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Titre original : Enhancing Optical Signal-To-Noise Ratio in Terrestrial Cascaded EDFAs Fiber Optic Communication Links Using Hybrid Fiber Amplifier

Transféré par monglieutrai99

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Communication Links using Hybrid Fiber Amplifier

improving ability of HFA (combinating of Distributed Raman

Amplifier DRA and EDFA) compared with original

Abstract -In this paper, we propose calculating models transmission (using EDFA) could be explained as follow: DRA

of Terrestrial DWDM cascaded EDFAs Fiber Optic which is located at the end of span (fig.2,3,4.) is considered a

Communication Links using Hybird Fiber Amplifier pre-amplifier of EDFA. It makes signal power level at the end

(HFA) including combination of Distributed Raman of span higher and EDFA Gain smaller (see fig.1.) Therefore,

nonlinear effects, different noises in fiber could be reduced.

Amplifier (DRA) and EDFA, and build algorithm charts to

This results in higher OSNR at the end of link.

optimize parameters including signal power per channel

launched fiber, EDFAs gain, pump power of Raman

amplifier for improving optical Signal-to-Noise ratio

at the end of span

(OSNR) at the end of link. Then, algorithm-based

numerical calculating (MathCAD program) is applied in

typical system (WDM Nation-wide links in Vietnam).

Optimized results show that the OSNR can be increased by

(1-5)dB comparing with that in cases of parameters

chosen by experience way.

Keywords: OSNR, Terrestrial; WDM; cascaded EDFA; Hybird

Fiber Amplifier

I. INTRODUCTION

Unlike Long-Haul undersea fiber optic communication Inusing

theseHFA

systems, however, if values of signal power

systemsFig 1. Signal

using in-line power

EDFAslevel versus

chains wheredistance in two

every span is cases: and using EDFA (original transmission)[15]

launched fiber, pump power of raman amplifier and EDFAs

located equally, Nation-Wide backbone terrestrial systems are gain have chosen basing on manufacture’s recommendations or

connected through many cities that the distances between by experience, each individual equipment and components can

among them are quite different. In such as systems, EDFAs are operate indifferently well. That operation may be locally

usually located at main communication centers in these cities optimized, not globally optimized because the interactions and

to be convenient for system management, control and co-ordinations of individual components for the whole link

maintenance.Therefore, spans have different lengths depended have not been considered yet. This means that system can not

on cities positions. In practice, after installing all system be set up their optimized values to achieve a higher OSNR at

components and configuration, the parameters of equipments the end of link. In this paper, from calculating models

such as optical transmitters, all EDFA gains are chosen basing (fig.2,3,4.), we build algorithm charts for optimizing OSNR at

on manufacture’s recommendations and/or compensating the end of link. Numerical calculating then, is applied in typical

completely the transmission loss of preceded span. In general, system (WDM Nation-wide Links in Vietnam) to get higher

recommended values of parameters are varied in broad band, OSNR by (1-5)dB comparing with that in links where

In that case, system can not be set up their optimized values to parameters are chosen conventionally by experience way.

achieve a high OSNR at the end of transmission link. The rest of paper is organized as follows. In section II, We

propose three typical calculating models, then, present

Yet, many WDM cascaded EDFAs systems using HFA calculation expressions signal power, dominant different

have been investigated, experimented and deployed in order to noises, OSNR at the end of link. In section III, we build

get better OSNR. Through theory and numerical studies, they algorithm charts for calculating total accumulated ASE, FWM,

have been demonstrated to be able to expand bandwidth from DRS noise powers, and for optimizing OSNR in general case

for all three calculating models (fig 2.,3.,4.). In section IV, we Hence, three typical calculating models are given as in

apply numerical calculating in WDM Nation-wide Links in Fig.2,3,4 in which HFAs are located in the first span, middle

Vietnam then analyze the results. Section V will be our span and last span respectively.

conclusion. They are considered as extension of model proposed in

II. CALCULATING MODELS [1] to calculate HFA. Where: M; M-1: the number of spans

and EDFAs in the Link; L(m) (m = 1..M) : mth span length

When distance of Terrestrial WDM cascaded EDFAs Gi(m), Gj(m), Gk(m) : gain of the mth EDFA at channel i, j, k

Fiber Optic Comminication Link is shorter than 1,000km, we

propose its calculating model consisting only one HFA in respectively Pi, Pj, Pk : input power corresponding to

order to decrease reasonably its cost and complication.

channels i, j, k

RxRx

is caused

Tx Tx G (1)(1) (2) (2) by FWM effect Gi(M-2) (M-2)

at theGend (M-1)

of transmission link created within

Gi i Fiber Gi G G (M-1) (M-1)

Gii(2) G G

Tx (1) the sections m th

(M-2)

i

Fiber

i i i

Pk (1)

Gi GGj (1) Fiber

Fiber (2)

Gj G (2) Fiber FiberGj (M-2)

Gj (M-1)

(M-1)

GGj G (M-1)

j Gjj(2) Fiber j

(1)

Gj GGk (1)(1) HFA G (M-2) (M-2)

j

k

Gk(2)G (2)

Gkk(3) k Gk k

GGk(M-1)

(M-1) (M-1)

G

k k

(1)

Gk

(2) (2)

(2) (2)

(2)

(2)

(2)

(2) (2)(2)

HFA

(2)

Pi (2)

HFA

P

Pjk

Pj

L(2) L(M)L(M)

L(2) L (M-1)

L(M-1)

L (1) L(2) L(M)

(M-1)

L

Pij k(1)

Pij k(1)

Pij k(1)

PPij k 2)2)

ij k

Pij k 2)

Pij k(M-2)

Pij k(M-2)

3)

Pij k P (M-1)

(M-1) ij k

Pij k

(M-2)

Pij k

Fig.2. General calculating Model of Terrestrial DWDM Cascaded EDFAs Link using HFA at the first span

Fig.4.

Fig.3. General

General calculatingModel

calculating ModelofofTerrestrial

TerrestrialDWDM Pij k(M-1)

WDM Cascaded EDFAs Link using in the

HFA at the middle

last span

span

the ith EDFA at mth channel; : Gain

( i)

G (f m ) GRoo (f m )

of Raman ; 2A(i): attenuation in ith span

Fig. 5. shows configuration of HFA with Backward pump at

+ FWM noise at the end of link

1450nm.

As system has a large number of channels, at a certain

Fiber EDFA frequency fm, a significant amount of FWM waves is created by

various combinations of channels in system[1],[5]. As a result,

Gi the total FWM power at fm is shown as

GFF DCM PFWMtot (f m )

, Li

Raman pump

(3)

Fig.5. Calculating Model of HFA PFWMtot (f m )= ∑ ∑ ∑ P ijk

+ Optical Signal-to-Noise Ratio (OSNR) at the end of f k =f ithat

: FWM noise power + fj−fis f j fi

m created by all M spans

transmission link Pijk at the end of link[1]:

causes

In this paper, total optical power launched fiber is limited

[ ]

M M m−1

less than 20dBm. Thus, the other effects of fiber 1024 π 6 P P P

nonlinearities (SPM, XPM, SBS, SRS) are significantly less

Pijk= 4 2 2

( dχ )2 i 2j k exp ∑ −2 A( m) ×| ∑ [ ∏ ( √G(i l ) G

n0 λ c A eff m=1 m=1 l=1

than FWM one and can be neglected[1]-[4]. As a result, ¿

Optical Signal to Noise Ratio (OSNR) at the end of link,

respectively mth channel (fm) is shown as:

[

[ ] 1−exp ( −α 1 +iΔ

m−1 M −1

Psig ( f m )

¿ exp ∑ (−2 A( l )+iΔψ (l) × ∏ ( √ G(Fl )) ×( α 1 −iΔβ1

l =1 l=m

OSNR( f m )=

Pnoisetot (f m )

(1) [

1−exp ( −α 2 +iΔβ 2 ) Lm2 ] )]|2

where:

Psig (f m )

: is signal power at the end of link +exp [( −α 1+iΔβ1 Lm1 ) ] ×

α 2 −iΔβ 2

(4)

Pnoisetot ( f m )=PFWMtot (f m )+P ASEtot (f m )+PDRStot (f m ) + Accumulated ASE noise at the end of link

PFWMtot (f m ) P ASEtot ( f m ) PDRStot (f m )

for general case (can be applied in all three

FWM, accumulated ASE and Double Raman Scattering noise

powers at optical mth channel, respectively.

P ASEtot ( f m )

+ Signal power at the end of link general models in fig.1, fig.2 and fig.3) in which Raman

In a Fiber Optic Communication Link using cascaded amplifier is located in kth span, 2<k<M-1; then build the

EDFAs and HFA, signal power received at the end of link

Psig(fm) is amplified by in-line EDFAs and is also decreased expression of at frequency fm (mth channel) as

by attenuation of fiber in spans. Therefore, it is presented as P ASEtot ( f m )

follows

follows

[ ]∏

M M −1

Psig (f m )=Pin (f m ). exp ∑ (−2 A(i )) G (i) ( f m ). G Roo ( f m )

i=1 i−1

(2)

where:

Pin(fm) : transmitted signal power assumed that are equally

for all channels

k

k

P ASEtot ( f m )=P ASE −R (f )+∑ P ASE( i )( f ).

m i=1 m

k

−2 A( j ) −2 A( M )

∏ G j. e .e GRoo +

j=1

M −1 M −1

−2 A (l ) −2 A( M )

+ ∑ P ASE (i ) ( f ). ∏ Gl . e .e .

i=k m l =k

Begin

D, dD/d, L1, LM, mt, h, c, mth channelX

: ASE noise power at fm at output of ith EDFA

P ASEi (ffor

Writing expressions m )calculating signal power Psig, total accumulated ASE noise power PASEtot , total FWM noise power PFWMtot, total accumlated DRS noise power P

Input

Begin parameters

M,mt,nsp,nspr,h,fm,k,B0,L1,L2,Lm,....

C

P ASEi (f m )=mt n sp hf m(G i −1)B o =mt n sp h (G −1 )Bo

λm i PASE(M-1)(fm):=mt.nsp.h.fm.(GM-1-1).B0.e-2A(M)

PASE(fm):=0,P:=1

(6)

:ASE noise power at the end of link caused Pp:=22

k i:=M-2

P ASE−R ( f m )

Pin/ch:=-12

by the Raman in span k; 2A(M): attenuation in Mth span i>k

Y

G :=10

Basing on expressions (4), (5), we build algorithm charts to P:=P.e-2A(i+1) 1

N

PASEi(fm):=mt.nsp.h.fm.(Gi-1).B0.P

calculate Accumulated ASE and FWM at the end of link

GM-1:=10

: Total Double Raman Scattering noise at N i=k

PDRStot (f m ) P (G ,G ,G ,…,G ,Pin/ch,Pp)

Y

th sig 1 )/A2 3 -2A(i+1)

M-1

optical m channel at the end of Link: Gon_off:=(gR.Pp.L eff eff

P:=P.e

PASEr(fm):=mt.h.fm.Nase.B0.P

P:=P.e-2A(i+1).Gon_off

PASEi(fm):=mt.nsp.h.fm.(Gi-1).B0.P PASEk(fm):=mt.nsp.h.fm.(Gk-1).B0.P

M −1 N PASEi(fm):=PASEr(fm)+PASEk(fm)

PinFiber1, PinFiber2,… PinFiberM<PinFibermax

PDRStot (f m )=P DRS (f m , L) ∏ e−2 A (i+1) Gi

i=2

PASE(fm):=PASE(fm)+PASEi(fm)

(7) Y

PASEtot(m,Pp,Pin.ch,G1,G2,G3,…,GM-1

N ),

where (6) PDRS tot(m,Pp,Pin/ch,G1,G2,G3,…,GM-1),

End i:=i-1

i<2

Input Lparameters no, , , Aeff, i, ,X Y ,G ,G ,…,G )

PFWMtot(m,Pp,Pin/ch,G 1 2 3 M-1

PDRS ( D,

f mdD/d,

, L)= ∫ ( f, h,m )⋅P

L L r, m X P (f ):=PASE(fm)+PASE(M-1)(fm)

RS ( y )⋅G R ( y , L ) dy

th

c, m channel

1, M t ASEtot m

OSNRmin:={OSNR=P /(P t+P +PFWMtot)}

sig ASEtot DRS tot

P0FWMtot(fm):= 0, p:=1

(8) (7) Fig.7. Algorithm chart for calculating ASE noise power

N Max<OSNRmin

q := 1

III. BUIDING ALGORITHM CHARTS

r := 1 Y

Max:=OSNRmin

N G(M-1):=G(M-1)+1 Y GM-1<=40

Y

N

d := 6 Y Y

G1:=G1+1 G1<=40

d := 3

N

Calculating Ppqr Y

Pin/ch:=Pin.ch+1 Pin/ch<=0

PFWMtot(fm) := PFWMtot(fm) +Ppqr

N

Begin

Y Y Pp<=27

r:=r+1 r <K Pp:=Pp+1

Y N

q:=q+1 q <K N

N

p:=p+1 Y p <K End G1...GM-1, OSNR, Pin/ch, Pp

N

End Drawing graph of G and OSNR

Fig.6. Algorithm chart for calculating FWM noise power

Fig.8. Main algorithm chart for optimizing OSNR

OSNR of mth channel at the end of Link. Assigment

Max=15dB

Step 3: running nested loops which correspond to parameters:

Pp, Pin/ch, G1, G2,…GM-1; find out the set of their optimazed values

(Pp, Pin/ch, G1, G2,…GM-1 ) to get maximum of OSNR at the end of

link.

In each step of every loop, PASEtot, PFWMtot, PDRStot are

calculated following algorithm charts in fig.6, fig.7. Then,

values of OSNRs correspond to different K channels are

determined and they are compared one another to choose

OSNRmin among them because if it satisfies technique

requirements, OSNRs of remaining channels also satisfy them.

Step 4: Max=OSNRmax is choosen in values of OSNRmin that

is found out in step 3

Step 5: Output Gains of EDFAs: G1..GM-1., Power per channel

and power pump: Pin/ch, Pp; Optical Signal-to-Noise:

OSNRmax (=Max); Drawing plots: Gains and OSNR Vs

Ordinal Number of channels

+ Applying in the Vietnam Nation-wide DWDM system for

optimization OSNR.

In order to illustrate the optimizing parameters in one

concrete Nation-wide system where every span length

between EDFAs is different, VTN Nation-wide DWDM

Optical Communication System (in Vietnam) is chosen as a

typical one. P (opt)

Pin/ch(opt)

DWDM

DW in/ch

39.71 dB

DM

L7

L 22dB 29dB 18dB 19dB 19dB 16dB

1

L2= 154km

L3 L4 L5 L6

G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6

23dB 36.5dB 18.2dB 23dB 18dB 27dB

Pin/ch(Non-opt) OSNR(Non-opt)

Tx 34.41 dB Rx

-8.98 dBm

Vinh Fig.9. Vinh-Danang segment with HFA located in the first span; Optimized values: Da nang

G1, G2 … G6,;Pin/ch ; OSNR are presented in Italic and Bold styles.

We then build algorithm charts to calculate ASE noise It consists of 5 main segments (links) [10] connected from

power, calculating FWM noise power and optimize Ha noi (capital) to Ho Chi Minh City through many cities

parameters of link as in fig.6,7,8. located on the way. In each segment, EDFAs are established at

The goal of this algorithm chart in fig.8. is to find out communication center in the cities lying along the link.

optimized parameter set including signal power per channel Therefore, span length between every two EDFAs is different.

launched fiber Pin/ch, EDFAs gain: G1, G2,…GM-1; pump power of Communication is transferred in two directions. In this

Raman amplifier: Pp for improving optical Signal-to-Noise system, Hanoi, Vinh, Danang, Quynhon, Phanrang and Ho chi

ratio (OSNR) at the end of link. Minh city play the role of both segment beginning and end

Steps of this algorithm chart could be explained in positions where terminal DWDM equipments including

general as follows optical transmitting and receiving cards are set up. Making

Step 1: Input parameters choosen from realistic values of link algorithm and calculating optimal parameters, thus, can be

Step 2: Writing expressions for calculating signal power Psig, carried out independently in five segments for achieving

total accumulated ASE noise power PASEtot , total FWM noise maximum of OSNR at the end of them. We consider Vinh-

power PFWMtot, total accumlated DRS noise power PDRStot and Danang transmission link as one of the typical segments for

applying algorithm charts mentioned in Fig.6,7,8. It connects system, so =0.24dB/km (including attenuation of

6 cities including Vinh-Ron-Donghoi-Dongha-Hue-Danang, α 1=α 2

shown as fig.9. Other segments in this system will be OADM, GFF, Connectors, soldering losses)

calculated and optimized similarly.

The first comparing block in fig.8. is carried out basing

IV. NUMERICAL RESULTS AND ANALYSIS on the conditions related to optical signal per channel

Total capacity of 160Gb/s including 16 channels launched to fiber (PinFiberi) at every span PinFiber1, PinFiber2,…

(16x10Gbit/s) is expected one in this system in near future. PinFiberM <PinFiberMax. It is chosen less than 14dBm per channel.

However, capacity of 40Gb/s consisting of 4 channels is being Total optical signal power (of 4 channels), thus, is less than

operated in these days. Optimizing, thus, will be done with 4 20dBm where SBS, SRS, XPM, SPM do not influence

channels for this link in first our step in order to compare significantly on signal quality[1]-[4].

optimized results with realistic ones. At the same reason, we First, 4x10Gbit/s transmission link is examined.

choose 4 wavelengths in this caculation are similar to that in Numerical calculating program (MathCAD) basing on

realistic link (see fig. 11): algorithm charts in fig. 6, 7 and 8 is carried out and results are

shown as follows:

Fig.10. presents signal and different noise powers versus

λ1 =1547 .740 nm ; λ2 =1548 .533 nm ; ordinal number of channels at the end of 4-channel Vinh-

λ3 =1549 . 328nm ; λ 4 =1554 . 974 nm; Danang Link in cases of optimized and non-optimized

parameters

The similar work will be carried out with capacity of

16x10Gbit/s and 32x10Gbit/s.

Algorithm chart in concrete form in segment Vinh-Ron-

Dong hoi-Dongha-Hue-Danang is also made as fig.8.

Variables including input signal power per channel Pin/ch and

gain of 6 EDFAs: G1, G2 … G6,; gain of Raman pump are

changed in range from ,

(−12 dBm÷0 dBm)

and , respectively

(10 dB÷40 dB ) (22 dB÷27 dB )

[10], [11], [13].

Fig.10. signal and different noise powers at the end of 4-channel Fig.12. Non-Optimized

Vinh-Danang OSNR

Link in cases of (measured realistic

optimized and results)

non-optimize

Gain of optical amplifies 6 EDFAs are supposed equal at and Optimized OSNR at the end of Vinh-Danang Link

all frequencies (i.e., Gj(m)= G(m), j=i,j,k…K) because in TABLE I. Non-Optimized and Optimized Gain of EDFAs in

(MathCAD program)

Vinh-Danang Link

practice, Gain Flat Filters (GFF) are being used in centers of

this system. In addition, dispersion is compensated by using Gain G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6

dispersion Compensation Module (DCM) is mentioned as in Non- 23 36.5 18.2 23 18 27

fig.4. nSP1= nSP2..= nSP7=1.4, mt=2. Alcatel ColorLock single Optimized

mode fiber chosen [7],[8], D=18ps/(nm.km), =0.09ps/ Optimized 22 29 18 19 19 16

dD

dλ

(nm2.km), Aeff=80.10-12m2 .DCF was not used in this VTN

TABLE I. describes Gain of EDFAs in cases of optimized We then investigate similarly cases of 16-channel and 32-

and non-optimized parameters in Vinh-Danang Transmission channel transmission links (with capacity of 16x10Gbit/s and

Link. 32x10Gbit/s) in which wavelength range are

and

(1548. 52 nm÷1560 . 61nm)

respectively. Channel

(1538. 98nm÷1560. 61nm)

spacing is equal 0.8nm.

Results are presented in fig.13,14.,15., and 16.

Vinh-Danang link (measured realistic results)

Vinh-Danang Link (measured realistic results); whereas

Fig.12. describes Non-Optimized OSNR and Optimized OSNR

at the end of Vinh-Danang Link (from MathCAD program)

Fig.13. signal and different noise powers at the end of 16-channel Vinh-Danang Link in cases of optimized and non-optimi

Pp=26dBm; G1=22, G2=29, G3=18, G4=19, G5=19, G6=16.

Thus, OSNR can be improved by (1dB 5dB) thanks to

¿

Fig.14. Optimized

optimizing parameters OSNR

comparing with that versus ordinal

in the cases number

where of channels at the end of 16-channel Vinh-Danang Link

parameters are chosen conventionally (following experience

way).

Fig.15. signal and different noise powers at the end of 32-channel Vinh-Danang Link in cases of optimized and non-optimi

In this paper, we proposed three calculating models

of Terrestrial cascaded EDFAs Fiber Optic Communication

Links using HFA. We built then algorithm charts for

calculating FWM noise power, accumulated ASE noise power

and for optimizing OSNR at the end of link in general case.

Numerical calculating was applied in typical system (WDM

Nation-wide Links in Vietnam) to get higher OSNR by (1-

5)dB comparing with that in cases of parameters chosen by

experience way.

It means quality of the transferred signal through

whole this system can be improved thanks to optimizing its

parameters.

REFERENCES

[1] W. Zeiler, F. D. Pasquale, P. Bayel, Member, IEEE,

J.Midwinter, Fellow. IEEE, “Modeling of four-wave

mixing and gain peaking in amplified WDM optical

communication systems and networks”, Journal of

Lightwave Technology, Vol. 14, No. 9, pp. 1933-1942,

September 1996.

[2] A. R. Chraplyvy, “Limitations in lightwave

communications imposed by optical-fiber nonlinearities”,

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Oct. 1990.

[3] A. Naka and S. Shigeru, “Transmission distance of in-line

amplifiers systems with group-velocity-dispersion

compensation”, Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol.

13, pp.862-867, May 1995.

[4] D. Marcuse, A. R. Chraplyvy, and R. W. Tkach,

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[5] K. Inoue and H. Toba, “Fiber four-wave mixing in multi-

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[6] Y R Zhou, A Lord, E S R Sikora “Ultra-long-haul WDM

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[7] Govind P. Agrawal, “Fiber-Optic Communication

Systems”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, third

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Fig.16. Optimized OSNR versus ordinal number of channels at the

[8] end of 32-channel Vinh-Danang Link

http://www.optics.rochester.edu/users/gpa/

/opt428b.pdf

[9] Emmanuel Desurvire, Dominique Bayart, Bertrand

We found out that in two cases of 16x10Gbit/s and Desthieux, Sebastien bigo,“Erbium-Doped Fiber

32x10Gbit/s, OSNRs increase slightly versus ordinal number Amplifier, Device and System Developments”, Wiley,

of channels. That could be explained as follow: ASE noise New York, 2002.

power is inverse to wavelength (expession (6)), [10] Nortel Networks Optera Long Haul 1600G, December

P ASEi (f m ) 2002, Danang telecommunication station, Vietnam

whereas other parameters are almost unchanged versus it, so, National Telecommunication 3, 5-2004.

when ordinal number of channels (wavelength) increases [11] Sung Wook Baik, Nguyen Van Tuan,“Optimizing

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P ASEi (f m ) Nation-wide Terrestrial DWDM Cascaded EDFAs Fiber

Optic Communication Systems”, 2006 International

V. CONCLUSION Conference on Communications and Electronics, HUT-

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[12] A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, “ On the Optimization

of Hybrid Raman/Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers”, IEEE

photonics Technology Letters, Vol.13, No.11, November

2001, pp. 1170-1172.

[13] Sun Hyok Chang, Jin Soo Han, Hee Sang Chung, and

Kwangjoon Kim, “Transmission Performance

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International Conference on Optical Internet (COIN

2006), Hyatt Regency Jeju, Korea, July 9-13, 2006, pp.

274-276

[14] Hong-Seok Seo, Joon Tae Ahn, Bong Je Park, and Woon

Jin Chung, “Wideband Hybrid Fiber Amplifier using Er-

Doped and Raman Medium”, ETRI Journal, Volume 29,

Number 6, December 2007, pp. 779-784.

[15]Mohammed N. Islam, “Raman Amplifier

Communications”, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in

Quantum Electronics, Vol. 8, No. 3, May/June 2002.

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