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# Right triangle trigonometry (SOH CAH TOA)

opposite hypotenuse
sin θ = csc θ =
hypotenuse opposite

cos θ = sec θ =

tan θ = cot θ =

Trigonometric functions
y r
sin θ = csc θ =
r y
r
x r y
cos θ = sec θ =
r x
y x
tan θ = cot θ = θ
x y
x

Transformations

Assume c > 0

## to shift a function c units downward, find y = f (x) − c

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to shift a function c units to the right, find y = f (x − c)

Assume c > 1

## to reflect about the y-axis, find y = f (−x)

Reciprocal identities
1 1
sin θ = csc θ =
csc θ sin θ

1 1
cos θ = sec θ =
sec θ cos θ

1 1
tan θ = cot θ =
cot θ tan θ

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Quotient identities
sin θ cos θ
tan θ = cot θ =
cos θ sin θ

Pythagorean identities

sin2 θ + cos2 θ = 1

1 + tan2 θ = sec2 θ

1 + cot2 θ = csc2 θ

Even-odd identities

## tan(−θ) = − tan θ cot(−θ) = − cot θ

Co-function identities

(2 ) (2 )
π π
sin − θ = cos θ cos − θ = sin θ

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(2 ) (2 )
π π
csc − θ = sec θ sec − θ = csc θ

(2 ) (2 )
π π
tan − θ = cot θ cot − θ = tan θ

Sum-difference identities

## cos(α ± β) = cos α cos β ∓ sin α sin β

tan α ± tan β
tan(α ± β) =
1 ∓ tan α tan β

Double-angle identities

2 tan x
tan 2x =
1 − tan2 x

## Half-angle (power reducing) identities

1 − cos 2x 1
sin2 x = = (1 − cos 2x)
2 2

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1 + cos 2x 1
cos2 x = = (1 + cos 2x)
2 2

1 − cos 2x
tan2 x =
1 + cos 2x

Product-to-sum identities
1
sin x sin y = [cos(x − y) − cos(x + y)]
2

1
sin x cos y = [sin(x + y) + sin(x − y)]
2

1
cos x cos y = [cos(x − y) + cos(x + y)]
2

1
cos x sin y = [sin(x + y) − sin(x − y)]
2

Sum-to-product identities

( 2 ) ( 2 )
x+y x−y
sin x + sin y = 2 sin cos

( 2 ) ( 2 )
x+y x−y
sin x − sin y = 2 cos sin

( 2 ) ( 2 )
x+y x−y
cos x + cos y = 2 cos cos

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( 2 ) ( 2 )
x+y x−y
cos x − cos y = − 2 sin sin

Law of sines
sin A sin B sin C
= =
a b c

Law of cosines

a 2 = b 2 + c 2 − 2bc cos A

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The Unit Circle

(0,1)

(2 2 )
3
( 2 2 )
1 3 1
− , ,

( 2 ) ( 2 2 )
2 2 π 2 2
− , ,
2 2

π
90∘

3
3

60 ∘

π
12

( 2 2) ( 2 2)
3 1 3 1
0

4
4

− , ,

45 ∘
5π π
13
5

6 15 ∘ ∘ 6
0 30

∘ 33
0 0 ∘ 11
7π 21 π
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( 2 2)
3
( 2)
3 1 6 1
5∘

− ,− ,−
31
22

2
5

24 ∘

30

270∘

4
4

3
3

( 2 ) ( 2 2 )
2 2 2 2
− ,− 2 ,−
2

( 2 2 ) (2 2 )
1 3 1 3
− ,− ,−
(0, − 1)

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