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S·O·S Services Alert Level Help Sheet

Compartment
Identified Increasing Wear Status Æ

Measures of: Urgent


Deterioration Stop
Contamination Diagnose
l th
Formulation
ea Repair
t H
e n
tr m Monitor
Indicators pa Proceed with
om Caution
C
on Investigate
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p a Normal
I m Continue
Informational
Cost Savings

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Page 2
Reference Materials for SOS Services Interpretation I
Many of the materials referenced in these training modules are updated on a regular basis. The
most recent versions of these documents are available on the Cat intranet system and on the World
Wide Web. The underlined portion of the entry indicates the best place to view the specified
material.
The material available on the Cat intranet system is identified by the following codes: SIS, KN, and
GSL. All of these Cat intranet sites require a Corporate Web Security (CWS) username and
password. The following notes explain how to access this information from each location.
Service Information System (SIS): Type the following address into your browser:
https://sis.cat.com and press enter. The CWS page will appear; type in your CWS
username and password. The SIS home page will appear next. On the SIS home page, go to Media
Search and type in the media number.
Global Sales Library (GSL): Type the following address into your browser:
https://gsl.cat.com/cda/layout?m=348519&x=7 and press enter. The CWS page will appear;
type in your CWS username and password. Click on ‘SEARCH’ at the top of the GSL home page;
type in the media number in the ‘QUICK SEARCH’ box.
Knowledge Network (KN): Type the following address into your browser:
https://kn.cat.com and press enter. The KN home page will appear; click the menu item
labeled “Search KN”. In the search box, type in “SOS Services” and press enter. Select
“SOS Services” from the list of KN communities. At the SOS Services site, select the menu item
labeled “Tools/Guides”. Click on the menu item labeled “Data Analysis Guides”.

Cat.com: To find fluids information on the http://www.cat.com/ site, go to the “Products” menu
and select “Parts”. In the Parts menu, select “Fluids”. Go to the desired menu item to obtain data
sheets, fluids recommendations, and Cat specifications.
General Information on Fluids
SEBD0640 Oil and your engine SIS
SEBD0970 Coolant and your engine SIS
SEBD0518 Know Your Cooling System
SEBD0717 Diesel Fuel and your engine SIS
PEGJ0045 Reporting Particle Count by ISO Code GSL
SOS Interpretation Guides
PEDP8025 Optimizing Oil Change Intervals KN
PEGP9818 Coolant Analysis KN
Wear Tables Wear Tables in .pdf format KN
SOS Services Data Sheets
PEGJ0046 Understanding SOS Services Tests GSL
PEGJ0047 How to Take a Good Oil Sample GSL
PEHP7052 Making the Most of SOS Services GSL
PEHJ0191 SOS Services GSL
Cat Fluid Recommendations
SEBU6250 Caterpillar Machine Fluids Recommendations SIS
SEBU6251 Caterpillar Commercial Diesel Engine Fluids Recommendations SIS
SEBU6385 Caterpillar On-Highway Diesel Truck Engine Fluids Recommendations SIS
SEBU7003 3600 Diesel Engine Fluids Recommendations for Lubricants, Fuels, and Coolants SIS
SEBU6400 Caterpillar Gas Engine Lubricant, Fuel, and Coolant Recommendations SIS

Page 3
Cat Fluids Data Sheets
PEHJ0059 Diesel Engine Oil (DEO) (Western Hemisphere excluding Brazil) GSL
PPHJ0072 Diesel Engine Oil (DEO) (Brazil only) GSL
PEHJ0021 Diesel Engine Oil (DEO) (Eastern Hemisphere excluding UAE, Saudi Arabia, Egypt) GSL
PEHP7062 Full Synthetic DEO
PEHP7506 Transmission/Drive Train Oil (TDTO) GSL
PEHP8035 Synthetic Blend Transmission/Drive Train Oil (TDTO TMS) GSL
PEHJ0009 Hydraulic Oil (HYDO) (North America)
PEHP9544 Hydraulic Oil (HYDO) (outside of North America) GSL
PEHP6047 Biodegradable Hydraulic Oil (HEES) GSL
PELE0905 Hydraulic Oil Formulation Change GSL
PEHP9530 Final Drive and Axle Oil (FDAO) GSL
PEHP9570 Final Drive and Axle Oil Synthetic (FDAO Syn) GSL
PEHP7508 Gear Oil (GO) GSL
PEHJ0030 Synthetic Gear Oil (Synthetic GO) GSL
PEHP0004 Natural Gas Engine Oil (NGEO) GSL
PEHP9574 Natural Gas Engine Oil EL250 (NGEO EL250) GSL
PEHJ0006 Natural Gas Engine Oil EL350 (NGEO EL350) GSL
PEHJ0067 Extended Life Coolant (ELC) GSL
PEHP9554 Diesel Engine Antifreeze/Coolant (DEAC) GSL
PEHJ0040 Natural Gas Engine Coolant Premix 50/50 (NGEC) GSL
PEHJ0237 Cat Diesel Fuel System Cleaner GSL
Cat Fluids Specifications & Industry Standards
Cat ECF-1 Diesel Engine Oil Requirements Cat.com
Cat EC-1 Extended Life Coolant available on request from Cat Fluids Engineering
Cat FD-1 Final Drive & Axle Oil Cat.com
Cat TO-4 Transmission and Drive Train Oil Requirements Cat.com
Cat TO-4M Multigrade Transmission and Drive Train Oil Requirements Cat.com
Cat BF-1 Biodegradable Hydraulic Fluid Requirements Cat.com
API Oil Classifications American Petroleum Institute www.API.org
Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System
SAE Viscosity Grades Society of Automotive Engineers International www.SAE.org
J300 Viscosity grades for engine oils
J306 Viscosity grades for gear oils
ASTM Standards American Society of Testing and Materials Int. www.ASTM.org
D3306 Automobile and Light Duty Coolant
D4985 Heavy Duty Coolant
D4485 Standard Specification for Performance of Engine Oils

More Information
IRM PELJ1065 Cat Diesel Fuel System Cleaner GSL
IRM PELJ0525 Cat 256-4968 Diesel Fuel Conditioner GSL or SIS
TIBU4910 Fuel Dilution of Engine Oil SIS
TIBU5064 Elevated Amounts of Potassium and Aluminum in Oil Samples on 2007
Caterpillar Engines SIS
PEGJ0042 Drive Train, Engine, Hydraulic Repair Indicator Quick Reference Guide GSL or SIS
SEBF9066 Guideline for Examining Failed Parts SIS
PEPJ0143 SIS Training CD through Media Logistics, see next entry
SEBF1021 Improving Component Durability series available through Media Logistics by
calling 1-800-566-7782 from the United States or Canada or 309-266-0942 from outside the
United States or Canada. Alternatively, you may e-mail Media Logistics
at media_logistics@cat.com .
Page 4
13-March 2009

Caterpillar S·O·S Services Interpretation I


Acronym Help Sheet

API – American Petroleum Institute. This is a global organization that, along with
other activities, produces standards and specifications for petroleum products.
ASTM International – This is an organization that develops technical standards
for materials, products, systems and services. They originated as the American
Society for Testing and Materials.
Cat BF-1 – A Caterpillar biodegradable fluid specification.
Cat DEAC – Diesel Engine Antifreeze/Coolant
Cat DEO – Diesel Engine Oil
Cat DEO SYN – Synthetic Diesel Engine Oil
Cat DEO-ULS – Diesel Engine Oil-Ultra Low Sulfur
Cat ECF – Caterpillar Engine Crankcase Fluid. This is a series of oil
specifications that CAT has developed.
Cat ELC – Extended Life Coolant
Cat FDAO – Final Drive and Axle Oil
Cat GO – Gear Oil
Cat MTO – Multipurpose Tractor Oil
Cat TDTO – Transmission Drive Train Oil
Cat TDTO TMS -Transmission Multi-Season
Cat TO-4 – A Caterpillar transmission and drive train oil specification. TO does
not specifically stand for anything.
CF – A series of oil classifications from the API. These replace and update the
CD and CE classifications.
CGI – Clean Gas Induction. This is a proprietary Caterpillar process designed to
recirculate exhaust gas to ultimately provide cleaner emissions.
CG-4 – An oil classification from the API. This standard addresses oil
formulations designed for engines that must comply with 1994 EPA emissions
regulations.
CH-4 – An oil classification from the API. This standard addresses oil
formulations designed for engines that must comply with 1998 EPA emissions
regulations.
CI-4 – An oil classification from the API. One reason this new standard was
introduced was to address oil conditions in engines utilizing EGR technology.
CJ-4 – An oil classification from the API. This standard addresses oil
formulations designed for engines that must comply with 2007 model year on-
highway emissions standards. In addition to addressing oil conditions in EGR
engines, this classification also address oils for other advanced aftertreatment
and particulate filtering engine technologies.
DPF – Diesel Particulate Filter
ECM – Electronic Control Module
EGR – Exhaust Gas Recirculation. A technology utilized by diesel engine
manufacturers to produce cleaner emissions.

Page 5
HEUI – Hydraulically Actuated Electronically Controlled Unit Injector
KN – Knowledge Network. A series of communities managed by Caterpillar.
These contain information bulletins, guides and tools as well as discussion
groups.
NLGI- National Lubricating Grease Institute. This is a global organization that
promotes technical advancements and improvements in lubrication. The NLGI
also provides standards for lubricants.
OMM – Operations and Maintenance Manual
ppm – parts per million. This is a way to describe very dilute concentrations.
PSSR – Parts Sales and Service Representatives
PSOR – Parts and Service Operations Representative.
SCA- Supplemental Coolant Additive
SAE – Society of Automotive Engineers. This is a global organization that
creates and manages engineering standards. These include viscosity standards
for oils.
SIS – Service Information System. This is a software tool produced by Caterpillar
that contains product information.
TC – Technical Communicator.
TGA – Thermogravimetric Analysis. This analysis involves heating a sample and
measuring the changes in weight as compounds decompose due to higher
temperatures.
UFM – Unsubtracted FTIR Method. A way to analyze oils using FTIR that does
not require reference oil.

Page 6
S·O·SSM Services Position on Machine Profiles
Machine Profiles were documents that contained specific information on
Caterpillar machine models and engines. The primary purpose of these
documents was to provide the S·O·S Services interpreter with specifications and
guidelines for cooled and lubricated compartments on Cat equipment. Machine
Profiles were last published about fifteen years ago. At that time, this information
was typically found in many different paper documents.

Most of the information that was in the Machine Profiles can be gathered from a
variety of accurate electronic sources. The chart on the following page shows a
list of items that were covered by the Machine Profiles. For each item in the list,
there are two or three sources available to obtain the desired information. All of
the primary and secondary sources of information are electronic files. These files
are available to Caterpillar dealer personnel.

Three of these items may require additional intervention: Oil Transfer,


Uncommon Contaminants, and Uncommon Wear Elements. Problems like these
three are generally rare. Also, these problems are usually confined to a small
population of machines or engines. If the interpreter suspects one of these
unusual problems, a Community Discussion can be initiated on the S·O·S
Services Knowledge Network. Community Discussion items are responded to by
other dealers, and by S·O·S Services personnel at Caterpillar.

Ultimately, it may be necessary to contact the dealership’s Technical


Communicator (TC) and request assistance. The TC can search the Dealer
Solutions Network (DSN) for similar problems. If a similar problem is not found,
the TC can submit a DSN request for information. This is the most efficient way
to report these types of problems. If the DSN discovers a significant product
problem, additional Caterpillar resources will be summoned to contain and solve
the problem.

The use of these information sources surpasses the support that was provided
by Machine Profiles. The electronic data sources contain more information and
the information has a higher degree of accuracy. Additionally, the DSN is in
place to support the dealership, when new or unusual problems occur in Cat
equipment. The DSN can bring these problems to the forefront. Service
engineers and product engineers will then take action on these problems.
Therefore, S·O·S Services will not be producing new Machine Profiles. Fifteen
years ago, they met a need in the program; now these needs can be met with a
variety of new and improved sources.

Caterpillar S·O·S Services


July 2010

Page 7
Item Primary Source Secondary Source Tertiary Source
Serial Number Prefixes SIMSi validate serial number SIS SOS Services Manager
Machine Description Performance Handbook Global Sales Library
Engine Power Rating Performance Handbook TMI Web Global Sales Library
Powertrain Descriptions Performance Handbook SIS - Specifications Global Sales Library
Other Systems Performance Handbook SIS - Specifications Global Sales Library
Oil Change Interval SIS - OMM PM Checklist SOS Services Manager
Coolant Change Interval SIS - OMM PM Checklist SOS Services Manager
Filter Change Interval SIS - OMM PM Checklist SOS Services Manager
Sampling Intervals - All SIS - OMM PM Checklist SOS Services Manager
Sampling Procedures PEGJ0047 Global Sales Library-video
Oil Capacity SIS - OMM PM Checklist SOS Services Manager
Coolant Capacity SIS - OMM PM Checklist SOS Services Manager
Fuel Capacity SIS - OMM PM Checklist SOS Services Manager
Recommended Fluids SEBU6250 (latest version) SIS - OMM
Oil Transfer SIS Parts Identification SIS - TIB SM SI Dealership TC and DSN
Common Contaminants Interpretation 1 Training Interp. 1 Help Sheets on KN SOS KN Knowledge Entries
Uncommon Contaminants SOS KN Knowledge Entries SIS - TIB SM SI Dealership TC and DSN
Common Wear Elements Interpretation 1 Training Interp. 1 Help Sheets on KN
Uncommon Wear Elements SOS KN Knowledge Entries SIS - TIB SM SI Dealership TC and DSN
Wear Tables SOS Services Manager SOS KN Request to SOS Services

SIS = Service Information System


SIMSi = Service Information Management System
TMI = Engine Technical Marketing Information (access on SIS)
OMM = Operation and Maintenance Manual
PM Checklist = Planned Maintenance Checklist (access on SIS)
PEGJ0047 = How To Take A Good SOS Sample
SEBU6250 = Caterpillar Machine Fluids Information (available on SIS, and Cat.com)
TIB = Technical Information Bulletin
SM = Service Magazine
SI = Special Instruction
TC = Technical Communicator
DSN = Dealer Solutions Network
KN = Knowledge Network
Page 8
S·O·S Services Oil Analysis Help Sheet

The Overall Question


about Wear

1. Has the wear rate increased?


2. Has the oil deteriorated?
3. Is the oil contaminated?
4. Is this the correct oil?

Four Questions about Wear


S·O·S Services
1 2 3 4
Oil Tests
Wear Rate Deterioration Contamination Formulation
Aluminum Al X X
Barium Ba X
Boron B X X
Calcium Ca X
Chromium Cr X
Copper Cu X
Iron Fe X
Lead Pb X
Magnesium Mg X
Molybdenum Mo X X
Nickel Ni X
Phosphorus P X
Potassium K X
Silicon Si X X X
Sodium Na X
Tin Sn X
Zinc Zn X
Nitration X
Oxidation X
Soot X
Sulfation X
Particle Count X X
Fuel X
Glycol X
Water X
Viscosity X X X

Page 9
S·O·S Services Coolant Analysis Help Sheet

1. What type of coolant is being used?


2. Is freeze/boil protection adequate?
3. Is coolant condition acceptable?
4. Is coolant contaminated?

Four Questions about Coolant


S·O·S Services 1 2 3 4
Coolant Tests Freeze/Boil
Coolant Type Protection Condition Contamination
Label Information X
Glycol Concentration X
Calculated
Freeze Protection X
Calculated
Boil Protection X
pH X X
Conductivity X X
Nitrite X
Precipitate X
Appearance X
Odor X X
Color X X
Foam X
Oil / Fuel Presence X

Page 10
S·O·S Services Test Result Relationships
Common Problems in Multiple Compartments
Problem: Elevated Cu
Compartments: All compartments with cooper core oil coolers, including most
engines, powershift transmissions, hydraulic systems, steering systems, and
some axles
Abnormal Results:
• Cu

Problem: Elevated Ag
Compartments: All compartments that contain rolling contact bearings, also
referred to as antifriction bearings. Compartments included are: transmissions,
hydraulic systems, steering systems, axles, differentials, and final drives.
Abnormal Results:
• Ag

Problem: Dirt Entry


Compartments: All
Abnormal Results:
• Si & Al, wih Si values 3 to 5 times higher than Al values
• Fe
• Particle Count
• Ca, Mg, K, & Na (from naturally occurring elements in the dirt)

Problem: Coolant Entry


Compartments: All “water” cooled compartments, including most engines,
powershift transmissions, hydraulic systems, steering systems, and some axles
Abnormal Results:
• K and / or Na
• Cu (if Cu oil cooler is present)
• Si, B, Mo, & P (elements in coolant additives)
• Viscosity increase

Problem: Water Entry


Compartments: All
Abnormal Results:
• Positive water (0.5% or more)
• Fe
• Si & Al (from probable dirt entry)

Page 11
S·O·S Services Test Result Relationships
Problem: Bronze Component Wear
Compartments: All
Abnormal Results:
• Cu & Pb
• Cu & Sn
• Cu, Pb & Sn
• Fe

Problems within a Specific Compartment


Compartment: Diesel Engine
Problem: Soot
Abnormal Results:
• Soot
• Fe, Pb, Cr, Sn
• Viscosity increase

Compartment: Diesel Engine


Problem: Fuel Dilution
Abnormal Results:
• Viscosity decrease
• Positive fuel on Set-a-Flash (4% maximum)
• Fe (cylinder liners, crankshaft, camshaft, pushrods)
• Pb & Sn (bearing overlay)
• Cr & Mo (piston rings)
• Cu, Pb, & Sn (bronze bushings)

Compartment: Diesel or Gas Engine


Problem: Coolant Entry
Abnormal Results:
• K and / or Na
• Cu (if Cu oil cooler is present)
• Si, B, Mo, & P (elements in coolant additives)
• Pb & Sn (bearing overlay)
• Fe (cylinder liner)
• Viscosity increase

Page 12
S·O·S Services Test Result Relationships
Compartment: Diesel or Gas Engine
Problem: Dirt Entry
Abnormal Results:
• Si & Al, wih Si values 3 to 5 times higher than Al values
• Fe (cylinder liners, crankshaft, camshaft, pushrods)
• Pb & Sn (bearing overlay)
• Cr & Mo (piston rings)
• Cu, Pb, & Sn (bronze bushings)

Compartment: Gas Engine


Problem: Oxidation or Nitration
Abnormal Results:
• Pb and Sn (bearing overlay)
• Viscosity increase
• Fe

Compartment: Powershift Transmission


Problem: Friction Material Wear
Abnormal Results:
• Si or Cu & Pb (friction materials)
• Fe (separator plates)
• Particle Count or PQI increase
• Oxidation

Compartment: Powershift Transmission


Problem: Bearing or Bushing Failure
Abnormal Results:
• Cu & Pb or Cu & Sn (bushing or thrust washer)
• Cr (rolling element bearing)
• Fe (rolling element bearing, shaft, iron housing)
• Particle Count or PQI increase

Compartment: Powershift Transmission


Problem: Dirt Entry
Abnormal Results:
• Si & Al, wih Si values 3 to 5 times higher than Al values
• Fe (separator plates, gears)
• Cu & Pb or Cu & Sn (bushing or thrust washer)
• Particle Count or PQI increase

Page 13
S·O·S Services Test Result Relationships
Compartment: Hydraulic or Steering System
Problem: Dirt Entry
Abnormal Results:
• Si & Al, wih Si values 3 to 5 times higher than Al values
• Fe, Cr, (cylinder rods, cylinders, steel pump components)
• Cu & Pb or Cu & Sn (bronze pump components)
• Particle Count increase

Compartment: Hydraulic or Steering System


Problem: Incorrect Fluid
Abnormal Results:
• Zn <900 PPM
• Fe (pump component wear)

Compartment: Hydraulic Brake System


Problem: Friction Material Wear
Abnormal Results:
• Si (friction materials)
• Fe (steel separator plates)
• Particle Count or PQI increase

Compartment: Differentials & Final Drives


Problem: Dirt Entry
Abnormal Results:
• Si & Al, wih Si values 3 to 5 times higher than Al values
• Fe (gears, housing)
• Cr (rolling element bearings)
• Cu & Pb or Cu & Sn (bushing or thrust washer)
• Particle Count increase or PQI increase
• Particles on oil bottle cap
• Particles on magnetic drain plug
• Water

Compartment: Differentials & Final Drives


Problem: Brake Wear (only for axles with wet brakes)
Abnormal Results:
• Si (friction material)
• Fe (separator plates)
• Oxidation
• Viscosity increase

Compartment: Radiator
Problem: Incorrect Glycol Level
Abnormal Results:
• % Glycol <30% or >65% or inappropriate for ambient temperature

Page 14
S·O·S Services Test Result Relationships
Compartment: Radiator
Problem: Oil/Fuel Contamination
Abnormal Results:
• Visible oil/fuel layer/drops
• Odor (abnormal, fuel, solvent)

Compartment: Radiator
Problem: Overheating or Restricted Flow
Abnormal Results:
• Low nitrites (NO2)
• Low pH
• Odor (burnt, abnormal, ammonia)
• Mix of magnetic and non-magnetic black solids

Compartment: Radiator
Problem: Internal Reaction - Al
Abnormal Results:
• Low nitrites (NO2)
• High pH
• Odor (abnormal, ammonia)
• ELC color change (red->red/light)

Compartment: Radiator
Problem: Incomplete Fast Acting Cleaner Flush
Abnormal Results:
• Ammonia Odor
• High pH
• Foam

Compartment: Radiator
Problem: SCA Overdosing
Abnormal Results:
• High nitrites, NO2>2600ppm
• High conductivity

Compartment: Radiator
Problem: Exhaust Gas
Abnormal Results:
• Low nitrites (NO2)
• Low pH (<6.5)
• Odor (abnormal, fuel)

Page 15
S·O·S Services - Oil Analysis Guidelines 28 April 2011

Diesel Engine Oils Gas Engine Oils


Test Parameters Guideline Test Parameters Guideline
Wear Elements Fe Cr Cu Si Al Sn Pb Wear Tables 1. Wear Elements Fe Cr Cu Si Al Sn Pb Wear Tables 1.
Additive Elements Ca Mg Zn P Mo Ba B Help Sheet 2. Additive Elements Ca Mg Zn P Mo Ba B Help Sheet 2.
Coolant (monitor) Na or K 25 ppm to 250 ppm Coolant (monitor) Na or K 25 ppm to 250 ppm
Coolant (action required) Na or K >250 ppm Coolant (action required) Na or K >250 ppm
Oxidation UFM 34 max Oxidation UFM 20 max
Sulfate UFM 34 max Nitration UFM 12 max
Soot UFM Absorbance 60
Soot TGA %weight of soot 1.50%
Viscosity change cSt @ 100 C +/- 3 cSt Viscosity change cSt @ 100 C +/- 3 cSt
3. viscosity decrease below SAE Grade
Fuel Dilution - Positive
GC fuel dilution >4%
Water - Positive >0.5% Water - Positive >0.5%
Water - Trace 0.1% to 0.5% Water - Trace 0.1% to 0.5%
Glycol - Positive (optional) 0.1% max Glycol - Positive (optional) 0.1% max

Transmission Oils, Hydraulic Oils, & Gear Oils


Test Parameters Guideline 1. Wear Tables are written into SOS Services Manager, and are
Wear Elements Fe Cr Cu Si Al Sn Pb Wear Tables 1. available on the SOS Services Knowledge Network
Additive Elements Ca Mg Zn P Mo Ba B Help Sheet 2. 2. Help Sheets are available on the SOS Services Knowledge Network
Coolant (monitor) Na or K 25 ppm to 250 ppm that provide typical ranges for additive elements
Coolant (action required) Na or K >250 ppm 3. Confirmation of positive fuel dilution requires a viscosity decrease,
Oxidation UFM 17 max and fuel dilution in excess of 4%. Specific fuel dilution guidelines are
available on the SOS Services Knowledge Network
These guidelines are
intended for use by a trained
Viscosity change cSt @ 100 C +/- 2 cSt interpreter of oil sample test
results. Exceeding any of
these guidelines does not
Water - Positive >0.5% indicate imminent failure of
Water - Trace 0.1% to 0.5% the component. Likewise,
Glycol - Positive (optional) 0.1% max operating within all of these
Particle Analysis ISO code or cap image Trend Analysis guidelines does not assure
that component will not fail,
or wear out prematurely.
Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow

Page 16
Classic Wear Combinations V4

Diesel Engines
Test Parameter Source
Fe, Cr cylinder liner, piston rings
Fe, Cr, Al cylinder liner, piston rings, aluminum piston skirt
Pb lower rod and main bearing overlay
Pb, Al, Fe lower rod and main bearings, crankshaft
K and/or Na, Cu ELC coolant contamination
Na, Si, Cu conventional coolant or DEAC contamination
Si >Al, Fe, Cr dirt, cylinder liner, piston rings
Si >Al, Fe, Pb, Cr dirt, cylinder liner, bearing overlay, piston rings
Cu > Pb or Cu > Sn bronze bushing or thrust washer
Cu > Pb, Sn bronze bushing or thrust washer
Soot, Fe, Pb, Cr Soot wear on cylinder liner, piston rings, bearings
Soot, Fe, Mo, Cr Soot wear on older engine with moly plasma coated top
rings and on cylinder liners
Cu Cu oil cooler core leaching
Oxidation, Fe, Pb overheated oil, overextended oil drain
Sulfation, Fe high sulfur fuel, overextended oil drain
Viscosity increase, overheated oil, wear on cylinder liners, bearing overlay,
Oxidation, Fe, Pb and piston rings
Viscosity increase, Soot, Fe, very high soot, wear on cylinder liners, bearing overlay,
Pb and piston rings
Viscosity decrease multigrade oil permanent viscosity shear
Viscosity decrease, Pb fuel dilution, wear on bearing overlay
Viscosity decrease, Fe,Pb severe fuel dilution, wear on cylinder liners, crankshaft,
and bearing overlay
Mo, B, Ba, Cu possible additive elements
water coolant entry, condensation, pressure washing

Page 17
Classic Wear Combinations V4

Gas Engines
Test Parameter Source
Oxidation, Pb overextended oil drain, overheated oil, A/F ratio
Oxidation, Pb, Fe, viscosity
overextended oil drain, overheated oil. A/F ratio
increase
Nitration operation on NOx peak, overextended oil drain
Si siloxane gas in fuel
Si >Al, Fe, Cr dirt, cylinder liner, piston rings
Si >Al, Fe, Pb, Cr dirt, cylinder liner, bearing overlay, piston rings
K and/or Na, Cu ELC coolant contamination
Na, Si, Cu conventional coolant or DEAC contamination
Cu Cu oil cooler core leaching
Mo, B, Ba, Cu possible additive elements
water coolant entry, condensation

Differentials & Final Drives


Test Parameter Source
Positive Water, Si > Al, Fe, Na water entry, gear wear, dirt
Si > Al, Fe, Cr, Ni, ISO code dirt entry, gear wear, bearing wear
Ag Ag leaching from antifriction bearing cages or races
Fe, Cr, Ag, ISO code gear and bearing wear (possible pre-load problem)
Fe, ISO code Gears
Cu > Pb or Cu > Sn bronze bushing or thrust washer
Cu > Pb, Sn bronze bushing or thrust washer
Si, Fe, ISO code brake friction materials and separator plates
Cu, Pb, Fe, ISO code bronze brake materials and separator plates
Oxidation, viscosity increase overheated oil, overextended oil drain
viscosity decrease lower viscosity top-off oil
water worn or damaged seals, pressure washing

Page 18
Classic Wear Combinations V4

Powershift Transmissions
Test Parameter Source
Si, Fe, ISO code wet clutch friction material and separator plates
Cu, Pb, Fe, ISO code bronze friction material and separator plates
Si >Al, Fe, Cr, ISO code dirt, wear on gears and bearings
Al torque converter
Al, Cu, Fe, ISO code torque converter
Cu Cu oil cooler core leaching
Cu > Pb or Cu > Sn bronze bushing or thrust washer
Cu > Pb, Sn bronze bushing or thrust washer
K and/or Na, Cu ELC coolant contamination
Na, Si, Cu conventional coolant or DEAC contamination
Ag Ag leaching from antifriction bearing cages or races
Fe, Cr, Ag, ISO code antifriction bearings
Oxidation, viscosity increase overheated oil, overextended oil drain
viscosity decrease lower viscosity top-off oil
water coolant entry

Hydraulic & Steering Systems


Test Parameter Source
Cu Cu oil cooler core leaching
Fe, Cr, Cylinders
Si >Al, Fe, Cr, Cu, ISO code dirt, pump wear, cylinder & rod wear
Fe, Cr, Cu, ISO code pump or motor wear
Fe, Cr, Cu, Pb, Sn, ISO code pump or motor wear
Fe, Al, Cu, ISO code pump or motor wear
Ag Ag leaching from antifriction bearing cages or races
Fe, Cr, Ag, ISO code antifriction bearings
Si, Fe, ISO code wet brake friction material and separator plates
Zn < 900 PPM industrial hydraulic oil
K and/or Na, Cu ELC coolant contamination
Na, Si, Cu conventional coolant or DEAC contamination
Oxidation, viscosity increase overheated oil, overextended oil drain
water coolant entry, condensation, pressure washing

Page 19
SOS Interpretation Training Tool: Wear Table Overview
Engine Transmission Hydraulic Differential Final Drive
Average NAR MC NAR MC NAR MC NAR MC NAR MC Average
Fe 41 51 56 74 24 32 105 134 145 185 Fe
Si 9 12 13 17 17 21 19 25 40 52 Si
Al 5 6 4 5 4 6 3 4 8 11 Al
Pb 5 6 25 34 4 6 4 6 2 3 Pb
Sn 4 6 4 6 4 5 4 6 3 4 Sn
Cu 8 10 30 39 29 38 22 30 17 22 Cu
Cr 2 3 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 3 Cr

MAX NAR MC NAR MC NAR MC NAR MC NAR MC MAX


Fe 81 101 213 294 40 53 186 229 290 366 Fe
Si 13 16 28 36 46 57 30 39 90 119 Si
Al 9 11 7 9 8 11 5 6 17 22 Al
Pb 10 14 82 117 14 20 9 14 4 6 Pb
Sn 9 12 7 10 6 9 6 9 5 8 Sn
Cu 14 17 54 65 68 88 35 46 58 72 Cu
Cr 6 8 1 2 4 5 2 3 10 12 Cr

min NAR MC NAR MC NAR MC NAR MC NAR MC min


Fe 21 26 18 23 15 19 45 56 81 106 Fe
Si 5 6 9 11 10 13 13 17 21 27 Si
Al 2 3 3 4 3 4 2 3 5 7 Al
Pb 2 3 3 4 2 3 1 2 2 3 Pb
Sn 0 1 3 4 2 3 2 3 2 3 Sn
Cu 5 7 17 24 16 21 9 12 4 6 Cu
Cr 1 2 0 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 Cr
Engine Transmission Hydraulic Differential Final Drive

Table was constructed using 15 Existing Wear Tables corresponding to three different product families: five Excavators (315C, 320C, 330L, 365B, 385B),
five Off-Highways Trucks(769C, 775E, 777, 785, 793B) and five Track-Type Tractors (D4C, D5C, D7G, D9H, D11R). The values presented in the table
correspond to the average, maximum (MAX) & minimum (min) Wear Table No Action Required (NAR) and Monitor Compartment (MC) table values.

Disclaimer: This table is intended as a training tool to provide inisight to new interpreters into the general Wear Table levels. It is not intended as an
interpretation guideline and it is not meant to replace any Wear Table.

Page 20
UFM INTERPRETATION SYNOPSIS
S•O•Ssm Services will now be reporting FT-IR results in a new format. The results for soot, oxidation,
sulfation, and nitration will be unitless whole numbers (UFM – Unsubtracted FT-IR Method number) that
no longer represent % Allowable values. Please note that this new method is still to be utilized as a
trending module. There will be samples and oil types that do not fit this model. Please refer to the
technical paper “Un-Subtracted FTIR Methodology for S•O•Ssm Services” for further details. Also note
that all information in this document was gathered utilizing a Perkin Elmer Oil Express FT-IR with
Spectrum One software and the S•O•Ssm Services Manager laboratory information management
software.
Shown below is a chart with comparisons for new soot values and the corresponding absorbance, %T,
and % allowable values. Since soot is only the measure of light passage through a sample, there is a
direct relationship between the absorbance value obtained at the instrument level and the resulting UFM,
%T, and % allowable values.
Soot % UFM
UFM # Absorbance %T Allow. Component Compartment Guidelines
2 0.02 95 10 Soot Diesel Engine 30
6 0.06 87 26 Oxidation Diesel Engine 34
13 0.13 74 52 Oxidation Nat. Gas Engine 20
20 0.2 63 74 Hydraulic &
30 0.3 50 100 Oxidation Non-engine 17
35 0.35 45 110 Nitration Nat. Gas Engine 12
40 0.4 40 120 Sulfate / COC Diesel Engine 34
45 - 46 0.45 - 0.46 35 130
52 - 53 0.52 - 0.53 30 140 * - Please note that this model does not include UFM guidelines
for soot, nitration and sulfation in non-engine compartments.
60 - 61 0.60 - 0.61 25 150 Those components do not provide crucial information for non-
69 - 70 0.69 - 0.70 20 160 engine compartments.
81 - 83 0.81 - 0.83 15 170
98 - 102 0.98 - 1.02 10 180 Water Screen % Water UFM #
126 - 134 1.26 - 1.34 5 190 Possible 0.10% 31
231 2.31 0 200 Probable 0.50% 35
The UFM values for oxidation, sulfation, and nitration are not directly related to the absorbance value
obtained at the instrument level. Absorbance is a single – point measurement, whereas our new method
of FT-IR analysis actually measures the peak area in a specific wavenumber range. Because this new
measurement is no longer a single point, we are not able to directly correlate previous % allowable
values with the UFM values you will see on your reports. Shown above is a table summarizing the
values for oxidation, sulfation, and nitration to be used as guidelines during oil interpretation. Please
refer to the technical paper listed above for more details.
The water screen information comes out of the Spectrum One software as Water Petroleum Lube. The
value in this area is also a UFM number, and does not represent % water in the sample (see above
table). Also, the % water and corresponding UFM number do not exhibit a linear relationship.
Therefore, you cannot extrapolate % water data using the UFM number. A sample with a water
petroleum lube UFM number of less than 31 will be negative for water screen. S•O•Ssm Services
Manager will assign a water test to this sample and complete the test by entering a negative value. A
sample with a water petroleum lube UFM number of 31 to 34 will indicate a possible for water screen,
S•O•Ssm Services Manager will assign a water test, and it will remain incomplete until a technician
performs a physical confirmation of presence of water and enters the result. A sample with a water
petroleum lube UFM number of 35 or greater will indicate a probable for water screen, S•O•Ssm
Services Manager will assign a water test, and it will remain incomplete until a technician performs a
physical confirmation of presence of water and enters the result.
Page 21
S·O·S Services Soot Help Sheet 18 Dec 2008
Cat Soot in % Allowable vs Cat UFM number
200
180
Soot - % Allowable

160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240
UFM number

TGA Soot in %Weight vs Cat UFM number


8
7
6
Soot - TGA

5
4
3
2
1
0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360
UFM number
Page 22
Interpretation Guidelines for Fuel Dilution Results in Caterpillar Off-
Highway Diesel Engines

Two Caterpillar service documents were released to address the subject of fuel
dilution in off-highway diesel engines. These documents are a Special
Instruction REHS3007, and a Technical Information Bulletin TIBU4910. These
service documents provide test guidelines for the oil viscosity test and the GC
fuel dilution test. These documents do not provide interpretation guidelines for
S·O·S Services interpreters at the dealership.

This document provides a series of interpretations that can be used when


relaying fuel dilution recommendations to a customer. Use of these
interpretations will provide the customer with a clear understanding of the
problem, and the recommended action. These interpretations will also provide a
level of commonality between Cat dealers. This is especially important to
customers that use more than one dealer for their oil analysis business.

These example interpretations are written with the assumption that the customer
is sampling at a recommended oil change interval. If the sample has very few
hours of operation, or if the sample has been run for an extended period of time,
the interpreter may need to adjust the recommendation and change the alert
level. In other words, these interpretations may not exactly fit every scenario;
however, they do provide a common framework that addresses the most
common sample results. The interpreter should always use their experience and
equipment history to make the best recommendation.

Page 23
Registered Measured Fuel Alert
Visc. Grade Viscosity PFc Dilution Level Interpretation for Cat Off-Highway Diesel Engines
none 11.0 to 12.4 <4 N NAR (No comment regarding viscosity or fuel dilution) Confirm the viscosity grade of the oil.

none 11.0 to 12.4 ≥4 P MC Oil viscosity and the fuel test indicate fuel dilution. Confirm the viscosity grade of the oil.
Intervention is not needed at this time. Consider sampling at half the normal interval.

none 9.0 to 11.0 ≥4 P AR The fuel test indicates a high level of fuel dilution. Intervention is needed. At your earliest
convenience, inspect engine. Possible causes of fuel dilution are: leaking injectors, injector o-
rings, failed injectors, fuel transfer pump, and engine over fueling. Resample after repairs.

none <9.0 ≥4 P AR Low oil viscosity and the fuel test indicate a high level of fuel dilution. Intervention is needed.
Stop machine and inspect engine. Possible causes of fuel dilution are: leaking injectors,
injector o-rings, failed injectors, fuel transfer pump, and engine overfueling.

15W-40 11.0 to 12.4 <4 N NAR Viscosity is low for a 15W-40 oil. Confirm the viscosity grade of the oil. Continue normally
scheduled sampling.

15W-40 11.0 to 12.4 ≥4 P MC Low oil viscosity and the fuel test indicate a moderate level of fuel dilution. Intervention is not
needed at this time. Consider sampling at half the normal interval.

15W-40 9.0 to 11.0 ≥4 P AR Low oil viscosity and the fuel test indicate a high level of fuel dilution. Intervention is needed.
At your earliest convenience, inspect engine. Possible causes of fuel dilution are: leaking
injectors, injector o-rings, failed injectors, fuel transfer pump, and engine over fueling.

15W-40 <9.0 ≥4 P AR Low oil viscosity and the fuel test indicate a high level of fuel dilution. Intervention is needed.
Stop machine and inspect engine. Possible causes of fuel dilution are: leaking injectors,
injector o-rings, failed injectors, fuel transfer pump, and engine over fueling.

10W-30 8.0 to 9.2 <4 N NAR Viscosity is low for a 10W-30 oil. Confirm the viscosity grade of the oil. Continue normally
scheduled sampling.

10W-30 8.0 to 9.2 ≥4 P MC Low oil viscosity and the fuel test indicate a moderate level of fuel dilution. Intervention is not
needed at this time. Consider sampling at halft the noramal interval.

10W-30 7.0 to 8.0 ≥4 P AR Low oil viscosity and the fuel test indicate a high level of fuel dilution. Intervention is needed.
At your earliest convenience, inspect engine. Possible causes of fuel dilution are: leaking
injectors, injector o-rings, failed injectors, fuel transfer pump, and engine overfueling.

10W-30 <7.0 ≥4 P AR Low oil viscosity and the fuel test indicate a high level of fuel dilution. Intervention is needed.
Stop machine and inspect engine. Possible causes of fuel dilution are: leaking injectors,
injector o-rings, failed injectors, fuel transfer pump, and engine overfueling. Page 24
S·O·S Services Oil Viscosity Help Sheet 01Sep2008

From SAE J300 November 2007

From SAE J306 June 2005

Page 25
S·O·S Services Oil Identification Help Sheet

Possible Range of Concentrations


Diesel Engine Oils Compartments
PPM PPM
Ca 0 4000 Diesel Engine Hydraulic
Mg 0 3000 Systems Steering
Typical additive Elements Zn 900 1500 Systems
P 800 1400
Si 0 15
Mo 0 500
B 0 500
Possible Additive Elements
Ba 0 500
Cu 0 100
Gas Engine Oils Possible Range of Concentrations Compartments
Ca 0 2000 Gaseous Fuel Engines
Mg 0 500
Typical additive Elements Zn 0 400
P 0 350
Si 0 15
Mo 0 600
Possible Additive Elements B 0 300
Ba 0 2000
TO-4 Oils Possible Range of Concentrations Compartments
Ca 2500 4000 Powershift Transmission
Typical additive Elements Zn 1100 1500 Differential & Final Drive
P 1000 1400 Braking Systems
Mg 0 100 Hydraulic Systems
Possible Additive Elements
Si 0 15 Steering Systems
Hydraulic Oils Possible Range of Concentrations Compartments
Ca 0 4000 Hydraulic Systems
Mg 0 3000 Steering Systems
Typical additive Elements Zn 900 1500
P 800 1400
Si 0 15
Mo 0 500
B 0 500
Possible Additive Elements
Ba 0 500
Cu 0 100
FD-1 Oils Possible Range of Concentrations Compartments
Ca 200 400 Final Drives
B 50 150 Differentials without
Typical additive Elements
P 200 400 friction materials
Zn 10 50
GL-5 Oils Possible Range of Concentrations Compartments
P 500 1500 Final Drives
Typical Additive Elements
B 50 250 Differentials in Scrapers
MTO Oils Possible Range of Concentrations Compartments
Ca 2700 3700 Final Drives &
B 50 150 Differentials in Backhoe
Typical additive Elements
Zn 800 1400 Loaders Hydraulic
P 900 1500 Systems
Page 26
GLYCOL and TEMPERATURE HELP SHEET
o o o o o o o o o o o o
% EG FP ( F) BP ( F) FP ( C) BP ( C) % EG FP ( F) BP ( F) FP ( C) BP ( C) % EG FP ( F) BP ( F) FP ( C) BP ( C)
1 32 212 0 100 30 3 217 -16 103 66 -88 235 -67 113
2 31 212 -1 100 31 2 217 -17 103 67 -92 236 -69 113
3 30 212 -1 100 32 1 217 -17 103 68 -96 237 -71 114
4 29 212 -2 100 33 -1 218 -18 103 69 -92 238 -69 114
5 28 212 -2 100 34 -2 218 -19 103 70 -88 239 -67 115
6 27 212 -3 100 35 -4 219 -20 104 71 -84 240 -64 116
7 26 212 -3 100 36 -6 219 -21 104 72 -80 241 -62 116
8 25 213 -4 101 37 -8 219 -22 104 73 -76 243 -60 117
9 24 213 -4 101 38 -10 220 -23 104 74 -72 244 -58 118
10 23 213 -5 101 39 -12 220 -24 104 75 -68 245 -56 118
11 22 213 -6 101 40 -14 220 -26 104 76 -64 246 -53 119
12 21 213 -6 101 41 -16 221 -27 105 77 -60 248 -51 120
13 20 214 -7 101 42 -18 221 -28 105 78 -56 249 -49 121
14 19 214 -7 101 43 -20 221 -29 105 79 -52 251 -47 122
15 18 214 -8 101 44 -22 222 -30 106 80 -48 253 -44 123
16 17 214 -8 101 45 -24 222 -31 106 81 -44 255 -42 124
17 16 214 -9 101 46 -26 223 -32 106 82 -42 257 -41 125
18 15 214 -9 101 47 -28 223 -33 106 83 -39 259 -39 126
19 14 215 -10 102 48 -30 224 -34 107 84 -36 261 -38 127
20 13 215 -11 102 49 -32 224 -36 107 85 -33 263 -36 128
21 12 215 -11 102 50 -34 225 -37 107 86 -30 264 -34 129
22 11 215 -12 102 51 -37 225 -38 107 87 -28 268 -33 131
23 10 215 -12 102 52 -40 226 -40 108 88 -26 270 -32 132
24 9 215 -13 102 53 -43 226 -42 108 89 -24 272 -31 133
25 8 216 -13 102 54 -46 227 -43 108 90 -22 275 -30 135
26 7 216 -14 102 55 -49 227 -45 108 91 -20 279 -29 137
27 6 216 -14 102 56 -52 227 -47 108 92 -18 283 -28 139
28 5 216 -15 102 57 -55 228 -48 109 93 -16 287 -27 142
29 4 216 -16 102 58 -58 228 -50 109 94 -14 291 -26 144
59 -61 229 -52 109 95 -12 295 -24 146
60 -64 229 -53 109 96 -10 299 -23 148
61 -68 230 -56 110 97 -8 303 -22 151
62 -72 231 -58 111 98 -6 307 -21 153
63 -76 232 -60 111 99 -4 311 -20
Page 27 155
64 -80 233 -62 112 100 -2 314 -19 157
65 -84 234 -64 112
Modified Stray Current Test

The standard test for stray current measures the current (AC & DC) from (a) coolant to
ground of battery, (b) from top of radiator, near clamp, to battery ground, (c) the outside
of the engine block to the battery ground.

This is done under the following conditions: (1) the engine and all accessories off, (2)
the starter engaged – accessories off, (3) all accessories turned on.

If there is a stray current only when more than one accessory is turned on, turn off the
accessories sequentially until the stray current disappears. This will indicate the source
of the stray current. This test, as designed, will determine a normal stray current (positive
for a negative ground system & negative for a positive ground system) where the batter
ground is the system ground for all component systems.

There is no common ground in many of our power generation applications, which allows
the possibility (with these floating grounds) of a positive or negative stray current (with
respect to either the engine ground, radiator ground or a true earth ground).

If a positive stray current exists (normal stray current condition), the metal acts as an
anode and serious corrosion occurs at the anode (ex: high iron seen in coolant analysis
report). If a negative stray current exists (if all normal negative grounds were tied
together this condition would be impossible), the metal would act as a cathode and no
corrosion would occur. However, the reduction of the nitrite and nitrate in the coolant
could occur, which enables the production of ammonia. Ammonia can destroy the
radiator, oil cooler cores, or any other copper alloy component it contacts in short order.

It is necessary to check the voltage on the coolant with respect to the battery ground,
earth ground, and the block, and to determine if the current is positive or negative. It is
also necessary to check for any potential difference between the block, radiator, battery
ground, and the earth ground.

Page 28
Fluids Analysis
Interpretation Guide S•O•SSM
Coolant Analysis Interpretation Guides
Coolant Analysis Overview
Confidential
This publication is intended for the use of
authorized Caterpillar dealers only. Any distribution
of this form to unauthorized personnel must be avoided
to maintain Caterpillar leadership in the fluids analysis field.

Index of Chapters:

Chapter 1............Coolant Analysis Overview ......................................................................3

Chapter 2............Level 1 Coolant Analysis and Interpretation ........................................11

Chapter 3............Level 2 Coolant Analysis and Interpretation ........................................31

Chapter 4............Source Water Quality and Testing ........................................................38

13 October 2010 ©2005 Caterpillar All Rights Reserved


S•O•SSM Coolant Analysis Interpretation Guide
Coolant Analysis Overview

Foreword

The Importance of Coolant

Everyone understands the importance of oil, but another key fluid in Caterpillar engines, machine
design and maintenance is the engine coolant.

How critical is it?

An estimated 50% of all engine failures or poor performance incidents are associated with
cooling system problems. For this reason, Caterpillar developed the S•O•S Coolant Analysis
program. S•O•S Coolant Analysis is recommended for cooling systems, regardless of type of
coolant used. This includes Caterpillar Extended Life Coolant (ELC) systems or standard coolant
systems, including Caterpillar Diesel Engine Antifreeze/Coolant (DEAC).

Coolant requirements for diesel engines are more severe than for automotive engines.
Diesel engines are designed to operate at higher temperatures and higher energy levels than
engines in cars and small trucks. Today’s heavy diesels produce a tremendous amount of power
from a small package. Additionally, most of today’s Caterpillar products rely on the engine cooling
system to absorb heat from the engine, transmission, and hydraulic oils. These factors increase
the requirements and demands placed on the cooling system.

Used coolant disposal requirements have become more stringent and expensive. Used coolant
disposal must be done in accordance with local, state, and federal laws. Customers may be
extending coolant drain intervals, recycling coolants and reconditioning coolants to reduce
disposal costs.

For all of the above critical reasons, S•O•S Coolant Analysis is highly recommended to achieve
optimum performance and the full life designed into today’s machines and engines.

2
Chapter 1

Coolant Analysis Overview

Contents
The Purpose of Coolant Analysis..............................................................................................4

Troubleshooting with S•O•S Coolant Analysis ........................................................................4

S•O•S Coolant Analysis Interpretation Method........................................................................5

S•O•S Coolant Analysis: A Two Level Program........................................................................7

Recommended Intervals for S•O•S Coolant Analysis..............................................................7

Coolant Analysis and Oil Analysis Go Together ......................................................................7

Obtaining a Representative Coolant Sample ..........................................................................8

Coolant Analysis Sample Information Card ............................................................................9

Reference Material ....................................................................................................................10


Literature and Training Materials......................................................................................10
Coolant Sampling Valves ..................................................................................................10
Vacuum Pump Sampling Gun ..........................................................................................10

3
The Purpose of Coolant Analysis In recent years, Caterpillar has changed from
the former Diesel Engine Coolant/Antifreeze
There are three primary goals of the S•O•S (DEAC) to a significantly superior product,
Coolant Analysis program: Caterpillar Extended Life Coolant (ELC).
1. Fluid Condition – Indicates if coolant use The advantages of ELC over DEAC in terms of
can be continued or if it needs to be both protection to the cooling system and in
discarded and replenished with new. cost of operation are great. However, cooling
2. Component Failure – Indicates when systems require periodic testing to assure
an engine or cooling system failure has that they are operating adequately.
occurred. Such failures include a blown
There are two primary reasons for
head gasket, a corroded ground, or a
deterioration of coolant in diesel engines:
blocked coolant line.
• Improper maintenance practices
3. Life Cycle Management – Provides
(topping up with only water, SCA
indications of shortcomings in equipment
added to ELC, over/under
operational practices and maintenance
concentration of SCA’s etc.)
procedures.
• Cooling system problems (localized
overheating, exhaust gas entry,
electrolysis, etc.)
Troubleshooting with S•O•S
Coolant Analysis Regardless of the type of coolant, periodic
analysis of samples should be a consistent
The chemistry of diesel engine coolant is part of any maintenance program.
complex. The chemical changes the coolant
experiences in service are even more complex ELC is superior to DEAC in all respects.
and variable. The objective of the S•O•S Although ELC is initially more expensive, its
Coolant Analysis program, as with S•O•S longer life coupled with the fact that it does
Oil Analysis, is to help assure that Caterpillar not require maintenance to add SCA results
machines achieve their full design life while in a cost per operating hour that is half (or
providing maximum productivity with the less) than that of DEAC.
lowest expense. To some observers, Coolant
Analysis may seem to focus more on the
chemical changes within the coolant, and
therefore coolant condition; whereas Oil
Analysis, while considering oil condition,
appears to focus more on contamination
of the oil. However, the objective is the
same for both programs: to determine if
a problem exists and to determine and
correct the cause.

4
S•O•S Coolant Analysis Interpretation Method
S•O•S Coolant Analysis, like S•O•S Oil Analysis, is a multiple variable analysis. A holistic
approach must be taken to interpretation. Normally, no single test parameter would be a reason
to drain the coolant. The interpretation process involves evaluating a combination of parameters
to make recommendations to the customer. These recommendations may involve maintenance
practices or cooling system problems.

The customer’s application and operation must be considered during the interpretation process.
This is necessary to provide the best interpretation. The following chart shows possible test
result combinations with the effects on the cooling system and associated recommendations.

Classic combinations of Coolant Analysis

Primary Secondary Probable Problem


Test Parameter Test Parameter Potential Effect Area/Causes
High Glycol High Lead Solder Corrosion Glycol level maint.

High Glycol Precipitate Water Pump Seal Glycol/SCA maint.


leak, Blocked tubes

Oil in Coolant High Copper Cooler cores Poor flushing


after using a cleaner

High Glycolate High Iron Thermostats, Low coolant level,


Cylinder liners reduced air flow,
Insufficient pressure

Very Low pH Possible high sulfate Cylinder liners Exhaust gas entry
Cylinder block
Cylinder manifold

High Aluminum Low inhibitors Water pump, SCA level maint.


Spacer deck

Very Low Nitrite Low Glycolate Cylinder block Positive stray current
Cylinder liners
Cylinder head

High Copper Ammonia odor Radiator/cooler cores Poor flushing


after using a cleaner

5
The chemical differences between ELC and DEAC result in some differences in the manner in
which they perform or react with contaminants. The two charts below outline, in a very general
form, some of these differences.

Factors Affecting Performance of DEAC


Coolant System Coolant
Condition & Maintenance Additive Depletion Contaminants
Stray Current Depletion of nitrites Hard water salts (Ca & Mg)
Poor ground Depletion of nitrates Chlorides
Air leakage in system Depletion of silicates Sulfates
Cooling system run hot Depletion of molybdates Carbon dioxide
Local hot spots in cooling system Depletion of phosphates Oxygen
Faulty or mis-set block heater Drop in pH Cooling system cleaners
Poor coolant concentration Increase in conductivity Diesel fuel
Underdosing SCAs Dilution with water Oil
Overdosing SCAs
Degradation Products, Corrosion, and Deposits
Glycolates & Acetates Iron Hard-water Scale
Formalates Aluminum Silica Fall-out
Oxalates Copper Phosphate Drop-out
Solvents (ketones) Lead SCA Drop-out
Nitrates Zinc
Carbonates Tin

Factors Affecting Performance of ELC


Coolant System Coolant Additive
Condition & Maintenance Depletion Contaminants
Stray current Depletion of nitrites Hard water salts (Ca & Mg)*
Poor ground Drop in pH Chlorides*
Air leakage in system Increase of Conductivity Sulfates*
Cooling system run hot Dilution with water* Carbon dioxide
Local hot spots in cooling system Depletion of molybdates Oxygen
Faulty or mis-set block heater Depletion of sebacate Cooling system cleaners
Poor coolant concentration control Depletion of tolyltriazole Diesel fuel
Using SCA or SCA Filters Oil
Degradation Products, Corrosion, and Deposits
Glycolates & Acetates Iron Virtually No Deposits
Formates Aluminum
Oxalates Copper
Solvents (ketones) Lead
Nitrates Zinc
Carbonates Tin
* From topping up with water rather than with ELC pre-mix.
6
S•O•S Coolant Analysis: Recommended Intervals for S•O•S
A Two Level Program Coolant Samples
There are two levels of tests within the S•O•S Type
Coolant Analysis program. The Level 1 analysis of coolant Level 1 Level 2
is performed by a trained Caterpillar dealer
Every
technician. The Level 2 analysis is a more
Cat DEAC 250 hours (1) Annually(1)(2)(3)
comprehensive chemical evaluation of the
cooling system performed by a qualified Cat ELC Not required Annually(3)
laboratory. (1)
This is the recommended coolant sampling interval
for all heavy duty coolant/antifreeze. This is also
S•O•S Level 1 Coolant Analysis the recommended coolant sampling interval for
commercial coolants that meet EC-1 (Engine
S•O•S Level 1 Coolant Analysis is a system Coolant specification — 1).
maintenance check. (2)
The Level 2 Coolant Analysis should be performed
sooner if identified by a Level 1 Coolant Analysis.
Level 1 Coolant Analysis consists of the (3)
New systems, refilled systems and converted
following tests: systems should be sampled for Level 2 Coolant
• Glycol concentration, freeze and Analysis at 500 hours or one year, whichever
boil protection by refractometer interval occurs first.
Source SEBU6250
• Coolant acidity by pH meter
• Coolant conductivity by conductivity Coolant Analysis and Oil Analysis
meter Go Together
• Nitrite level by titration Whenever you interpret a coolant sample it
• Test for magnetic solids by strong is very important to evaluate it in concert with
magnet oil samples taken at the same maintenance
interval. The effects of engine overheating may
Additionally, each Level 1 sample is evaluated be evident in both oil and coolant samples.
by the trained technician for the following
For example, if an engine oil sample has a
sensory analysis:
significant level of oxidation, obtain a coolant
• Odor sample for analysis as soon as possible.
• Color and appearance The oil oxidation problem may be related
• Precipitate to a cooling system problem.
• Oil or fuel contamination The life cycle of transmissions and hydraulic
• Foam systems are also directly affected by coolant
temperature.
S•O•S Level 2 Coolant Analysis
Engines:
Level 2 analysis is a comprehensive chemical High coolant temperatures cause high oil
evaluation of the coolant, as well as a check temperatures, reducing the oil’s operating
of the overall condition of the cooling system. viscosity (and, thereby its hydrodynamic
Level 2 analysis will help determine the amount lubricity) and contributing to oil oxidation,
of erosion or corrosion damage within the with resultant engine wear. The result may
cooling system and recommendations to be evident as reduced component life or
correct possible causes. failure (ring sticking, piston glazing or
varnishing, valve wear, etc.) which masks
the fact that a cooling system problem was
a contributing factor.
7
Transmissions: Do not install oil sampling valves in cooling
systems. The large particulates typically found
An overheated cooling system can also be a in coolant have been found to plug the valve
factor in reduced transmission life. For example, and cause it to seep. For this reason, the
transmission disc slippage may occur as a coolant sampling valve is equipped with
result of reduced oil viscosity at elevated a screen.
temperatures. Transmission slippage creates
more heat—can cause oil oxidation—and a In terms of location, the coolant sampling valve
vicious cycle is established. should be located at a point where the coolant
is flowing freely. A location on or near the
Hydraulics: water temperature regulator housing is an
excellent location. Another good location is
Hydraulic pumps and motors become less downstream of the oil cooler where the coolant
efficient at elevated temperatures, and may reenters the cylinder block. The location varies
suffer reduced life of valves, pump slippers, by engine model due to accessibility of the
barrels, plungers and seals due to oil oxidation sampling valve. The part numbers of the
and reduced oil viscosity. coolant valves are listed at the end of this
chapter.
Sometimes, a failure to the engine, transmission
or hydraulics may be repaired with no attention Sampling from Radiator
paid to the serious cooling system problem
which precipitated it. The end result will be
Safety Notice
shortened component life and a customer
Do not remove radiator cap while coolant
less than satisfied with the performance of
is hot. Severe scalding and burns
the machine or engine.
could result.
Always review the oil analysis records for
each machine or engine whenever you Do NOT draw a sample from the overflow tank,
interpret a coolant sample. Strive to provide or from any cooling system drain valve, as
each customer with the full measure of value samples from these sources will not be
for the money spent on S•O•S analysis. representative of the coolant in the system.
Coupling your interpretation of both oil
While taking coolant samples from a radiator
and coolant samples will assure increased
please observe safety precautions. The sample
customer value within the S•O•S program.
should be taken after the coolant has been
well circulated. However, do NOT remove the
radiator cap if the coolant is HOT. The best
Obtaining a Representative time to take samples is after the engine has
Coolant Sample been shut down for an hour or two after a
normal work day. Start the engine to circulate
Coolant Sampling Valves the coolant again. Then shut the engine off.
CAREFULLY remove the radiator cap and take
Many cooling systems have a coolant sampling the sample using a vacuum pump similar to
valve. It is also possible to install the valve that used to sample non-pressurized oil
on machines not so equipped. compartments.

8
The vacuum pump used to draw coolant Coolant Sampling Valve Dust Cover
samples should NOT be used to obtain oil
samples. Although the fluid does not enter The dust cover for the coolant sampling valve
the barrel of the pump, a residue of glycol is made of red rubber to distinguish it from
from the coolant remains and can contaminate the oil sampling valves.
oil samples. This will cause a “false positive”
glycol alert for the oil sample indicating a
coolant leak into the oil system. Coolant Analysis Sample
Information Card
Similarly, oil residue could possibly contaminate
coolant samples. So, it is important to clearly Below is the information card to be submitted
designate each vacuum pump as to whether with each coolant sample. It is very important
it is for oil or coolant samples. that all the information be included,
especially the hours, miles or kilometers on
Submit Samples Promptly the coolant and the engine. Supplies of the
coolant analysis card may be ordered as form
Coolant samples should be submitted for
No. PEEP5032 (English) or PESP5032
analysis promptly after the sample is taken
(Spanish).
from the cooling system. Some of the inhibitor
chemicals and many contaminants in used
coolants have limited solubility and may
precipitate over time. The most accurate
sample results, and therefore the most
accurate interpretation, will result from
processing of the sample within a week
of its extraction from the cooling system.

S.O.S Services
Se es
SM

Do Not Take Sample


From Overflow Tank:

❑ Extended Life Coolant


❑ Conventional Antifreeze/Coolant
Was coolant changed at this time? ❑ Yes ❑ No ❑
Was coolant additive or extender added at this sample time? ❑ Yes ❑ No (other)

9
Reference Materials LEDQ7330 A Close Look at Cat Extended
Life Coolant (customer
The following list is provided for your discussion piece)
convenience in referencing the various media
and parts available from Caterpillar concerning PEEP5027 ELC Decal (indicated cooling
S•O•S Coolant Analysis, Caterpillar Extended system filled with ELC)
Life Coolant and Cooling Systems.
Knowledge Network
Literature and Training Materials
Coolant Sampling Valves
Media
Number Title Note: Use of either 154-9024 or 154-9025
is recommended. These two valves
PEHP7057 S•O•S Coolant Analysis have pipe threads which are normally
(customer discussion piece) used in cooling systems.

PEHP7036 S•O•S Fluid Analysis Part


(customer discussion piece; Number Description
briefly describes both oil
analysis and coolant analysis) 154-9024 Coolant Valve 3⁄8-18 NPTF
external thread
PEEP5032 Coolant Analysis Sample Card
(English) 154-9025 Coolant Valve 1⁄4-18 NPTF
external thread
PESP5032 Coolant Analysis Sample Card
(Spanish) 154-9023 Coolant Valve 7⁄16-20 STO
Port external thread
SEBD0970 Coolant and your Engine
(customer training booklet) 3J7354 O-Ring for 154-9023

PEVN4287 Extended Life Coolant – 157-0670 Dust Cap-Engine Coolant


Better Performance –
Less Cost (video tape- Vacuum Pump Sampling Gun
Earthmoving Version)
Part
LEVN6411 Extended Life Coolant – Number Description
Better Performance –
1U5718 Vacuum Pump Sampling Gun
Less Cost (video tape-Truck
Engine Version) 1U5719 Seal Kit for 1V5718
Vacuum Pump
SEBD0518 Know Your Cooling System

PEHJ0067 Extended Life Coolant


Specification Sheet

SEBU6250 Caterpillar Machine Fluids


Recommendations

10
Chapter 2

Level 1 Coolant Analysis and Interpretation

Contents
Level 1 Tests ..............................................................................................................................13

Summary of Acceptable Limits................................................................................................13

Level 1 – Test Sequence ..........................................................................................................14

1. Color and Appearance ..................................................................................................14

2. Precipitate ......................................................................................................................15

3. Oil or Fuel Contamination ............................................................................................17

4. Foam................................................................................................................................18

5. Odor ................................................................................................................................18

6. Glycol Level – Refractometer Test................................................................................21


Glycol Level – ELC ....................................................................................................22
Glycol Level – DEAC ..................................................................................................23

7. Conductivity....................................................................................................................24
Conductivity Test Result Limits (Both ELC and DEAC) ..........................................24
Conductivity – Test Result Recommendations – ELC ............................................24
Conductivity – Test Result Recommendations – DEAC..........................................24

(contents continued on next page)

11
8. Nitrite Level ....................................................................................................................25
Nitrite Limits (Both ELC and DEAC) ........................................................................25
General Troubleshooting Guidelines Concerning Nitrite Level..............................25
Nitrite Test Result Recommendations – ELC ..........................................................25
Nitrite Test Result Recommendations – DEAC ........................................................26

9. pH – A Measure of Acidity or Alkalinity ......................................................................27


Coolant pH Limits ......................................................................................................28
pH Test Result Recommendations – ELC ................................................................28
pH Test Result Recommendations – DEAC..............................................................29

Note: For purposes of the bulletin please be aware of the following definitions:

Extended Life Coolant (ELC) – Caterpillar Extended Life Coolant


Standard Diesel Engine Antifreeze/Coolant (DEAC) – Any standard diesel engine
antifreeze/coolant, whether Caterpillar brand or other.

12
Level 1 Tests • Odor
• Color and Appearance
Caterpillar urges that all dealers acquire the
• Precipitate
equipment and have trained personnel to
perform Level 1 Coolant Analysis and to • Oil or Fuel Contamination
advise customers concerning cooling system • Foam
matters. There are five relatively inexpensive
testing devices required for Caterpillar dealers Note: All of the Level 1 tests are included
to perform Level 1 Coolant Analysis. as part of the Level 2 tests.
These are:
• Refractometer for Glycol Concentration,
Freeze and Boil Protection Summary of Acceptable Limits for
• pH meter Level 1 Tests
• Conductivity Meter The following chart summarizes the acceptable
• Apparatus for Nitrite Titration limits or observed criteria for each Level 1
• Strong Magnet test. Each is discussed in more detail later
in this bulletin.
Additionally, the technician must be trained and
experienced in the following sensory analysis:

Test Minimum Maximum Recommended Ideal

Glycol by Refractometer
Glycol Concentration (ELC) 30% 65% 45-55% 50%
Glycol Concentration (DEAC) 30% 65% 40-60% 50%

Corrected Conductivity** 0 µS/cm 7,500** µS/cm <6,000** µS/cm <6,000** µS/cm

Nitrite Concentration (ELC) 250 ppm 4,000 ppm 250-2,000 ppm 550 ppm
Nitrite Concentration (DEAC) 1,000 ppm 6,000 ppm 1,000-2,600 ppm 1,200 ppm

pH (ELC)* 7.0 10.0 7.5-9.5 8.5


pH (DEAC)* 8.5 11.0 8.5-10.5 9.5

Color and Appearance Note clarity of fluid and any unusual color. Clarity may be noted as
clear, cloudy, very cloudy, or opaque.

Precipitate If precipitate is present, observe quantity, color, and general appearance


(flocculent, fine, large particles, etc.). Note whether precipitate is magnetic,
partially magnetic or not magnetic. Other than quantity, describe the
precipitate in the observations section of the customer report.

Oil or Fuel Contamination Note the quantity. Any amount of oil indicates a problem to be corrected.

Foam Note amount and persistence of foam after shaking.

Odor Note on the customer report any unusual odor to fluid (e.g. ammonia,
burnt or solvent)

* Also, for any coolant the pH must not vary more than 20% from new.
** Refer to detailed explanation under the heading “Conductivity.”

13
Level 1 – Test Sequence A change in color is significant because it
generally indicates a chemical change within
The sensory tests are generally performed the coolant, or mixing of coolants or inhibitors
before the instrument tests. In each instance, (SCA or Extender). If you are uncertain of the
the sensory test results should be noted for original color of the coolant, you should note
inclusion on the customer report. the observed color of the sample on the
customer’s report form and inquire about
The suggested test sequence is as follows: the original color. Obtain a sample of new
1. Color and Appearance coolant, if possible, for comparison with
2. Precipitate used coolant samples.
3. Oil or Fuel Contamination If a DEAC sample appears clear or yellow it is
4. Foam becoming acidic. The chemical phenolphthalein
5. Odor in DEAC begins to turn clear when the coolant
6. Glycol Level pH drops below about 9.0, depending upon
the concentration of the coolant-to-water
7. Conductivity
mixture. The yellow color, if present, is iron
8. Nitrite Level rust. ELC contains no phenolphthalein and
9. Coolant pH does not turn clear or yellow in this manner.

Appearance refers to two conditions:


1. Color and Appearance – the degree of clarity
– whether there is a separation or
Color should be noted. It is of significance stratification within the sample
to observe if the color varies from that of the
coolant when new (if the new color can be Color determination is a subjective matter.
determined). ELC is described as “orange-red”.
Most borate-based coolants, such as
Caterpillar DEAC, are described as “magenta”.
Many phosphate based coolants are shades
of green, and phosphate-molybdate coolants
are often blue or green.

14
Note: New coolant is described as 2. Precipitate
having the following colors:
Precipitate is undissolved solid material in
ELC (Except European product) – Orange/Red the sample. It usually results from corrosion
of metal components of the cooling system
ELC (European product) – Orange (Fl) or precipitation of additives from the engine
coolant. Iron corrosion will usually show as
DEAC – Magenta a brown non-magnetic precipitate (rust) or
a black magnetic precipitate (scale).
The degree of clarity should be noted as:
Lead corrosion will usually show as a dense,
– clear white or gray, non-magnetic precipitate.
– slightly cloudy Aluminum corrosion will show as a white
– cloudy flocculent precipitate—similar to silica fallout.
– opaque
With ELC the mono and dibasic acid soaps
Cloudiness of the sample is caused by either can precipitate (as a hard water soap scum)
a partially dispersed, insoluble contaminant in the presence of hard water salts.
or by exceeding the solubility of a component (This precipitate is normally kept dispersed by
in the sample. Hard water salts can react with the excess potassium soaps in the coolant.)
components of the inhibitor package such as
With DEAC, silicate in the coolant will
silicates or phosphates to cause cloudiness.
precipitate as a flocculent white precipitate
Hard water minerals can also react with
when the pH drops or when hard water salts
oxidation products of the glycol to form a
enter the system. Phosphates in some
dispersed precipitate and cause the coolant
coolants and SCAs will precipitate in the
to appear cloudy. Highly dispersed oil or fuel
presence of hard water salts.
contamination can also cause the sample to
appear cloudy.

A separation line noted within a sample after


it has been allowed to settle will generally be
an indication of either oil contamination or
precipitate. Both of these conditions are
covered later under separate headings.
However, it is possible that chemical
incompatibility may cause a separation line,
so the presence of a separation line should
be noted and described.

Oil, fuel, and solvents will form separate layers


on top of the aqueous coolant solution.

15
The following terms may be used to and compare it with the first. If the sample
describe precipitate. is not representative of the coolant in the
system, ignore the results (and get a new
PRECIPITATE sample). If it is representative of the system
proceed to step 4.
Amount Appearance 4a. ELC
If significant gray or white flocculent
None Flocculent precipitate is present, and all other
Trace Dense parameters are within range, continue to
Light Granules use the coolant but check for the addition
of hard water to the system. (ELC should
Moderate Chunks
not be made up with water under normal
Excessive Flakes circumstances—it is prediluted.)
Other
4b. DEAC
If significant gray or white flocculent is
Color Magnetism present, and all other parameters are
within range, continue to use the coolant
Black None but obtain a sample of the source water for
Brown Somewhat a source water analysis and recommend
White Mixture
a Level 2 analysis in 250 hours or
15,000 miles (25 000 km). (To determine
Gray Magnetic
if the precipitate is from the use of hard
Tan water or lead salts from corrosive attack
Black-Brown of solder.)
Black-White 5a. ELC
Brown-White If a heavy brown or black, magnetic or
Other partially magnetic precipitate is present and
– all other parameters are not well within
Precipitate – Test Result Recommendations range; drain and flush the cooling
system and replenish with ELC.
1. If minimal white or gray nonmagnetic – if the other parameters are well within
precipitate or no precipitate is present, the acceptable ranges, check to see
and the other results are okay—continue if a previous charge of coolant had a
to the Oil Contamination evaluation. serious problem. If the precipitate was
2. If minimal brown or black precipitate is left in the system from a previous
present, evaluate the other analysis more problem, flush and clean the system
critically than normal. (Particularly the with an appropriate cleaner when it is
inhibitor levels) convenient to do so. (Keep in mind
3. If a moderate to heavy precipitate is present, these particles are probably abrasive
determine if the precipitate is representative and will increase wear.) Make sure the
of the sample or if it results from the system is thoroughly flushed (at least
sampling technique. One should be 3 times) after using a cleaner as these
suspicious of a bad sample if the sample products are typically aggressive and
contains a heavy precipitate and the other remove most passivating barriers as
tests look good. The best ways to assess well as deposits and corrosion.
the sample is to talk with the person who
took the sample or request a second sample

16
5b. DEAC 3. Oil or Fuel Contamination
If a heavy brown or black, magnetic or Recommendations –
partially magnetic precipitate is present Both ELC and DEAC
and:
– all other parameters are not well within Oil and fuel contaminants will float on top of
range; drain and flush the coolant the coolant sample. The presence of oil in
system and replenish with 50/50 the sample is an indication of a leak between
DEAC/distilled water. the cooling system and one of the oil systems
– if the other parameters are well within (engine, hydraulic, etc.). Fuel contamination
the acceptable ranges, check to see generally occurs on engines with unit fuel
if a previous charge of coolant had a injectors and can result from a failure of
serious problem. If the precipitate was injector sleeves or fuel pre-heater.
left in the system from a previous
problem, flush and clean the system If there is significant oil in the sample, there
with an appropriate cleaner when it is an urgent problem. Immediately check on
is convenient to do so. (Keep in mind the oil analysis results for all water cooled oil
these particles are probably abrasive systems to determine if they show any signs
and will increase wear.) Make sure the of contamination with coolant. If there are no
system is thoroughly flushed (at least signs of coolant entry into the oil, either check
3 times) after using a cleaner as these with the person who took the sample or
products are typically aggressive and recheck the cooling system to make sure the
remove most passivating barriers as oil did not come from the sampling process
well as deposits and corrosion. (oil in the sampling gun or an oily sample
bottle). Next, check the engine for corrosion of
6. If a very fine, floating, black, nonmagnetic
the oil coolers or leakage of a seal or gasket
precipitate or a relatively low density, black,
between the cooling system and an oil
nonmagnetic, chunky type precipitate is
containing system. Recommend that the
present, check to make sure fuel or oil is
current sample be submitted for Level 2
not present. Then check the condition of
analysis (with “written documentation” to
the hoses (particles are probably from
explain the situation).
rubber degradation). If the hoses have
deteriorated, further evaluation of rubber Particularly if coolant was found in the oil, the
o-ring seals (e.g. cylinder liner o-rings) cause of the problem must be found and
or oil cooler end sheets may be necessary. corrected before further damage is done.
Also, check oil samples from water cooled This problem must be corrected before the
compartments for indicators of glycol engine is put back into use. When the problem
contamination. has been corrected, drain and flush the cooling
system and replenish with ELC. Follow the
Running the coolant abnormally hot will cause
cleaning procedure for oil entry in Know Your
any polymers (rubber) in the cooling system
Cooling System.
to degrade at an accelerated rate (and it
will also increase the oxidation rate of
the engine oil).

17
4. Foam Foam – ELC

Foam can be caused by some foreign ELC uses a modified silicone defoamant
contaminants (surfactants) or by loss of which can plate out of the coolant under
the anti-foamant while the coolant is in use. certain conditions. If the sample foams more
Exhaust gases entering the cooling system than normal or the foam is more stable than
can cause severe foaming as well as a normal (takes longer to break), note this on
significant drop in pH with resultant pitting the report and request that the customer
and corrosion. check for the possibility of external
contaminants such as residual cleaner
If foaming is found, be certain to determine or an additive to the cooling system.
if the cooling system had been flushed
recently. Any Fast Acting Radiator Cleaner Foam – DEAC
left in the system can cause foaming.
An ammonia odor is an indicator of residual DEAC typically uses a block copolymer type
cleaner. If there is reason to suspect that defoamant (e.g. Pluronic L61) which can plate
cleaner remains in the system, request a out of the coolant under certain conditions.
Level 2 Analysis on the sample. If the sample foams more than normal or the
foam is more stable than normal (takes longer
Both ELC and DEAC contain anti-foamants. to break), note this on the report and request
Anti-foamants work by introducing a that the customer check for the possibility of
discontinuity in the surface of the bubbles external contaminants such as residual cleaner
causing them to break. or an addition to the cooling system.

Excessive foam can cause entrainment of air


and decrease the coolant’s heat transfer ability. 5. Odor
Air has much poorer heat transfer properties
than coolant. Entrained air can cause severe Odor can be one of the most effective tools
water pump cavitation damage. for indicating a problem with the coolant.
The first time the coolant is smelled, the
Entrained air or foam also accelerates process should be done cautiously by drawing
oxidation of metal components of the system the air over the sample to your nose with your
and of the glycol itself. The Coolant Analysis hand. If the sample has no strong odor, then
report form should identify foam as “normal” the cap should be replaced, and the sample
or “excessive”. shaken. Remove the cap, with nose as close
as possible, to smell the sample. A faint
abnormal odor using this very sensitive
technique can indicate a problem.

18
opened. Refer to Know Your Cooling System
CAUTION
for more information on proper flushing
When the coolant is smelled the process procedures. Proper flushing is especially
should be done cautiously – by drawing important if Fast Acting Cleaners were
the air over the sample to your nose with used in the system. Cleaners are aggressive
your hand rather than placing the sample and will remove protective chemical layers
against your nose. along with scale, etc. Other indications of
residual cleaner are foaming and lowered
pH. If the pH is below 8.0, the ammonia
Although the detection of various odors is odor may not be detected.
somewhat subjective and requires a certain
amount of experience, the following terms It is equally important that the source of
may be of value. the ammonia be discovered and corrected.
This may require some information from the
ODOR customer on recent repairs, maintenance
performed and operational practices.
Ammonia
Burnt Odor The cooling system should be thoroughly
Diesel Fuel circulated for a few hours with a new charge
Solvent of coolant. A sample should be taken for
Ketone Level 2 analysis to set a baseline and ensure
ammonia has been removed from the
Fungal
system. Resample for Level 2 in 250 hours
Sulfide or 15,000 miles (25 000 km) to verify the
Other root cause of the problem has been
corrected.
1. Be particularly alert for an ammonia odor.
Ammonia can enter the cooling system as Determine whether recycled coolant was
a contaminant after repairing or cleaning the used. If so, check the new recycled coolant
system. Many Fast Acting Radiator Cleaners for ammonia odor.
contain ammonium salts. Some solder flux
used in radiator repairs contains ammonium
chloride. Ammonia can be produced within
the system from cathodic reduction of nitrite
and/or nitrate, poor coolant flow through
the turbocharger or hot shutdowns of
turbocharged systems.

However ammonia enters the cooling


system, the consequence is the destruction
of copper and copper alloy (brass, etc.)
components. It is critical that systems with
ammonia present be drained, thoroughly
flushed, and recharged. To thoroughly flush
a cooling system, fill the cooling system at
least 3 times with water. This is necessary
because no more then 70% of the coolant
can be drained from the system even if all
drains in the radiator and engine block are
19
ELC the rate of coolant or SCA additions.
2a. If there is a burnt odor, the coolant is Adding coolant or SCA will keep pH at a
probably being overheated while the higher level.
engine is running. Natural gas and 3. If there is a solvent odor similar to acetone
landfill gas engines are particularly (fingernail polish remover), the coolant is
prone to running hot. Investigate and being overheated locally in an area of low or
correct the problem. no circulation. The most probable sources of
a. If the pH is lower than 7.0, drain and this problem are either a 1) thermostatically
flush the cooling system and replenish controlled block heater that is set too high or
with ELC. is malfunctioning on an idle engine (e.g.
b. If the pH is greater than 7.0 continue standby generator), or 2) lack of coolant
to use the coolant. But in either case, flow such as a restricted turbocharger
check for a source of overheating in coolant line.
the cooling system and recommend a Burnt coolant could also be caused by hot
Level 2 analysis at the next regular shutdowns, particularly on engines with
sample interval. water cooled turbochargers. If a burnt
c. If the pH is greater than 8.5, check to sample is from an engine with a customized
see if there was a burnt previous charge cooling system, such as an electric set or
which may have caused the odor. marine installation, be alert for the possibility
Determine the age of the coolant of hot spots such as water cooled
and rate of coolant, Extender or SCA turbochargers with poor circulation.
additions. Adding coolant, SCA or If the solvent odor is strong, other
Extender will keep pH at a higher level. parameters are usually significantly out
of control (e.g. low nitrite, low pH, black
DEAC magnetic precipitate, etc.). In any case
2b. If there is a burnt odor, the coolant is the solvent will attack polymerics (seals,
probably being overheated while the etc.) in the cooling system. The cooling
engine is running. Natural gas and system should be drained, well flushed,
landfill gas engines are particularly and recharged with new coolant.
prone to running hot. Investigate and Recommend a Level 2 analysis in
correct the problem. 250 hours or 15,000 miles (25 000 km).
a. If the pH is lower than 8.0, drain and 4. If there is a solvent odor similar to diesel
flush the cooling system and replenish fuel, or Safety Kleen’s Stoddard Solvent,
with 50/50 DEAC concentrate/water diesel fuel may have entered the cooling
mixture. system. The volatile components in diesel
b. If the pH is greater than 8.0, but less fuel quickly flash off in an operating cooling
than 8.5 continue to use the coolant. system and the resultant product smells
But in either case, check for a source more like solvent or paint thinner than
of overheating in the cooling system diesel fuel.
and recommend a Level 2 analysis at Check with the person who sampled the
the next regular sample interval. system to determine that the solvent is from
c. If the pH is greater than 8.5, check to the cooling system and not a sampling bottle
see if there was a burnt previous charge or sampling pump contaminant. If the solvent
which may have caused the odor. is in the system, drain and flush the system
Determine the age of the coolant and immediately. Recharge the system with new
coolant. Check hoses, seals and gaskets
for deterioration.

20
6. Glycol Level – Refractometer Test In using the refractometer, it is important that
the coolant and refractometer be at the same
Ethylene or propylene glycol is the temperature. Incorrect readings will occur if a
active ingredient of most engine coolants. refractometer at ambient temperature is used
Glycol solutions provide three major benefits; to test hot coolant. For this reason, use the
increase the boiling point of the coolant, sampling stick provided with the refractometer
suppress the freezing point and reduce and allow the coolant sample a few moments
the ability of the coolant to cause corrosion. to reach the temperature of the refractometer
before reading the result.
ELC is provided with a glycol concentration
of 50%. If greater freeze protection is needed, Only a few drops are needed for the test.
ELC concentrate is available. New Caterpillar The 5P0957 Tester provides the freeze
machines are filled with a 50/50 ELC point temperature in degrees Fahrenheit.
glycol/water mixture unless a cold weather The 5P3514 Tester displays the reading
option is requested in which a 60/40 mixture in degrees Celsius.
is used.
Refer to Fluid Analysis Laboratory Guide
DEAC is normally mixed 50/50 (ethylene glycol Bulletin “Refractometer,” SEBF3204, for
with acceptable water) for most climates. detailed instructions on its use.

The following chart indicates the freeze It is recommended that all users of Caterpillar
protection provided by various glycol levels equipment be urged to periodically check the
for both ELC and Caterpillar DEAC. freeze protection of their coolant, particularly
as the winter season approaches in
Protection Temperatures for Ethylene temperate climates.
Glycol Concentrates
Note
Glycol Based Coolant Concentration
Freeze Protection to: (Glycol/Water)
The standard Leica Fahrenheit refractometer
–15° C (5° F) 30% / 70% (Leica DC 70 Coolant & Battery Tester °F
–24° C (–12° F) 40% / 60% #7584L) is marked in 5° F increments from
–37° C (–34° F) 50% / 50% +25 to –60° F. The next divisions represent
–52° C (–62° F) 60% / 40% –70° F, –80° F, –90° F, and –96° F. Between
zero and 50% the freeze point should be
Hand-held coolant and battery refractometers read from the refractometer and converted
provide a quick and relatively accurate reading to % glycol. Between 59° F and 70° F the %
of the coolant freeze point. There are separate glycol is more readily determined directly
scales for ethylene and propylene glycol and then converted to the freeze point.
coolants. The same device can also evaluate
battery acid to determine the degree of charge Above 70° F a 50% dilution should be made
within the battery. before testing. The determined % must then
be doubled and converted to the freeze point.
The Leica Celsius refractometer should be
used in a similar manner.

21
Glycol Level – ELC This formula has the secondary
advantage that the percent glycol in the
ELC concentrate is typically treated as coolant mixture can be managed to any
100% glycol. desired percentage. For example for a
desired concentration of 60%:
Caterpillar Extended Life Coolant contains
Percent to be Drained = [100  (60 –
50% ethylene glycol. Significant variation in
glycol % of sample)  (100 – glycol %)]
the glycol concentration of ELC indicates
coolant concentrate or water has been added. After draining the system of the specified
A calculator and more information are percentage or amount of engine coolant, the
available on the S•O•S knowledge network. system should be recharged to full volume
with ELC concentrate. The concentration
1. If the glycol concentration is between 45%
should be verified with a refractometer after
and 55%, this result is satisfactory (unless
the system has run for an hour or more.
a different concentration is required for
greater freeze protection)—Continue to 1. The chart below provides a rough guide of
the conductivity test. how much coolant to drain and replenish with
2. If the glycol level is between 40% and 45% distilled water, if the glycol concentration is
or between 55% and 60%, the product will greater than 65%.
still function properly, but has not been
properly maintained. Determine and Glycol % 66- 71- 81-
correct the cause. 70% 80% 90% >90%
3. If the glycol level is between 60% and Drain 1
⁄4 1
⁄3 2
⁄5 1
⁄2
65%, note this and determine whether (40%)
this concentration is necessary for freeze
protection or boil protection (high altitude A more precise indication of the percent of
operation). coolant to drain may be calculated by using
4. The chart below provides a rough guide the following formula:
of how much coolant to drain and replenish Percent to be drained = [100  (glycol % of
with ELC concentrate (100%), if the glycol sample – 50)/(% glycol of sample)]
concentration is less than 40%. The quantity to be drained and replenished
may be calculated by multiplying the “percent
Glycol % <12% 13-20% 21-29% 30-40%
to be drained” times the system Capacity:
1 2 1 1
Drain ⁄2 ⁄5 (40%) ⁄3 ⁄4
Drain Quantity = (% to be Drained)(System
Capacity)
A more precise indication of the percent
of coolant to drain may be calculated by This formula has the secondary advantage
using the following formula: that the percent glycol in the coolant mixture
Percent to be Drained = [100  (50 – can be managed to any desired percentage.
glycol % of sample)  (100 – glycol %)] For example for a desired concentration of 60%:
The quantity to be drained and replenished Percent to be Drained = [100  (glycol % of
may be calculated by multiplying the (% to sample – 60)/% glycol of sample]
be Drained) times the System Capacity: After draining the system of the specified
Drain Quantity = (% to be Drained) percentage or amount of engine coolant, the
(System Capacity) system should be recharged to full volume with
distilled or deionized water. The concentration
should be verified with a refractometer after
the system has run for an hour or more.
22
Glycol Level – DEAC This formula has the secondary advantage
that the percent glycol in the coolant
Most standard, fully formulated antifreeze mixture can be managed to any desired
concentrates, including Caterpillar DEAC, percentage. For example for a desired
contain between 94% and 97% glycol. concentration of 60%:
The antifreeze concentrate is typically treated Percent to be Drained = [100  (60 –
as 100% glycol. Caterpillar DEAC contains glycol % of sample)  (100 – glycol %)]
inhibitors in the concentrate and it is assumed,
for the purpose of this interpretation, that any After draining the system of the specified
concentrate added contains the necessary percentage or amount of engine coolant,
inhibitors. If this is not the case an SCA the system should be recharged to full
must be added with a recharge and major volume with a fully formulated antifreeze
concentrate additions. concentrate. The concentration should be
verified with a refractometer after the
1. If the glycol concentration is between 40% system has run for an hour or more.
and 60%, this result is satisfactory (verify 4. The chart below provides a rough guide of
trend based on customers operation)— how much coolant to drain and replenish with
Continue to the conductivity test. distilled water, if the glycol concentration is
2. If the glycol concentration is between 60% greater than 65%.
and 65%, note this and determine whether Glycol % 66- 71- 81-
this concentration is necessary based on 70% 80% 90% >90%
customers application and operation. 1 1 2 1
Drain ⁄4 ⁄3 ⁄5 ⁄2
Dilute with distilled water, if necessary.
(40%)
3. The chart below provides a rough guide of
how much coolant to drain and replenish A more precise indication of the percent of
with DEAC concentrate, if the glycol coolant to drain may be calculated by using
concentration is less than 40%. the following formula:
Percent to be drained = [100  (glycol % of
Glycol % <12% 13-20% 21-29% 30-40% sample – 50)/(% glycol of sample)]
1 2 1 1
Drain ⁄2 ⁄5 (40%) ⁄3 ⁄4 The quantity to be drained and replenished
may be calculated by multiplying the “percent
A more precise indication of the percent to be drained” times the system Capacity:
of coolant to drain may be calculated by
using the following formula: Drain Quantity = (% to be Drained)(System
Capacity)
Percent to be Drained = [100  (50 –
glycol % of sample)  (100 – glycol %)] This formula has the secondary advantage
Or, the quantity to be drained and that the percent glycol in the coolant mixture
replenished may be calculated by can be managed to any desired percentage.
multiplying the Percent to be Drained For example for a desired concentration of 60%:
times the System Capacity: Percent to be Drained = [100  (glycol % of
Drain Volume = (Percent to be Drained) sample – 60)/% glycol of sample]
(System Capacity) After draining the system of the specified
percentage or amount of engine coolant, the
system should be recharged to full volume with
distilled or deionized water. The concentration
should be verified with a refractometer after
the system has run for an hour or more.

23
7. Conductivity Conductivity – Test Result
Recommendations – ELC
Conductivity is a measure of how well
the coolant conducts an electrical current. 1. If the corrected conductivity is less than
Dissolved salts will raise the conductivity by 7,500 µS/cm, this result is satisfactory.
increasing the ionic strength. Increased glycol Continue to Nitrite Test.
concentrations will decrease the conductivity 2. If the corrected conductivity is greater than
by decreasing the coolants tendency to ionize. 9,000 µS/cm, recommend that the cooling
system be drained, flushed, and replenished
For the purpose of this interpretation, with ELC. Recommend the customer
correct the conductivity of the sample evaluate potential sources of contamination.
for the glycol concentration. This leaves
3. If the corrected conductivity is greater than
the dissolved salts as the main contributor
7,400 µS/cm and a significant brown or
to the conductivity.
black precipitate is present, drain and
If glycol concentration is 0-40%, the flush the cooling system and replenish
readings may be read directly, with with ELC.
no need for correction
4. If minimal or no precipitate is present,
If glycol concentration is 40-49%, multiply the corrected conductivity is greater than
reading by 1.1. 7,500 µS/cm and less than 9,000 µS/cm,
If glycol concentration is 50-59%, multiply the pH is greater than 7.0, and all other
reading by 1.3. Level 1 parameters are within their specified
If glycol concentration is 60-69%, multiply range, drain 50% of the coolant and make
reading by 1.6. up with ELC. Recommend a Level 2 analysis
If glycol concentration is >69%, do not at the next regular sampling. (An ionic
interpret conductivity. contaminant is entering the system.)

Conductivity Test Result Limits Conductivity – Test Result


(Both ELC and DEAC) Recommendations – DEAC

1. If the corrected conductivity is less than


Min. Max. Rec.
7,500 µS/cm, this result is satisfactory.
Corrected Continue to the Nitrite Test.
Conductivity 0.0 7,500* <6,000*
2. If the corrected conductivity is greater than
10,000 µS/cm, recommend that the cooling
* Conductivity is lower with increasing glycol
system be drained, flushed, and replenished
concentration. ALWAYS report the value
with a 50/50 DEAC/distilled water mixture.
displayed on the meter, however, determine
Recommend the customer re-evaluate his
corrected conductivity as shown above.
current SCA and/or coolant concentrate
and send in samples of each for analysis.
3. If the corrected conductivity is greater than
7,500 µS/cm and a significant brown or
black precipitate is present, drain and flush
the cooling system and replenish with a
50/50 DEAC/distilled water mixture.

24
4. If minimal or no precipitate is present, General Troubleshooting Guidelines
the corrected conductivity is greater than Concerning Nitrite Level
7,500 µS/cm and less than 10,000 µS/cm, • If there is an electrical problem, nitrites
the pH is greater than 8.0, and all other will be converted to nitrates with no
Level 1 parameters are within their specified significant oxidation of glycol to
range, drain 50% of the coolant and make glycolates and no significant
up with a 50/50 DEAC/distilled water odor change.
mixture. Recommend a Level 2 analysis
• With normal aging, nitrites are
at the next regular sampling.
slowly converted to nitrates with a
corresponding increase of glycolates
and no significant odor change.
8. Nitrite Level • With severe aeration and overheating,
nitrites are quickly converted to nitrates
Sodium Nitrite is an additive in the coolant
with a significant increase in glycolates,
which provides protection against cavitation
a large drop in pH, and no significant
corrosion. It also provides general corrosion
odor change.
protection to iron components in the cooling
system. • With localized overheating, and under
no-flow conditions, nitrites are reduced
Nitrite Limits (Both ELC and DEAC) by the aldehydes and ketones (formed
from glycol thermo-degradation) and
Nitrite are depleted without the formation of
Concentration Min. Max. Rec. Ideal nitrates (ketone odor is present).
• With localized or severe overheating,
ELC 250 4,000 250- 550 and under reduced aeration conditions,
ppm ppm 2,000 ppm the nitrite is depleted without the
ppm formation of nitrates and a burnt
and solvent type odor is present.
DEAC 1,000 6,000 1,000- 1,200
• A nitrite level above 2,000 ppm in ELC
ppm ppm 2,600 ppm
usually indicates the addition of SCA
ppm
to ELC.
Be aware nitrite levels vary with other brands Nitrite Test Result
of coolant. If the sample is not Caterpillar ELC Recommendations – ELC
or DEAC it is important to know the specified
Nitrite level for the brand of coolant being Sodium Nitrite is present at 550 ppm in new
analyzed. In particular, a blue coolant with ELC. A normal treatment level of Caterpillar
<900 ppm nitrite may be in specification for ELC Extender (2% of cooling system capacity)
a coolant with molybdates. These coolants provides 800 ppm of nitrite.
should be checked using test strips provided
by that coolant manufacturer. 1. If the nitrite concentration is between
250 ppm and 2,500 ppm, the result is
acceptable—Continue to the Coolant
pH Test.

25
2. If the nitrite concentration is less than Nitrite Test Results
250 ppm, recommend an immediate Recommendations – DEAC
Level 2 analysis, and recommend a
maintenance dose of Extender. Sodium Nitrite is present at 1,200 ppm in new
Also check for the following conditions: DEAC. A normal treatment level (3% of cooling
a. If the pH is less than 7.5, check for air system capacity) of Caterpillar SCA provides
leaks into the system. 1,200 ppm of nitrite.
b. If the pH is above 7.5, check the system
for stray current or loose ground. 1. If the nitrite concentration is between
1,000 ppm and 3,000 ppm, this result is
c. If the pH is less than 5.5, check for
satisfactory. Continue to the Coolant pH Test.
exhaust gas entry into the cooling system.
2. If the nitrite concentration is less than
d. If there is a burnt odor, with or without an
1,000 ppm, make a normal SCA addition.
associated solvent odor, look for either
Recommend a Level 2 analysis within
localized overheating with low flow
500 hours. Also check for the following
(perhaps a turbocharger problem) or fairly
conditions:
severe general overheating (some landfill
gas generator applications). a. If the nitrite is depleted to near zero and
the pH is less than 8.5, check for air leaks
e. If there is a solvent odor, alone (similar
into the system and/or overheating.
to acetone or fingernail polish remover)
check for an oversized block heater b. If the nitrite is depleted to near zero and
on an idle piece of equipment or a the pH is above 8.5, check the system
malfunctioning thermostatically controlled for stray current or a loose ground.
heater on a standby generator. c. If the pH is less than 6.0, check for
3. If the nitrite level is over 2,500 ppm but less exhaust gas entry into the cooling system.
than 4,000 ppm note the relatively high d. If there is a burnt odor, with or without
nitrite level on the report. Check for possible an associated solvent odor, look for
Extender overdosing or addition of SCA. either localized overheating with low
4. If the nitrite level is greater than 4,000 ppm, flow (perhaps a turbocharger problem)
drain and flush the system. Replenish with or fairly severe general overheating
ELC and check procedure for adding (some landfill gas generator applications).
Extender to determine reasons for e. If there is a solvent odor, alone (similar
overdosing. to acetone or fingernail polish remover)
5. If the glycol concentration is adjusted check for an oversized block heater
according to the Glycol Level portion on an idle piece of equipment or a
of this guide, the nitrite level will be malfunctioning thermostatically controlled
impacted. The following equation can heater on a standby generator.
be used to determine how much nitrite is
being removed from the cooling system:
New Nitrite concentration = ppm nitrite –
[(% drained/100)  ppm nitrite]
For more information or help with the
calculation, go to the S•O•S Knowledge
Network.

26
3. If the nitrite level is over 3,000 ppm but less 9. pH – A Measure of Acidity
than 6,000 ppm note the relatively high or Alkalinity
nitrite level on the report. Check for possible
SCA overdosing. “pH” is a term used to describe the hydrogen
4. If the nitrite concentration is greater than ion activity of a solution and thus is a measure
6,000 ppm, drain and flush the system. of the acidity or alkalinity of the solution. pH
Replenish with DEAC and check procedure is the negative log (base 10) of the hydrogen
for adding SCA to determine reasons for ion activity of a solution. Water with a pH of
overdosing. 7.0 is “neutral”. Because pH is a logarithmic
5. If the glycol concentration is adjusted scale a change of 1 pH unit is actually a ten-
according to the Glycol Level portion of fold change in acidity or alkalinity. For example,
this guide, the nitrite level will be impacted. a pH of 6 is ten times more acidic than a pH
The following equation can be used to of 7. A pH of 5 is a thousand times more
determine how much nitrite is being acidic than a pH of 8.
removed from the cooling system:
New coolant is alkaline. The pH of new ELC
New Nitrite concentration = ppm nitrite – is approximately 8.5. DEAC concentrate has a
[(% drained/100)  ppm nitrite] pH of about 11.3. Caterpillar DEAC has a pH,
For more information or help with the when mixed, of about 10.0 depending upon
calculation, go to the S•O•S Knowledge the pH of the water used. The acceptable pH
Network. range for water to be used with DEAC is 5.5
to 9.0, assuming all other parameters of the
water are acceptable. Refer to Coolant
Analysis Chapter 4 “Source Water Quality
and Testing.”

pH is an instantaneous snapshot of a coolant’s


acidity or alkalinity. It provides no real indication
of the coolant’s ability to maintain its pH, but
it does help indicate the coolant’s present
ability to protect metals and neutralize acids.
This along with the acid production rate and
the rate of alkaline addition (SCA or Extender)
will help predict when the coolant will become
too acidic to protect the cooling system from
corrosion.

Several factors may impact pH. High levels


of heat and vibration in modern diesel engines
create a chain of events which accelerates
glycol deterioration. This leads to the formation
of organic acids which lowers the coolant’s pH.
Air entry and entrainment will also accelerate
glycol oxidation leading to a lower pH. Exhaust
gas contains acid and if it enters the cooling
system, will lower the pH of the coolant.

27
The Level 1 test for pH uses a potassium pH Test Result Recommendations – ELC
chloride saturated calomel electrode that
introduces chlorine ions into the sample. Min. Max. Rec. Ideal
This test should be run on a portion of the pH 7.0 10.5 7.5-9.5 8.5
sample to be discarded and not used for
the other tests. Or, if the quantity of sample 1. If the pH is between 7.0 and 10.5, this
is small, run the pH as the final test on result is satisfactory.
the sample.
2. If the pH is over 10.5 drain and thoroughly
If a Level 2 analysis is to be performed it flush the coolant system. Check with the
must be done on a portion of the sample customer for possible sources of alkaline
not contaminated by this test. A Level 2 test contaminants entering the cooling system.
run on a sample contaminated by the pH Such contaminants may include SCA, SCA
test electrode will result in erroneously high cartridges or cooling system cleaners.
chloride and conductivity readings. After thoroughly flushing and correcting
the source of contamination replenish
Coolant pH Limits with ELC.
3. If the pH is less than 5.5, check for blow-by
Acceptable Range: 7.0 to 10.5 for ELC, or entering the cooling system. This is usually
8.5 to 11.0 for DEAC, and within 20% of the a sign of a blown head gasket, or a cracked
original pH. Both of these conditions must cylinder head or engine block.
be met. The ideal operating level pH is about
8.5 for ELC and about 9.5 to 10.0 for 4. If pH is less than 7.0 drain and flush
Caterpillar DEAC. the coolant system. Replenish with ELC.
Check the age of the coolant that was in
When the pH level exceeds 11.0 the coolant the system. If the coolant has been used
will attack aluminum. If the pH drops below less than 1,000 hours or 60,000 miles
7.0 for ELC or 8.5 for DEAC, the coolant will (100 000 km) check for air leaks in the
attack ferrous metals and solder. system and/or hot spots in the cooling
system. Recommend a Level 2 analysis
at the next regular sample interval to
determine if excess glycol oxidation
is occurring.

28
5. If pH is less than 7.5, but greater than pH Test Result Recommendations – DEAC
7.0 examine other test results (particularly
precipitate) to determine the general quality Min. Max. Rec.
of the coolant and look at the following: pH 8.5 11.0 9.0-10.5
a. If the other tests do not indicate any
problems, continue to use the coolant. 1. If the pH is between 8.5 and 11.0,
Recommend a Level 2 analysis at the this result is satisfactory.
next regular sample interval. 2. If the pH is over 11.0 drain and flush the
b. If the nitrite level is less than 250 ppm cooling system. Check with the customer
and there is no more than a minimal for possible sources of alkaline
amount of rust colored precipitate, and contaminants entering the cooling system.
the corrected conductivity is less than Such contaminants may include excessive
6,000 µS/cm recommended a Level 2 SCA, SCA cartridges used in addition to
analysis at the next regular sample liquid SCA or cooling system cleaners.
interval. After thoroughly flushing and correcting
c. If the corrected conductivity is over the source of contamination replenish
6,000 µS/cm or significant rust colored with 50/50 DEAC/distilled water mixture.
precipitate is present; drain and flush the
cooling system. Replenish with ELC. 3. If the pH is less than 5.5, check for blow-by
d. If all other tests indicate no problems, entering the cooling system. This is usually
and no additional Extender may be added a sign of a blown head gasket, or a cracked
without exceeding either the maximum cylinder head or engine block.
nitrite concentration or maximum 4. If the pH is less than 8.5 drain and flush
allowable corrected conductivity limit; the coolant system. Replenish with 50/50
drain and flush the coolant system. DEAC/distilled water mixture. Check the
Replenish with ELC Premix. age of the coolant that was in the system
and if the coolant was less than 250 hours
or 15,000 miles (25 000 km) check for air
leaks in the system and/or hot spots in
the cooling system.

29
5. If pH is less than 9.0 but greater than 8.5, c. If the corrected conductivity is over
examine other tests (particularly precipitate) 6,000 µS/cm or significant rust colored
to determine the general quality of precipitate is present; drain and flush
the coolant. the coolant system. Replenish with
a. If the other tests do not indicate any 50/50 DEAC/distilled water mixture.
problems, continue to use the coolant. d. If all other tests indicate no problems,
Recommend a Level 2 analysis at the and no additional SCA can be added
next regular sample interval. without exceeding either the maximum
b. If the nitrite level is less than 1,000 ppm nitrate concentration or the maximum
and there is no more than a minimal allowable corrected conductivity limit;
amount of rust colored precipitate, and drain and flush the coolant system.
the corrected conductivity is less than Replenish with 50/50 DEAC/distilled
6,000 µS/cm; make a normal SCA water mixture.
addition and recommend a Level 2
analysis at the next regular sample
interval.

30
Chapter 3

Level 2 Coolant Analysis and Interpretation

Contents
The Coolant Analysis Level 2 Test Result Limits ..................................................................32

Level 2 Test Result Explanations ............................................................................................33


Nitrite/Nitrate Levels and Ratios ......................................................................................33
Nitrite/Nitrate vs. Glycolate Levels and Ratios ..............................................................34
Lead/Tin Levels and Ratios ..............................................................................................34
Glycolate Level and Ratio ................................................................................................34
Sodium Level......................................................................................................................35
Sebacate Level ..................................................................................................................35
Potassium Level ................................................................................................................35
Borate Level........................................................................................................................35
Molybdate Level ................................................................................................................35

31
The Coolant Analysis Level 2 Test have occurred as a result of coolant or system
Result Limits problem such as cavitation, corrosion or
electrolysis. Level 2 Analysis may not pinpoint
The Level 1 Coolant Analysis tests are the precise problem, but it will indicate that
intended to be a coolant system check. a problem exists and its severity.
If all Level 1 test results are satisfactory, the
coolant can generally continue to be used The Coolant Analysis Level 2 report provides
without concern about damage to the engine. the following results on each Level 2 sample.
The Level 2 Analysis goes beyond the Level 1 The various Level 2 test results can be
tests to evaluate the chemistry of the coolant divided into several categories:
or to reveal the migration of metals which may

Coolant Properties Min. Max. Recommended Ideal

Glycol Concentration (ELC) 30% 65% 45%-55% 50%


Glycol Concentration (DEAC) 30% 65% 40%-60% 50%
pH (ELC)* 7.0 10.0 7.5-9.5 8.5
pH (DEAC)* 8.5 11.0 8.5-10.5 9.5

Corrected Conductivity** 0 µS/cm 7,500 µS/cm <6,000 µS/cm <6,000 µS/cm

Coolant Inhibitors

Nitrite (DEAC) 1,000 ppm 6,000 ppm 1,000-2,600 ppm 1,200 ppm
Nitrite (ELC) 250 ppm 4,000 ppm 250-2,000 ppm 550 ppm
Silicate (DEAC only)*** 80 ppm 400 ppm 100-300 ppm 200 ppm (DEAC)
Sebecate 990 ppm 2,000 ppm 110-1,500 ppm 1,300 ppm (ELC)

Corrosion Products Borderline Concern Problem

Aluminum (Al) 3 ppm 4 ppm 5 ppm


Copper (Cu) 3 ppm 4 ppm 5 ppm
Iron (Fe) (no precip.) 5 ppm 10 ppm 15 ppm
Iron (Fe) (w/precip.) 15 ppm 25 ppm 35 ppm
Lead (Pb) 15 ppm 25 ppm 35 ppm
Zinc (Zn) 15 ppm 25 ppm 35 ppm

Contaminants

Total Hardness + 50 ppm 65 ppm 80 ppm


Ammonia 50 ppm 100 ppm >100 ppm
Chloride (Cl) 80 ppm 100 ppm >110 ppm
Sulfate 600 ppm 800 ppm 1,000 ppm
Phosphates ++ 4,500 ppm 5,500 ppm 7,000 ppm
Oxidation Products
Glycolate 1,000 ppm 1,500 ppm 2,000 ppm
Carbonate 2,000 ppm 2,500 ppm 3,000 ppm

32
Additionally, the five sensory tests (Color & Appearance, Precipitate, Oil Contamination, Odor
and Foam) are reported. Refer to Chapter 2, Level 1 Coolant Analysis and Interpretation.

* Also, for any coolant the pH must not vary more than 20% from new.

** Conductivity should be corrected for glycol % by multiplying by appropriate factor: 0% to


40 % = (no correction needed); 41% to 50% = Multiply by 1.1; 51% to 60% = Multiply by
1.3; 61% to 70% = Multiply by 1.6; 71% and above = (not valid)

*** DEAC only. ELC contains no Silicates. If found in ELC the Silicate is either a contaminant
or the result of topping up with DEAC or adding SCA.

+ Total Hardness is the combined total of Magnesium hardness and Calcium hardness
(Reported as ppm)

++ Caterpillar DEAC and ELC contain no Phosphates. Other brands may contain Phosphates.
The presence of Phosphates in DEAC or ELC indicates that the system has been topped
up with a competitive coolant or SCA.

Level 2 Test Laboratory Level 2 Test Result Explanations


Within North America one qualified S•O•S Nitrite/Nitrate Levels and Ratios
Level 2 Coolant Analysis laboratory has the
ability to perform the Level 2 test. DEAC contains both Nitrite and Nitrate.
This is: ELC contains only Nitrite.
Caterpillar S•O•S Services Lab
Under normal engine conditions nitrite is
Product Support Center gradually oxidized into nitrate. Therefore, with
501 S.W. Jefferson Ave. DEAC, the ratio of nitrite to nitrate decreases
Peoria, IL 61630-0003 over the life of the coolant.
(309) 494-5884
New ELC contains no nitrate, thus, if significant
Each Level 2 analysis contains an explanation nitrate is present without a corresponding
of the test results along with the recommended decrease in nitrite it is probable that either
action. The following discusses certain DEAC or SCA has been added.
aspects of the Level 2 test results.
In very old or abused coolant (at a low pH)
the nitrite and/or nitrate can form nitrogen
compounds with the organics present or
can even evolve as NOx if the pH gets
extremely low.

33
Nitrite/Nitrate vs. Glycolate Levels Glycolate Level and Ratio
and Ratios
Under normal engine conditions ethylene
A rapid depletion of the nitrite (into nitrate) glycol gradually oxidizes to acetic acid, then
with a corresponding increase in glycol to glycolic acid, then to oxalic acid or formic
oxidation products usually indicates either acid, and finally to carbonic acid (carbon
localized or general overheating of the dioxide and water). The acetic and glycolic
cooling system. acids are not separated by either ion
chromatography or capillary ion analysis
A rapid depletion of the nitrite (to nitrate) and, therefore, the glycolate level truly
without a corresponding increase in glycol represents both in the analysis. All of these
oxidation products (glycolate & formate) products are acidic and result in a reduction
generally indicates nitrite oxidation by a in the pH level of the coolant.
positive stray current. Once the nitrite is
depleted this same stray current (anodic) Where hard water salts or soluble corrosion
will attack the metals in the system. metals are present, the oxalic acid quickly
precipitates out of solution (and is not seen by
Refer to Chapter 2, Level 1 Coolant Analysis our analysis). Under severe conditions (general
and Interpretation for more information or localized overheating of the coolant) this
of Nitrites. process proceeds much quicker. Excess air
entrainment will also accelerate this oxidation
Lead/Tin Levels and Ratios process. Comparing these numbers with the
hours on the fluid can give an indication of
High lead levels indicate solder corrosion.
how closely proper operational procedures
If the lead concentration exceeds 10 times
are being followed.
the tin concentration (when the lead is greater
than 30 ppm) the cooling system probably
contains a component with high lead solder.
High lead solder contains less than 3% tin.

If there is not a correspondingly high tin


content, it is probable that a high lead solder
is present in the radiator under question (the
use of high lead solder is needed for some
applications). High lead solder is more difficult
to protect than standard solder (70:30 or 60:40,
lead:tin) with standard coolant. Nitrate protects
solder by forming a protective coating when
it reacts with the tin in the solder – 5 to 10%
tin is necessary for this protection to be
effective. ELC contains organic additives
which protects both standard solder and
high lead solder. High chloride levels can
increase tin levels. If high lead solder is
present, the coolant must be maintained
near its new level for organic additives.

34
Sodium Level Potassium Level

Sodium is more useful in analyzing ELC than There is typically no significant amount of
DEAC because ELC has a lower sodium level. potassium in DEAC. ELC contains about
It is present at around 1,700 ppm in ELC. 5,000 ppm potassium.
Much higher levels than this indicate that
something else has been added to the Borate Level
coolant system (e.g. SCA, DEAC, salty
make-up water, etc.). Borates provide the main buffering capacity
of DEAC. Borate level is an indicator of the
DEAC contains about 5,000 ppm sodium. amount of DEAC or SCA in the cooling
However, even with DEAC, exceptionally system. No borate is found within ELC.
high sodium levels can point to improper
maintenance. Coolants from other Molybdate Level
manufacturers contain a sodium
level as low as 1,000 ppm or as Molybdate is an additive that aids the nitrite
high as 12,000 ppm. in cavitation damage protection.

Sebacate Level

Sebecate is one of the two carboxylic acids


present in ELC. It is the one present in the
lower concentration (~0.13%) and it is also
the carboxylate most affected by hard water
salts and most heavy metals. It is an indicator
of the degree of dilution of ELC with standard
coolant and/or water. If the glycol concentration
is correct or high and the sebecate level is
low then it is probable that standard coolant
was used to make up the cooling system. If
the glycol level is low and the sebecate level
is correspondingly low it is likely that water
was used to make up the cooling system.

35
Chapter 4

Source Water Quality and Testing

Contents
Water Quality for Use as Source Water ..................................................................................37

Source Water Selection ............................................................................................................37

Source Water Testing ................................................................................................................39

Minimum Acceptable Source Water Criteria ..........................................................................39

Taking a Good Source Water Sample......................................................................................39

36
Water Quality for Use There are only three reasons a cooling
as Source Water system may be “using coolant”:
– a leak
Many cooling system problems are – boil over
caused by poor quality water. Diesel Engine
– excessive topping off
Antifreeze/Coolant (DEAC) is sold as a
concentrate and requires an approximate Obviously, any leak should be located and
50% water dilution before using. Poor quality repaired as soon as possible. If the coolant
water may enter the cooling system, in that is escaping as steam from boiling, the cooling
manner, or as make-up water added during system has a problem. The problem may be
maintenance. as simple as an externally plugged radiator,
or as complex as internal scale clogging the
The use of poor quality water is one of the
radiator core, cooler cores, or water passages
major reasons Caterpillar developed its special
within the engine block or cylinder head.
Extended Life Coolant (ELC). ELC is premixed
with distilled water avoiding the problem of
poor water quality entering during filling of
the cooling system. It is possible, however, Source Water Selection
that a cooling system filled with ELC may
be topped off with poor quality water during All water, except distilled or deionized
service, thereby introducing problems. water, contains some salts and impurities.
At operating temperatures of modern diesel
Machine and engine users should be aware engines, these contaminants can form scale
that any cooling system which requires deposits or cause corrosion which reduce the
make-up coolant on a regular basis has a cooling system life and lead to expensive
problem which should be addressed. If the downtime and failures.
reason for the make-up water addition is not
corrected, sooner or later, the cooling system Caterpillar recommends using distilled water
will cause or contribute to a larger problem or deionized water to maximize the effect of
or failure. the various inhibitors and reduce the potential
of chemical incompatibility within the cooling
Sometimes, inexperienced maintenance crews system. If distilled or deionized water is
add water unnecessarily. They remove the not available, use water that meets the
radiator cap of each engine while the engines specifications provided in the source
are cool and find the coolant level to be visible water testing section.
but not up to the top of the radiator top tank.
They add water, perhaps daily, believing it
is necessary. The coolant expands upon
heating and pushes the excess water out.
Therefore, each day the maintenance crew
dilutes the coolant chemicals and introduces
contaminants into the system. S•O•S Coolant
Analysis can help identify improper
maintenance practices such as this.

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– Never use salt water The characteristics of the source water
– NEVER USE WATER ALONE determine the level of scale and deposit
AS COOLANT formation on metal surfaces within the cooling
system. In particular, the pH level, total
Water used in cooling systems with DEAC hardness, levels of calcium and magnesium
must conform to established criteria for: and system operating temperature are
– chloride level contributing factors. The most common
deposits include calcium carbonate, calcium
– sulfates content
sulfate, iron, silicate and lead. Scale and
– total hardness deposits are harmful because they act as
– total solids insulators and barriers to effective heat transfer.
– pH levels
Machine or engine owners in warm climates
It is suggested that Caterpillar dealer personnel occasionally use water with Supplemental
involved with the S•O•S Fluids Analysis Cooling Additive (SCA), rather than ELC or
Program become aware of the quality and DEAC. This is generally done because they
various attributes of water in different regions believe they are saving money not buying
within their service territory to better advise more expensive coolant. This is false economy.
customers concerning coolant maintenance.
Such owners should be made aware that a
Water quality varies from area to area. quality coolant contains glycol which, not only
For example, high chloride contents are reduces the freezing point of the coolant
often found in coastal regions where saline (which they know is unnecessary), but also
treatment plants are used. However, some increases the boiling point. This is especially
inland ground water is also high in chlorides. important in warm climates, because the
High sulfate contents are often found in coolant may reach the boiling point and be
the vicinity of coal mining operations. lost as steam resulting in the “frequent top
Water containing high levels of chlorides, off routine.” Emphasize that proper coolant
sulfates, or total dissolved solids must is not only an “antifreeze” product, it is also
be treated before use in coolant systems. an “anti-boil.”
Many water companies have industrial
divisions which offer such treatment. Furthermore, they should be aware that the
chemicals found in SCA, while similar to those
Water should never be used alone as a of DEAC, are not as effective as those in ELC
diesel engine coolant. Water is extremely which has a superior chemical package to last
corrosive, particularly at engine operating longer and better protect their machines and
temperatures and pressures. This is especially engines. It is not recommended to drain
true of distilled or deionized water which is ELC, which is in the cooling systems of
sometimes called “hungry water” because of all new Caterpillar machines built today,
its propensity to attack almost any metal and replace it with DEAC, water/SCA or
with which it has prolonged contact without another alternative coolant.
inhibitors. However, because distilled or
deionized water has a low ionic content, it is
the easiest to inhibit and recommended for
use with DEAC.

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Source Water Testing Minimum Acceptable
Source Water Criteria
The local water company in many locations
is required to provide information to customers The tests and limits for water to be used
concerning the characteristics of the water with coolant are listed below.
they provide. This information may provide
a general idea of any potential problems.
However, it may still be prudent to have the Taking a Good Source
water tested periodically by a qualified
laboratory because the properties of the
Water Sample*
water within a system may vary from time- 1. Make sure the bottle being used for
to-time or by location with that system. sampling is clean and free of contaminates.
Within North America one qualified S•O•S 2. Run the cold water for about one minute
Level 2 Coolant Analysis laboratory has the before filling the sample bottle.
ability to test and make recommendations 3. Fill the sample bottle gently and to the top.
concerning the quality of water for possible This is so air is not introduced into the
use as coolant. This is: sample from filling or in shipping the
Caterpillar S•O•S Services Lab sample.
Product Support Center 4. Fill the sample label out completely.
501 S.W. Jefferson Ave. Be sure you note from what location
the sample was taken.
Peoria, IL 61630-0003
(309) 494-5884 * From Preventive Coolant Maintenance by
Elizabeth Nelson. Used with permission.
Additionally, many local independent
laboratories can perform water testing
service, but would be unqualified to comment
knowledgeably on its possible use with diesel
engine coolant. If using an independent lab,
be certain the ASTM Test Methods specified
below are employed. Other test methods
may result in less accurate data.

Minimum Acceptable Water Criteria for Use in Engine Cooling Systems


Properties Limits ASTM1 Test Methods
Chloride (Cl), gr/gal (ppm) 2.4 (40) max. D512b, D512d, D4327
Sulfate (SO4), gr/gal (ppm) 5.9 (100) max. D516b, D516d, D4327
Total Hardness, gr/gal (ppm) 10 (170) max. D1126b
Total Solids, gr/gal (ppm) 20 (340) max. Fed method 2540B2
pH 5.5-9.0 D1293
1
American Society for Testing Materials
2
Federal Method 2540B, “Total Dissolved Solids Dried at 103-105° C.”

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