8F
Fy  F sin 37  0.6 F

 F  ma (Newton second), F cos37  ma  (160  0.25)

(160  0.25)
F  50 N
cos37
(C) Normal force: F  0
F sin 37  N  w  0
50 sin 37  N  w
30  N  1600 ; N  1600  30  1570 N

33
Chapter (4)

(Pressure in the body)


--Density and Specific Gravity:

- Density:- is mass per unit volume

Mass (m)  volume (v)

mass m
  (kg / m3 )
volume v

[e.g.] an unknown liquid substance has mass of (40 kg) and occupies a
substance?

m 40
   2kg / m3
v 20

* Specific Gravity (relative density)   s 

(ratio of the density of substance to that of water at 0c) it density of water


at 0c is  w  1000 kg / m3 

[e.g.] what is the relative density for mercury if you know that the density
of mercury is B 600kg / m3

 s : sepcific gravity

[Solution] s    w : density of water
w 
 : density of substance

13,600
s   13.6
1000

34
Pressure
Pressure: (is the amount of force acting on a unit area)

F F F
P  2  pascal
A m 
( pa )
A

P  Pr essure ( pa ), A : area (m2 )

- If the force make an angle with perpendicular of surface, the the


F cos
pressure  s  
A F

1  a  (1 N / m 2 )
1 atm  1.013  10 5 pa
1 bar  10 5 pa
1 pa  760 mmHg

Fluid at rest in a Container

U – shape tube

Pm = Ps
s m
Patm =  g h h

 : density of fluid

g: 10 m/s2

h: heigh of the point (m)

then the pressure of point x

Px = Patm +  g h

General equation of pressure

35
Ex. What is the depth of an object if the obsolete pressure is 3 times the
atmospheric pressure?

 w  1000 kg / m3 , g  10m / s 2 

p  3 p(atm)
p  p(atm)   gh
3 p(atm)  p(atm)   gh

2 p(atm) 2(1.03  105


3 p(atm)  p(atm)   gh  2 p(atm)   gh, h  
h 1000  10

 20,26(m)

________________________________________________________
Pascal principle:
(Pressure applied to completely enclosed fluid is transmitted
undimentional to all parts of the fluid and the enclosing wall)

f F f
P= =
a A
a = small area f
f = force of the small area
A = large area
F = force due to transferring pressure to large area.
Pressure on smaller area = pressure on larger area
f F mg Mg
= = =
a A a A
 Application ( hydraulic Jack) – ( hydraulic brakes)
Ex. In hydraulic Jack, the surface area of the small jack is (200 cm2) and
the large Jack is (5 m2) find the mass of a car lifted at large Jack if a (4kg)
is used on the small Jack ( g = 10 m/s2 )

36
f F (4) (10) m (10)
= = =
a A 200 x 10-4 5
(5) (4) (10)
m=
(200 x 10-4) (10)

Archimedes Principle:
[ an object floating or submerged in a fluid experience an upward or
(buoyant) force due to the fluid and this force is equal to the weight of the
fluid displaced by the object ] .
F1 + F2 = Fb
Fb = ρ vg
Fb = buoyant force (N)
ρ = density of fluid ( kg/m3 )
v = object volume (m3)
- The direction of buoyant forces is upward (F1 > F2 )
- If an object is amerced in fluid, and the object weight is (w) then the
object undergoes two forces two forces:
1) Weight
2) Buoyant (Fb)
ΣF = Fb – w
ΣF = (ρ – ρ- ) vg = ρ vg - ρ- vg

ρ = fluid density

ρ- = object density

1) If (Fb < w ) object sinks downward


2) If (Fb = w ) the object amerces
3) If (Fb > w ) the object floats on the surface

37
Ex. A piece of wood ( 6 , 10 , 10 ) cm calculate the maximum weight can
this piece hold without submerging into water.

(ρw = 1000 kg , ρwood = 600 kg/m3 , g = 10 m/s2 )

Fb = wwater + wobject , wobject = 6 – 3.6 = 2.4

ρw gv = ρ- vg + w

(103) ( 600 x 10-6 ) ( 10 ) = ( 600 ) ( 600 x 10-6 ) ( 6 ) + w

Flow of discharged and equation of continuity:-


- For an incompressible fluid completely fills a channel (pipe – artery)
then the fluid enters one end of channel an equal amount must be
leave the other end.
- Flow rate (Q) = (volume of fluid flowing past a point in channel /
unit time)
V Volume
Q= m3 / s
t time

Mathematical form of equation of continuity:


Q1 = Q2 (flow rate of fluid enters an end of channel = flow rate of fluid
leave the other end).
If we have a tube with cross – section area (A)

Q=AѴ
A = area
Ѵ = velocity of fluid
- For a channel whose cross – sectional area changes from A1 to A2
this result to another form of equation of continuity:
Q1 = Q 2
38
A1 Ѵ1 = A2 Ѵ2
If A decreased Ѵ must increased
If A is halved Ѵ must increased
One of important application is (blood flow) throw ( veins and arteries).
Ex. Suppose a main vein with a cross – sectional area (A) and blood
velocity is Ѵ and vein (branches (n) arteries with constant cross – sectional
area A1 and velocity Ѵ1 (capillaries)

Q1 = Q 2
A Ѵ = nA1 Ѵ1
Ex. A vein branches to 80 arteries whose radius for each is ( 0.1 cm) if the
vein radius is (0.35 cm) and blood velocity is (0.044) m/s , find the blood
velocity in the arteries
Sol) A = π r2 = π ( 0.35 ) (10-2)2
= π ( 1.225 x 10-5 ) m2
A1 = π r2 = π ( 0.1 ) (10-2)2 = π ( 1x 10-6) m2
A Ѵ = nA1 Ѵ1
AѴ π ( 1.225 x 10-5 ) (0.044)
Ѵ1 = =
nA1 π (80) ( 1x 10-6)
Ѵ1 = 6.74 x 10-3 m/s

39
Laws of gases:

Temperature scales and molecular mass:-


- The Common scale is thermometer ( use the volume of a fixed moss
of mercury to indicate the temperature )
- As the temperature increased the volume increased
Celsius (centigrade c˚) F˚ Fahrenheit K˚ Kelvin
Freezing 0 32 273
Boiling 100 212 373

- Converting from one scale to another :


1) c˚ F˚ : TF˚ = 9/5 c˚ + 32
2) F˚ c˚ : Tc˚ = 5/9 (F˚ - 32 )
3) c˚ K˚ : Tk˚ = c + 273
EX : convert the following :
96 F˚ C˚ ; Tc˚ = ( 5/9 ) (F – 32 )
Tc˚ = (5/9) ( 96-32 ) = 5/9 (64) = 35,5˚ c˚
Molecular mass:
- Gas could be monatomic (He) or polyatomic (O2)
- Define as the mass of C12 atom is exactly 12 atomic mass unit (u)
1 u = 1,66 x 10-27 K g
Ex : find the molecular masses of carbon dioxide (CO2) and Hydrogen (H2)
the atomic masses of ( H, O , C ) [ 1.0084 , 16 , 12 ]
M (CO2 ) = M ( C ) + 2 M (O )
= 12 + 2 (16) = 44 u
M (H2) = 2 M (H ) = 2 ( 1) = 2 u

40
 Mole ( of substance is an amount whose moss in gram = molecular
mass )
Ex: 1 mole of CO2 has a moss of 44 g
- Avogadro’s number (NA) ( The number of molecules in 1 mole )
(NA = 6,02 x 10-23 molecules / mole )
EX : A tank contains 2 K g of CO2 How many molecules are in the
tank?
m 2000
2K g = 2000 g n= = = 45,45 moles
M 44
1 mole = NA ( molecules )
N = n NA = ( 45,45) (6,02 x 10-23 ) = 2.74 x 1025 molecules

* The Ideal Gas Law:


(at low enough densities it’s pressure P is related to Tc and to V in specific
fashion )
- The equation that relating these quantities is called the Ideal Gas
Law ( hypothetical ideal gas it’s good approximation to the
behavior of many gases under many condition)
- Boyles Law: For gas at fixed temperature, pressure is inversely
proportional to volume )
PV = constant
EX : a gas occupies a volume of (250 m3 ) at ( 745 pa ) and (25c˚)
what is additional pressure is required to reduce the gas volume to
to 200 m3 at same concentration?
P1 = 745 Pa , P2 = ? , V1 = 250 m3 , V2 = 200 m3
P1 V1 = P2 V2 745 x 250 = P2 x 200
P2 = 931,25 Pa
931,25 Pa – 745 Pa = 186.25 Pa

41
 Ideal Gas Law :
PV = n R T
P = pressure (Pa)
V= volume (m3)
n= a mount of substance (moles)
R = universal gas constant = 8.3145
m
n =
M
m= mass of Gas M = molecular mass
T = Temperature ( absolute Kelvin)
m
PV = RT
M
Ex. Use the general gas law to compute the density of methane (CH4) at
20 ˚ c and 5 atm pressure, kilo mole of methane is 16 kg?
M(CH4) = M( c ) + 4M(H) = 12 + 4(1) = 16
m 16 kg
n= = = 1 k. mole
M 16 g/mole
T = 20 + 273 = 293 K , R = 8.3145 J/k.mole
P = 5 atm x (1.013 x 105) N/m3 , PV = nRT
nRT 1 ( 8.31 x 293 )
v= = = 4.8 m3 , m = 16 Kg
5
P 5 (1.013 x 10 )
m 16
ρ= = = 3.3 Kg/m3
V 4.8

42
Chapter (5)
(Energy changes in the body)

Energy: (N.m) or Joul (J)


Power: Joul per second (J/s) or watts
Food energy: Kilo calories (Kcal)
Rate of energy consumption of the body: net (50Kcal) / m= of body
surface area per hour )
 Heat losses from the body:
- Homoeothermic (warm – blooded)
Metabolic process.
- Poikilothermic: (cold – blooded)
- Environmental temperature
- Body temperature:
- Normal body ( Temperature is often given as 37˚c , 98.6F˚ only
small percentage of people have exactly that temperature depends
on:
1- Time of body in day ( lower in morning)
2- The temperature of the environment
3- The amount of recent physical activity , the amount of the clothing and
health of individual.
 Energy changes in the body:
- Conservation of energy in the body can be written as a simple
equation
[change in stored energy in
the body(food, fat, body heat)] = [ heat lost from body ] – [ work done]
- There is continuous energy changes in the body both when it is doing
work and when it is not

43
- We can write the first law of thermo dynamics as
∆u = ∆Q - ∆w
∆u = the change in stored energy (K. cal)
∆Q = The heat lost or gained (K.cal / minute)
∆w = is the work done (Joul (J))
 Heat loss from the body by many ways:
1- conduction: is the transfer of heat from a worm object to cold object
when the two object are in contact with each other’s.
Ex. Heat loss through the hand when the blood vessels in the hand
gripping an already cold object and same from the feet.
2- convection : the two types of convection is:
a- active convection: the biggest factor contributing to convection heat loss
in wind.
b- passive convection : this accrue by the dense air in to our clothing
system, exit out of our neck.
3- evaporation :
Occurs when a liquid changes phase to vapor such as (sweet) that is why
we feel chill when sweet vapor.
4- respiration:
Combines the process of vapor and convict such as ( moisture of lung)
 Displacement of warm air in the lung by cold air from outside
because humidity in the hung is 100% heat is lost to the process of
warming cold air entering your lungs.
5 – Radiation:
Radiation heat loss from the body occurs primarily due to infrared
emission.
Radiatiive H = KR AR (TS - TW )
H = heat loss due to radiation
KR= constant (5K cal / m . c˚ )
44
A = body surface
TS= skin temperature
TW= surrounding wall temperature
Convection radiation loss HC = KC Ae ( TS – TW )
KC= ( 10.45 + av )
V = wind speed

CH (6)
( Electric signals of the body )
The Charge is conserved: The change not vanish or created but it
could transformed from one change to another.
- The electrical force is inversely proportional to the distance squared

Electric field:-
- When we have one or more electrical charges we may say that they
produce an electrical field in their vicinity.
F=qE
F : electrical force
q: charge
E : electrical field
 Electrical potential of Nerves:
( The ability of Neurons to receive and transmit signal is fairly well
understood).
- Biopotential: an electrical potential that is measured between points
in living cell and tissue and organism with accompanies all
biochemical process.
- A cross the surface of membrane of every Neuron has an electrical
potential (voltage) difference due to the presence of more negative

45
ions on the inside of the membrane than outside, said to be
(polarized).
 Electrical charges:
- Is a fundamental conserved property to some substance particles and
produce electromagnetic fields
- Charge many produce two types of forces:
1- charge at rest exert a force on each other called electrical Force.
2- charges in motion exert additional forces on each other called
Magnetic Force.
- Static electricity ( electro static )
Loss electron positive charge +
gain of electron Negative charge –
 Coulombs Law:
(The magnitude of the electrical force between two points of electric
charge is directly and inversely proportional to the square of the
distance between two charges).
K q1 q2
F =
r2
f12 = f21
- The force is attractive if (q1) and ( q2 ) have appositive signs, and it is
repulsive if they same signs.
Ex. Two charges (q1 = 4 x 10-6 c , q2 = 9 x 10-9 c) separated by space
distance of 4mm that is the force that effect on each other?
K q1 q 2 9 x 109 x 4 x 10-6 x 9 x 10-9
F12 = =
r2 (0,004)2
= 20,25 N
 Like charges repulsive and unlike charges attract.
 The charges is quantized q = n e
q = the charge (c)
46
n = is true number ( 1 , 2 , 3 …)
e = electron charge 1,6 x 10 -19 c
- The inside of cell is typically (60-90) mV more negative than outside
this potential difference is called the ( resting potential of neuron)
- The typical concentration of various ions inside and outside is in
(The membrane of axon )
- The stimulation maybe caused by various physical and chemical
stimuli such as (heat, cold, light, sound)
- When Neuron is stimulation resting potential occurs at the point of
stimulation this change is called ( action potential) propagates along
the axon (Just 20 mv ) needed to initiate the action potential.
- There are two different type of Nerve fiber:
1) myelinated Nerves

2 ) unmyelinated Nerve (No myelin sheath)

 myeline is a fatty insulating layer


- myelinated conduct potential much faster than unmyelinate .

47
Electromyogram (EMG):
Is a diagnostic tool used to evaluate disease and injury in muscles and
Nerves ( study used to measured electrical activity between Nerve and
muscle)

- It often used to evaluate symptoms of numbness, pain weakness,


muscles, cramping )
- The muscles moves by sending electrical signals each signal cause
very specific reaction.
- (EMG) take (30-60) minutes.
- (EMG) electrodes usually record the electrical activity from several
fibers.
- There is two kinds of electrodes:
1) a surface electrodes.
2) concentric needed electrodes.
- Typical conducting velocity (40 – 60 m/s).
- velocity below( 10 m/s ) would indicate a problem.

48
Biopotential of the heart:-

- The electrical activity of the heart is integral to the operation of


several types of medical instruments including (ECG) electro
cardiogram, The pace maker and defibrillator.
- The heart normal beat at a rate of (70-80) beats/minute
- SA node produce depolarization of RT and LT atria
- AV node produce depolarization of RT and LT ventricles
- Amplifier : is a device that increase amplitude of signals.
- ECG ampl : lower frequency (0.05 Hz) , upper (100Hz)
- Minimum leak age limits (10µA)
- Electrical isolation from the power line and the earth ground.
- Protection against high defibrillation voltage.

49
Electrooculogram (EOG) :
(EOG) : electrooculogram : ( is recording of potential charges produced
by eye when the retina exposed to a flash of light is called ( electro
retina gram) (ERG)
- High gain with very good law frequency response.
- Electrode should be selected with great care.
- Often active (Dc) or drift concentration or correction circuit may be
necessary.

Electroencephalogram (EEG):
An electroencephalogram (EEG) is a test that detects electrical activity in
your brain using small, flat metal discs (electrodes) attached to your scalp.
Your brain cells communicate via electrical impulses and are active all the
time, even when you're asleep. This activity shows up as wavy lines on an
EEG recording. An EEG is one of the main diagnostic tests for epilepsy.
An EEG may also play a role in diagnosing other brain disorders.

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Defibrillators:
(is a process in which an electrical device gives an electric shock or
therapeutic dose of electrical energy of the heart this help reestablish
normal contraction rhythms ) .
In recent year small portable defibrillators have become available these
are (Automated External Defibrillator) (AED)
Three types of Defibrillators:-
1) Manual external defibrillator
2) Manual internal defibrillator
3) Automated external defibrillator

pace maker:
- (is a small device that’s placed in the chest or abdomen to help
control abnormal heart rhythms ) .
- This device uses electrical pulses promote the heart to beat at normal
rate.
- During an arrhythmia, the heart could beat too fast or two slow or
irregular rhythms.
- A heart heats that’s fast is called ( tachycardia)
- A heart heats that’s slow is called ( Bradycardia)
- A pace maker can relive some arrhythmia symptoms

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Chapter (7)
(Sound in medicine)

Ultrasound pictures of the body:

Components of the ultrasound machines:


1) transducer probe 2) transducer pulse controllers 3) Cpu
4) display ( monitors) 5) key board 6) Disk storage device

Uses of ultrasound:
1 ) Detection of tumors 2 ) Assessment of the development of fetus.
3) Evaluation of blood flow 4) insertions.
- Technique : The women’s (men’s) abdominal covered with a gel so
that the transducer can see through the sink ( prevent any insulator
like (air) )
- Real time scanner ( frequency sound waves between (3.5 – 7 m Hz)
can give a continuous picture of the moving fetus.
 Safety and Risks:
- Unlike x-ray : ultra sound involves only sound waves.
- No radiation damage
- Sound wave can increase body temperature.
- Significant only for long expo sure time

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 General properties of sound:
- We can hear sound waves that ranges between ( 20 – 20 K HZ )
- The medium does not travel from one place to another but is pulse
that travels.
- The speed of ultra sound waves ( 1200 Km/ hr ) and for each 1
degree above 0 c˚ the speed of sound increase by( 0.6 m/s)
- The speed of sound in material does not depend on elasticity of
material but depends on density .
- Sound travels (15 times) faster in steel than air and about (4times) in
water than in air.
- Sound travels faster in solids than liquids and faster in liquids than in
gases.
- The speed of sound in air depends on the temperature in lower
temperature is travel slower.
- Elasticity : the ability of material to changes shape in response to an
applied force then resume it’s original shape when the force
removed.
 There is two kinds of Ionizing radiation :
1) directly ionizing 2 ) indirectly ionizing
- product of x-rays in medicine for two main purposes:
1 ) diagnosis 2 ) therapy
- The rule of diagnostic x-ray is to make an image which can be
interpreted for sign of disease or injury
- Imaging studies typically have average energies in rang from (10Kev
– 150Kev)
- Therapy: The purpose of therapeutic x-ray is to treat disease
principally cancer.
- Therapeutic x-ray photons have energy in the range of from (50Kev-
25Mev)

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- X-ray tubes: electrons are sealed inside the x-ray tube and high
potential difference is applied between them , electrons emitted by
one of the electrons are accelerated across the tube, the positive
electrodes is called the cathode the x-ray target is embedded in the
anode .
- It’s common to call the potential difference between the electrode is
the tube , then , it will striking in the target and it produce x-ray the
number of x-ray photons created in the target is proportional to the
number of electrons striking the target.

 (sources of radio activity )


1 ) Naturally accruing ( isotope)
Ex : Uranium (92U235 92U
238
)
( 27Co59 60
27Co ) used in radiotherapy.
2 ) manufacturing radio activity ( mane made)
1) Nuclear reactor 2) cyclotrons
- Curie (Ci) is a unit of radioactivity.
-Geiger-Muller (GM) is a device that measures the radioactivity

Kinds of nuclear radiations:


1 ) alpha particles α 2) Beta particles β 3) gamma rays γ
Non – ionizing radiation:
1) Radio waves 2) Infrared 3) visible light 4) ultraviolet
- Ionizing radiation:
1 ) gamma rays 2 ) x-ray 3) Alpha 4 ) Beta 5) Neuters

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(Laser)
Laser: ( light amplification by stimulated emittion of radiation) typically
light on visible light via process of stimulated emission .
- General a narrow wave length electromagnetic spectrum mono
chromatic light.
 Ultraviolet : (UV) light
Shorter wave length they have three types:
1 ) (UV – A ) is the least harmful and most commonly found type of UV
because it has the least energy .(UV –A) is often called black light and used
for its relative harmless and it’s ability to cause fluorescent material to emit
visible light operating to gluon in the dark and most of photo therapy .
2) (UV – B) : typically the most destructive form of UV light because it
has enough energy to damage biological tissue
- UV – B known to cause skin cancer.
- UV – B completely absorbed by atmosphere.
- small change in the a zone layer could dramatically increase the damage
of skin cancer.
3) UV – c : it has a short wave length and is almost completely absorbed in
air within a few hard red meter .
- when UV – c photons collides with oxygen atoms the energy exchange
cause the formation of ozone.
- Germicidal UV – c lamp are often used to purify air and water because of
their ability to kill bacteria
UV –A 315 - 400 nm
UV –B 280 - 315 nm
UV – c 100 - 280 nm
- Infrared (IR) light infrared light contains the heat amount of energy
per photon.

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(IR) is usually measured using a thermal detector such as thermopile,
which measure temperature change due to absorbed energy.
- Near infrared 720 – 1400 nm
- Far infrared 1.4 – 1000 mm
(measurement of light and it’s units)
- Light travels very fast around 3x 108 m
/s of its speed it can go
around the world 8 times in one second.
C = Ί . f C : is the speed of light Ί = the wave length F = is the
frequency The rate of which source emit light is called luminous
( flux) (p) Luminous flux (p) is actually in something called alumina
( Lm ) a typical (400 watt ) bulb emits ( 1750 Lm)
- Flux is the total of all the light that is emitted form a source .

Chapter (8)

(Light and vision)


Properties of Light:
Visible light is a small part of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Electromagnetic waves have electric and magnetic fields perpendicular to
the direction of motion. They are able to travel through a vacuum or a
medium. There are several properties commonly used to describe light
such as color (wavelength, wave number, frequency, energy), and power
(intensity).

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Wavelength (): measured in nanometers (nm), micrometers (m), or
angstroms (  , 1  = 0.1 nm), the distance from one peak to the next.

Frequency (f): measured in Hertz (Hz, 1Hz = 1s-1). Frequency is the


inverse of the time it would take a wave to travel 1 wavelength. To
calculate frequency from wavelength:
c  f

Speed of light in a vacuum (c)  3 x 108 m/s

Wavenumber (): measured in inverse centimeters (cm-1). The


wavenumber is how many waves fit in the distance of 1 cm.

Fermat’s Principle :
Fermat’s principle states that light will take path with the shortest travel
time to go from one point to another, as shown in figure.

Snell’s Law:
Snell’s law predicts the direction of light as it travels through different
mediums. Snell’s law can be stated by the following equation where n is
the index of refraction, and i, t, and r stand for incident, transmitted, and
reflected.

ni sin  i  nt sin  t

i r
nair = 1

nglass = 1.5

t
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Total internal reflection can occur when light in a high index medium
reaches a low index medium (ni > nt). In these conditions, when t=90o, the
corresponding incident angle is called the critical angle. Any incident ray
at the critical angle or higher will cause total internal reflection, meaning
all of the light is reflected and none is transmitted. This will become
important when dealing with fiber optic cables

LENSES :

There are two types of lenses

1. Convex or Converging

2. Concave or Diverging

A ray of light is refracted twice by a lens, once when it passes into the lens
(air to glass) and once when it emerges from the lens (glass to air).

Convex lens causes the rays of light to form a converging beam and a
concave lens forms a diverging beam.

The centre of the lens is called the optical centre and the direction through
the optical centre and perpendicular to the lens is called the principal axis.

A beam parallel to the principal axis will form a converging beam with a
convex lens and a diverging beam with a concave lens.

The focus is the point on the principal axis to which all rays originally
parallel and close to the principal axis converge to or from which the
diverge from after passing through the lens.

The focal length is the distance from the focus to the optical centre.

For a Convex lens the focus is real and so the focal length f is positive

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For a concave lens the focus is virtual and so the focal length f is negative.

Also since the light may pass through a lens in either direction there are
two focus points equidistant from the optical centre.

Ray Diagrams used to locate the image in a lens.

Three classes of rays

1. Rays parallel to the principal axis will pass through the focus after
refraction through the lens.

2. Rays through the principal focus will emerge parallel to the principal axis
after refraction through the lens (reversibility of light)

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3. Rays through the optical centre are undeviated.

Convex Lens :

1. Object between F1 and Optical Centre

Image is
(i) Behind the object
(ii) Virtual
(iii) Upright
(iv) Larger than object.

2. Object at either F1 or F2

Image is at infinity

3. Object between F1 and 2F1

Image is:
(i) Beyond 2F2
(ii) Real
(iii) Inverted

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(iv) Magnified
4. Object is at 2F1

Image is:
(i) At 2F2
(ii) Real
(iii) Inverted
(iv) Same size as object

5. Object beyond 2F1

Image is:
(i) Between F2 and 2F2
(ii) Real
(iii) Inverted
(iv) Smaller than object

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6. Object at infinity

Image is:
(i) At F
(ii) Real
(iii) Inverted
(iv) Smaller than object

For a concave lens the image is always

(i) Between the object and the lens


(ii) Virtual
(iii) Upright
(iv) Diminished

So again Real image implies a convex lens


Virtual and magnified implies convex
Virtual and diminished implies convex

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