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HW 11
Due: 11:59pm on Thursday, June 21, 2018
You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy

Exercise 8.1 - Enhanced - with Solution

You may want to review (Pages 238 - 242) .

For related problemsolving tips and strategies, you may want to view a Video Tutor Solution of Momentum versus kinetic energy.

Part A

What is the magnitude of the momentum of a truck of mass 1.25×104 whose speed is 14.0 ?

ANSWER:

= 1.75×105

Part B
What speed would a sport utilitiy vehicle of mass 2200 have to attain in order to have the same momentum?

ANSWER:

= 79.5

Part C
What speed would a sport utility vehicle of mass 2200 have to attain in order to have the same kinetic energy?

ANSWER:

= 33.4

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Exercise 8.2

In a certain men's track and field event, the shotput has a mass of 7.30 and is released with a speed of 15.0 at 50.0 above
the horizontal over a man's straight left leg.

Part A
What is the initial horizontal component of the momentum of this shotput?
ANSWER:

= 70.4

Part B
What is the initial vertical component of the momentum of this shotput?
ANSWER:

= 83.9

Exercise 8.4

Two vehicles are approaching an intersection. One is a 2600 pickup traveling at 19.0 from east to west (the - direction),
and the other is a 1500 sedan going from south to north (the direction at 25.0 ).

Part A
Find the -component of the net momentum of this system.
ANSWER:

= −4.94×104

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Part B
Find the -component of the net momentum of this system.

ANSWER:

= 3.75×104

Part C
What is the magnitude of the net momentum?
ANSWER:

= 6.20×104

Part D
What is the direction of the net momentum?
ANSWER:

= 52.8 west of north.

Exercise 8.5

One 110 football lineman is running to the right at 2.55 while another 125 lineman is running directly toward him at 2.80
.

Part A
What is the magnitude of the net momentum of these two athletes?
ANSWER:

= 69.5

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Part B
What is the direction of the net momentum of these two athletes?
ANSWER:

to the left

to the right

Part C
What is their total kinetic energy?
ANSWER:

= 848

Exercise 8.16

A 65.5 astronaut is doing a repair in space on the orbiting space station. She throws a 2.30 tool away from her at 3.60
relative to the space station.

Part A
With what speed will she begin to move?
ANSWER:

= 0.126

Part B
In what direction will she begin to move?
ANSWER:

opposite to the direction in which she throws the tool

to the direction in which she throws the tool

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Exercise 8.19 - Enhanced - with Solution

Squids and octopuses propel themselves by expelling water. They do this by keeping water in a cavity and then suddenly contracting
the cavity to force out the water through an opening. A 6.00 squid (including the water in the cavity) at rest suddenly sees a
dangerous predator.

You may want to review (Pages 243 - 247) .

For related problemsolving tips and strategies, you may want to view a Video Tutor Solution of Recoil of a rifle.

Part A
If the squid has 1.55 of water in its cavity, at what speed must it expel this water to instantaneously achieve a speed of 2.50
to escape the predator? Neglect any drag effects of the surrounding water.

ANSWER:

= 7.18

Part B
How much kinetic energy does the squid create by this maneuver?
ANSWER:

= 53.8

Exercise 8.30

An astronaut in space cannot use a scale or balance to weigh objects because there is no gravity. But she does have devices to
measure distance
Typesetting and time accurately. She knows her own mass is 78.4
math: 100% , but she is unsure of the mass of a large gas canister in

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the airless rocket. When this canister is approaching her at 3.60 , she pushes against it, which slows it down to 1.20 (but
does not reverse it) and gives her a speed of 2.50 .

Part A
What is the mass of this canister?
ANSWER:

= 81.7

Energy in an Inelastic Collision

An iron block with mass slides down a frictionless hill of height . At the base of the hill, it collides with and sticks to a magnet
with mass .

Part A
What is the speed of the block and magnet immediately after the collision?

Hint 1. How to approach the problem


Because the hill is frictionless, you can apply conservation of energy to the iron block to find its velocity at the base of
the hill (before it collides with the magnet). Once you know the iron block's speed, you can apply conservation of
momentum to its collision with the magnet to find the speed of the two objects immediately after the collision.

Hint 2. Find the speed of the block at the bottom of the hill
Use conservation of energy to find the speed of the block at the base of the hill.
ANSWER:

ANSWER:

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Part B
Now assume that the two masses continue to move at the speed from Part A until they encounter a rough surface. The
coefficient of friction between the masses and the surface is . If the blocks come to rest after a distance , which of the following
equations would you use to find ?

Hint 1. How to approach the problem


The work-energy theorem states that the net work done on an object is equal to the object's change in kinetic energy. In
other words, all the energy that the masses have after the collision will be dissipated by the work done by friction as they
travel over the rough surface.

Hint 2. Work done by friction


The work done on an object by the force of friction is

,
where is the distance traveled. Recall that

,
where is the normal force acting on the object.

ANSWER:

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Exercise 8.35

In July 2005, NASA's "Deep Impact" mission crashed a 372- probe directly onto the surface of the comet Tempel 1, hitting the
surface at 37000 relative to the surface. The original speed of the comet at that time was about 40000 , and its mass
was estimated to be in the range . Use the smallest value of the estimated mass.

Part A
What change in the comet's velocity did this collision produce?
ANSWER:

= 1.4×10−6

Part B
Would this change be noticeable?
ANSWER:

yes

no

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Part C
Suppose this comet were to hit the earth at 40000 and fuse with it. By how much would it change our planet's velocity?
(The mass of the earth is .)

ANSWER:

= 6.7×10−8

Part D
Would this change be noticeable?
ANSWER:

yes

no

Exercise 8.40

To protect their young in the nest, peregrine falcons will fly into birds of prey (such as ravens) at high speed. In one such episode, a
610 falcon flying at 20.0 hit a 1.60 raven flying at 8.0 . The falcon hit the raven at right angles to its original path and
bounced back at 5.0 . (These figures were estimated by the author as he watched this attack occur in northern New Mexico.)

Part A
By what angle did the falcon change the raven's direction of motion?
Express your answer using two significant figures.
ANSWER:

= 50

Part B
What was the raven's speed right after the collision?
Express your answer using two significant figures.
ANSWER:

= 12

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Exercise 8.42

A 9.00- bullet is fired horizontally into a 1.20- wooden block resting on a horizontal surface. The coefficient of kinetic friction
between block and surface is 0.20. The bullet remains embedded in the block, which is observed to slide 0.310 along the surface
before stopping.

Part A
What was the initial speed of the bullet?
Express your answer with the appropriate units.
ANSWER:

= 150

Exercise 8.43

A 12.0 rifle bullet is fired with a speed of 370 into a ballistic pendulum with mass 8.00 , suspended from a cord 70.0
long.

Part A
Compute the initial kinetic energy of the bullet;
ANSWER:

= 821

Part B
Compute the kinetic energy of the bullet and pendulum immediately after the bullet becomes embedded in the pendulum.
ANSWER:

= 1.23

Part C
Compute the vertical height through which the pendulum rises.

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ANSWER:

= 1.57

Exercise 8.52

Part A
Find the position of the center of mass of the system of the sun and Jupiter. (Since Jupiter is more massive than the rest of the
planets combined, this is essentially the position of the center of mass of the solar system.)
ANSWER:

= 7.42×108 from center of thr sun

Part B

Does the center of mass lie inside or outside the sun? The sun's radius is .
ANSWER:

inside

outside

Exercise 8.55

A machine part consists of a thin, uniform 4.00- bar that is 1.50 long, hinged perpendicular to a similar vertical bar of mass 3.00
and length 1.80 . The longer bar has a small but dense 2.00- ball at one end

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Part A
By what distance will the center of mass of this part move horizontally and vertically if the vertical bar is pivoted counterclockwise
through 90 to make the entire part horizontal?
Find the magnitude of horizontal displacement.
ANSWER:

= 0.700

Part B
Find the direction of horizontal displacement.
ANSWER:

to le left

to the right

Part C
Find the magnitude of vertical displacement.
ANSWER:

= 0.700

Part D
Find the direction of vertical displacement.
ANSWER:

upward

downward

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Problem 8.76

You are called as an expert witness to analyze the following auto accident: Car , of mass 2100 , was stopped at a red light when
it was hit from behind by car , of mass 1500 . The cars locked bumpers during the collision and slid to a stop. Measurements of
the skid marks left by the tires showed them to be 7.35 long, and inspection of the tire tread revealed that the coefficient of kinetic
friction between the tires and the road was 0.650.

Part A
What was the speed of car just before the collision?
ANSWER:

= 52.0

Part B
By how many was car exceeding the speed limit 35.0 ?

ANSWER:

= 17.0

Problem 8.92

A 45.0- woman stands up in a 60.0- canoe 5.00 long. She walks from a point 1.00 from one end to a point 1.00 from the
other end (the figure ).

Part A
If you ignore resistance to motion of the canoe in the water, how far does the canoe move during this process?
ANSWER:

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= 1.29 to the left

Problem 8.107

Archerfish are tropical fish that hunt by shooting drops of water from their mouths at insects above the waters surface to knock them
into the water, where the fish can eat them. A 65- fish at rest just at the surface of the water can expel a 0.30- drop of water in a
short burst of 5.0 . High-speed measurements show that the water has a speed of 2.5 just after the archerfish expels it.

Part A
What is the speed of the archerfish immediately after it expels the drop of water?
ANSWER:

0.0025

0.012

0.75

2.5

Problem 8.108

Archerfish are tropical fish that hunt by shooting drops of water from their mouths at insects above the waters surface to knock them
into the water, where the fish can eat them. A 65- fish at rest just at the surface of the water can expel a 0.30- drop of water in a
short burst of 5.0 . High-speed measurements show that the water has a speed of 2.5 just after the archerfish expels it.

Part A
What is the average force the fish exerts on the drop of water?
ANSWER:

0.00015

0.00075

0.075

0.15

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Problem 8.109

Archerfish are tropical fish that hunt by shooting drops of water from their mouths at insects above the waters surface to knock them
into the water, where the fish can eat them. A 65- fish at rest just at the surface of the water can expel a 0.30- drop of water in a
short burst of 5.0 . High-speed measurements show that the water has a speed of 2.5 just after the archerfish expels it.

Part A
The fish shoots the drop of water at an insect that hovers on the waters surface, so just before colliding with the insect, the drop
is still moving at the speed it had when it left the fishs mouth. In the collision, the drop sticks to the insect, and the speed of the
insect and water just after the collision is measured to be 2.0 . What is the insect's mass?

ANSWER:

0.038

0.075

0.24

0.38

Quantitative Prelecture Video: Conservation of Momentum

Click Play to watch the video below. Answer the ungraded questions in the video and the graded follow-up questions at right.

Part A
Max (15 kg) and Maya (12 kg) are ice-skating on a frozen pond. At one moment, when Max is skating away from the shore at 8.2
m/s and Maya is skating towards the shore at 4.6 m/s, they collide and bounce off each other without falling. If Maya rebounds at
3.4 m/s, what is Max’s velocity after their collision?
ANSWER:

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9.2 m/s away from the shore

7.2 m/s away from the shore

1.8 m/s away from the shore

7.2 m/s towards the shore

1.8 m/s towards the shore

9.2 m/s towards the shore

Part B
Max (15 kg) and Maya (12 kg) are ice-skating on a frozen pond. When Max is standing on the shore, he throws a 1.5-kg snowball
at Maya, who is standing at the center of the pond. Maya catches the snowball and she and the snowball move away from the
shore at 2.0 m/s. How fast was the snowball moving right before Maya caught it?
ANSWER:

3.6 m/s

2.3 m/s

22 m/s

18 m/s

Part C
Max (15 kg) and Maya (12 kg) are ice-skating on a frozen pond. While standing at the center of the pond, Maya throws a 1.5-kg
snowball at Max and, as a result, recoils away from Max at 2.5 m/s. With what speed did Maya throw the snowball at Max?
ANSWER:

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25 m/s

30 m/s

20 m/s

2.5 m/s

Quantitative Prelecture Video: Impulse and Momentum

Click Play to watch the video below. Answer the ungraded questions in the video and the graded follow-up questions at right.

Part A
A 700-kg car, driving at 29 m/s, hits a brick wall and rebounds with a speed of 4.5 m/s. What is the car’s change in momentum
due to this collision?
ANSWER:

1.7 × 104 kg•m/s towards the wall

2.3 × 104 kg•m/s towards the wall

1.7 × 104 kg•m/s away from the wall

2.3 × 104 kg•m/s away from the wall

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Part B
A 700-kg car, driving at 29 m/s, hits a brick wall and rebounds with a speed of 4.5 m/s. If the car was in contact with the wall for
0.30 s, what force did the wall exert on the car during the collision?
ANSWER:

6.8 × 104 N

5.7 × 104 N

7.8 × 104 N

1.1 × 104 N

Part C
A 65-kg bungee jumper, who is attached to one end of an 85-m long bungee cord that has its other end tied to a bridge, jumps off
the bridge and toward the river below. When stretched, the bungee cord acts like a spring and provides a force on the jumper that
increases linearly as the cord is stretched. When the bungee cord is stretched to its maximum length, it exerts a 2.2 kN force on
the jumper. If the bungee cord is stretched beyond its equilibrium length for a duration of 1.2 seconds, what is the impulse
delivered to the bungee jumper?

ANSWER:

0.66 kN•s

0.55 kN•s

2.6 kN•s

1.8 kN•s

1.3 kN•s

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Video Tutor: Conservation of Linear Momentum

First, launch the video below. You will be asked to use your knowledge of physics to predict the outcome of an experiment. Then,
close the video window and answer the question on the right. You can watch the video again at any point.

Part A
Suppose that we attach Velcro® to the non-magnetic ends of the two carts in the video and remove the mass bars, so that both
carts have the same mass. We repeat the experiment shown in the video, and the carts stick together after they collide. If the
launch cart travels at a speed , then how fast will the combined two-cart system travel after the collision?

Hint 1. How to approach the problem


Momentum is conserved in this collision. The mass of the combined two-cart system is twice that of the launch cart, so
what can we infer about the speed of the combined two-cart system?

ANSWER:

0.5

0.25

Video Tutor: Happy/Sad Pendulums

First, launch the video below. You will be asked to use your knowledge of physics to predict the outcome of an experiment. Then,
close the video window and answer the questions on the right. You can watch the video again at any point.

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Part A
Imagine that you replace the block in the video with a happy or sad ball identical to the one used as a pendulum, so that the sad
ball strikes a sad ball and the happy ball strikes a happy ball. The target balls are free to move, and all the balls have the same
mass. In the collision between the sad balls, how much of the balls' kinetic energy is dissipated?

Hint 1. How to identify the nature of the collision


In the video, the sad ball doesn't rebound after striking the block—it hangs motionless, meaning that this collision is
essentially completely inelastic. We can predict that a collision between two sad balls will also be completely inelastic.

Just before the collision, the kinetic energy of the two balls resides entirely in the fast-moving pendulum ball.

Given that momentum is conserved in the collision, how will the two balls move after the collision? What does that say
about their combined kinetic energy?

ANSWER:

All of it

Half of it

None of it

Part B
Now, consider the collision between two happy balls described in Part A. How much of the balls' kinetic energy is dissipated?

Hint 1. How to approach the problem


In the video, when the happy ball collides with the block it rebounds with essentially the same speed, meaning that the
collision is elastic. We can predict that a collision between two happy balls will also be elastic.

Just before the collision, the kinetic energy of the two balls resides entirely in the fast-moving pendulum ball.
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Given that momentum is conserved in the collision, how will the two balls move after the collision? What does that say
about their combined kinetic energy?

ANSWER:

None of it

All of it

Half of it

Video Tutor: Water Rocket

First, launch the video below. You will be asked to use your knowledge of physics to predict the outcome of an experiment. Then,
close the video window and answer the question at right. You can watch the video again at any point.

Part A
Suppose we repeat the experiment from the video, but this time we use a rocket three times as massive as the one in the video,
and in place of water we use a fluid that is twice as massive (dense) as water. If the new fluid leaves the rocket at the same
speed as the water in the video, what will be the ratio of the horizontal speed of our rocket to the horizontal speed of the rocket in
the video after all the fluid has left the rocket? (Ignore air resistance.)

Hint 1. How to approach the problem


First, can we use momentum conservation? Let's take the rocket and fluid as the system. In the vertical direction,
momentum is not conserved because gravity exerts an external force on the system. But in the horizontal direction,
momentum is conserved (since we ignore air resistance).

Next, we draw before-and-after diagrams, labeling mass and velocity in each case. (For convenience, we use “exhaust” to
label the fluid both before and after it is expelled.)

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Momentum conservation enables you to relate the final horizontal momenta of the rocket and the exhaust.

The problem says that the fluid leaves the rocket “at the same speed” as the water in the video. What does that tell you
about ? ?

Now, write an equation for the rocket’s velocity in terms of known quantities, including and . How will doubling
and tripling change the magnitude of ?

ANSWER:

2/3

1/2

1/3

3/2

Score Summary:
Your score on this assignment is 99.3%.
You received 50.64 out of a possible total of 51 points.

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