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Course Outline

Chapter One: You, The Teacher, as a Person in Society

1. Your Philosophical Heritage
2. Formulating Your Philosophy of Education
3. The Foundation Principles of Morality and You
4. Values Formation
6. Teaching as Your Vocation, Mission and Profession
Chapter Two: The Teacher in the Classroom and Community

1. The National Competency-Based Teacher Standards (NCBTS)

2. The 21st Century Teacher
3. School and Community Relations
4. Linkages and Networking with Organization
Chapter Three: On Becoming a Global Teacher

1. Global Education and the Global Teacher

2. Multicultural Diversity: A Challenge to Global Teachers
3. Bringing the World into the Classroom Through Educational

Chapter Four: The Professionalization of Teaching

Chapter Five: Becoming a Professional Teacher
1. Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers

Chapter Six: Other Education and Teacher-Related Laws

“Teachers… are the most responsible and important member of society
because their professional efforts affect the fate of the earth.”
- Helen Caldicott

Our thoughts, values, and actions are somehow shaped by events

and by people with whom we come in contact. We, in turn, help shape
society – its events, people and its destiny.

Your Philosophy of life and you philosophy of education serve as

your “ window” to the world and “compass” in the sea of life.
Your Philosophical Heritage
Seven Philosophies of Education
1. Essentialism
a. Why teach?
- learners to acquire basic knowledge, skills and values.
- to transmit the traditional moral values and intellectual knowledge
that students need to become model citizens
b. What to teach?
- programs are academically rigorous
- the basic skill or the fundamental r’s – reading, ‘riting, ‘rithmetic, right
conduct needed in preparation for adult life.
- traditional discipline – Math, natural Science, History, Foreign
Languages and Literature
- frown upon vocational courses
-what is most important and place little emphasis on students interest

c. How to teach?
- emphasize mastery of subject matter
- teachers fountain of information and paragon of virtue
- teachers observe “core requirements, longer school days and a longer
academic year”
- rely heavily on the use of prescribed textbooks
- heavy stress on memorization and discipline
2. Perennialism
a. Why teach?
- we are all rational animals
- develop the students’ rational and moral powers
b. What to teach?
- curriculum is universal or general
- heavy on the humanities, general education
- less emphasis on vocational and technical education
- what the perennialist teachers teach are lifted from the Great
c. How to teach?
- centered around teachers
- students engaged in Socratic dialogues or mutual inquiry sessions
to develop an understanding of history’s most timeless concepts.
3. Progressivism
a. Why teach?
- to develop learners into becoming enlightened and intelligent
citizens of a democratic society.
- teach learners so they may live life fully NOW.

b. What to teach?
- need-based and relevant curriculum
- curriculum that respond to students’ need and relates to students’
lives and experiences
- accept the impermanence of life and inevitability of change,
everything else change
-concerned with teaching the learners the skill to cope with change
- give focus to teaching of skills or process in gathering and evaluating
information and in problem solving.
- give emphasis on natural and social sciences

c. How to teach?
- employ experiential methods
- learns by doing
-John Dewey – advocate of Progressivism
- heavily rely on the problem-solving method (Scientific method)
- Hands-on-minds-on teaching method like field trips and thought-
provoking games
4. Existentialism

a. Why Teach?
- to help students understand and appreciate themselves as unique
individual who accept complete responsibility for their thoughts,
feelings and action.
- to help students define their own essence by exposing them to
various paths
-education of the whole person
b. What to teach?
- students are given a wide variety of options from which they to
-tremendous emphasis is given to Humanities to provide students with
vicarious experiences that will help unleash their own creativity
and self-expression
- vocational education is regarded more
-encourage creativity and imagination

c. How to teach?
- Focus on individual
- learning is self-paced, self directed.
- grate deal of individual contact with the teacher
-employ values clarification strategy
5. Behaviorism

a. Why teach?
- modification and shaping of student’s behavior by providing a
favorable environment

b. What to teach?
- look people and other animals as complex combination of matter that
act only in response to internally or externally physical stimuli.
- teach students to respond favorably to various stimuli in the
c. How to teach?
- ought to arrange environment conditions
- ought to make the stimuli clear and interesting to capture and hold
the learners’ attention.
- ought to provide appropriate incentives to reinforce positive
responses to awaken or eliminate negative ones.
6. Linguistic Philosophy
a. Why teach?
- to develop the communication skills of the learners
- to develop in the learner the skill to send message clearly and
receive messages correctly.

b. What to teach?
- learners should be taught to communicate clearly
- Communication takes place in three ways: verbal, nonverbal and
Verbal – the content of our message, the choice and arrangement of our
words. This can be oral or written.
Nonverbal – the message we send through body language.
Paraverbal – refers to how we say what we say – tone, pacing and volume of
our voices.

 teach learners to use language that is correct, precise, grammatical,

coherent, accurate.
 help student expand their vocabularies
 teach the learner how to communicate clearly
 caution the learners of the verbal and non-verbal barriers of communication
 teach the learner to speak as many language as you can
c. How to teach?
- teach language and communication through experiential way.
- make the classroom a place for the interplay of minds and hearts.
- facilitates dialogue among learners because in the exchange of
words there is also an exchange of ideas.
7. Constructivism
a. Why teach?
- to develop intrinsically motivated and independent learners
adequately equipped with learning skills for them to be able to
construct knowledge and make meaning of them.

b. What to teach?
- learners are taught how to learn, learning processes and skills

c. How to teach?
- teacher provides students with data or experiences that allow them to
hypothesize, predict, manipulate objects, pose questions, research,
investigate, imagine and invent.
- constructivist classroom is interactive
- promotes dialogical exchange of ideas among learners and between
teachers and students.
- teacher’s role is to facilitate the process.

 knowledge is constructed by learners through an active, mental process of


 the minds are full of ideas waiting to be midwifed by the teacher with his/her
skillful facilitating skills.
Formulating Your Philosophy of Education

Your philosophy of education is your “window” to the world and

“compass of life”.

Your philosophy of education is reflected in your dealings with

students., colleagues, p parents and administrators. Your attitude
towards problems and life has an underlying philosophy.
What does a philosophy of education contain or include?

1. The human person, the learner in particular and the

educated person.
2. what is true and good and therefore must be taught.
3. how a learner must be taught in order to come close to the
4. how learner must be taught in order to come close to the
My philosophy of Education as a Grade School Teacher
I believe that every child
 has a natural interest in learning and is capable of learning
 is an embodied spirit
Can be influenced but not totally by his/her environment
 is unique and so comparing a child to other children has no basis
 does not have an empty mind, rather is full of ideas and it is my task to draw out
these ideas.

I believe that there are unchanging values in changing times and these must
be passed on to every child by my modeling, value inculcation and value
integration in my lesson.
I believe that my task as a teacher is to facilitate the development of every
child to the optimum and to maximum by:
 reaching out to all children without bias and prejudice towards the “least” of the children.
 making every child feel good and confident about him/herself through his/her experiences
of success in the classroom.
 helping every children master the basic skill of reading, communicating in oral or written
form, arithmetic and computer skills.
 teaching my subject matter with mastery so that every child will use her/his basic skills to
continue acquiring knowledge, skills and values for him/her to go beyond basic literacy and
basic numeracy.
 inculcating or integrating the unchanging values of respect, honesty, love and care for
others regardless of race, ethnicity, nationality, appearance and economic status in my
 consistently practicing these values to serve as model for every child
 strengthening the value formation of every child through hands-on-minds-on-hearts –on
experiences inside and outside the classroom.
 Providing every child activities meant to develop the body, the mind and the spirit.
Society and You
i. Community perception on the role of teacher in the community
Teachers are perceived to be:
 very important in a community
 respected in a community
 help in the community to some extent

ii. Community perception on beliefs and attitudes about teachers and

The community strongly agreed that teachers:
• help develop the moral character of children
• are second parents
• Are assets to the community.
iii. The community agreed with 12 beliefs and attitudes:
- The most intelligent child should be encouraged to enter the teaching
- Teacher sets moral standard of the community
- teachers make good parents
- Men should be encouraged to enter the teaching profession
- The teaching profession is one of the lowest paid.
- Teachers should be paragon of virtue
- Children obey and respect their teacher
- Teachers play an active role in disciplining children.
- Praising boosts a child’s self-confidence
- A teacher is a child’s model
- Child’s interest in studies depends upon his/her behavior.
- Parents entrust their children ‘s welfare to teachers.
The Foundational Principles of Morality and

“Even in your worst day on the job, you are still some children’s
best hope”

“A teacher affects eternity; he can never tell where his influence stop.”
What is Morality?

- the quality if human acts by which we call them right or

wrong, good or evil

- your human action is right when it conforms with the

norm, rule, or law of morality. Otherwise it is said to be
Meaning of Foundational Moral principle

- from Latin word princeps which means a beginning, a source.
- on which something is based, founded, originated or initiated.
- foundation of a building upon which all other parts stand.

Meaning of Foundational Moral principle

- The universal norm upon which all other principles on the
rightness or wrongness of an action are based. It is the
source of morality.
- contained in the natural law.
Natural Law

- written in the hearts of men (Romans 2:15)

- man’s share in the Eternal Law of God (Theist, 1964)
- the light of natural reason, whereby we discern what is good and what
is evil ..an imprint on us of the divine light. (St. Thomas)
- it is a law that says: DO GOOD AND AVOID EVIL. And this the
- built into the design of human nature and woven into the fabric of the
normal human mind.
“Writings, customs, and monuments of past

and present generations point out to this

conclusion: that all peoples on earth, no
matter how savage and illiterate, have
recognize a supreme law divine origin
commanding good and forbidding evil”
All men have a mind which cannot bear to see the suffering of others…

If now men suddenly see a child about to fall into a well, they will without
exception experience a feeling of alarm and distress… from this case we
may perceive that ho who lacks the feeling of commiseration is not a man;
that he who lacks a feeling of shame and dislike is not a man; he who lacks
a feeling of modesty and yielding is not a man; and that he who lacks a
sense of right and wrong is not a man… man has these four beginnings.

(Mencius, A Chinese philosopher)

“Do not do to others what you do not like others to do to you” – Kung-fu-tsu

“Do to others what you like others do to you” – Golden rule of Christianity
“Act in such a way that your maxim can be the maxim for all” – Immanuel Kant

Two great Commandments for Christians:

- Love God with all your heart, with all your mind, with all your strengths.
- Love your neighbor as you love your self
Buddhists Eightfold Path:
1. Strive to know the truth
2. resolve to resist evil
3. say nothing to hurt others.
4. respect life, morality, and property
5. engage in a job that does not injure others
6. strive to free their mind of evil
7. control their feelings and thoughts
8. practice proper forms of concentration
“Hatred does not cease by hatred; hatred ceases only by love.” – Buddha
“Forbids lying, stealing, adultery and murder”
“Honor for parents, kindness to slaves, protection for the orphaned and the
widowed, and the charity to the poor. It teaches the virtues of faith in God,
patience, kindness, honesty, industry, honor, courage, and generosity. It
condemns mistrust, impatience and cruelty.” – Islamic Koran

Five Pillars of Islam:

- Prayer
- self-purification by fasting
- fasting
- almsgiving
- pilgrim to Mecca for those who can afford
Teacher as a Person of Good Moral Character
Teachers are duly licensed professionals who possess dignity and
reputation with high moral values as well as technical and professional
competence. In the practice of their profession, they strictly adhere to,
observe and practice this set of ethical and moral principles, standard and

Characteristic of Good Moral Character:

1. being fully human – you have realize substantially your potential as
a human person
2. being a loving person – you are caring in an unselfish and mature
manner with yourself, other people and God.
3. being virtuous person – you have acquired good habits and
attitudes and you practice them consistently in your daily life
4. being morally mature person – you have reached a level of
development emotionally, socially, mentally, spiritually
appropriate to your developmental stage.

The natural law is engraved in the heart every man and woman. Our
act is moral when it is in accordance with our human nature. Our
intellect and free will make us different from and above the beast.

You are a person of good moral character when you are: human,
loving, virtuous and mature
Max Scheler’s Hierarchy of Values

Pleasure Values

- the pleasant against the unpleasant

- the agreeable against the disagreeable

Sensual Feelings
Experiences of pleasure or pain
Vital Values

- values pertaining to the well being either of the individual or

of the community
- values of the vital Feeling

Health and Vitality
capability and excellence
Spiritual Values

- values independent of the whole sphere of the body and of the

- grasped in spiritual acts of preferring loving and hating

aesthetic values: beauty against ugliness
values of wright and wrong
values of pure knowledge
Values of the Holy objects

- appear only in regard of objects intentionally given as


Max Scheler’s Hierarchy of Values

Values of the Holy

Spiritual Values

Vital values

Pleasure Values
 We act and live well if we stick to Scheler’s hierarchy of values

 We will live miserably if we distort Scheler’s hierarchy of values

Values Clarification

What is Value Clarification?

What is value confusion?

When we don’t know what we really value or when we are not

clear on what we really value, we end up lukewarm or uncommitted to
a value?
The advocate of value clarification assert that we must clarify
what we really value..
Values – individual beliefs, attitudes and activities that are:
a. Freely chosen
b. chosen from among alternatives
c. chosen after due reflection
d. prized and cherished
e. publicly affirmed
f. incorporated into actual behavior
g. acted upon repeatedly in one’s life
Teaching as Your Vocation, Mission and profession
Etymology of the word “Vocation”

Vocation - a strong desire to spend your life doing a certain kind of ``

work (such as religious work)
- the work that a person does or should be doing

- from the Latin word “vocare” – to call

- teaching is a call
- there must be a caller and a responder
- it was God who called you here for you to teach
Etymology of the word “Mission”

Mission - any important task or duty that is assigned, allotted, or self-

- an important goal or purpose that is accompanied by strong

- from the Latin word “Misio” – To send

- you are called to be a teacher and you are sent to the world to
accomplish a mission, to teach.
“Once a teacher, forever a student”

- you have a mission that calls for a continuing professional

- how is your preparation?
- your unique and most significant contribution to the
humanization of life on earth is in the field where you are
prepared for – teaching.
- to teach is to influence every child entrusted in your care to
become better and happier because life becomes more
meaningful . To teach is to help the child become more human.
Dear Teachers:
I am a survivor of a concentration camp.
my eyes saw what no man should witness:
- gas chambers built by learned engineers.
- Children poisoned by educated physician.
- Infants killed by trained nurses.
- Woman and babies shot and burned by high school and college
So I am suspicious of education. My request is: help your student become
human. Your efforts must never produce learned monster, skilled
psychopaths, and Eichmann’s.
Reading, writing, arithmetic are important only if they serve to make our
children more human.
Teaching: Mission and/or Job?

If you are doing it only because you are paid for it, it’s a job.
If you are doing it not only for the pay but also for service, it’s a mission.
If you quit because your boss or colleague criticized you, it’s a job;
If you keep on teaching out of love, it’s a mission.
If you teach because it does not interfere with your other activities, it’s a job.
If you are committed to teaching even if it means letting go of other activities, it’s a mission.
If you quit because no one praises or thanks you for what you do, it’s a job.
If you remain teaching even though nobody recognizes your efforts, it’s a mission.
It’s hard to get excited about a teaching job;
Its almost impossible not to get excited about a mission.
If our concern is success, it’s a job;
If our concern is success plus faithfulness, it’s a mission.
An average school is filled by teachers doing their teaching job;
A great school is filled with teachers involved in mission of teaching.
The element of a Profession

“The term professional is one of the most exalted in the English

language, denoting as it does, long and arduous years of preparation, a
striving for excellence, a dedication to the public interest, and
commitment to moral and ethical values.”
– Hon. Hermogenes P. Pobre,
Teaching as your profession
- end goal of profession is service
- we cannot give what we do not have
- do more, have more in order to be more
- you must be willing to go through a long period of preparation
and a continuing professional development. You must strive
for excellence, commit yourself to moral, ethical and
religious values and dedicate yourself to public service
- the “pwede na” mentality is inimical to excellence, indicator of
defeatism and resignation to mediocrity.
TEACHING may not be a lucrative position. It can
not guarantee financial security.
It even means investing your personal time , energy, and resources.
Sometimes it means disappointments, heartaches, and pains.
But touching the hearts of people and opening the minds of children
can give you joy and contentment which money could not buy.
These are the moments I teach for. These are the moments I live for.

-Dr. Josette T. Biyo

1st Asian Teacher, Intel Excellence in Teaching award