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Jun 20, 2018

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كتاب الفيزياء الطبية

© All Rights Reserved

1 vues

كتاب الفيزياء الطبية

© All Rights Reserved

- Neuromancer
- The E-Myth Revisited: Why Most Small Businesses Don't Work and
- How Not to Be Wrong: The Power of Mathematical Thinking
- Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us
- Chaos: Making a New Science
- The Joy of x: A Guided Tour of Math, from One to Infinity
- How to Read a Person Like a Book
- Moonwalking with Einstein: The Art and Science of Remembering Everything
- The Wright Brothers
- The Other Einstein: A Novel
- The 6th Extinction
- The Housekeeper and the Professor: A Novel
- The Power of Discipline: 7 Ways it Can Change Your Life
- The 10X Rule: The Only Difference Between Success and Failure
- A Short History of Nearly Everything
- The Kiss Quotient: A Novel
- The End of Average: How We Succeed in a World That Values Sameness
- Made to Stick: Why Some Ideas Survive and Others Die
- Algorithms to Live By: The Computer Science of Human Decisions
- The Universe in a Nutshell

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 63

Introduction.................................................................................. 2

Measurements and units................................................................3

Introduction to mechanics.......................................................... 17

Force, Energy, Work, and Power of the body............................ 23

Sound in medicine......................................................................52

Light and vision ……………………………………………….57

1

Introdution:

Medical physics : (also called biomedical physics, medical biophysics or

applied physics in medicine) is generally speaking, the application of

physics concepts, theories and methods to medicine or healthcare. Medical

physics departments may be found in hospitals or universities .

diagnostic and intervention radiology (also known as medical imaging),

nuclear medicine, radiation oncology (also known as radiotherapy), and

radiation protection or health physics

Physics:- is the branch of science that study the behavior and the structure

of matter and energy and the interaction between them .

thermodynamics, EM (electromagnetic)

mechanics

around us

Classification of physics:

Mechanics/Dynamics - how things move

Electromagenetics (EM)- including light and radio waves.

Thermodynamics - heat and temperature

Quantum physics - movements of single atoms or particles

Light/sound (Acoustics)- waves

2

Chapter (1)

Introduction to measurements: Real science cannot exist without

measurement. Experiments in Physics involve the measurement of various

quantities and a great deal of effort has gone into making these

measurements as accurate and reproducible as possible. So certain basic

standards of measurements have been established and units agreed upon

internationally.

than on some quantity or measured value, so it's relies one observation and

interpretation.

Theories)

magnitude expressed by a number – usually a real number – and a

unit.

quantities can be expressed and must be defined in terms of a

standard (Length, mass, times)

3

2) Derived quantity: Defined in terms of combination of basic

m

Speed = distance = meter

=

Time second S

measurements and units

Length Meter M

of this Book and

Mass Kilogram Kg (Studying material).

Time second S

0.3048 (m)

1 pound – mass =

foot (ft) = 12 0.4535 kg

inches

4

- Larger and Smaller units defined from SI standards by power of

(10) and Greek prefixes.

Tera T 1012

Giga G 109

Mega M 106

Kilo K 103

Hector h 102

Deka da 101

Deci d 10-1

Centi c 10-2

Milli m 10-3

Micro µ 10-6

Nano n 10-9

pico p 10-12

Femto f 10-15

measurement has an uncertainty due to (1) the observer (2) instrument (3)

the procedure used, for example The Smaller division on ruler is (1 mm).

5

There are two main types of errors:

estimate the last figure of the reading on an instrument. These include the

noise in the room or the mechanical vibrations in the room. These are

called random, because they cannot be predicted. The best way of

minimizing the error is to take the average of many readings.

Systematic errors: Such mistakes are not random, but constant. They may

cause an experimenter to under estimate or over estimate a reading.

Systematic errors may be due to defective equipment - for instance, an

incorrectly marked ruler; or they may be due to environmental factors - for

instance, the weather conditions on a particular day. While recording time

using a stop-watch, your reaction time in starting or stopping the stop-

watch will certainly vary at times significantly if you are tired or distracted.

At times the variation will be more than a few hundredth of a second.

If we are asked to measure the length (L) of object with ruler the

uncertainty (δL) in (L) is (1 mm) if (L) is found to be 21.6 cm we write this

as (L = 21.6 ± 0.1 cm) this simply means that the real value is same where

between (21.5) and (21.7) cm we can (L) three Significant Figures

L 0.1

Percentage of uncertainty = 100 100 0.5%

L 21.6

6

Significant figures (Sig Figs):-

These express the degree of accuracy of measurements. It is a statement

which gives number of digits up to which we are sure about their accuracy.

It gives the degree of accuracy or precision made with the instrument

considered significant

For example, in the number: (325007) (2409) ( 308)

(3) 0s (zeros) before (Sig figs) which are used only to locate the decimal

point are non-significant e.g., (0.007 ) (0.09) (0.4)

(4) Zero’s after (Sig figs) and there is no decimal is not significant

(5) The final zeros (0s) of an approximated number when expressed as

decimal are significant, e.g. (8.70) meters means approximation is

to the nearest centimeters (i.e., three Sig .fig).

Examples:

7

Calculation involving several Numbers (multiplication and

division): The Number of sig figs in result = number of (sig figs) of the

number containing the Smallest number of (sig figs) which enter the

calculations

e.g.: suppose we want to find the Area of Label by multiplying the two

measured values

6.4 cm

Area = Length ×

5.5 cm

width

6.8 cm

11.3 has 3 (sig fig) and 6.8 has 2 (sig figs) but (76.84) has 4 (sig figs) so

proper number of sig figs of answer = 2

80 km 1000 m 1 hr

( × × = 22 m / s

hr km 3600 s

8

Dimension and Dimensional analysis:-

say its dimension of Length.

and time (L, M , T) we use [ ] to Represent dimensions [L] [M] [T]

[L]

[v] = = [L] [T]-1

[T]

Scalars

Physical Quantities

Vectors

direction example: (displacement, velocity, acceleration)

Vector notations:-

and a direction

(E.g.): the vector of acceleration is written by a , a Both methods are

used.

9

(2) Magnitudes of the vector is defined either by the symbol | | or vector

written with regular type.

(e.g.): acceleration a , a

vector magnitude the arrow has the same direction as the vector a

R=A+B

(1) The tip of the first vector (A) place at the tail of second vector (B)

(2) Join the tail of the first vector (A) with the tip of the second vector

tow vector.

Resultant

B A

R=A+B

→ → A B

A B

–B

10

(C) Vector Sub traction:-

T=A–B

(1) – B from B

B

–B

B

T

A

T

–B

u

(D) Unit Vector u

u

u u unit vector is parallel to u

V Vx i Vy j

Vx = V cos θ

Vy j v

Vy = V sin θ θ

Vx i x

11

Mathematical equations:-

[1] Simple Geometry

1 1 and

x , y

2 2

x , y

1 1 x , y

2 2

d x

2 x1 y2 y1

2 2

(B) Radian: The arc length(s) at a circular arc is proportional to the radian

® for affixed value of (in radians)

S r S

S

r

r

y

m = Slope

y mx b

y b

m

0 x

0 x

right triangle is called trigonometry right triangle is one containing (90°)

angle

12

a = opposite Side

90° Φ

b = adjacent Side C

α

C = hypotenuse

Φ 90°

hypo tenuse

hypo tenuse

Side adjacent

cos 1 sin1 tan1

hyp hyp adj

among the sides of the right triangle.

C 2 a 2 b2

C a 2 b2

sin

sin 2 cos2 1 , tan

cos

1 1 1

Csc , sec , cot

sin cos tan

C 2 a 2 b2 22 52 4 25 29

13

C 29 5.39

a 2

To Find the angle , tan 0.400 C

b 5 α=2

Differential calculus:

(First invented by Newton in 17th century)

the variable is called (y) and the other (x)

y( x) ax3 bx2 cx d

* The derivative of y with respect to x is defined as the limit.

dy

lim

y

lim y

x x yx

dx x 0 x x 0 x

“approaches”

y( x) axn

a constant

dy

na x n 1

dx

If y x a , the derivative = 0

dy

a 0

dx

14

For example : suppose y x (y as a function of x) is given by

dy

8(5) x 4 4(3) x 2 2(1) x 0 0

dx

dy

40 x 4 12 x 2 2 x 2 2

dx

Integral calculus:-

y x 4 x 3 bx c, f x

dy

39 x 2 b

dx

this inverse operation

yx 3ax2 b dx ax 3 bx c

and

between the limits x1 x2

15

x2

x 0

x1

x n 1

So in general x dx n

c n 1

n 1

x n 1 x 2 x2n 1 x1n 1

x2

x dx |

n

x1

n 1 x1 n 1

x2 3 3

x 3 x 2 x2 x

x | 1

2

e.g. [1] x dx

1

3 x1 3 3

5

x 2 5 53 33

e.g. [2] 3 x dx 2 3| 2 2 8

spher

(Surface area)

α eeee

= 4 πr2

Rectangle

b

(area = αb) 4 r 3

(Volume)=

3

r

(Area = πr2) r Area = 2πrL

Circumference (2πr)

Volume = πr2L

Cylinder

16

Chapter (2)

(Introduction to mechanics)

Mechanics:- is the science that study motion of the particles.

motion in straight line this line is horizontal or vertical.

reference point that we can consider to be the Origin of coordinate

system.

some time interval as it move from initial xa position to a final

position xb xa xb

x xb xa Z

A

r r2 r1 ∆r B

r2

ex) x

A B x xb xa y

x

x 000

xa xb

The displacement is Zero.

a b

acceleration) in this chapter we use positive (+) and negative () signs to

indicate vector direction (+28m, -28m).

17

Velocity:- is defined as particle displacement x divided by the time

interval t

x m

x

t s

d disance m

Vx

t time s

to

from position A F ?

xA 30m , t A 0

xF 53m , tF 50s

(1)- displacement: x xF xA

53 30

x 83 m

t tF t A

t 50 0 50s

x x f xi 53 30 83

(2)- average velocity: x 1.7m / s

t t f ti 50 0 50

18

(3)- average speed:-

127m

the average speed = 2.5 m / s

50s

Instantaneous Velocity:-

The speed of the object at a given time and it can be written as:

x dx

lim (Derivative at distance with time)

t 0 t dt

with time according to the expression

dx

[Answer] 4t 3 6t

dt

at t 2

dx

42 62 32 12 44m / s

3

dt

Acceleration:-

- Average acceleration:- ax of the particle is defined as the change in

velocity x divided by the time interval t

x xf xi

ax

t t f ti

x d x

a x lim at a given time

t 0

t dt

19

- When the object velocity and acceleration are in same direction the

object is speeding up on the other hand, when the object velocity and

acceleration is opposite to direction, the object is slowing down.

V t 6t 2 5 (V1 = 5 m/s and V2 = 221 m/s) find?

a) after t = 6s

v V2 V1 221 5 216

a 36m / s 2

t t 2 t1 60 6

b) at t = 10s

v d

a lim 12t at t 10 a 12(10) 120 m / s 2

t 0

t dt

2

6t 3

xt 0 6t 5 dt

2 2

5t

3 0

d

a 12t , a 12t , 12 = 12 t

dt

t=1

20

motion laws:- in straight line (with constant acceleration)

horizontal:

(1) V V0 at

1

(2) x x0 V0 V t

2

1

(3) x x0 V0t at 2

2

of x .

otherwise g is negative.

(1) V V0 gt

1

(2) y y0 V0 V t

2

1

(3) y y0 V0t gt 2

2

(4) V 2 V02 2g y y0

[e.g.] a stone thrown from the top of building is given an initial velocity of

20 m/s as straight upward, the building is (50 m) high and we use t A 0 as

the time the stone leaves the thrower's hand at position (A) determine?

21

C) The time at which the stone returns to the height from which it was

thrown?

Maximum

B

tB 2s

height

tA 0 yB 20m

g g 10m / s 2

yA 0 yB 0

g g 10m / s 2

yA 20m / s 2 a yB 10m / s 2

a yA 10m / s 2

a) yB yA gt

C tc 4 s

yB 0 yc 0

yc 20m / s

0 20 m / s (10 m / s 2 ) t

a yc 10m / s

20 10 t

D t D 5s

20m / s yD 22.5m

t 2s

2

10m / s D 10m / s 2

1 a yD 10m / s 2

b) y max y B y A yAt gt 2

2

1

y B 0 ( 20m / s ) ( 2 s ) ( 10 m / s 2 ) ( 2 s ) 2 =20 m

2

E

C) time going upward = time going downward yE 50m

yE 371m / s 2

1 2

y c y A yAt gt a yE 10m / s 2

2

t 20 5t 0

20

0 0 20t 5t 2

t0 t 4s

5

20 5t 0

D) the velocity of when the object reached the same level is the same

20m / s

22

Chapter (3)

Mass: measure the amount at matter it comprises (its inertia)

Weight: is the force excreted by the earth on a body this force is mainly

due to earth attraction.

w

w mg , m

g

g : the gravitational acceleration m / s

2

Which state: (there is a force of attraction between any two object) ex

(weight is due to the attraction between the earth and our bodies, and

mathematically given by this equation:-

G m1 m2

F

r2

23

G : gravitational constant (G 6.7 10 11 N.m2 / kg 2 )

veins in the leg as the venous blood travels against the force of gravity on

it's way to the heart

e.g.: the centers of two objects are apart by (0.1m) and the mass is (10 kg)

for both objects calculate:-

G m1 m2

(Solution) F

r2

F 2

, F 6.7 107 N

(0.1)

(e.g.: 2) assume (m) is an object on the surface of Earth and the radivs of

the earth is (6.4 × 106 m)

F w mg..............(1)

GmM

Gravitational forces F

R2

GmM

mg

R2 m

R

R 2 mg G m M

R2m g R2 g M

M

Gm G

24

(2) EM (electromagnetic) forces:-

by moving electrical charges (electrical current)

(it's much larger than the other, it's acts as (glue) to hold the Nucleus

together against the repulsive forces produced by the protons) for example.

(4) Weak Nuclear forces:- which binds Quarks with Nucleons (proton and

Neutron)

* Dynamics:- the relationship of motion to the forces that cause it

- Laws of motion stated for the first time by sir Isaac Newton.

line unless it is compelled to change that state by force acting upon it).

F 0

[E.g.] a woman has a mass of (60 kg) she is standing on a floor and

remains at Rest, Find the Normal exerted on her by the floor?

F 0 , w mg W

w N 0 w 60 10 600 w

W

Then N w 600

25

Normal forces:- for every object touch the surface of other object (a force

acting on his surface).

acting on it and inversely proportional to it mass).

F ma

[e.g.] object mass (2 kg) moves from rest on the straight line at constant

acceleration, it moves (8 m) during two minutes the it moves 20m at

constant speed find the acting force on every phase?

1 1

x v.t at 2 8 at

2 2

a 4 m / s2

So F ma 2 4 8

F 8N

(The action force is equal in magnitude to the reaction force and opposite in

direction, the action and reaction must be of the same type)

F12 F21

* Frictional forces:- (produced when one or both moving object touch each

other and it always in the opposite direction of the moving object), it's

appears everywhere in our everyday life, such as rubber tires and

automobile breaks.

26

There are two types of frictional forces:

(1) Static friction: (friction between two objects in contact with each

other and not moving) f s

* Friction effect on the bodies as the heel of f k the foot touches the ground

resolved in to horizontal and vertical component

fk N

N : Normal forces

independent of the surface area

[e.g.]:- compute the horizontal force that make the object (0.5 kg) motion at

constant acceleration (3 m/s2) on the smooth surface ( s 0.2 )

f ma F f k ma

27

- Momentum:-

* when two object's collide for brief time the momentum of each changes

but total momentum of the system after collision remain constant.

and it collides together by F12 , which equal and opposite the force F21 ,

then we can describe the principle as equation.

P=mv P1 = P2 = kg . m/s

m1 , v1 m2 , v2 = M 1 ,V1 M 2 ,V2

a

v v ……………………… (1)

t

F ma ……………………… (2)

mv mv

F

t t

F t mv mv

[e.g.] a ball mass (0.5 kg) moves at speed (4 m/s) it's strikes with wall and

rebound at the same speed find the impulse force?

I F .t m

28

* Work: is the product of force and distance

the angle.

w F r w F r

w F r cos

* Unit’s of work:

| (N.m) = | (J)

- If the angle between the force and displacement is 180 the work

done by the gravitational force on the body is Negative

F

r

180

29

Example[1] a box is dragged across a floor by a [100N force] direction 60

above the horizontal line, How much work done the force do in pulling the

object 8m?

1

w f r . cos 100 8 cos60 100 8 400 J

2 F = 100

60

∆r= 8 cm

Example [2] A horizontal force (F) pulls a (10)kg of carton across the floor

at constant speed if coefficient frictional between the carton and the floor is

(0.3) calculate the work done after (5 m)? force affect the body:

0.3 , r 5m

f .w w mg 10 10 100 N

f 0.3 100 30 N

w f r 30 5m 150 J

* Gravity:-

(There are two types of problem involving forces on the body those where

the body is in equilibrium (static) and those where the body accelerated

(dynamic) friction forces involved in both types).

(1) Static the sum of all forces in any direction is equal Zero

[ex]

30

(2) Dynamic (acceleration or deceleration)

(mv)

F ma , F

t

* motion equation

w

F ma

f F

F f ma

* Normal equation w

F 0

N w0 ; N w

31

* motion equation Fy F sin

N F

F ma

F cos f ma. Fx Fcas

f

* Normal equation

F 0

N F sin w 0

N w F sin

N

F

w sin f

w

* motion equation: w cos

F ma

F f w sin ma

* Normal equation:

F 0

N w cos 0

32

[Ex] A fork lift started to pull a box (160 kg) from rest by rope an angle of

(37) above the horizontal if the pulling force is constant and the box

moved on a smooth horizontal surface for (12s) in order for it's velocity to

become (3 m/s) find? A (acceleration)? Tension forces?

N F

f

[answer]

F Fx cas

w

Vs Vi 3 0

(A) a 0.25 m / s 2

t 12

Fx F cos37 0.8F

Fy F sin 37 0.6 F

(160 0.25)

F 50 N

cos37

(C) Normal force: F 0

F sin 37 N w 0

50 sin 37 N w

30 N 1600 ; N 1600 30 1570 N

33

Chapter (4)

--Density and Specific Gravity:

mass m

(kg / m3 )

volume v

[e.g.] an unknown liquid substance has mass of (40 kg) and occupies a

substance?

m 40

2kg / m3

v 20

at 0c is w 1000 kg / m3

[e.g.] what is the relative density for mercury if you know that the density

of mercury is B 600kg / m3

s : sepcific gravity

[Solution] s w : density of water

w

: density of substance

13,600

s 13.6

1000

34

Pressure

Pressure: (is the amount of force acting on a unit area)

F F F

P 2 pascal

A m

( pa )

A

F cos

pressure s

A F

1 a (1 N / m 2 )

1 atm 1.013 10 5 pa

1 bar 10 5 pa

1 pa 760 mmHg

U – shape tube

Pm = Ps

s m

Patm = g h h

: density of fluid

g: 10 m/s2

Px = Patm + g h

35

Ex. What is the depth of an object if the obsolete pressure is 3 times the

atmospheric pressure?

w 1000 kg / m3 , g 10m / s 2

p 3 p(atm)

p p(atm) gh

3 p(atm) p(atm) gh

3 p(atm) p(atm) gh 2 p(atm) gh, h

h 1000 10

20,26(m)

________________________________________________________

Pascal principle:

(Pressure applied to completely enclosed fluid is transmitted

undimentional to all parts of the fluid and the enclosing wall)

f F f

P= =

a A

a = small area f

f = force of the small area

A = large area

F = force due to transferring pressure to large area.

Pressure on smaller area = pressure on larger area

f F mg Mg

= = =

a A a A

Application ( hydraulic Jack) – ( hydraulic brakes)

Ex. In hydraulic Jack, the surface area of the small jack is (200 cm2) and

the large Jack is (5 m2) find the mass of a car lifted at large Jack if a (4kg)

is used on the small Jack ( g = 10 m/s2 )

36

f F (4) (10) m (10)

= = =

a A 200 x 10-4 5

(5) (4) (10)

m=

(200 x 10-4) (10)

Archimedes Principle:

[ an object floating or submerged in a fluid experience an upward or

(buoyant) force due to the fluid and this force is equal to the weight of the

fluid displaced by the object ] .

F1 + F2 = Fb

Fb = ρ vg

Fb = buoyant force (N)

ρ = density of fluid ( kg/m3 )

v = object volume (m3)

- The direction of buoyant forces is upward (F1 > F2 )

- If an object is amerced in fluid, and the object weight is (w) then the

object undergoes two forces two forces:

1) Weight

2) Buoyant (Fb)

ΣF = Fb – w

ΣF = (ρ – ρ- ) vg = ρ vg - ρ- vg

ρ = fluid density

ρ- = object density

2) If (Fb = w ) the object amerces

3) If (Fb > w ) the object floats on the surface

37

Ex. A piece of wood ( 6 , 10 , 10 ) cm calculate the maximum weight can

this piece hold without submerging into water.

ρw gv = ρ- vg + w

- For an incompressible fluid completely fills a channel (pipe – artery)

then the fluid enters one end of channel an equal amount must be

leave the other end.

- Flow rate (Q) = (volume of fluid flowing past a point in channel /

unit time)

V Volume

Q= m3 / s

t time

Q1 = Q2 (flow rate of fluid enters an end of channel = flow rate of fluid

leave the other end).

If we have a tube with cross – section area (A)

Q=AѴ

A = area

Ѵ = velocity of fluid

- For a channel whose cross – sectional area changes from A1 to A2

this result to another form of equation of continuity:

Q1 = Q 2

38

A1 Ѵ1 = A2 Ѵ2

If A decreased Ѵ must increased

If A is halved Ѵ must increased

One of important application is (blood flow) throw ( veins and arteries).

Ex. Suppose a main vein with a cross – sectional area (A) and blood

velocity is Ѵ and vein (branches (n) arteries with constant cross – sectional

area A1 and velocity Ѵ1 (capillaries)

Q1 = Q 2

A Ѵ = nA1 Ѵ1

Ex. A vein branches to 80 arteries whose radius for each is ( 0.1 cm) if the

vein radius is (0.35 cm) and blood velocity is (0.044) m/s , find the blood

velocity in the arteries

Sol) A = π r2 = π ( 0.35 ) (10-2)2

= π ( 1.225 x 10-5 ) m2

A1 = π r2 = π ( 0.1 ) (10-2)2 = π ( 1x 10-6) m2

A Ѵ = nA1 Ѵ1

AѴ π ( 1.225 x 10-5 ) (0.044)

Ѵ1 = =

nA1 π (80) ( 1x 10-6)

Ѵ1 = 6.74 x 10-3 m/s

39

Laws of gases:

- The Common scale is thermometer ( use the volume of a fixed moss

of mercury to indicate the temperature )

- As the temperature increased the volume increased

Celsius (centigrade c˚) F˚ Fahrenheit K˚ Kelvin

Freezing 0 32 273

Boiling 100 212 373

1) c˚ F˚ : TF˚ = 9/5 c˚ + 32

2) F˚ c˚ : Tc˚ = 5/9 (F˚ - 32 )

3) c˚ K˚ : Tk˚ = c + 273

EX : convert the following :

96 F˚ C˚ ; Tc˚ = ( 5/9 ) (F – 32 )

Tc˚ = (5/9) ( 96-32 ) = 5/9 (64) = 35,5˚ c˚

Molecular mass:

- Gas could be monatomic (He) or polyatomic (O2)

- Define as the mass of C12 atom is exactly 12 atomic mass unit (u)

1 u = 1,66 x 10-27 K g

Ex : find the molecular masses of carbon dioxide (CO2) and Hydrogen (H2)

the atomic masses of ( H, O , C ) [ 1.0084 , 16 , 12 ]

M (CO2 ) = M ( C ) + 2 M (O )

= 12 + 2 (16) = 44 u

M (H2) = 2 M (H ) = 2 ( 1) = 2 u

40

Mole ( of substance is an amount whose moss in gram = molecular

mass )

Ex: 1 mole of CO2 has a moss of 44 g

- Avogadro’s number (NA) ( The number of molecules in 1 mole )

(NA = 6,02 x 10-23 molecules / mole )

EX : A tank contains 2 K g of CO2 How many molecules are in the

tank?

m 2000

2K g = 2000 g n= = = 45,45 moles

M 44

1 mole = NA ( molecules )

N = n NA = ( 45,45) (6,02 x 10-23 ) = 2.74 x 1025 molecules

(at low enough densities it’s pressure P is related to Tc and to V in specific

fashion )

- The equation that relating these quantities is called the Ideal Gas

Law ( hypothetical ideal gas it’s good approximation to the

behavior of many gases under many condition)

- Boyles Law: For gas at fixed temperature, pressure is inversely

proportional to volume )

PV = constant

EX : a gas occupies a volume of (250 m3 ) at ( 745 pa ) and (25c˚)

what is additional pressure is required to reduce the gas volume to

to 200 m3 at same concentration?

P1 = 745 Pa , P2 = ? , V1 = 250 m3 , V2 = 200 m3

P1 V1 = P2 V2 745 x 250 = P2 x 200

P2 = 931,25 Pa

931,25 Pa – 745 Pa = 186.25 Pa

41

Ideal Gas Law :

PV = n R T

P = pressure (Pa)

V= volume (m3)

n= a mount of substance (moles)

R = universal gas constant = 8.3145

m

n =

M

m= mass of Gas M = molecular mass

T = Temperature ( absolute Kelvin)

m

PV = RT

M

Ex. Use the general gas law to compute the density of methane (CH4) at

20 ˚ c and 5 atm pressure, kilo mole of methane is 16 kg?

M(CH4) = M( c ) + 4M(H) = 12 + 4(1) = 16

m 16 kg

n= = = 1 k. mole

M 16 g/mole

T = 20 + 273 = 293 K , R = 8.3145 J/k.mole

P = 5 atm x (1.013 x 105) N/m3 , PV = nRT

nRT 1 ( 8.31 x 293 )

v= = = 4.8 m3 , m = 16 Kg

5

P 5 (1.013 x 10 )

m 16

ρ= = = 3.3 Kg/m3

V 4.8

42

Chapter (5)

(Energy changes in the body)

Power: Joul per second (J/s) or watts

Food energy: Kilo calories (Kcal)

Rate of energy consumption of the body: net (50Kcal) / m= of body

surface area per hour )

Heat losses from the body:

- Homoeothermic (warm – blooded)

Metabolic process.

- Poikilothermic: (cold – blooded)

- Environmental temperature

- Body temperature:

- Normal body ( Temperature is often given as 37˚c , 98.6F˚ only

small percentage of people have exactly that temperature depends

on:

1- Time of body in day ( lower in morning)

2- The temperature of the environment

3- The amount of recent physical activity , the amount of the clothing and

health of individual.

Energy changes in the body:

- Conservation of energy in the body can be written as a simple

equation

[change in stored energy in

the body(food, fat, body heat)] = [ heat lost from body ] – [ work done]

- There is continuous energy changes in the body both when it is doing

work and when it is not

43

- We can write the first law of thermo dynamics as

∆u = ∆Q - ∆w

∆u = the change in stored energy (K. cal)

∆Q = The heat lost or gained (K.cal / minute)

∆w = is the work done (Joul (J))

Heat loss from the body by many ways:

1- conduction: is the transfer of heat from a worm object to cold object

when the two object are in contact with each other’s.

Ex. Heat loss through the hand when the blood vessels in the hand

gripping an already cold object and same from the feet.

2- convection : the two types of convection is:

a- active convection: the biggest factor contributing to convection heat loss

in wind.

b- passive convection : this accrue by the dense air in to our clothing

system, exit out of our neck.

3- evaporation :

Occurs when a liquid changes phase to vapor such as (sweet) that is why

we feel chill when sweet vapor.

4- respiration:

Combines the process of vapor and convict such as ( moisture of lung)

Displacement of warm air in the lung by cold air from outside

because humidity in the hung is 100% heat is lost to the process of

warming cold air entering your lungs.

5 – Radiation:

Radiation heat loss from the body occurs primarily due to infrared

emission.

Radiatiive H = KR AR (TS - TW )

H = heat loss due to radiation

KR= constant (5K cal / m . c˚ )

44

A = body surface

TS= skin temperature

TW= surrounding wall temperature

Convection radiation loss HC = KC Ae ( TS – TW )

KC= ( 10.45 + av )

V = wind speed

CH (6)

( Electric signals of the body )

The Charge is conserved: The change not vanish or created but it

could transformed from one change to another.

- The electrical force is inversely proportional to the distance squared

Electric field:-

- When we have one or more electrical charges we may say that they

produce an electrical field in their vicinity.

F=qE

F : electrical force

q: charge

E : electrical field

Electrical potential of Nerves:

( The ability of Neurons to receive and transmit signal is fairly well

understood).

- Biopotential: an electrical potential that is measured between points

in living cell and tissue and organism with accompanies all

biochemical process.

- A cross the surface of membrane of every Neuron has an electrical

potential (voltage) difference due to the presence of more negative

45

ions on the inside of the membrane than outside, said to be

(polarized).

Electrical charges:

- Is a fundamental conserved property to some substance particles and

produce electromagnetic fields

- Charge many produce two types of forces:

1- charge at rest exert a force on each other called electrical Force.

2- charges in motion exert additional forces on each other called

Magnetic Force.

- Static electricity ( electro static )

Loss electron positive charge +

gain of electron Negative charge –

Coulombs Law:

(The magnitude of the electrical force between two points of electric

charge is directly and inversely proportional to the square of the

distance between two charges).

K q1 q2

F =

r2

f12 = f21

- The force is attractive if (q1) and ( q2 ) have appositive signs, and it is

repulsive if they same signs.

Ex. Two charges (q1 = 4 x 10-6 c , q2 = 9 x 10-9 c) separated by space

distance of 4mm that is the force that effect on each other?

K q1 q 2 9 x 109 x 4 x 10-6 x 9 x 10-9

F12 = =

r2 (0,004)2

= 20,25 N

Like charges repulsive and unlike charges attract.

The charges is quantized q = n e

q = the charge (c)

46

n = is true number ( 1 , 2 , 3 …)

e = electron charge 1,6 x 10 -19 c

- The inside of cell is typically (60-90) mV more negative than outside

this potential difference is called the ( resting potential of neuron)

- The typical concentration of various ions inside and outside is in

(The membrane of axon )

- The stimulation maybe caused by various physical and chemical

stimuli such as (heat, cold, light, sound)

- When Neuron is stimulation resting potential occurs at the point of

stimulation this change is called ( action potential) propagates along

the axon (Just 20 mv ) needed to initiate the action potential.

- There are two different type of Nerve fiber:

1) myelinated Nerves

- myelinated conduct potential much faster than unmyelinate .

47

Electromyogram (EMG):

Is a diagnostic tool used to evaluate disease and injury in muscles and

Nerves ( study used to measured electrical activity between Nerve and

muscle)

muscles, cramping )

- The muscles moves by sending electrical signals each signal cause

very specific reaction.

- (EMG) take (30-60) minutes.

- (EMG) electrodes usually record the electrical activity from several

fibers.

- There is two kinds of electrodes:

1) a surface electrodes.

2) concentric needed electrodes.

- Typical conducting velocity (40 – 60 m/s).

- velocity below( 10 m/s ) would indicate a problem.

48

Biopotential of the heart:-

several types of medical instruments including (ECG) electro

cardiogram, The pace maker and defibrillator.

- The heart normal beat at a rate of (70-80) beats/minute

- SA node produce depolarization of RT and LT atria

- AV node produce depolarization of RT and LT ventricles

- Amplifier : is a device that increase amplitude of signals.

- ECG ampl : lower frequency (0.05 Hz) , upper (100Hz)

- Minimum leak age limits (10µA)

- Electrical isolation from the power line and the earth ground.

- Protection against high defibrillation voltage.

49

Electrooculogram (EOG) :

(EOG) : electrooculogram : ( is recording of potential charges produced

by eye when the retina exposed to a flash of light is called ( electro

retina gram) (ERG)

- High gain with very good law frequency response.

- Electrode should be selected with great care.

- Often active (Dc) or drift concentration or correction circuit may be

necessary.

Electroencephalogram (EEG):

An electroencephalogram (EEG) is a test that detects electrical activity in

your brain using small, flat metal discs (electrodes) attached to your scalp.

Your brain cells communicate via electrical impulses and are active all the

time, even when you're asleep. This activity shows up as wavy lines on an

EEG recording. An EEG is one of the main diagnostic tests for epilepsy.

An EEG may also play a role in diagnosing other brain disorders.

50

Defibrillators:

(is a process in which an electrical device gives an electric shock or

therapeutic dose of electrical energy of the heart this help reestablish

normal contraction rhythms ) .

In recent year small portable defibrillators have become available these

are (Automated External Defibrillator) (AED)

Three types of Defibrillators:-

1) Manual external defibrillator

2) Manual internal defibrillator

3) Automated external defibrillator

pace maker:

- (is a small device that’s placed in the chest or abdomen to help

control abnormal heart rhythms ) .

- This device uses electrical pulses promote the heart to beat at normal

rate.

- During an arrhythmia, the heart could beat too fast or two slow or

irregular rhythms.

- A heart heats that’s fast is called ( tachycardia)

- A heart heats that’s slow is called ( Bradycardia)

- A pace maker can relive some arrhythmia symptoms

51

Chapter (7)

(Sound in medicine)

1) transducer probe 2) transducer pulse controllers 3) Cpu

4) display ( monitors) 5) key board 6) Disk storage device

Uses of ultrasound:

1 ) Detection of tumors 2 ) Assessment of the development of fetus.

3) Evaluation of blood flow 4) insertions.

- Technique : The women’s (men’s) abdominal covered with a gel so

that the transducer can see through the sink ( prevent any insulator

like (air) )

- Real time scanner ( frequency sound waves between (3.5 – 7 m Hz)

can give a continuous picture of the moving fetus.

Safety and Risks:

- Unlike x-ray : ultra sound involves only sound waves.

- No radiation damage

- Sound wave can increase body temperature.

- Significant only for long expo sure time

52

General properties of sound:

- We can hear sound waves that ranges between ( 20 – 20 K HZ )

- The medium does not travel from one place to another but is pulse

that travels.

- The speed of ultra sound waves ( 1200 Km/ hr ) and for each 1

degree above 0 c˚ the speed of sound increase by( 0.6 m/s)

- The speed of sound in material does not depend on elasticity of

material but depends on density .

- Sound travels (15 times) faster in steel than air and about (4times) in

water than in air.

- Sound travels faster in solids than liquids and faster in liquids than in

gases.

- The speed of sound in air depends on the temperature in lower

temperature is travel slower.

- Elasticity : the ability of material to changes shape in response to an

applied force then resume it’s original shape when the force

removed.

There is two kinds of Ionizing radiation :

1) directly ionizing 2 ) indirectly ionizing

- product of x-rays in medicine for two main purposes:

1 ) diagnosis 2 ) therapy

- The rule of diagnostic x-ray is to make an image which can be

interpreted for sign of disease or injury

- Imaging studies typically have average energies in rang from (10Kev

– 150Kev)

- Therapy: The purpose of therapeutic x-ray is to treat disease

principally cancer.

- Therapeutic x-ray photons have energy in the range of from (50Kev-

25Mev)

53

- X-ray tubes: electrons are sealed inside the x-ray tube and high

potential difference is applied between them , electrons emitted by

one of the electrons are accelerated across the tube, the positive

electrodes is called the cathode the x-ray target is embedded in the

anode .

- It’s common to call the potential difference between the electrode is

the tube , then , it will striking in the target and it produce x-ray the

number of x-ray photons created in the target is proportional to the

number of electrons striking the target.

1 ) Naturally accruing ( isotope)

Ex : Uranium (92U235 92U

238

)

( 27Co59 60

27Co ) used in radiotherapy.

2 ) manufacturing radio activity ( mane made)

1) Nuclear reactor 2) cyclotrons

- Curie (Ci) is a unit of radioactivity.

-Geiger-Muller (GM) is a device that measures the radioactivity

1 ) alpha particles α 2) Beta particles β 3) gamma rays γ

Non – ionizing radiation:

1) Radio waves 2) Infrared 3) visible light 4) ultraviolet

- Ionizing radiation:

1 ) gamma rays 2 ) x-ray 3) Alpha 4 ) Beta 5) Neuters

54

(Laser)

Laser: ( light amplification by stimulated emittion of radiation) typically

light on visible light via process of stimulated emission .

- General a narrow wave length electromagnetic spectrum mono

chromatic light.

Ultraviolet : (UV) light

Shorter wave length they have three types:

1 ) (UV – A ) is the least harmful and most commonly found type of UV

because it has the least energy .(UV –A) is often called black light and used

for its relative harmless and it’s ability to cause fluorescent material to emit

visible light operating to gluon in the dark and most of photo therapy .

2) (UV – B) : typically the most destructive form of UV light because it

has enough energy to damage biological tissue

- UV – B known to cause skin cancer.

- UV – B completely absorbed by atmosphere.

- small change in the a zone layer could dramatically increase the damage

of skin cancer.

3) UV – c : it has a short wave length and is almost completely absorbed in

air within a few hard red meter .

- when UV – c photons collides with oxygen atoms the energy exchange

cause the formation of ozone.

- Germicidal UV – c lamp are often used to purify air and water because of

their ability to kill bacteria

UV –A 315 - 400 nm

UV –B 280 - 315 nm

UV – c 100 - 280 nm

- Infrared (IR) light infrared light contains the heat amount of energy

per photon.

55

(IR) is usually measured using a thermal detector such as thermopile,

which measure temperature change due to absorbed energy.

- Near infrared 720 – 1400 nm

- Far infrared 1.4 – 1000 mm

(measurement of light and it’s units)

- Light travels very fast around 3x 108 m

/s of its speed it can go

around the world 8 times in one second.

C = Ί . f C : is the speed of light Ί = the wave length F = is the

frequency The rate of which source emit light is called luminous

( flux) (p) Luminous flux (p) is actually in something called alumina

( Lm ) a typical (400 watt ) bulb emits ( 1750 Lm)

- Flux is the total of all the light that is emitted form a source .

Chapter (8)

Properties of Light:

Visible light is a small part of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Electromagnetic waves have electric and magnetic fields perpendicular to

the direction of motion. They are able to travel through a vacuum or a

medium. There are several properties commonly used to describe light

such as color (wavelength, wave number, frequency, energy), and power

(intensity).

56

Wavelength (): measured in nanometers (nm), micrometers (m), or

angstroms ( , 1 = 0.1 nm), the distance from one peak to the next.

inverse of the time it would take a wave to travel 1 wavelength. To

calculate frequency from wavelength:

c f

wavenumber is how many waves fit in the distance of 1 cm.

Fermat’s Principle :

Fermat’s principle states that light will take path with the shortest travel

time to go from one point to another, as shown in figure.

Snell’s Law:

Snell’s law predicts the direction of light as it travels through different

mediums. Snell’s law can be stated by the following equation where n is

the index of refraction, and i, t, and r stand for incident, transmitted, and

reflected.

ni sin i nt sin t

i r

nair = 1

nglass = 1.5

t

57

Total internal reflection can occur when light in a high index medium

reaches a low index medium (ni > nt). In these conditions, when t=90o, the

corresponding incident angle is called the critical angle. Any incident ray

at the critical angle or higher will cause total internal reflection, meaning

all of the light is reflected and none is transmitted. This will become

important when dealing with fiber optic cables

LENSES :

1. Convex or Converging

2. Concave or Diverging

A ray of light is refracted twice by a lens, once when it passes into the lens

(air to glass) and once when it emerges from the lens (glass to air).

Convex lens causes the rays of light to form a converging beam and a

concave lens forms a diverging beam.

The centre of the lens is called the optical centre and the direction through

the optical centre and perpendicular to the lens is called the principal axis.

A beam parallel to the principal axis will form a converging beam with a

convex lens and a diverging beam with a concave lens.

The focus is the point on the principal axis to which all rays originally

parallel and close to the principal axis converge to or from which the

diverge from after passing through the lens.

The focal length is the distance from the focus to the optical centre.

For a Convex lens the focus is real and so the focal length f is positive

58

For a concave lens the focus is virtual and so the focal length f is negative.

Also since the light may pass through a lens in either direction there are

two focus points equidistant from the optical centre.

1. Rays parallel to the principal axis will pass through the focus after

refraction through the lens.

2. Rays through the principal focus will emerge parallel to the principal axis

after refraction through the lens (reversibility of light)

59

3. Rays through the optical centre are undeviated.

Convex Lens :

Image is

(i) Behind the object

(ii) Virtual

(iii) Upright

(iv) Larger than object.

2. Object at either F1 or F2

Image is at infinity

Image is:

(i) Beyond 2F2

(ii) Real

(iii) Inverted

60

(iv) Magnified

4. Object is at 2F1

Image is:

(i) At 2F2

(ii) Real

(iii) Inverted

(iv) Same size as object

Image is:

(i) Between F2 and 2F2

(ii) Real

(iii) Inverted

(iv) Smaller than object

61

6. Object at infinity

Image is:

(i) At F

(ii) Real

(iii) Inverted

(iv) Smaller than object

(ii) Virtual

(iii) Upright

(iv) Diminished

Virtual and magnified implies convex

Virtual and diminished implies convex

62

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