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Topics covered

Relation of motivation with organizational behavior
Advantages and disadvantages of motivation for organization and Individual

Motivation means a process of stimulating people to action to accomplished desired goals .

Motivation describes the reason or reasons one has for acting or behaving in a
particular way. This in turn impacts the general desire or willingness of someone to
do something.

In a business context, theories of motivation are concerned with identifying the

factors that affect the attitudes of employees (including managers) to their work
and the amount of effort that they put in to doing their work.

If managers understand the factors that motivate their employees, they might be
able to take measures to improve motivation and effort.

Motivation defined
 Influences that account for
 Initiation
 Direction
 Intensity
 Persistence of behavior
 Reasons people do what they do

 Internal drive that encourages us to achieve our goals

 Possible motives are endless
• Emotional
• Social
• Biological

Motivation is two-dimensional
Internal motivation is self-generate and comes when something is meaningful
or gives sense of purpose
 Job contentment
 Individual growth
 Achievement

 External motivation is an action taken by another person

 Usually involves an incentive or anticipation of a reward
 Money
 Awards
 Performance feedback

Content theories and process theories of motivation

Content theories
Content theories concentrate on what motivates individuals in their work.
Examples of content theory are:
 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
 Herzberg’s hygiene and motivator factors
 McClelland’s motivational needs theory (although there are also elements
of process theory in motivational needs theory).

Process theories
Process theories of motivation concentrate on the process by which individuals are motivated, and the strength of that
motivation. In other words, the key question is: ‘how are people motivated?’
It is argued that individuals are motivated differently, and the strength of their motivation depends on a variety of factors, such
 needs
 personality
 perceptions about whether more effort will result in achieving goals
 the rewards
 expectations about whether the rewards for achieving the goals will actually meet the individual’s needs.
Rewards and perceptions of rewards are usually a key factor in process theory.
Examples of process theory include:
 Vroom’s expectancy model
 Handy’s motivational calculus.