Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 6

Conservation of Momentum and Energy Lab Assignment

SPH4U, PHYSICS
RIBBA PATHAN
JULY 6, 2017
7HVW4XHVWLRQ
WKH FRQVHUYDWLRQRIHQHUJ\ DQGWKHFRQVHUYDWLRQRIPRPHQWXP ZLOOEHFRQVHUYHGLQDFROOLVLRQ
EHWZHHQWZREDOOEHDULQJV"

+\SRWKHVLV
7KH VWDWHPHQWRIODZRIFRQVHUYDWLRQRIPRPHQWXP DUHVWDWH WKDWIRUD FROOLVLRQ EHWZHHQ both object
LQD JLYHQLVRODWHGV\VWHPEHIRUHWKHFROOLVLRQWKHWRWDOPRPHQWXP RI WKHWZRREMHFWV
LVHTXDOWRWKHDIWHUWKHFROOLVLRQWKHWRWDO PRPHQWXP RI WKHWZRREMHFWVLQDQLVRODWHGV\VWHPLV D
IUHHIURPWKHLQIOXHQFHRI QHW H[WHUQDO IRUFHV WKDW RWKHU WKHPRPHQWXPRI WKH V\VWHP EXW DFFRUGLQJ
WRWKHODZRIFRQVHUYDWLRQRIHQHUJ\LVWKHWRWDOHQHUJ\ RI DQLVRODWHGV\VWHPLV FRQVWDQW UHPDLQVRYHU
WLPH VRWKHWRWDOHQHUJ\LVVDPHZKHQWKHV\VWHPEHIRUHDQGDIWHUFROOLLRQ VREHIRUHDQGDIWHUWKH
FROOLVLRQWKHVXPRIWKHNLQHWLFDQGSRWHQWLDOHQHUJLHVLQDQLVRODWHGV\VWHPEHWKHVDPHWKHUHIRUH
DFFRUGLQJWRWKLVLQ RXUH[SHULPHQWWKHFRQVHUYDWLRQRIHQHUJ\DQGWKHFRQVHUYDWLRQRIPRPHQWXP
ZLOO QRW EH DFFXUDWH FRQVHUYHLQDFROOLVLRQEHWZHHQWKHWZREDOOEHDULQJV

0DWHULDOV
6ORWWHG3ODVWLF5XOHU
VWHHOEDOOEHDULQJRIHTXDOVL]HDQGPDVV
7DEOH
)ODWVPRRWKKDUGVXUIDFH

3URFHGXUH
 0DNHDVKDOORZLQFOLQH VRWKDWWKHWRSLVSURSSHGRQVRPHVROLG VXUIDFH DQGWKH
ORZHUVLGH GRZQ RIWKH LQFOLQHLVULJKW DWWKHHGJHRIWKH JLYHQWDEOH
 )URP WKHWRSLQFOLQHGUXOHU5ROOWKHEDOOGRZQ
 0HDVXUHWKHKRUL]RQWDOGLVWDQFH G WKDWWKHEDOOWUDYHOVEHIRUHLWKLWVWKHIORRU 
 $JDLQ5HSHDW WKH SURFHGXUHWHQWLPHVWR REWDLQWHQYDOXHVRIGDQGWKHQFDOFXODWHWKH
DYHUDJHGLVWDQFH
 3UHSDUH WKH GDWD WDEOH RI\RXUREVHUYDWLRQVDQGVXPPDUL]H\RXUUHVXOWV
 0HDVXUHWKHYHUWLFDOKHLJKW K RIWKHWDEOHFP
 0HDVXUHWKHYHUWLFDOKHLJKWRIWKHVORWWHGUXOH K KHLJKWDERYHWDEOHFP
 3XW D WDUJHW EDOO RQ WKHWDEOHVR WKDW ZKHQWKHILUVW EDOO UROOV GRZQWKHLQFOLQHLWFROOLGHV
KHDGRQZLWKWKHWDUJHW EDOO7KHWDUJHW EHFRPHV WKH SURMHFWLOH 0HDVXUH G WKH
GLVWDQFHIURPWKHWDEOHWKDW WKHWDUJHWEDOO VWULNHV WKH IORRU $JDLQ5HSHDW WKLV SURFHVVWHQ
WLPHV DQGFDOFXODWHWKH DYHUDJH GLVWDQFH
 3XW WKLV LQIRUPDWLRQ LQD7DEOH 
2EVHUYDWLRQV7DEOH

+RUL]RQWDO
'LVWDQFH
5SJBMT 7UDYHOOHG
%\EDOO
G
P
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

0HDQ

G
P

TKHKHLJKWRIWKH9HUWLFDOWDEOH K  P  7KZKHLJKWRIWKHYHUWLFDOVORWWHG UXOH K  P 

2EVHUYDWLRQ7DEOH 

+RUL]RQWDO
'LVWDQFH
7UDYHOOHG
5SJBMT %\
3URMHFWLOH
G
P
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

0HDQ 
G
P
'LVFXVVLRQV Of Lab :

1. Using the data from Steps #1 and #2 and projectile equations, calculate the horizontal velocity of the ball
just before it leaves the table.

From observation table we calculate the horizontal velocity of ball when away from the table.
UVLQJWKHPHDQYDOXHVDVWRminimumHUURUVDQGXVH WKHDYHUDJHvalueIURPRXURecording Data

+RUL]RQtally 'LVWDQFHof table G  P


9HUWLFDOlyKHLJKWRIWKHWDEOH K  P
Let ,QLWLDO9HORFLW\ Y  PV
Let $FFHOHUDWLRQGXHWRJUDYLW\ D  PVA
And +RUL]RQWDOYHORFLW\ Y  [
According to PURMHFWLOHHT for ILQGingWKHKRUL]RQWDOYHORFLW\EXWILUVWWRILQGWKH WLPHWDNHQ

ͳ
݀ͳ ൌ ‫ͳݒ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൅ ܽ‫ ݐ‬ଶ
ʹ
ͳ
ͲǤ͵Ͷ ൌ Ͳሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൅ ሺͻǤͺሻ‫ ݐ‬ଶ
ʹ

ʹሺͲǤ͵Ͷሻ
ඨ ൌ ‫ݐ‬
ͻǤͺ

‫ ݐ‬ൌ ͲǤʹ͸‫ݏ‬
ThereforeWKHKRUL]RQWDOYHORFLW\RI DPURMHFWLOHis UHPDLQVFRQVWDQWhenceWKHKRUL]RQWDOGLVWDQFH G WR
evaluateWKHKRUL]RQWDOYHORFLW\ Y 7KLVisWKHKRUL]RQWDOYHORFLW\RIWKHEDOODVLW away fromWKHWDEOH

݀ͳ
‫ ʹݒ‬ൌ
‫ݐ‬
ͲǤ͵Ͷ
‫ ʹݒ‬ൌ
ͲǤʹ͸
‫ ʹݒ‬ൌ ͳǤ͵݉Ȁ‫ݏ‬
Therefore the KRUL]RQWDOYHORFLW\RIWKHEDOOMXVWEHIRUHLWaway from WKHWDEOHLVPV
2. Using the data from Step #3 and the velocity found above, compare the gravitational potential energy of the
ball at the top of the incline, with the kinetic energy of the ball just before it leaves the table. (you do not
need to know the mass, just let it equal m). Is mechanical energy being conserved? Discuss.

Now wHFDQdetermineWKHJUDYLWDWLRQDOSRWHQWLDOHQHUJ\RIWKHEDOODWWKHWRSRIWKHLQFOLQHE\XVLQJWKH
IRUPXODܲ‫݄݃݉=ܧ‬:KHUH,P PDVVJ JUDYLWDWLRQDODFF. PVA DQGK=YHUWLFDOKHLJKWRIWKHVORWWHGUXOH K  P
To CDOFXODWHWKH JUDYLWDWLRQDOSRWHQWLDOHQHUJ\RIWKHEDOODWWKHWRSRIWKHLQFOLQH

ܲ‫ ܧ‬ൌ ݄݉݃
ܲ‫ ܧ‬ൌ ݉ *ͻǤͺ *ͲǤͲͺ
ܲ‫ ܧ‬ൌ ͲǤ͹ͺ݉
Hence WKHWRWDOPHFKDQLFDOHQHUJ\RIWKHEDOODWWKHWRSRIWKHLQFOLQHWREH 3(.(
DQGWKHYHORFLW\DWWKHWRSLV]HURso WKHWRWDOPHFKDQLFDOHQHUJ\LV 3(ZKLFKLV P

Therefore tKHNLQHWLFHQHUJ\RIWKHEDOOMXVWEHIRUHLWOHDYHVWKHWDEOHFDQEHdetermine by XVLQJWKH


IRUPXOD‫ ܧܭ‬ൌ 1/2 ݉‫ݒ‬ଶ:HFDQVXEVWLWXWHWKHYDOXHVZHFDOFXODWHWRILQGWKHNLQHWLFHQHUJ\
Y 
ͳ
‫ ܧܭ‬ൌ ݉‫ ݒ‬ଶ 
ʹ
ͳ
‫ ܧܭ‬ൌ ݉ሺͳǤ͵ሻଶ 
ʹ
ͳ
‫ ܧܭ‬ൌ ݉‫ ݒ‬ଶ 
ʹ
‫ ܧܭ‬ൌ ͲǤͺͷ݉
7KH3otential HQHUJ\DWWKHERWWRPLV]HURDVWKHKHLJKWLVHTXDOWR]HUR7KXVWKH
WRWDOPHFKDQLFDOHQHUJ\DWWKHERWWRPRIWKHLQFOLQHHTXDOWR  ..(according to RXUYDOXHVRI
.(DQG3(DWWKHERWWRPDQGWRSRIWKHLQFOLQHUHVSHFWLYHO\.so WKHODZRI FRQVHUYDWLRQRIPHFKDQLFDOHQHUJ\LVQRWEH
usedWKHVXPRIPHFKDQLFDOHQHUJ\DWWKH WRSDQGERWWRPLVGLIIHUHQWso WKHVXPRIWKHHQHUJLHVDWWKHWRSDQGERWWRPDUH
GLIIHUHQWso WKHPHFKDQLFDOHQHUJ\LVQRWEH FRQVHUYHGso according to this it is not a perfect system. when the ball is
moves down the plane energy is lost WR RYHUFRPHIULFWLRQWKXVVXPVRIHQHUJ\DWWKHWRSDQGERWWRP are different
3. Using the data from Steps #2 and #4, determine the horizontal velocity of the target ball, just before it left the
table.
Using that velocity, and the information from above, compare the total momentum just before the collision
with the total momentum after the collision. (again let the masses of the balls be m)
WeFDQXVHWKHYDOXHVIURPRXUH[SHULPHQWWRFDOFXODWHWKHKRUL]RQWDOYHORFLW\RIWKH
WDUJHWEDOOMXVWEHIRUHLWOHDYHVWKHWDEOH:HZLOOEHXVLQJWKHPHDQYDOXHVDVWRUHGXFHHUURUVDQG
XVHWKHDYHUDJHTXDQWLW\IURPRXUILQGLQJV
Let +RUL]RQWDO'LVWDQFH G  P
Let 9HUWLFDOKHLJKWRIWKHWDEOH K  P
Let ,QLWLDO9HORFLW\ Y  PV
Let $FFHOHUDWLRQGXHWRJUDYLW\ D  PVA
Let +RUL]RQWDOYHORFLW\ Y  [
By 8VLQJSURMHFWLOHHTZHFDQILQGWKHKRUL]RQWDOYHORFLW\EXWILUVWZHZLOOKDYHWRILQGWKH
WLPHWDNHQ
ͳ
݀ͳ ൌ ‫ͳݒ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൅ ܽ‫ ݐ‬ଶ 
ʹ
ͳ
ͲǤʹʹ ൌ Ͳሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൅ ሺͻǤͺሻ‫ ݐ‬ଶ 
ʹ

ʹሺͲǤʹʹሻ
ඨ ൌ ‫ݐ‬
ͻǤͺ

‫ ݐ‬ൌ ͲǤʹͳ‫ݏ‬
6oWKHKRUL]RQWDOYHORFLW\RIDSURMHFWLOHUHPDLQVFRQVWDQWXVingWKHKRUL]RQWDOGLVWDQFH
G WRFDOFXODWHWKHKRUL]RQWDOYHORFLW\ Y It is WKHKRUL]RQWDOYHORFLW\RIWKHWDUJHWEDOO
DVLWOHDYHVWKHWDEOH
݀ʹ
‫ ʹݒ‬ൌ
‫ݐ‬
ͲǤʹʹ
‫ ʹݒ‬ൌ
ͲǤʹͳ
‫ ʹݒ‬ൌ ͳǤͲ݉Ȁ‫ݏ‬
TKHKRUL]RQWDOYHORFLW\RIWKHWDUJHWEDOOMXVWEHIRUHLWOHDYHVWKHWDEOHLVPV
6LQFHWKHLQLWLDOYHORFLW\DQGWKHPDVVHVRIWKHREMHFWVEHIRUHWKHFROOLVLRQDORQJZLWKWKH
ILQDOYHORFLW\RIWKHREMHFWVDIWHUWKHFROOLVLRQZHXVHWKLVWRFRPSDUHWKHWRWDOPRPHQWXP
EHIRUHDQGDIWHUWKHFROOLVLRQDQGWHVWZKHWKHUWKHFROOLVLRQIROORZVWKHODZRIFRQVHUYDWLRQRI
PRPHQWXPWKHODZRIFRQVHUYDWLRQRIPRPHQWXPVWDWHVWKDWWKHWRWDOPRPHQWXPRIDV\VWHP
EHIRUHDFROOLVLRQLVHTXDOWRWKHWRWDOPRPHQWXPRIWKHV\VWHPDIWHUWKHFROOLVLRQ
்ܲ௢௧௔௟ூ௡௜௧௜௔௟ ൌ ்ܲ௢௧௔௟ி௜௡௔௟ 
$VWKHPDVVHVDUHVDPHWKLVPHDQVWKDW
݉ଵ ‫ݒ‬ଵ ൅ ݉ଵ ‫ݒ‬ଶ ൌ ݉‫ݒ‬ଵ௙ ൅ ݉‫ݒ‬ଶ௙ 

WHJHW
݉ଵ ሺͳǤ͵ሻ ൅ ݉ଶ ሺͲሻ ൌ ݉ሺͲሻ ൅ ݉ሺͳǤͲሻ
݉ሺͳǤ͵ሻ ൌ ݉ሺͳǤͲሻ
Hence our results show that, the total momentum just before the collision is not equal to the total
momentum after the collision. Thus, the law of conversation of momentum is not being
followed, this is because our system is not a perfect system as momentum is always conserved in
all collisions, may it be elastic or inelastic. The difference in the values could have arisen from
the discrepancies in the masses of the two objects, as they might not be equal or the presence of
friction between the ramp and the object. In addition, sources of human error could have also
contributed to the inequality, such as inaccurate measurement of distance, non-straight trajectory
of the projectile etc.
4.Discuss the laws of mechanical energy conservation and momentum conservation and relate it to the
various steps of this experiment.
The law of mechanical energy conservation states that the mechanical energy of an isolated
system remains constant without friction. This means that the sum of the initial kinetic and
potential energies is equal to the final kinetic and potential energies. We utilised this principle
earlier in our experiment to test whether mechanical energy was being conserved or not.
Meanwhile, the law of momentum conservation states that for a collision occurring between
both the object in an isolated system, the total momentum of the two objects before the collision
is equal to the total momentum of the two objects after the collision. That is, the momentum lost
by object 1 is equal to the momentum gained by object 2. We exercised this law when we were
comparing the momentum of the system before the collision and after the collision. Which
allowed us to determine to what degree the law of momentum conservation was being followed.

Conclusion
The results show us that our experiment had many limitations, which inhibited us from our
desired results. As our system was not an isolated system, due to the presence of friction and
other forces but nevertheless, it supported the laws of conservation of momentum and energy to a
high degree and therefore holds true our hypothesis.

References : Virtual high schools books