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Enhancing Optical Signal-to-Noise Ratio in

Terrestrial Cascaded EDFAs Fiber Optic

Communication Links using Hybrid Fiber Amplifier

C to L band and enhance OSNR [12], [13], [14], [15]. OSNR

improving ability of HFA (combinating of Distributed Raman
Amplifier DRA and EDFA) compared with original
Abstract -In this paper, we propose calculating models transmission (using EDFA) could be explained as follow: DRA
of Terrestrial DWDM cascaded EDFAs Fiber Optic which is located at the end of span (fig.2,3,4.) is considered a
Communication Links using Hybird Fiber Amplifier pre-amplifier of EDFA. It makes signal power level at the end
(HFA) including combination of Distributed Raman of span higher and EDFA Gain smaller (see fig.1.) Therefore,
nonlinear effects, different noises in fiber could be reduced.
Amplifier (DRA) and EDFA, and build algorithm charts to
This results in higher OSNR at the end of link.
optimize parameters including signal power per channel
launched fiber, EDFAs gain, pump power of Raman
amplifier for improving optical Signal-to-Noise ratio
at the end of span
(OSNR) at the end of link. Then, algorithm-based
numerical calculating (MathCAD program) is applied in
typical system (WDM Nation-wide links in Vietnam).
Optimized results show that the OSNR can be increased by
(1-5)dB comparing with that in cases of parameters
chosen by experience way.
Keywords: OSNR, Terrestrial; WDM; cascaded EDFA; Hybird
Fiber Amplifier

Unlike Long-Haul undersea fiber optic communication Inusing
systems, however, if values of signal power
systemsFig 1. Signal
using in-line power
EDFAslevel versus
chains wheredistance in two
every span is cases: and using EDFA (original transmission)[15]
launched fiber, pump power of raman amplifier and EDFAs
located equally, Nation-Wide backbone terrestrial systems are gain have chosen basing on manufacture’s recommendations or
connected through many cities that the distances between by experience, each individual equipment and components can
among them are quite different. In such as systems, EDFAs are operate indifferently well. That operation may be locally
usually located at main communication centers in these cities optimized, not globally optimized because the interactions and
to be convenient for system management, control and co-ordinations of individual components for the whole link
maintenance.Therefore, spans have different lengths depended have not been considered yet. This means that system can not
on cities positions. In practice, after installing all system be set up their optimized values to achieve a higher OSNR at
components and configuration, the parameters of equipments the end of link. In this paper, from calculating models
such as optical transmitters, all EDFA gains are chosen basing (fig.2,3,4.), we build algorithm charts for optimizing OSNR at
on manufacture’s recommendations and/or compensating the end of link. Numerical calculating then, is applied in typical
completely the transmission loss of preceded span. In general, system (WDM Nation-wide Links in Vietnam) to get higher
recommended values of parameters are varied in broad band, OSNR by (1-5)dB comparing with that in links where
In that case, system can not be set up their optimized values to parameters are chosen conventionally by experience way.
achieve a high OSNR at the end of transmission link. The rest of paper is organized as follows. In section II, We
propose three typical calculating models, then, present
Yet, many WDM cascaded EDFAs systems using HFA calculation expressions signal power, dominant different
have been investigated, experimented and deployed in order to noises, OSNR at the end of link. In section III, we build
get better OSNR. Through theory and numerical studies, they algorithm charts for calculating total accumulated ASE, FWM,
have been demonstrated to be able to expand bandwidth from DRS noise powers, and for optimizing OSNR in general case
for all three calculating models (fig 2.,3.,4.). In section IV, we Hence, three typical calculating models are given as in
apply numerical calculating in WDM Nation-wide Links in Fig.2,3,4 in which HFAs are located in the first span, middle
Vietnam then analyze the results. Section V will be our span and last span respectively.
conclusion. They are considered as extension of model proposed in
II. CALCULATING MODELS [1] to calculate HFA. Where: M; M-1: the number of spans
and EDFAs in the Link; L(m) (m = 1..M) : mth span length
When distance of Terrestrial WDM cascaded EDFAs Gi(m), Gj(m), Gk(m) : gain of the mth EDFA at channel i, j, k
Fiber Optic Comminication Link is shorter than 1,000km, we
propose its calculating model consisting only one HFA in respectively Pi, Pj, Pk : input power corresponding to
order to decrease reasonably its cost and complication.
channels i, j, k

Pi Pij k(m) : Four-Wave Mixing (FWM) noise power that Rx

is caused
Tx Tx G (1)(1) (2) (2) by FWM effect Gi(M-2) (M-2)
at theGend (M-1)
of transmission link created within
Gi i Fiber Gi G G (M-1) (M-1)
Gii(2) G G
Tx (1) the sections m th
i i i
Pk (1)
Gi GGj (1) Fiber
Fiber (2)
Gj G (2) Fiber FiberGj (M-2)
Gj (M-1)
GGj G (M-1)
j Gjj(2) Fiber j
Gj GGk (1)(1) HFA G (M-2) (M-2)

Gk(2)G (2)
Gkk(3) k Gk k
(M-1) (M-1)
k k
(2) (2)
(2) (2)
(2) (2)(2)

Pi (2)

L(2) L(M)L(M)
L(2) L (M-1)
L (1) L(2) L(M)

Pij k(1)
Pij k(1)
Pij k(1)

PPij k 2)2)
ij k

Pij k3) Pij k3)

Pij k 2)
Pij k(M-2)
Pij k(M-2)
Pij k P (M-1)
(M-1) ij k
Pij k
Pij k
Fig.2. General calculating Model of Terrestrial DWDM Cascaded EDFAs Link using HFA at the first span
Fig.3. General
General calculatingModel
calculating ModelofofTerrestrial
TerrestrialDWDM Pij k(M-1)
WDM Cascaded EDFAs Link using in the
HFA at the middle
last span
the ith EDFA at mth channel; : Gain
( i)
G (f m ) GRoo (f m )
of Raman ; 2A(i): attenuation in ith span
Fig. 5. shows configuration of HFA with Backward pump at
+ FWM noise at the end of link
As system has a large number of channels, at a certain
Fiber EDFA frequency fm, a significant amount of FWM waves is created by
various combinations of channels in system[1],[5]. As a result,
Gi the total FWM power at fm is shown as
GFF DCM PFWMtot (f m )
, Li

Raman pump
Fig.5. Calculating Model of HFA PFWMtot (f m )= ∑ ∑ ∑ P ijk
+ Optical Signal-to-Noise Ratio (OSNR) at the end of f k =f ithat
: FWM noise power + fj−fis f j fi
m created by all M spans
transmission link Pijk at the end of link[1]:
In this paper, total optical power launched fiber is limited

[ ]
M M m−1
less than 20dBm. Thus, the other effects of fiber 1024 π 6 P P P
nonlinearities (SPM, XPM, SBS, SRS) are significantly less
Pijk= 4 2 2
( dχ )2 i 2j k exp ∑ −2 A( m) ×| ∑ [ ∏ ( √G(i l ) G
n0 λ c A eff m=1 m=1 l=1
than FWM one and can be neglected[1]-[4]. As a result, ¿
Optical Signal to Noise Ratio (OSNR) at the end of link,
respectively mth channel (fm) is shown as:
[ ] 1−exp ( −α 1 +iΔ
m−1 M −1

Psig ( f m )
¿ exp ∑ (−2 A( l )+iΔψ (l) × ∏ ( √ G(Fl )) ×( α 1 −iΔβ1
l =1 l=m
OSNR( f m )=
Pnoisetot (f m )
(1) [
1−exp ( −α 2 +iΔβ 2 ) Lm2 ] )]|2
Psig (f m )
: is signal power at the end of link +exp [( −α 1+iΔβ1 Lm1 ) ] ×
α 2 −iΔβ 2
Pnoisetot ( f m )=PFWMtot (f m )+P ASEtot (f m )+PDRStot (f m ) + Accumulated ASE noise at the end of link

, and are total We investigate total Accumulated ASE noise

PFWMtot (f m ) P ASEtot ( f m ) PDRStot (f m )
for general case (can be applied in all three
FWM, accumulated ASE and Double Raman Scattering noise
powers at optical mth channel, respectively.
P ASEtot ( f m )
+ Signal power at the end of link general models in fig.1, fig.2 and fig.3) in which Raman

In a Fiber Optic Communication Link using cascaded amplifier is located in kth span, 2<k<M-1; then build the
EDFAs and HFA, signal power received at the end of link
Psig(fm) is amplified by in-line EDFAs and is also decreased expression of at frequency fm (mth channel) as
by attenuation of fiber in spans. Therefore, it is presented as P ASEtot ( f m )

[ ]∏
M M −1
Psig (f m )=Pin (f m ). exp ∑ (−2 A(i )) G (i) ( f m ). G Roo ( f m )
i=1 i−1
Pin(fm) : transmitted signal power assumed that are equally
for all channels
P ASEtot ( f m )=P ASE −R (f )+∑ P ASE( i )( f ).
m i=1 m
−2 A( j ) −2 A( M )
∏ G j. e .e GRoo +
M −1 M −1
−2 A (l ) −2 A( M )
+ ∑ P ASE (i ) ( f ). ∏ Gl . e .e .
i=k m l =k

(5) Input parameters no, , , Aeff, i, ,X

D, dD/d, L1, LM, mt, h, c, mth channelX
: ASE noise power at fm at output of ith EDFA
P ASEi (ffor
Writing expressions m )calculating signal power Psig, total accumulated ASE noise power PASEtot , total FWM noise power PFWMtot, total accumlated DRS noise power P
Begin parameters
P ASEi (f m )=mt n sp hf m(G i −1)B o =mt n sp h (G −1 )Bo
λm i PASE(M-1)(fm):=mt.nsp.h.fm.(GM-1-1).B0.e-2A(M)
:ASE noise power at the end of link caused Pp:=22
k i:=M-2
P ASE−R ( f m )
by the Raman in span k; 2A(M): attenuation in Mth span i>k
G :=10
Basing on expressions (4), (5), we build algorithm charts to P:=P.e-2A(i+1) 1
calculate Accumulated ASE and FWM at the end of link
: Total Double Raman Scattering noise at N i=k
PDRStot (f m ) P (G ,G ,G ,…,G ,Pin/ch,Pp)
th sig 1 )/A2 3 -2A(i+1)
optical m channel at the end of Link: Gon_off:=(gR.Pp.L eff eff
PASEi(fm):=mt.nsp.h.fm.(Gi-1).B0.P PASEk(fm):=mt.nsp.h.fm.(Gk-1).B0.P
M −1 N PASEi(fm):=PASEr(fm)+PASEk(fm)
PinFiber1, PinFiber2,… PinFiberM<PinFibermax
PDRStot (f m )=P DRS (f m , L) ∏ e−2 A (i+1) Gi
(7) Y
N ),
where (6) PDRS tot(m,Pp,Pin/ch,G1,G2,G3,…,GM-1),
End i:=i-1
Input Lparameters no, , , Aeff, i, ,X Y ,G ,G ,…,G )
PFWMtot(m,Pp,Pin/ch,G 1 2 3 M-1

f mdD/d,
, L)= ∫ ( f, h,m )⋅P
L L r, m X P (f ):=PASE(fm)+PASE(M-1)(fm)
RS ( y )⋅G R ( y , L ) dy
c, m channel
1, M t ASEtot m
OSNRmin:={OSNR=P /(P t+P +PFWMtot)}
sig ASEtot DRS tot
P0FWMtot(fm):= 0, p:=1
(8) (7) Fig.7. Algorithm chart for calculating ASE noise power
N Max<OSNRmin
q := 1

r := 1 Y

N G(M-1):=G(M-1)+1 Y GM-1<=40
d := 6 Y Y
G1:=G1+1 G1<=40
d := 3
Calculating Ppqr Y
Pin/ch:=Pin.ch+1 Pin/ch<=0
PFWMtot(fm) := PFWMtot(fm) +Ppqr

Y Y Pp<=27
r:=r+1 r <K Pp:=Pp+1
q:=q+1 q <K N
p:=p+1 Y p <K End G1...GM-1, OSNR, Pin/ch, Pp
End Drawing graph of G and OSNR
Fig.6. Algorithm chart for calculating FWM noise power
Fig.8. Main algorithm chart for optimizing OSNR
OSNR of mth channel at the end of Link. Assigment
Step 3: running nested loops which correspond to parameters:
Pp, Pin/ch, G1, G2,…GM-1; find out the set of their optimazed values
(Pp, Pin/ch, G1, G2,…GM-1 ) to get maximum of OSNR at the end of
In each step of every loop, PASEtot, PFWMtot, PDRStot are
calculated following algorithm charts in fig.6, fig.7. Then,
values of OSNRs correspond to different K channels are
determined and they are compared one another to choose
OSNRmin among them because if it satisfies technique
requirements, OSNRs of remaining channels also satisfy them.
Step 4: Max=OSNRmax is choosen in values of OSNRmin that
is found out in step 3
Step 5: Output Gains of EDFAs: G1..GM-1., Power per channel
and power pump: Pin/ch, Pp; Optical Signal-to-Noise:
OSNRmax (=Max); Drawing plots: Gains and OSNR Vs
Ordinal Number of channels
+ Applying in the Vietnam Nation-wide DWDM system for
optimization OSNR.
In order to illustrate the optimizing parameters in one
concrete Nation-wide system where every span length
between EDFAs is different, VTN Nation-wide DWDM
Optical Communication System (in Vietnam) is chosen as a
typical one. P (opt)

DW in/ch

-10dBm Vinh Ron Dong hoi Dong ha Hue Da nang

39.71 dB
L 22dB 29dB 18dB 19dB 19dB 16dB
L2= 154km
L3 L4 L5 L6

G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6
23dB 36.5dB 18.2dB 23dB 18dB 27dB
Pin/ch(Non-opt) OSNR(Non-opt)
Tx 34.41 dB Rx
-8.98 dBm
Vinh Fig.9. Vinh-Danang segment with HFA located in the first span; Optimized values: Da nang
G1, G2 … G6,;Pin/ch ; OSNR are presented in Italic and Bold styles.
We then build algorithm charts to calculate ASE noise It consists of 5 main segments (links) [10] connected from
power, calculating FWM noise power and optimize Ha noi (capital) to Ho Chi Minh City through many cities
parameters of link as in fig.6,7,8. located on the way. In each segment, EDFAs are established at
The goal of this algorithm chart in fig.8. is to find out communication center in the cities lying along the link.
optimized parameter set including signal power per channel Therefore, span length between every two EDFAs is different.
launched fiber Pin/ch, EDFAs gain: G1, G2,…GM-1; pump power of Communication is transferred in two directions. In this
Raman amplifier: Pp for improving optical Signal-to-Noise system, Hanoi, Vinh, Danang, Quynhon, Phanrang and Ho chi
ratio (OSNR) at the end of link. Minh city play the role of both segment beginning and end
Steps of this algorithm chart could be explained in positions where terminal DWDM equipments including
general as follows optical transmitting and receiving cards are set up. Making
Step 1: Input parameters choosen from realistic values of link algorithm and calculating optimal parameters, thus, can be
Step 2: Writing expressions for calculating signal power Psig, carried out independently in five segments for achieving
total accumulated ASE noise power PASEtot , total FWM noise maximum of OSNR at the end of them. We consider Vinh-
power PFWMtot, total accumlated DRS noise power PDRStot and Danang transmission link as one of the typical segments for
applying algorithm charts mentioned in Fig.6,7,8. It connects system, so =0.24dB/km (including attenuation of
6 cities including Vinh-Ron-Donghoi-Dongha-Hue-Danang, α 1=α 2
shown as fig.9. Other segments in this system will be OADM, GFF, Connectors, soldering losses)
calculated and optimized similarly.
The first comparing block in fig.8. is carried out basing
IV. NUMERICAL RESULTS AND ANALYSIS on the conditions related to optical signal per channel
Total capacity of 160Gb/s including 16 channels launched to fiber (PinFiberi) at every span PinFiber1, PinFiber2,…
(16x10Gbit/s) is expected one in this system in near future. PinFiberM <PinFiberMax. It is chosen less than 14dBm per channel.
However, capacity of 40Gb/s consisting of 4 channels is being Total optical signal power (of 4 channels), thus, is less than
operated in these days. Optimizing, thus, will be done with 4 20dBm where SBS, SRS, XPM, SPM do not influence
channels for this link in first our step in order to compare significantly on signal quality[1]-[4].
optimized results with realistic ones. At the same reason, we First, 4x10Gbit/s transmission link is examined.
choose 4 wavelengths in this caculation are similar to that in Numerical calculating program (MathCAD) basing on
realistic link (see fig. 11): algorithm charts in fig. 6, 7 and 8 is carried out and results are
shown as follows:
Fig.10. presents signal and different noise powers versus
λ1 =1547 .740 nm ; λ2 =1548 .533 nm ; ordinal number of channels at the end of 4-channel Vinh-
λ3 =1549 . 328nm ; λ 4 =1554 . 974 nm; Danang Link in cases of optimized and non-optimized
The similar work will be carried out with capacity of
16x10Gbit/s and 32x10Gbit/s.
Algorithm chart in concrete form in segment Vinh-Ron-
Dong hoi-Dongha-Hue-Danang is also made as fig.8.
Variables including input signal power per channel Pin/ch and
gain of 6 EDFAs: G1, G2 … G6,; gain of Raman pump are
changed in range from ,
(−12 dBm÷0 dBm)
and , respectively
(10 dB÷40 dB ) (22 dB÷27 dB )
[10], [11], [13].

Fig.10. signal and different noise powers at the end of 4-channel Fig.12. Non-Optimized
Vinh-Danang OSNR
Link in cases of (measured realistic
optimized and results)
Gain of optical amplifies 6 EDFAs are supposed equal at and Optimized OSNR at the end of Vinh-Danang Link
all frequencies (i.e., Gj(m)= G(m), j=i,j,k…K) because in TABLE I. Non-Optimized and Optimized Gain of EDFAs in
(MathCAD program)
Vinh-Danang Link
practice, Gain Flat Filters (GFF) are being used in centers of
this system. In addition, dispersion is compensated by using Gain G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6
dispersion Compensation Module (DCM) is mentioned as in Non- 23 36.5 18.2 23 18 27
fig.4. nSP1= nSP2..= nSP7=1.4, mt=2. Alcatel ColorLock single Optimized
mode fiber chosen [7],[8], D=18ps/(nm.km), =0.09ps/ Optimized 22 29 18 19 19 16

(nm2.km), Aeff=80.10-12m2 .DCF was not used in this VTN
TABLE I. describes Gain of EDFAs in cases of optimized We then investigate similarly cases of 16-channel and 32-
and non-optimized parameters in Vinh-Danang Transmission channel transmission links (with capacity of 16x10Gbit/s and
Link. 32x10Gbit/s) in which wavelength range are
(1548. 52 nm÷1560 . 61nm)
respectively. Channel
(1538. 98nm÷1560. 61nm)
spacing is equal 0.8nm.
Results are presented in fig.13,14.,15., and 16.

Fig.11. Non-Optimized OSNR at the end of

Vinh-Danang link (measured realistic results)

Fig.11. shows Non-Optimized OSNR at the end of

Vinh-Danang Link (measured realistic results); whereas
Fig.12. describes Non-Optimized OSNR and Optimized OSNR
at the end of Vinh-Danang Link (from MathCAD program)

Fig.13. signal and different noise powers at the end of 16-channel Vinh-Danang Link in cases of optimized and non-optimi

The optimized results are found as follows Pin/ch =-10dBm;

Pp=26dBm; G1=22, G2=29, G3=18, G4=19, G5=19, G6=16.
Thus, OSNR can be improved by (1dB 5dB) thanks to
Fig.14. Optimized
optimizing parameters OSNR
comparing with that versus ordinal
in the cases number
where of channels at the end of 16-channel Vinh-Danang Link
parameters are chosen conventionally (following experience

Fig.15. signal and different noise powers at the end of 32-channel Vinh-Danang Link in cases of optimized and non-optimi
In this paper, we proposed three calculating models
of Terrestrial cascaded EDFAs Fiber Optic Communication
Links using HFA. We built then algorithm charts for
calculating FWM noise power, accumulated ASE noise power
and for optimizing OSNR at the end of link in general case.
Numerical calculating was applied in typical system (WDM
Nation-wide Links in Vietnam) to get higher OSNR by (1-
5)dB comparing with that in cases of parameters chosen by
experience way.
It means quality of the transferred signal through
whole this system can be improved thanks to optimizing its
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