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Bulletin No. 18.

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File Under Wheel Loaders
®

FLUID ANALYSIS GUIDE

Machine Profiles
994, 994D Wheel Loaders

Description Recommended OIl Sampling Intervals:


These are articulated steer loaders with planetary The recommended oil sampling intervals for this
power shift transmission and oil cooled multi-disc machine model is 250 hours for the engine and 500
brakes. Machines have lockup clutch as standard. hours for all other systems. Caterpillar dealers or
users may wish to consider a 250 hour sampling
interval for all systems, particularly under the
Serial Number Range following circumstances:
S/N O&MM
1. If the machine is under a Customer Support
3TZ1-Up SEBU7145-02 Agreement.
12-98
2. If the machine application is more severe than
Lubrication Recommendations
normal.
For complete information concerning lubrication 3. If the machine is under a “close follow” to monitor
recommendations, refer to Caterpillar Machine wear levels to ascertain whether a failure mode is
Lubricant Recommendations. Form SEBU6250. in progress.
Oil Sampling Procedures 4. If an oil change interval has been altered from the
These machines are equipped with oil sampling interval recommended in the Operation &
valves for the pressurized compartments. A Maintenance Guide.
sampling gun is required for the differential/bevel
gear housing and final drives.

Filter Inspection
Recommend that filters be saved for inspection.
Plastic bags are convenient for retaining the filters
until they can be cut open for inspection. The
4C5084 Filter Cutting Tool is available for this
purpose. Be alert for visible pieces of synthetic
friction material or metal which may indicate a
problem.

Recommended Oil Sampling Intervals


Engine: 250 hours - Sampling Valve
Transmission: 500 hours - Sampling Valve
Hydraulic: 500 hours - Sampling Valve
Differential and
Final Drives: 500 hours

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CONFIDENTIAL
This document contains unpublished confidential
proprietary, and trade secret information of Caterpillar Inc.,
and is intended for distribution only to parties specifically
authorized by Caterpillar. Unauthorized copying, distri-
bution, or use is specifically prohibited.
© 1999 CATERPILLAR INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

NOTICE
Information supplied by this document is intended to
be used only as a general guideline for interpretation.
Model-specific information supplied by this document
is subject to change and may vary on a machine-by-
machine basis. Most often, changes to major
components changes are delineated by specific serial
number breaks and/or prefix changes. Equipment
changes and updates are frequent; therefore, you
may need to consult current Operations &
Maintenance Manuals, Parts Manuals, Service
Manuals or other reference materials for details for a
specific serial number machine.
Wear tables, provided elsewhere by Caterpillar, were
developed for average conditions and are intended to
reflect expected values at normal oil change periods.
They may be too high or too low for some specific
machine applications. Interpretations should be
based on the trend of wear values in each
compartment whenever possible.

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ENGINE Iron
Crankshaft
Machine Model: 994D Wheel Loader Camshaft
Machine Model S/N: 3TZ, 9YF Valves, valve seat, guides and push rods
Engine Model: 3516 TA Cylinder liners
Timing gears
Horsepower Rating: 932 kW, 1250 FWHP
Oil pump shafts, gears and body
Oil Change Interval: 250 Hrs. Air compressor
Filter Change Interval: 250 Hrs. Prelub starter gears and bearings (if equipped)
Sump Capacity: Chromium
994: 200 Liters (52 Gal.) Piston rings
994D: 291 Liters (77 Gal.)
Lead
Recommended Oil Sampling Interval: 250 hours
Main and rod bearings
Recommended Coolant Analysis: Camshaft bearings
Level 1: As determined by customer requirements.
Tin
Level 2: After 500 hours of initial use, and annually
or as determined by Level 1 analysis. Main & rod bearings
Camshaft bearings
Aftercooler Type: Water to air
Water pump bearings
Engine Oil Cooler: Water Prelub starter bearings (if equipped)
Cooling System:
Aluminum
994: 490 Liters (127 Gal.)
Main bearings
994D: 500 Liters (132 Gal.) Rod bearings
Oil Transfer Possibilities: Timing gear bushings
Oil may transfer between the engine and Piston
transmission through the rear crankshaft seal. Camshaft bearings
Oil pump bushings
Notes: Dirt Entry (clay soils)
1. Recommend Caterpillar Diesel Engine Oil (DEO). Air compressor bearings
2. Air compressor mounted to engine. Anti-seize compounds (no failure)
Prelub starter pump housing (if equipped)
3. Fuel injectors are under valve cover. Leakage
could show as fuel dilution in the oil sample. Silicon
Dirt entry
WEAR ELEMENT SOURCES Silicon grease (no failure)
Oil additives (no failure)
Copper
Rocker arm bushings Molybdenum
Wrist pin bushings Top piston ring plasma coated
Governor drive and bushings Oil Additives (no failure)
Timing gear thrust bearings
Sodium
Turbocharger bearings
Camshaft lifter roller pins Water or coolant entry
Cooling system leaks from oil cooler, gaskets or Condensation
aftercooler Oil Additives (no failure)
Air compressor bearings
Scavenge pump screen (earlier models)
Oil additives (no failure)
Anti-seize compounds (no failure)
Oil cooler core leaching (no failure oil side)

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TRANSMISSION sections. Drain and flush all sections in the event
of any failure.
Machine Model: 994D Wheel Loader
Machine Model S/N: 3TZ, 9YF WEAR ELEMENT SOURCES
Type: Planetary Power Shift
Copper
Speeds: 3F 3R
Lockup clutch discs
Oil Change Interval: 1000 Hrs. Cooler core leaching (no failure)
Filter Change Interval: 500 Hrs. Oil additives (no failure)
Sump Capacity: Anti-seize compounds (no failure)
994: 350 Liters (97 Gal.) Iron
994D: 350 Liters (91 Gal.) Gears - pump drive/input/output/trans.
Transmission Pump Type: Gear Bearings
Oil Cooler Type: Water Clutch plates - transmission or lockup clutches
Splines
Disc Material: Cellulose Fiber
Shafts
Common Sump: Torque Converter, Rear Pump Pump wear - converter or trans. charge
Drive, Spring Drive Coupling, Transmission Input
Planetary, Lockup Clutch and Output Transfer Chromium
Gears Bearings
Disc Friction Material:
Tin
Transmission: F37 and Rayflex
Lockup Clutch: Cellulose fiber Bearings
Oil Transfer Possibilities: Aluminum
1. Oil may transfer between the engine and Torque converter impeller
transmission through the rear crankshaft seal. Torque converter turbine
2. Steering/brake oil could transfer to the Dirt entry (clay soils)
transmission through damaged seals at the pump Anti-seize compounds (no failure)
shaft. Silicon
Additional Information: Dirt entry
1. Brakes are in separate oil system (See brake Silicon grease (no failure)
cooling.). Oil additives (no failure)
2. Spring drive coupling, rear pump drive, lockup
Sodium
clutch and converter attach to engine.
3. Input planetary and transmission attach to output Coolant leak
transfer gears. Water entry
Condensation
Notes: Oil additives (no failure)
1. Recommend Caterpillar Transmission / Drive
Train Oil (TDTO).
2. Serial No. 9YF1 thru 9YF37 were installed with
only a lock-up clutch. Serial No. 9YF38-Up have
both a lock-up clutch and an impeller clutch.
3. Lockup clutch engagement is normally automatic
and controlled by engine speed versus converter
output speed. Operator has a switch to override
engagement. If operator uses switch needlessly,
clutch wear will result.
4. Two magnetic screens in output transfer gear
case sump. Drain both converter section and
transmission section if failure is suspected to
determine whether to remove one or both

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IMPLEMENT HYDRAULICS WEAR ELEMENT SOURCES
Machine Model: 994D Wheel Loader Copper
Machine Model S/N: 3TZ, 9YF Bronze pump components
Oil Change Interval: 2000 Hrs. Lockup clutch discs
Torque converter bushings
Filter Change Interval: 500 Hrs. Oil additives (no failure)
Sump Capacity: 623 Liters (162 Gal.) Front Anti-seize compounds (no failure)
Oil Cooler Type: Air Cooler core leaching (no failure)
Pump Type(s): Iron
Gear Pump controls flow to: Pilot Controls
Pump housing
3 Caterpillar Piston Pumps control flow to: Gears
Implements Bearings
Gear Pump control flow to: Oil Coolers Cylinder wear
Common Sump: Separate Pump wear
Brake discs
Oil Transfer Possibilities:
Oil may transfer between the transmission and Chromium
hydraulic compartments through damaged pump Bearings
seals in the pump drive. Cylinder rods
Additional Information:
Tin
1. Hydraulic implement tank in front loader frame. Bearings
Used for hoist and tilt.
2. Separate filter on pilot circuit remote from tank. Aluminum
Dirt entry (clay soils)
Notes: Pump body wear (gear pump)
1. Recommend Caterpillar Hydraulic Oil (HYDO). Anti-seize compounds (no failure)
2. No lockup clutch in hydraulic oil
Silicon
3. No brake cooling in hydraulic oil
Dirt entry
4. Charge pump for all three piston pumps is an Silicon grease (no failure)
impeller pump mounted to end of pump shaft. Oil additives (no failure)

Sodium
Coolant leak
Condensation
Water entry
Oil additives (no failure)

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SERVICE BRAKE COOLING WEAR ELEMENT SOURCES
Machine Model: 994D Wheel Loader Copper
Machine Model S/N: 3TZ, 9YF Pump - pressure plates
Type: Wet Multi-Disc Pump - sleeve bearings
Oil Change Interval: 1000 Hrs. Iron
Filter Change Interval: 500 Hrs. Brake discs
Sump Capacity: Splines
994: 130 Liters (34 Gal.) Silicon
994D: 42 Liters (11 Gal.) Dirt entry
Oil Cooler Type: Water Silicon grease (no failure)
Oil additive (no failure)
Pump Type: Tyrone Gear (driven off piston steer
pump at rear pump drive) Tin
Brakes: Wet multi-disc Bearings
Brake Disc Friction Material: Raybestos
Aluminum
Common Sump: Separate but with equalizer line
Pump body
to steer/brake tank
Dirt entry (clay soils)
Oil Transfer Possibilities:
Brake actuation oil from steer/brake tank (next Sodium
page) can leak at brake piston to cooling oil. Over a Water entry
long period, tank could overfill; therefore equalizer Condensation
line transfers oil between brake cooling and Oil additives (no failure)
steer/brake tank.
Additional Information:
1. Accumulator charged by Brake Actuation pump.
(Next sheet)

Notes:
1. Recommend Caterpillar Transmission/Drive Train
Oil (TDTO).
2. Air breathers are located on both the Brake
Cooling tank and the Steer/Brake tank (next
sheet). If excessive oil transfers from one tank to
the other the breather on the overfull tank will
slobber oil foam.

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STEERING AND BRAKE WEAR ELEMENT SOURCES
ACTUATION HYDRAULICS Copper
Machine Model: 994D Wheel Loader Bronze Pump components
Machine Model S/N: 3TZ, 9YF Thrust washers
Oil additives (no failure)
Oil Change Interval: 2000 Hrs. Anti-seize compounds (no failure)
Filter Change Interval: 500 Hrs.
Iron
Sump Capacity:
Gears
9YF: 250 Liters (65 Gal.) Rear
Pump wear
3TZ: 267 Liters (70.5 Gal.)
Bearings
Oil Cooler Type: Water Shafts
Pump Type(s): Rex Roth Piston Pump for: Steer Splines
(rear pump drive)
Chromium
Gear Pump for: Supplemental Steer
Bearings
Piston Pump for: Brake Actuation (rear pump drive) Cylinder Rods
Gear Pump for: Brake Cooling (rear pump drive)
Tin
Common Sump: Separate
Bearings
Oil Transfer Possibilities:
Brake cooling oil to steer/brake actuation tank Aluminum
through equalizer line Dirt entry (clay soils)
Additional Information: Anti-seize compounds (no failure)
The steer/brake tank is on rear frame. Pumps are Silicon
driven by rear pump drive. Rear pump drive is Dirt entry
lubricated by transmission oil. (See Transmission Silicon grease
Section.) Oil additive
Notes: Sodium
1. Recommend Caterpillar Transmission/Drive Water entry
Train Oil (TDTO). Condensation
2. Air breathers are located on both the brake Oil additives (no failure)
cooling tank (previous sheet) and the Steer/Brake
tank. If excessive oil transfers from one tank to
the other, the overfull tank will slobber oil foam.

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FRONT PUMP DRIVE WEAR ELEMENT SOURCES
Machine Model: 994D Wheel Loader Copper
Machine Model S/N: 3TZ, 9YF Thrust washers
Oil Change Interval: 250 Hrs. Oil additives (no failure)
Anti-seize compounds (no failure)
Filter Change Interval: No filter in this circuit
Sump Capacity: 7 Liters (2 Gal.) Front Iron
Oil Cooler Type: None Gears
Bearings
Pump Type: Gear (lubrication oil circulation
Shafts
to pump drive bearings)
Splines
Common Sump: Separate
Oil Transfer Possibilities: Chromium
Bearings
Implement hydraulic oil to pump drive through pump
shaft seals Tin
Additional Information: Bearings
Front pump drive located in front loader frame. It is
Aluminum
used to power: 3 piston pumps for hoist and tilt
implement circuits; a 2-section gear pump for Dirt entry (clay soils)
implement hydraulic oil cooling circuit and pilot Anti-seize compounds (no failure)
control oil circuit; and the gear pump used to Silicon
circulate front pump drive lubrication oil.
Dirt entry
Notes: Silicon grease
1. Recommend Caterpillar Hydraulic Oil (HYDO). Oil additive

Sodium
Water entry
Oil additives (no failure)

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DIFFERENTIAL, BEVEL GEAR, WEAR ELEMENT SOURCES
BRAKES AND FINAL DRIVES Copper
Machine Model: 994D Wheel Loader Sleeve bearing - differential
Machine Model S/N: 3TZ, 9YF Sleeve bearing - final drive planet gears
Oil additives (no failure)
Oil Change Interval: 2000 Hrs. Anti-seize compounds (no failure)
Sump Capacity: Thrust washer (final drive)
994:
Iron
620 Liters (164 Gal.) Front
620 Liters (164 Gal.) Rear Brake plates
Thrust washer - differential
994D:
Axle thrust button
621 Liters (164 Gal.) Front Gears
621 Liters (164 Gal.) Rear Bearings
Final Drive Type: Double Planetary Reduction Splines
Final drive housing
Brakes: Four wheel, fully hydraulic, fully enclosed,
Shafts
oil-disc type.
Brake Disc Friction Material: Cellulose Fiber Chromium
Common Sump: Differential, bevel gear, final Bearings
drives and brakes share a common sump.
Tin
Oil Transfer Possibilities: Bearings
1. Brake actuating oil (steer/brake) may leak past
the piston seal and transfer to the final drive. Aluminum
2. Brake cooling oil may leak past the piston seals Sleeve bearing - differential
and transfer to the final drive. Dirt entry (clay soils)
Anti-seize compounds (no failure)
3. Wear metals, silicon or water within either final
drive or the differential will be transferred to the Silicon
oil within the other compartments. Dirt entry
Notes: Silicon grease (no failure)
Oil additives (no failure)
1. Recommend Caterpillar Transmission / Drive
Train Oil (TDTO). Sodium
2. If machine is operating in water, check for water Water entry
and/or silicon. Oil additives (no failure)
3. Recommend that oil samples be taken at the
differential and both final drives. Although there is
oil transfer within the axle housing individual
samples can pinpoint which component may be
experiencing abnormal wear.
4. Tire spinning causes differential wear. Spinout
occurs more at rear axle than front.
5. Inspect magnetic plug in final drive cover for
chips or flakes which may indicate abnormal
wear.

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Printed in U.S.A. (01/99)