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UNIVERSITI TENAGA NASIONAL

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

MEMB331 – MACHINE DESIGN

GROUP PROJECT

Portable Air Compressor

Group Members : 1) Muhd Asyraf bin Abd Kader Me095531

2) Muhamma Aidil Aizad bin Kamarulsahar Me095526

3) Manmit Singh ME 096035

4) Rakeesh Radhakrishnan ME 095894

Section : 04A/B

Lecturer : Puan Nolia Bte Harudin

1|P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


TABLE OF CONTENT

NO CONTENT PAGE

1.0 Abstract

2.0 Objective

3.0 Introduction
3.1 Design Specification

4.0 Methodology

5.0 Design
5.1 Spur Gears
5.2 Shafts
5.3 Bearings
5.4 Keyways
5.5 Housing

6.0 Results

7.0 Discussion
7.1 Spur Gears
7.2 Shafts
7.3 Bearings
7.4 Housing

8.0 Appendices

2|P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


1.0 Abstract

Figure 1: Exploded View of Gearbox Design

An air compressor gearbox is used to convert power produced by a single cylinder, two stroke
engine to potential energy stores in a pressurized air. The objective of this project is to design a
suitable gearbox for the air compressor. The gearbox designed consists of a housing, one gear set
consisting of a pinion and gear, 2 shafts, 2 keys and 4 bearings with a proper lubrication plan for
each component. In order to design the gearbox, some assumptions are made to select the best
dimensions and material for each component. Other factors such as weight, size, cost,
manufacturability and ease of assembly are also considered in the process of designing. After
numerous calculations and iterations, the safest and cost efficient design that meets the required
safety factors and constraints are selected as our final design for the air compressor gearbox.

3|P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


2.0 Objective

The main purpose of this design project is to understand and have hands on experience in designing
a gearbox. The design should consist of spur gears, contact bearings, shafts, keys and housing. A
number of assumptions were made to ensure the gearbox mechanism is functional and
reproducible.

In addition, the aim of this group project is to enable us to apply relevant theories and knowledge
we learned in lectures. This will help to improve our understanding on calculating the stresses,
safety factor, and dimensions of any component designed. Besides that, the objective of this project
is also to have hands on experience in computer aided design by using engineering software such
as CREO Parametric in simulating the designing of the gearbox and performing complex
mathematical calculations using excel sheets.

4|P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


3.0 Introduction

Nowadays, gearbox plays a vital role in this fast-changing world especially in motor-
equipped machinery of the industrial environment. There are many of kinds of gearbox available
in the market for selection, for just about any daily engineering problem applications. It is widely
used in the automotive industry, building constructions, power generation as well as shipping.
However, in this project, we only focus on gearboxes of a portable air compressor due time
constraints and the fact that the gearbox is the most crucial part of the air compressor design.

First and foremost, the gearbox, also known as a gear reducer or gear shifter, is a mechanism
of assembled gears that transmits energy from a high-speed motor or engine to rotate another
mechanical component of an output device. It increases the output torque while reducing the
rotational speed from input source. Even though most gearboxes are designed for speed reduction,
some may be created for speed increasing duties.

In order to discover how it actually works, we should figure out what is under the hood.
Basic components of a gearbox consist of gears, shafts, bearings, keys and housings. Gears and
shafts are arranged and fixed in a certain order so that inputs will be converted into desired outputs
flawlessly and not forgetting containment and safety functions, the casings are made to enclose
this assembly besides giving structural support. Moreover, since bearings are self-lubricated, all
shafts in the gearbox are equipped with roller bearings to smoothen its rotational movement during
the process. On the other hand, lubrication is also an essential part for lifespan elongation of
gearbox.

After research and discussion done on types of gearbox, we have finally chosen the Spur
Gearbox as the primary choice of gearbox and as our project title effectively. It is designed to meet

5|P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


today’s demand in the medium duty sector. It possesses a very high efficiency at all ratios and is
ideal for very high power transmission system which involves more than 50kW. Spur gearbox is
widely applicable in industries such as steel, mining and mineral extractions, cement as well as
power plants. Hence, it can be utilized with conveyors, bucket elevators, coal pulverizing mills,
cooling towers and many more.

The gear box of the air compressor consists of a set of pinion and gear with a certain gear
ratio. In the gearbox, there will be a larger diameter driving pinion in the gearbox that drives the
smaller diameter output gear. This converts the fast rotating speed and low torque power of the
rotor into a low rotating speed and high torque power. Thus the rotating speed of the input shaft
can be stepped down to a lower output speed as per requirement to run the compressor. The
gearbox of the air compressor does not “change gears” because it only has a single gear ratio. Spur
gear permits for various angles between the wheels. The axes of the wheels must cross each other
in a point. Moreover, for smoother meshing between gear wheels, the teeth are cut at certain angles.

Another part of the gearbox is the transmission shafts. Shafts are used to transmit torque
from the rotors of the wind turbine to the gearbox and to the generator. To make sure the shafts do
not fail under loading, a suitable material that has a high ultimate strength and fatigue strength is
chosen. Keys are used to connect a rotating element such as gears to the shaft and prevent slipping
thus enabling torque transmission. A suitable key is also needed to hold the gears in place so that
the gearbox can work.

Lastly, we will also design a suitable housing to contain all the components of the gearbox
so that it is well protected. A lubrication scheme is also thought out so that all the bearings and
gears are well oiled and lubricated so that the gearbox can run smoothly. When the gears are well
lubricated, the gear teeth will have reduced friction and thus reduced wear and tear of the gears.

6|P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


Gear efficiency affects costs of equipment, maintenance costs and operating costs for both
gear reducer and motor significantly. Thus, the arrangement of the gearbox’s parts and its
subcomponents such as lubricants play important roles in minimizing energy losses and
maximizing the power transmission. With this, the system is capable to achieve great savings,
especially in drive component costs and energy costs.

Before the process of power transmission, the shaft of the engine or motor must be
delivered into the gearbox first. The torque and speed supplied will go through a series of internal
gearing in gearbox after switching on the motor. This is done so that the torque and rotational
speed can be modified into suitable requirements specifically for its application. For this process
of gear reduction to be occurred accurately, set ratios involving the characteristic values of the
input source and the output device are determined through calculations, which will be discussed
later.

7|P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


3.1 Design Specifications

The general technical aspects of the portable air compressor are provided in the project outline,
with the following main points:

Power = 2.5 HP

Output speed, n = 1500rpm

Input Speed, n=3800rpm

With the above given speed ratios, the mating ration of the gears can be easily obtained. The
complete steps are shown in the excel file attached where all calculations were done.

In general, the engine is mounted on a base with its output shaft connected via a clutch to the input
shaft of a gearbox. The gear box contains a single gear set to reduce the high engine speed to a
lower one for the compressor. The required gear ratio is 1500:3800. The output shaft from the gear
box is connected via a coupling to the crankshaft of the compressor. The shaft in gear box housing
are carried in four suitable bearings, as represented by the calculations in the excel file.

In our calculations, a number of assumptions were made. For example, the material selections and
sizing of the gears were chosen after a number of trials and iterations on the excel file. In order to
protect the gearbox from accidental overload, a weakest link design is incorporated during the
design process. The key is selected to be the weakest link of the system with a safety factor of 5
as it is the cheapest part and easily replaceable. Moreover, the turbine gearbox is expected to last
for 10 years in continuous operation. Lastly, sound engineering effort and cost analysis is also
done during the process of designing the gearbox.

8|P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


Figure 2.0: Spur Gearing

Figure 3.0 Spur Gearing

9|P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


4.0 Methodology

From the information extracted from the problem statement, the gear is the first component to
be designed. This is because the gearbox is designed for the specific spur gear’s speed and torque.
Once the gear design is finalized, the shaft is the next component to be designed. The shaft
diameters that are limited to the gear diameters are then selected accordingly to get the right safety
factor.

In order to ensure all the components of the gearbox fit nicely into the housing, we have first
determined the housing size. We have chosen the size of the housing keeping in mind the need of
having a compact yet practical size of the overall compressor. By doing this, we have constrained
all sizes of the gears and shaft in line with the housing and by choosing an appropriate clearance
to ensure the components do not touch the housing as this would damage the components and
cause operational failure which we want to avoid at all costs.

Having the main components designed, the key is then designed to allow attachment of the
gear to the shaft. Keyways and slots are added to the gear and shaft and the effect of the keyways
on the shaft is the check to ensure the shaft does not fail. The design of the gearbox is then followed
by selecting the most suitable bearing for the shaft to be connected to the housing.

Lastly, the housing of the gearbox is then designed to house the system of gears and shafts.
Proper lubricant and lubrication method is then selected to ensure the gearbox to have a long
lifespan. Sound engineering effort is used throughout the process to reduce overall weight and
manufacturing cost of the gearbox.

10 | P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


In the process of designing each component, the trial and error method is implemented with
the help of a powerful Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. The factors affecting the safety factor such as
face width and diametric pitch of gears, shaft diameter, and key length are varied until a
satisfactory safety factor is obtained. Necessary assumptions are also made during the process to
simplify the design process without compromising on its quality.

Computer aided design (CAD) is also used to in the design process. The software CREO
Parametric is used to draw the components in 3D. The gearbox is then assembled part by part to
get a good visualization of the gearbox designed. Simulation is also done using the software to
check the stress concentration of each component.

Formulas and equations used in the analysis process are stated clearly in the appendices.
These formulas are retrieved from the Machine Design textbook by Shigley unless stated
otherwise. Catalogues and brochures are referred to for the designing of bearings that as bearings
safety factor is unique to each manufacturer and no standard equations are available.

11 | P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


5.0 DESIGN

With the help of CREO Parametric software, the design of the gearbox is drawn in 3D in order
to visualize the gearbox designed. The gearbox design consists of 2 spur gears (one pinion and
one gear), 2 shafts, 2 keys, 4 bearings and a housing.

Figure 4: Assembled View of Gearbox

12 | P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


5.1 Spur gear

Figure 6: 3D View of Pinion

The pinion is designed to have 15 teeth with a face width of 62 mm. The diameter of the
pinion is 75.00 mm. The multiview drawing of the pinion is shown below with all dimensions in
mm. The material chosen is Grade 1 Steel Steel Flame Hardened with 54HRC from table 14-6 of
the reference textbook.

Figure 7: Multiview of Pinion

13 | P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


Figure 8: 3D View of Gear

The gear is designed to have 38 teeth with a face width of 62.00 mm. The diameter of the
pinion is 190.00 mm. The multiview drawing of the gear is shown below with all dimensions in
mm.

Figure 9: Multiview of Gear

14 | P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


5.2 Shafts

Figure 10: 3D View of Output Shaft (Top) and Input Shaft (Bottom)

The cylindrical shaft designed are similar in shape and material for both input and output
shafts. The Input shafts has a diameter of 20mm mm and a stepped shaft diameter of 15mm. The
input shaft is further stepped to 10mm in order to attach the bearing with a diameter of 10mm. The
multiview below shows the dimensions in mm for both shafts.

Figure 11: Multiview of Input and Output Shafts

15 | P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


5.3 Bearing

Figure 14: Assembled View and 3D View of Ball Bearing

The bearing designed is a radial ball bearing which is attached to a flanged mount in order
to attach the bearing to the housing. The radial ball bearing has a bore diameter of 10 mm and an
outer diameter of mm. The following is a multiview drawing of the ball bearing designed.

Figure 15: Multiview of Ball Bearing

In order to constrain the bearings to the housing, end caps are added at the end of the shafts to lock
the bearings in place. One end of the cap is designed to fix the bearing in place by having an extra
intrusion inside the cap. The other end of the cap is designed to be the free end of the bearing
whereby the inner diameter of the bearing is fixed on the shaft using a snap ring

16 | P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


5.4 Key

Figure 12: 3D View of Key for Pinion and Gear and Assembled Pinion on Shaft

The parallel key designed is similar in size, shape and material for both pinion and gear.
The key has a dimensions are 2mm x 2mm x 1mm for width, height and depth respectively. Half
of the key height will be fitted in the shaft and the other half in the spur gear. The Multiview for
the key is shown below with dimensions in mm.

Figure 13: Multiview of Key

17 | P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


5.5 Housing

Figure 16: Assembled View and 3D View of Housing

The housing for the gearbox consists of 2 parts, namely the top half and the bottom half. Flanges
are added to the housing to allow attach the top and bottom parts effectively. The top housing is
designed to fit the gears and shafts in the most compact size hence the curved top.

The length of the housing is 1360 mm which fits the gears and also allow some spacing at both
ends of the assembly. The width of the housing is 240mm including flange. The total height of the
housing is 300 mm which fits the gear and adequate spacing from the walls are ensured.

The multiview for the housing are shown on the next page. All dimensions shown are in mm.

Figure 17: Multiview of Bottom Housing

18 | P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


6.0Results

DESIGN REALISED
Input Shaft Fatigue Safety Factor 6 8.19
Output Shaft Fatigue Safety Factor 5 3.52
Gear Bending Fatigue Safety Factor 5 29.62
Key Safety Factor 5 5
Table 1: Factor of Safety of Design and Realised for Gearbox

The spur gears are designed to be made of steel that is flame or induction hardened. The
gear teeth are of involute shape with a 20 degree pressure angle and the number of gear teeth
of pinion and gear are 15 and 38 respectively. The diametric pitch and face width of both pinion
and gear are designed to be 62 mm. Therefore, the pinion diameter is 75mm mm while the gear
diameter is 190mm. ISO VG 68 oil is chose as the gear lubricant.

The shafts attached to the pinion and gear are identical in shape and material. It is designed
so that Cold Drawn carbon steel 1020 is used to for the shafts. After considering the effect of
keyways, the Input shaft diameter is set to be 20mm and have a length of 240mm. The shaft is
stepped to facilitate the attachment of gears and the shoulder diameter is designed to be 15mm
with a notch radius of 5 mm.

A rectangular parallel key is used to attach the gear to the shaft. As the key is supposed
to be the weakest link of the system, aluminum casting alloy 43 is used as it has a lower
strength. The key is designed to be 2 mm in width, 2 mm in height and 1 mm in depth. Using
this size, the safety factor of the key is the lowest hence it will fail first when the system is
overloaded.

19 | P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


7.0 Discussion
7.1 Spur Gear

The turbine machine gearbox is designed to transmit a power of 2.5HP from a single
cylinder, two stroke engine is coupled through a clutch to a gear set to reduce the engine speed and
boost its torque appropriately by using two spur gears, namely the pinion and gear. The input shaft
is connected to the pinion with a rotational speed of 3800 rpm while the output shaft is connected
to the gear with a rotational speed of 1500 rpm. From the rotational speeds of the shafts it is clearly
seen that a reducing effect has been applied to reduce the engine speed in the gearbox.

The gear ratio is first determined by using the velocity ratio of the input and output shaft
and is found to be 0.395. In this design project, we have decided to use a pinion with 15 teeth and
hence the gear will have 38 teeth.

The following assumptions are made in the process of designing the gears:

1. The gears are assumed to be full depth involute teeth with a pressure angle of 20o that is under
HPSTC loading. This pressure angle is selected to reduce the undercutting effect as the gear
teeth are big and involute shape is selected as it is the most common and best gear teeth shape.
HPSTC loading is selected as the manufacturing tolerances are small thus load sharing
between teeth is assumed.

2. Both pinion and gear are made of steel that have been flame hardened. This material is selected
as it has the most suitable bending and surface fatigue strength which are comparatively high.

3. The spur gears are light with the pinion and gear weighing approximately 0.06 kg and 0.66 kg
respectively (2). Since the gear weight is low, it does not require rim and spokes to further
reduce it weight thus Kb = 1.0. Stocks are readily available at a reasonable pricing of less than
RM120 (2).

20 | P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


4. The quality of the spur gears are assumed to be 7 as it is hobbed and uses shaving and grinding
as its finishing process. A high quality gear is needed to ensure power is transmitted without
much loss and increase the efficiency of the turbine.

5. The portable air compressor is made of a uniform driving machine which is under moderate
shock as the machine fluctuates and vibrates and is very stable. Therefore the application
factor, Ka is determined to be 1.00

6. The temperature of the gearbox is assumed to be less than 90 oC as oil and lubricants are used
to reduce friction and heat generated.

7. The life cycle of the gearbox is required to be 10 years. Therefore, it is assumed that the turbine
operates on an 6 hour per day basis 365 days a year. Therefore, the life cycle of the pinion and

Weight analysis for pinion and gear

Given density for material chosen is 7870 kg/m3

Volume in m3 Mass (Vxp) in kg Price in rm/kg Price in RM


Pinion 2.76x10-4 2.00 3 6

Gear 5.03x10-3 37.00 3 111

𝜋
𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝐺𝑒𝑎𝑟 = 𝑥 𝑚2 𝑥 𝑧 2 𝑥 𝐵
4

Where m=module

Z=no of teeth

B=Gear width

Density of steel= 7500 kg/m3

21 | P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


7.2 Shafts

The gearbox consists of two cylindrical shafts, namely the input shaft with the pinion
attached and the output shaft with gear attached. Although hollow shafts are stronger, solid shafts
are selected as it is cheaper and compact in size. In this gearbox design, the input and output shafts
are designed to be similar in size and shape. Since the load applied on the shaft is similar for both
shafts, the shafts will have the same safety factor thus calculations are only done once.

Both input and output shafts are made of the same material which is cold rolled carbon
steel 1020. Although carbon steel 1020 is not the strongest steel, it is selected as the shaft material
as it is inexpensive and the strength is good enough to support the gearbox. This material is selected
is also due to its low density of 7870 kg/m3 thus reducing the weight of the shaft.

Heat treatment is usually done on shaft materials to increase the strength of the shaft.
However, in the case of carbon steel 1020, heat treatment is too costly and the increase in strength
is not significant enough. However, case hardening and carburizing can be done to increase the
material strength at a lower cost. Hot rolling of the material can help to relieve the internal stresses
thus making the shafts stronger.

The following assumptions are made in the process of designing the shaft.

1. The force applied on the shaft due to torque is a fully reversed bending. This is because the
shaft is precisely designed so as to not be deformed initially and hence no stress is present in
the shafts initially. Therefore, there the mean stress and mean shear stress are zero.

2. It is assumed that the gears are fitted exactly in the middle of the shaft. This is to ensure that
the maximum bending moment due to the torque will be the smallest possible value as the
loads are equally supported on both sides of the shafts.

22 | P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


3. The shaft is assumed to be a stepped shaft in order to allow the gears to be fixed in place. In
order to reduce the concentration factor, a shoulder fillet is introduced at the connection joint.
The notch radius is assumed to be 5mm for the input shaft and 3.5mm for the output shaft.

4. The shaft shoulder is lathed to the desired diameter accurately by a lathe machine. This is
because by lathing, the surface finish of the shaft would be very smooth and the accuracy of
a lathe machine is very high.

5. The keyway milled on the stepped shoulder of the shaft is a double ended end-milled keyway
with radius of 3 mm. The round corners of the end milled keyway will reduce stress
concentration of the shaft and prevent it from failing easily. A milling machine is used to mill
the keyway into place as it is accurate and have a good finishing surface.

6. The temperature of the shaft is assumed to be lower than 90oC as the shaft is not in constant
friction with any part of the gearbox thus producing less heat.

23 | P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


Graph of Shear vs Distance for X-Z Plane
80

60

40
Shear Force, V in N

20

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
-20

-40

-60

-80
Distance , x in mm

Graph 1: Graph of Shear vs Distance for X-Z Plane

Graph 2: Graph of Shear vs Distance for X-Y plane

24 | P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


Graph 3: Graph of Moment vs Distance for X-Z Plane

Graph 4: Graph of Moment vs Distance for X-Y Plane

25 | P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


Graph 5: Graph of Moment Total vs Distance

Cost analysis for shafts

Given density for material chosen is 7870 kg/m3

Volume in m3 Mass (Vxp) in kg Price in RM/kg Price in RM


Input Shaft 5.774x10-5 0.454 3 1.35

Output Shaft 4.44x10-5 0.349 3 1.80

𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑠ℎ𝑎𝑓𝑡 (𝑐𝑦𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟) = 𝜋𝑟 2 ℎ

Where the volumes of different sections of the shafts are added together in order to determine total
volumes as different sections of the shaft has different volume. The price is estimated using the price of
one tonne of AISI 1020 CD at the current market price of RM 2700 per tonne

26 | P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


7.3 Bearing

A radial ball bearing is selected from any existing manufacturing company in the market
to constrain the shaft fully to the housing. The ball bearing consists of an inner ring which is free
to rotate with the shaft and also an outer ring that is grounded and fixed to the housing of the
gearbox. The space between these rings are filled with steel balls to minimize the friction generated
when the shaft rotates.

After much calculations, we decided to use the bearings with Bore 10mm from table 11-2
as both the C10 values calculated for the input shaft and output shaft are lower than 5.07 kN thus
using the 10mm bore bearing is most practical as it the smallest option available and can be easily
sourced.

In our design, the input shaft designed have a diameter of 20mm and the output shaft is to
have a diameter of 17mm. However, the shafts are lathed to a diameter of 15mm and 13.5mm
respectively, before the ends of both the shafts are then stepped again to a diameter of 10mm to
accommodate the bearing with bore diameter of 10mm

In order to mount the bearing, we first slot it in on both ends of the shaft. Snap ring was
installed next to the bearing so that the bearing’s inner ring is fixed on the shaft fully. This allows
the inner ring to be connected with the shaft firmly and rotates with it. After installing the bearings,
end caps are screwed onto the housing wall, constraining any translational motion among the shafts
and providing physical protection on the bearings. Fix and loose end bearings mounting method is
used to allow some axial vibration on the shaft. When a gear is rotating at a high speed, vibration
occurs. If there is no axial or thrust allowance, the structure might has a lower life period.

27 | P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


7.4 Housing

Housing is a component of gearbox which surrounds the gears, shafts or inner components,
providing a cover. It provides a structural support and mechanical protection towards the inner
components from any external disturbances. It also holds a metal container which contains the oil
lubricant used to bathe the gears.

In our gearbox design, we used a housing which is shaped like a rectangular box. It is made
using casting aluminium, ASTM 355.2. Aluminium is chosen based on its lightweight
characteristic and its ability to withstand heat and load well (9). Cast method is used to manufacture
the housing with a thickness of 0.02 m. Its dimension is kept as minimum as possible to save space
and cost in order to keep the air compressor as portable as possible.

There are basically two holes on the housing, the gear shaft entry hole and the pinion shaft
exit hole. Bearing units are used to connect the shafts to the housing holes. The input shaft transmit
rotational motion from the single cylinder engine to the pinion past the entry hole while the output
shaft transmit rotational motion out of the gearbox through the exit hole.

There will be an oil jet inlet hole and an oil outlet hole as well on the housing for lubrication
purpose. Spray lubrication method is used to lubricate the gears. Hence, spray nozzle is directed
into the housing through the oil jet inlet. Excess oil will flow out of the housing through the oil
outlet.

A glass view is also available on the top cover of the housing. The glass view allows people
to inspect the condition of the gears without removing the housing.

28 | P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


8.0 APPENDICES
A. Calculation for Gear Set

𝜔𝑜𝑢𝑡
𝐺𝑒𝑎𝑟 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 =
𝜔𝑖𝑛

1500
𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 =
3800

𝐺𝑒 𝑖𝑜 = 0.395

Number of teeth on pinion, Np = 15 teeth (rounded up) using Equation 13-11 as input in Excel

3800 𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑒𝑒𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑛 𝑔𝑒𝑎𝑟


𝑀𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 = =
1500 𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑒𝑒𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑛 𝑝𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑜𝑛

𝑁𝑔 = 2.53 × 15

𝑁𝑔 = 37.95 ≅ 38

Initial Calculations Value Units


Pinion Speed 3800 rpm
Gear Speed 1500 rpm
Gear Ratio 1500/3800 no units(ratio)
Transmitted Power 2.5 hp
Transmitted Power 1.86425 kW
Pressure Angle 20 degrees
Life 10 Years
Working hours 6 hours/day
Total Working Hours 21900 Hours

29 | P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


Gear Teeth Analysis

Analysis
Gear Teeth Analysis
Value Units
Mating Ratio = 𝑁 𝑁𝑃 2.53 ratio(dimensionless)
Contact Ratio, K 1.00
Pressure Angle, Φ 20.00 degrees
0.35 radians
Smallest number of pinion teeth without inteference 14.66
Number of Pinion Teeth 15 teeth
Number of Gear Teeth 38 teeth
Torque on Pinion 4.68 N.m
Torque on Gear 11.87 N.m
Property Value Unit
Gear Box height 300 mm
Clearence 10 mm
Gear Box height-clearence 290 mm
Module 5.47 mm
Rounding down , Module 5 mm

Pitch Diameter of Pinion 75.00 mm


Pitch Diameter of Gear 190.00 mm
Pitch Line Velocity, V 14.923 m/s
Trasmitted Load, Wt 0.125 kN

𝐺𝑒𝑎𝑟 𝐵𝑜𝑥 ℎ𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 − 𝑐𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒


𝑀𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑙𝑒 =
𝑁𝑝 + 𝑁𝑔

= 5.47 ~ 5 (𝑟𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑑 𝑑𝑜𝑤𝑛)

𝑃𝑖𝑡𝑐ℎ 𝐷𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑃𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 𝑁𝑝 𝑥 𝑚𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑙𝑒

= 15 𝑥 5 = 60 𝑚𝑚

𝑃𝑖𝑡𝑐ℎ 𝐷𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝐺𝑒𝑎𝑟 = 𝑁𝑔 𝑥 𝑚𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑙𝑒

= 38 𝑥 5 = 190 𝑚𝑚

𝜋 𝑥 𝑃𝑖𝑡𝑐ℎ 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑃𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑥 𝑃𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑆𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑


𝑃𝑖𝑡𝑐ℎ 𝐿𝑖𝑛𝑒 𝑉𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦, 𝑉 = 60000

30 | P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


𝑉 = 14.923 𝑚 𝑠

𝑇𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑚𝑖𝑡𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟
𝑇𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑚𝑖𝑡𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝐿𝑜𝑎𝑑, 𝑊𝑡 =
𝑃𝑖𝑡𝑐ℎ 𝐿𝑖𝑛𝑒 𝑉𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦

𝑊𝑡 = 0.125 𝑘𝑁

𝑟𝑒𝑣 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑟 𝑑𝑎𝑦


𝐿𝑖𝑓𝑒 𝐶𝑦𝑐𝑙𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 3800 × 60 ×6 × 365 × 10 𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑠
𝑚𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑟 𝑑𝑎𝑦 𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟

𝐿𝑖𝑓𝑒 𝐶𝑦𝑐𝑙𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 4.9932 × 109 𝑐𝑦𝑐𝑙𝑒𝑠

Characteristics of Gear values units


Diametral Pitch 0.20 teeth/mm of diameter
Addendum distances, a 5.00 mm
Dedendum Distance, b 6.25 mm
Height occupied by gear mesh 275 mm
Tooth Height 11.25 mm
Outer Diameter of Rim for Pinion 62.50 mm
Outer Diameter of Rim for Gear 177.5 mm

1
𝐷𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑙 𝑃𝑖𝑡𝑐ℎ = = 0.20 𝑚𝑚
𝑚𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑙𝑒

1
𝐴𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑢𝑚 𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 = = 5.00 𝑚𝑚
𝐷𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑙 𝑃𝑖𝑡𝑐ℎ

1.25
𝐷𝑒𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑢𝑚 𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 = = 6.25 𝑚𝑚
𝐷𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑙 𝑃𝑖𝑡𝑐ℎ

𝐻𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑜𝑐𝑐𝑢𝑝𝑖𝑒𝑑 𝑏𝑦 𝑔𝑒𝑎𝑟 𝑚𝑒𝑠ℎ = 𝑃𝑖𝑡𝑐ℎ 𝐷𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑃𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑜𝑛 + 𝑃𝑖𝑡𝑐ℎ 𝐷𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝐺𝑒𝑎𝑟 +
𝐴𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑢𝑚 𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒(2)

75 + 190 + 5(2) = 275 𝑚𝑚

31 | P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


Wear Analysis for Pinion

Wear Analysis for Pinion values units


Reliability, R 0.999
Reliability Factor, KR 1.25
Surface-Strength Geometry Factor, I 0.1152
Quality Number, Qv 7
Factor A for Kv 65.064
Factor B for Kv 0.7310
Dynamic Factor, Kv 1.5614
Face Width, F 62.83185307 mm
Face Width, Round Down 62 mm
Load Correction Factior Cmc 0.8
Pinion Proportion Factor, Cpf 0.0757
Pinion Proportion Modifier, Cpm 1
Mesh Allignment Factor, Cma 0.158
Mesh Allignment Correction Factor, Ce 1
Load Distribution Factor, Km 1.1869
Elastic Coefficient Cp 191 (MPA)^0.5
Overload Factor, Ko 1
Size Factor, Ks 1.1143
Surface Condition Factor, Cf 1
Contact Stress 132.5398336 Mpa

Reliability chosen for ALL calculations = 99.9% or 0.999 for a highly reliable functional design
𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑙𝑖𝑏𝑖𝑡𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟, 𝐾𝑅 = = (0.5 − 0.109𝐿𝑁(1 − 𝑅))
𝐾𝑅 = 1.25

(𝐶𝑂𝑆(∅))(𝑆𝐼𝑁(∅))𝑥(𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜)
𝑆𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑆𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 𝐺𝑒𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑦 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟, 𝐼 =
(2(𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 + 1))

𝑆𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑆𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 𝐺𝑒𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑦 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟, 𝐼 = 0.1152

32 | P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


Quality value chosen is 7 for all the calculations

𝐴 = 50 + 56(1 − 𝐵)
𝐴 = 50 + 56(1 − 00.7310)
𝐴 = 65.064

2
(12 − 𝑄𝑣 )3
𝐵=
4
2
(12 − 7)3
𝐵=
4
𝐵 = 0.7310

𝐵
𝐴
𝐷𝑦𝑛𝑎𝑚𝑖𝑐 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟, 𝐾𝑉 = ( )
𝐴 + √𝑉𝑡
0.629961
65.064
𝐾𝑉 = ( )
65.064 + √14.923
𝐾𝑉 = 𝟏. 𝟓𝟔𝟏𝟒

4𝜋
𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑒 𝑊𝑖𝑑𝑡ℎ, 𝐹 =
𝐷𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑙 𝑃𝑖𝑡𝑐ℎ
𝐹 = 62.83~62𝑚𝑚 (𝑟𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑 𝑑𝑜𝑤𝑛)

Cmc = 0.8 for uncrowned teeth from Equation (14-31)

Mesh Alignment Correction Factor, Ce = 1 for all other conditions from Equation (14-35)

Mesh Allignment Factor, Cma =0.158 calculated from Equation (14-34)


33 | P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR
𝑃𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑃𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟, 𝐶𝑝𝑓
𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑒 𝑊𝑖𝑑𝑡ℎ, 𝐹
= − 0.0375 + 4.92(𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑒 𝑤𝑖𝑑𝑡ℎ)(10−4 )
10(𝑃𝑖𝑡𝑐ℎ 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑃𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑜𝑛)
𝐶𝑝𝑓 = 0.0757

𝐿𝑜𝑎𝑑 𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑏𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟, 𝐾𝑚 = 1 + 𝑐𝑚𝑐(𝑐𝑝𝑓(𝑐𝑝𝑚) + 𝐶𝑒(𝐶𝑚𝑎) 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝐸𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 14 − 30

𝐾𝑚 = 1.1869

𝐸𝑙𝑎𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑐 𝐶𝑜𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡, 𝐶𝑝 = 191𝑀𝑃𝑎0.5 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝑡𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 14 − 8

𝑂𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟, 𝐾𝑜 = 1 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝐹𝑖𝑔𝑢𝑟𝑒 14 − 17


The air compressor is assumed to have a uniform power source and uniform shock

𝑆𝑖𝑧𝑒 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟, 𝐾𝑠 = 0.8433[ 𝑚𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑙𝑒(𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑤𝑖𝑑𝑡ℎ)(0.290.5 )0.0535 ]


𝐾𝑠 = 1.143

𝑆𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒 𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟, 𝐶𝑓 = 1 is assumed to be always 1

𝐾𝑚 𝐶𝑓 0.5
𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑐𝑡 𝑆𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 = 𝐶𝑝[ 𝑊 𝑡 𝐾𝑜 𝐾𝑉 𝐾𝑆 ]
𝐹𝑑𝑃 𝐼

𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑐𝑡 𝑆𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 = 132.54 𝑀𝑃𝑎

34 | P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


Bending Stress on Pinion

Material 1
Material Selection From Table 14-6 Values Units
Grade 1 Steel Steel Flame Hardened with 54HRC 1206 MPA
New Contact Factor of Safety 6.28

Bending Analysis for Pinion Values units


Reliability, R 0.999
Reliability Factor, KR 1.25
Bending-Strength Geometry Factor, J 0.25
Rim Thickness Factor, KB 1
Load, Wt 0.125 kN
Overload Factor, Ko 1
Dynamic Factor, Kv 1.561
Size Factor, Ks 1.1143
Diametral Pitch 0.20 teeth/mm
Face Width, F 62 mm
Load Distribution Factor, Km 1.1869
Bending Stress 3.33 MPA

Material 1 chosen as it
Reliability chosen for ALL calculations=99.9% or 0.999 for reliable functional design

𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑙𝑖𝑏𝑖𝑡𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟, 𝐾𝑅 = = (0.5 − 0.109𝐿𝑁(1 − 𝑅))


𝐾𝑅 = 1.25

𝐵𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 − 𝑆𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 𝐺𝑒𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑦 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟, 𝐽 = 0.25


Which is obtained from Figure (14-6) given number of teeth of pinion 15.

𝑅𝑖𝑚 𝑡ℎ𝑖𝑐𝑘𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟, 𝐾𝑏 = 1


As the value of backupration is more than 1.2 governed by Equation (14-40)

35 | P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


𝑂𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟, 𝐾𝑜 = 1
The air compressor is assumed to have a uniform power source and uniform shock

𝐵
𝐴
𝐷𝑦𝑛𝑎𝑚𝑖𝑐 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟, 𝐾𝑉 = ( )
𝐴 + √𝑉𝑡
0.629961
65.064
𝐾𝑉 =( )
65.064 + √14.923
𝐾𝑉 = 𝟏. 𝟓𝟔𝟏𝟒

𝑆𝑖𝑧𝑒 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟, 𝐾𝑠 = 0.8433[ 𝑚𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑙𝑒(𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑤𝑖𝑑𝑡ℎ)(0.290.5 )0.0535 ]


𝐾𝑠 = 1.143

1
D𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑙 𝑃𝑖𝑡𝑐ℎ = = 0.20 𝑚𝑚
𝑚𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑙𝑒

𝐿𝑜𝑎𝑑 𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑏𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟, 𝐾𝑚 = 1 + 𝑐𝑚𝑐(𝑐𝑝𝑓(𝑐𝑝𝑚) + 𝐶𝑒(𝐶𝑚𝑎) 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝐸𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 14 − 30

𝐾𝑚 = 1.1869

𝑃𝑑 𝐾𝑚 𝐾𝐵
𝐵𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 = 𝑊 𝑡 𝐾𝑂 𝐾𝑉 𝐾𝑆
𝐹 𝐽

𝐵𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑆𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 = 3.33 𝑀𝑃𝑎

36 | P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


B. Calculations for Shafts

Parameters carried forward from gear analysis,

Pinion diameter, dp =

Pressure angle, ɸ = 20o

𝑇𝑜𝑟𝑞𝑢𝑒, 𝑇 = 4.68 𝑁𝑚

INPUT SHAFT WITH PINION

Property Value Units


Torque 4.68 N.m
Transmitted Load, Wt 0.125 kN
Reaction Raz 62.46 N
Reaction Rbz 62.46 N
Moment, Wt 5.46 N.m
Transmitted Load, Wr 45.47 N
Reaction Rax 22.74 N
Reaction Rbx 22.74 N
Moment, Wr 2 N.m
Resultant Moment 5.81 N.m

(𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑚𝑖𝑡𝑡𝑒𝑑, 𝑊𝑡 𝑥 0.035)
𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑅𝑎𝑧 = 𝑅𝑏𝑧 = 𝑥 1000
0.07
= 62.46𝑁

tan 𝜋 𝑥 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝐴𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒


𝑇𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑚𝑖𝑡𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝐿𝑜𝑎𝑑, 𝑊𝑟 = 𝑊𝑡 𝑥 𝑥 1000
180

𝑇𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑚𝑖𝑡𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝐿𝑜𝑎𝑑 = 45.47 𝑁

𝑊𝑟 𝑥 0.035
𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑅𝑎𝑥 = 𝑅𝑏𝑥 =
0.07

= 22.74 𝑁

𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑢𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝑀𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 = √𝑊𝑡 2 + 𝑊𝑟 2


= 5.81 𝑁. 𝑚

37 | P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


*ASSUMPTION MATERIAL AISI NO. 1020 CD WAS CHOSEN
Factors (from various tables) Values Units/from table
Tensile Strength, Sut 470 Mpa
Yield Strength, Sy 390 Mpa
Moment, Kt 1.52 *Fig. A-15-9
Torsion, Kts 1.34 *Fig. A-15-8
q 0.73 *Fig. 6-20
qshear 0.75 *Fig.6-21
Kf 1.38
K fs 1.26
Endurance Limit, Se' 235 Mpa
Surface Factor, Ka 0.88 *Table 6.2
Size Factor, Kb 0.82 *Eqn 6.20
Loading Factor, Kc 1
Temperature Factor, Kd 1
Reliability Factor, Ke 0.753 *Table 6.5
Miscellaneous Factor, Kf 1
Eduranance Limit Modifying Factor, Se 127.52 Mpa
Estimated Safety Factor, n 6

Material chosen is AISI No. 1020 Cold drawn with Sut=470MPa and Sy=390MPa

𝑀𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡, 𝐾𝑡 = 1.52 𝑖𝑠 𝑜𝑏𝑡𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝑓𝑖𝑔𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝐴 − 15 − 9

𝑇𝑜𝑟𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛, 𝐾𝑡𝑠 = 1.34 𝑖𝑠 𝑜𝑏𝑡𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝑓𝑖𝑔𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝐴 − 15 − 8

𝑛𝑜𝑡𝑐ℎ 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦, 𝑞 = 0.73 𝑖𝑠 𝑜𝑏𝑡𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝑓𝑖𝑔𝑢𝑟𝑒 6 − 20

𝑞𝑠ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑟 = 0.75 𝑖𝑠 𝑜𝑏𝑡𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝐹𝑖𝑔𝑢𝑟𝑒 6 − 21

𝐾𝑓 = 1 + 𝑞(𝐾𝑡 − 1)

= 1.38

𝐾𝑓𝑠 = 1 + 𝑞(𝐾𝑡𝑠 − 1)
1.26

𝐸𝑛𝑑𝑢𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝐿𝑖𝑚𝑖𝑡, 𝑆𝑒 ′ = 0.5𝑆𝑢𝑡

38 | P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


𝑆𝑒 ′ =235 MPa

𝑆𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟, 𝐾𝑎 = 𝑎𝑆𝑢𝑡𝑏

𝐾𝑎 = 0.88

𝑆𝑖𝑧𝑒 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟, 𝐾𝑏 = 1.24𝑑−0.1017

= 0.82

𝐿𝑜𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟, 𝐾𝑐 = 1 𝑎𝑠 𝑠ℎ𝑎𝑓𝑡 𝑖𝑠 𝑖𝑛 𝑏𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔

𝑇𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟, 𝐾𝑑 = 1 𝑎𝑠 𝑜𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑖𝑠 𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑑 𝑎𝑡 200 𝐶

𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑙𝑖𝑏𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟, 𝐾𝑒 = 0.753 𝑎𝑡 99.9% 𝑟𝑒𝑙𝑖𝑎𝑏𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝑡𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 6 − 2

𝑀𝑖𝑠𝑐𝑒𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑜𝑢𝑠 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟, 𝐾𝑓 = 1 𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑑 𝑎𝑠 𝑎𝑙𝑤𝑎𝑦𝑠

𝐸𝑑𝑢𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝐿𝑖𝑚𝑖𝑡 𝑀𝑜𝑑𝑖𝑓𝑦𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟, 𝑆𝑒 = 𝐾𝑎𝐾𝑏𝐾𝑐𝐾𝑑𝐾𝑒𝐾𝑓𝑆𝑒′

=127.52 MPa

39 | P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


Values Units
Initial guess for d1 18.60 mm
TRIAL & ERROR
Standard Diameter, d 18 mm
Suggeted Diameter D 21.6 mm
Standard Diameter, D new 20 mm
D/d new 1.11
Fillet Radius, r 5 mm
r/d 0.278
Von Mises Stress σa' 13.16 Mpa
Von Mises Stress σ m' 8.89 MPa
Safety Factor, n 8.19
Check yielding, ny 17.69
Satisfied with F.OS 8.19
Figure __

A trial & Error method is then employed to determine the best diameter. In the figure above, we
have shown the best trial result and have chosen it to proceed with our design.

𝐼𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑔𝑢𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 = 18.60 𝑚𝑚

𝑆𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑎𝑟𝑑 𝐷𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 = 18 𝑚𝑚

𝑆𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑎𝑟𝑑 𝐷𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟, 𝑛𝑒𝑤 = 𝑆𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑎𝑟𝑑 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑥 1.2 = 20𝑚𝑚

1
𝑆𝑎𝑓𝑒𝑡𝑦 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟, 𝑛 =
𝜎𝑎′ 𝜎𝑚′
𝑆𝑒 + 𝑆𝑢𝑡

𝑛 = 8.19

40 | P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


OUTPUT SHAFT WITH GEAR

Property Value Units


Torque 11.87 N.m
Transmitted Load at A, Wt 0.125 kN
Reaction Rcz 62.46 N
Reaction Rdz 62.46 N
Moment, Wt 5.46 N.m
Transmitted Load at B, Wr 45.47 N
Reaction Rcx 22.74 N
Reaction Rdx 22.74 N
Moment, Wr 2 N.m
Resultant Moment 5.81 N.m

(𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑚𝑖𝑡𝑡𝑒𝑑, 𝑊𝑡 𝑥 0.035)
𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑅𝑎𝑧 = 𝑅𝑐𝑧 = 𝑥 1000
0.07

= 62.46𝑁

tan 𝜋 𝑥 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝐴𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒


𝑇𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑚𝑖𝑡𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝐿𝑜𝑎𝑑, 𝑊𝑟 = 𝑊𝑡 𝑥 𝑥 1000
180

𝑇𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑚𝑖𝑡𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝐿𝑜𝑎𝑑 = 45.47 𝑁

𝑊𝑟 𝑥 0.035
𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑅𝑎𝑥 = 𝑅𝑐𝑥 =
0.07

= 22.74 𝑁

𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑢𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝑀𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 = √𝑊𝑡 2 + 𝑊𝑟 2

= 5.81 𝑁. 𝑚

41 | P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


*ASSUMPTION THE MATERIAL AISI NO. 1020 CD WAS CHOSEN
Factors (from various tables) Values Units/From tables
Tensile Strength, Sut 470 Mpa
Yield Strength, Sy 390 Mpa
Moment, Kt 1.52 *Fig. A-15-9
Torsion, Kts 1.34 *Fig. A-15-8
q 0.77 *Fig. 6-20
qshear 0.81 *Fig.6-21
Kf 1.40
K fs 1.28
Endurance Limit, Se' 235 Mpa
Surface Factor, Ka 0.88 *Table 6.2
Size Factor, Kb 0.74 *Eqn 6.20
Loading Factor, Kc 1
Temperature Factor, Kd 1
Reliability Factor, Ke 0.753 *Table 6.5
Miscellaneous Factor, Kf 1
Eduranance Limit Modifying Factor, Se 115.44 Mpa
Estimated Factor of Safety 5

Material chosen is AISI No. 1020 Cold drawn with Sut=470MPa and Sy=390MPa

𝑀𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡, 𝐾𝑡 = 1.52 𝑖𝑠 𝑜𝑏𝑡𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝑓𝑖𝑔𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝐴 − 15 − 9

𝑇𝑜𝑟𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛, 𝐾𝑡𝑠 = 1.34 𝑖𝑠 𝑜𝑏𝑡𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝑓𝑖𝑔𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝐴 − 15 − 8

𝑛𝑜𝑡𝑐ℎ 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦, 𝑞 = 0.77 𝑖𝑠 𝑜𝑏𝑡𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝑓𝑖𝑔𝑢𝑟𝑒 6 − 20

𝑞𝑠ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑟 = 0.75 𝑖𝑠 𝑜𝑏𝑡𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝐹𝑖𝑔𝑢𝑟𝑒 6 − 21

𝐾𝑓 = 1 + 𝑞(𝐾𝑡 − 1)

= 1.40

𝐾𝑓𝑠 = 1 + 𝑞(𝐾𝑡𝑠 − 1)
1.28

42 | P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


𝐸𝑛𝑑𝑢𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝐿𝑖𝑚𝑖𝑡, 𝑆𝑒 ′ = 0.5𝑆𝑢𝑡

𝑆𝑒 ′ =235 MPa

𝑆𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟, 𝐾𝑎 = 𝑎𝑆𝑢𝑡𝑏

𝐾𝑎 = 0.88

𝑆𝑖𝑧𝑒 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟, 𝐾𝑏 = 1.24𝑑−0.1017

= 0.74

𝐿𝑜𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟, 𝐾𝑐 = 1 𝑎𝑠 𝑠ℎ𝑎𝑓𝑡 𝑖𝑠 𝑖𝑛 𝑏𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔

𝑇𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟, 𝐾𝑑 = 1 𝑎𝑠 𝑜𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑖𝑠 𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑑 𝑎𝑡 200 𝐶

𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑙𝑖𝑏𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟, 𝐾𝑒 = 0.753 𝑎𝑡 99.9% 𝑟𝑒𝑙𝑖𝑎𝑏𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝑡𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 6 − 2

𝑀𝑖𝑠𝑐𝑒𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑜𝑢𝑠 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟, 𝐾𝑓 = 1 𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑑 𝑎𝑠 𝑎𝑙𝑤𝑎𝑦𝑠

𝐸𝑑𝑢𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝐿𝑖𝑚𝑖𝑡 𝑀𝑜𝑑𝑖𝑓𝑦𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟, 𝑆𝑒 = 𝐾𝑎𝐾𝑏𝐾𝑐𝐾𝑑𝐾𝑒𝐾𝑓𝑆𝑒′

=115.44 MPa

43 | P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


values Units
Initial guess for d2 16.86 mm
TRIAL & ERROR
Standard Diameter, d 15 mm
Suggeted Diameter D 18 mm
Standard Diameter, Dnew 17 mm
D/d new 1.13
Fillet Radius, r 3.5 mm
r/d 0.233
Von Mises Stress σa' 23.08 MPa
Von Mises Stress σm' 39.56 MPa
Safety Factor, n 3.52
Check yielding, n y 6.23
SATISFIED WITH F.O.S 3.52

A trial & Error method is then employed to determine the best diameter. In the figure above, we
have shown the best trial result and have chosen it to proceed with our design.

𝐼𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑔𝑢𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 = 16.86 𝑚𝑚

𝑆𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑎𝑟𝑑 𝐷𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 = 15 𝑚𝑚

𝑆𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑎𝑟𝑑 𝐷𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟, 𝑛𝑒𝑤 = 𝑆𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑎𝑟𝑑 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑥 1.2 = 17 𝑚𝑚

1
𝑆𝑎𝑓𝑒𝑡𝑦 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟, 𝑛 =
𝜎𝑎′ 𝜎𝑚′
𝑆𝑒 + 𝑆𝑢𝑡

𝑛 = 3.52

44 | P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


C. BEARINGS

Bearings
Analysis bearing pinion- Input Shaft

Values Units
Shaft speed, nD 3800 rpm
Desired Life ʟD 21900 hours
Bearing Life,LD 4.99E+09

𝐵𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝐿𝑖𝑓𝑒, 𝐿𝐷 = 𝐷𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑙𝑖𝑓𝑒 𝑥 60𝑥 𝑆ℎ𝑎𝑓𝑡 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑

= 4.99𝑥1009

In general, the bearing calculations are all based on equation (11-10) as the reliability is
more than 90%.

The value for a is 3 all ball bearing is used. Manufacturer 2 information is used for all
calculations.

Reaction Forces
Bearing 1 ( A)
Values Units
Rax 22.74 N
Raz 62.46 N
Desired Radial Load 66.47 N
Desired Life, LD 21900 Hours
a 3
Load Application Factor, af 1.2
Rating Life L10 1.00E+06
XD 4.99E+03
Catolog Load rating (C10) 3.44 kN

Manufactor 2 information is used

45 | P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


2
𝐷𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔, 𝐹𝐷 = √𝑅𝑎𝑥 2 + 𝑅𝑎𝑧 2

= 66.47𝑁

𝐵𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝐿𝑖𝑓𝑒, 𝐿𝐷
𝑋𝐷 =
𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝐿𝑖𝑓𝑒, 𝐿10

= 4.99𝑥1003

𝑋𝐷 1 𝑎
𝐶10 = 𝑎𝑓 𝐹𝑑 [ 1]
𝑋𝑂 + (𝜃 − 𝑋𝑂 )(1 − 𝑅𝐷 )𝑏

𝐶10 = 3.44 𝑘𝑁

Bearing 2 (B)
Values Units
Rbx 22.74 N
Rbz 62.46 N
Desired Radial Loading 66.47 N
Desired Life, LD 21900 Hours
a 3
Load Application Factor, af 1.2
Rating Life L10 1.00E+06
XD 4.99E+03
Catalog Load Rating (C10) 3.44 kN

Manufactor 2 information is used


2
𝐷𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔, 𝐹𝐷 = √𝑅𝑏𝑥 2 + 𝑅𝑏𝑧 2

= 66.47 𝑁

46 | P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


𝐵𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝐿𝑖𝑓𝑒, 𝐿𝐷
𝑋𝐷 =
𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝐿𝑖𝑓𝑒, 𝐿10

= 4.99𝑥103

𝑋𝐷 1 𝑎
𝐶10 = 𝑎𝑓 𝐹𝑑 [ 1]
𝑋𝑂 + (𝜃 − 𝑋𝑂 )(1 − 𝑅𝐷 )𝑏

𝐶10 = 3.44 𝑘𝑁

Analysis Bearing Gear - Output Shaft

Values Units
Shaft speed, nD 1500 rpm
Desired Life ʟD 21900 hours
Bearing Life,LD 1.97E+09 cycles

𝐵𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝐿𝑖𝑓𝑒, 𝐿𝐷 = 𝐷𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑙𝑖𝑓𝑒 𝑥 60𝑥 𝑆ℎ𝑎𝑓𝑡 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑

= 1.97𝑥1009

47 | P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


Reaction Forces
Bearing 3 ( C )
Values Units
Rcx 22.74 N
Rcz 62.46 N
Desired Radial Load 66.47 N
Desired Life, LD 21900 Hours
a 3
Load Application Factor, af 1.2
Rating Life L10 1.00E+06
XD 1.97E+03
Catolog Load rating (C10) 2.53 kN

Manufacturer 2 information is used

2
𝐷𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔, 𝐹𝐷 = √𝑅𝑐𝑥 2 + 𝑅𝑐𝑧 2

= 66.47 𝑁

𝐵𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝐿𝑖𝑓𝑒, 𝐿𝐷
𝑋𝐷 =
𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝐿𝑖𝑓𝑒, 𝐿10

= 1.97𝑥103

𝑋𝐷 1 𝑎
𝐶10 = 𝑎𝑓 𝐹𝑑 [ 1]
𝑋𝑂 + (𝜃 − 𝑋𝑂 )(1 − 𝑅𝐷 )𝑏

𝐶10 = 2.53 𝑘𝑁

48 | P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


Bearing 4 (D)
Values Units
Rdx 22.74 N
Rdz 62.46 N
Desired Radial Loading 66.47 N
Desired Life, LD 21900 Hours
a 3
Load Application Factor, af 1.2
Rating Life L10 1.00E+06
XD 1.97E+03
Catalog Load Rating (C10) 2.53 kN

Manufacturer 2 information is used

2
𝐷𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔, 𝐹𝐷 = √𝑅𝑑𝑥 2 + 𝑅𝑑𝑧 2

= 66.47 𝑁

𝐵𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝐿𝑖𝑓𝑒, 𝐿𝐷
𝑋𝐷 =
𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝐿𝑖𝑓𝑒, 𝐿10

= 1.97𝑥103

𝑋𝐷 1 𝑎
𝐶10 = 𝑎𝑓 𝐹𝑑 [ 1]
𝑋𝑂 + (𝜃 − 𝑋𝑂 )(1 − 𝑅𝐷 )𝑏

𝐶10 = 2.53 𝑘𝑁

49 | P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


D. KEY DESIGN

Input Shaft with Pinion Values Units


Transmitted Torque 4.68 Nm
Bore diameter of Shaft 10 mm
Side dimension, t 10 mm
Sy 390 Mpa
Safety Factor, n 5

Force on key, F 0.94 kN


Length of key, l to resist crushing 2.40 mm

0.5
𝐹𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒 𝑜𝑛 𝑘𝑒𝑦, 𝐹 = 2(𝑇𝑜𝑟𝑞𝑢𝑒 2 )𝑏𝑜𝑟𝑒

= 0.94 𝑘𝑁

2𝐹𝑥1000𝑥𝑛
𝐿𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝐾𝑒𝑦, 𝐼 𝑡𝑜 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑠𝑡 𝑐𝑟𝑢𝑠ℎ𝑖𝑛𝑔 =
0.001𝑡
1000000𝑆𝑦(1000)

= 2.40 𝑚𝑚

50 | P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR


Output Shaft with gear Values Units
Transmitted Torque 11.87 Nm
Bore diameter of Shaft 10 mm
Side dimension, t 10 mm
Sy 390 Mpa
Safety Factor, n 5

Force on key, F 2.37 kN


Length of key, l to resist crushing 6.09 mm

0.5
𝐹𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒 𝑜𝑛 𝑘𝑒𝑦, 𝐹 = 2(𝑇𝑜𝑟𝑞𝑢𝑒 2 )𝑏𝑜𝑟𝑒

= 2.37 𝑘𝑁

2𝐹𝑥1000𝑥𝑛
𝐿𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝐾𝑒𝑦, 𝐼 𝑡𝑜 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑠𝑡 𝑐𝑟𝑢𝑠ℎ𝑖𝑛𝑔 =
0.001𝑡
1000000𝑆𝑦(1000)

= 6.09 𝑚𝑚

Keyway with size 2x2x1 mm (width, height and depth) are chosen for both shafts from table (7-6)

51 | P a g e MEMB333 – MACHINE DESIGN- PORTABLE AIR COMPRESSOR