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Fundamentals

eJAMF

Issue: 1JAN2008
Author: XyZ

Module 8 For Training Purposes Only


E LTT 2006

Basic Aerodynamics

EASA Part-66
B1

EJAMF_M8_B1_E
Training Manual

For training purposes and internal use only.


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M8 BASIC AERODYNAMICS
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FUNDAMENTAL UNITS
In this lesson you will get a basic understanding of the laws of physics that
affect the aircraft in flight and on the ground. These laws are described using
the international SI system. The SI system is based on the metric system and
must be used by law throughout the world.
You need to use conversion tables for the English or American systems. You
can find conversion tables in the appendix of most technical documentation.
The laws of physics are described by fundamental units and basic
quantities.The fundamental units can not be defined in other quantities.The
basic quantities are defined in fundamental units.
Speed, for example, is a basic quantity. It is defined by the fundamental units
distance and time. Speed, denoted by V is distance, denoted by m over time,
denoted by s.
There are 7 fundamental units in physics − mass, length, time, temperature,
current, mol number and the intensity of light.
The fundamental units used in aerodynamics are mass, length, time and
temperature.
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Figure 1 International SI-System


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Fundamental Units cont.


Mass
The unit of measurement for mass is kilograms, denoted by kg. The mass of
one kilogram is defined by a piece of platinum alloy at the office of weights and
measurements in Paris.
The mass of 1 kilogram is also the volume of one liter of pure water at a
temperature of 4 degrees Celsius. Mass is not the same as weight. The
astronauts flying around in their space labs have no weight but their bodies
have a mass.
Lenght
The unit of measurement for length is meters, denoted by m.
The meter was established as a standard unit of length by a commission set up
by the French government in 1790.
A meter is more precisely defined as a certain number of wavelengths of a
particular colour of light.

Time
The unit of measurement for time is seconds, denoted by s. Originally this was
based on the length of a day. However not all days are exactly the same
duration so the second is now defined as fraction of the unchangeable speed of
light.

Temperature
The unit of measurement for temperature is kelvin, denoted by K. Zero kelvin is
called absolute zero because it is the lowest temperature possible.The kelvin
scale starts at zero and only has positive numbers. 1 kelvin is the same size as
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1 degree Celsius.

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Figure 2 International SI-System


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Fundamental Units cont.


We can describe all the basic quantities we need for aerodynamics by using
the 4 fundamental units mass, length, time and temperature. These basic
quantities are:
S speed
S acceleration
S force
S work
S power
S and pressure.
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Figure 3 International SI-System


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SPEED AND ACCELERATION


Speed is the distance that a moving object covers in a unit of time. For
example, we can say that an aircraft has a speed of 500 kilometers per hour.
Speed is denoted by v, which comes from the Latin word velocitas. Therefore
instead of speed you also can find the word velocity, with basically the same
meaning.
Acceleration is the change in speed divided by the time during which the
change takes place.
In this example the acceleration is 50 meters per second per 10 seconds.
This is equal to 5 meters per second per one second which is 5 meters per
square second. Acceleration is measured in meters per square second.
Acceleration is denoted by ’a’.
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Figure 4 Speed and Acceleration


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Speed and Acceleration cont.


A special form of acceleration is acceleration due to gravity. An object, such as
this ball, which falls freely under the force of gravity has uniform acceleration if
there is no air resistance.
Acceleration which is due to gravity is denoted by ’g’.
The value of this acceleration varies across the earth’s surface but on average
it is 9.8 meters per square second. For ease of calculation 10 meters per
square second is often used.
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Figure 5 Acceleration due to Gravity


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FORCE AND WEIGHT


We begin our look at force with an experiment. You can see that our friend is
standing on a weighing scale in an elevator and is observing his weight.
What do you think happens to his weight when the elevator moves upward at a
constant velocity?
There is no change in weight if a body stays at rest or if it moves with uniform
velocity.
But what happens to the weight if the elevator accelerates as it moves upward?
As the elevator accelerates there is an additional force which increases the
weight.
The second law of Sir Isaac Newton, the great physicist, states that force
equals mass multiplied by acceleration. In our example the force is equal to the
mass of our friend multiplied by the acceleration of the elevator.
Force is measured in Newtons. The term deca−Newton is used in all technical
manuals for force and for weight and corresponds to 10 Newton.
Weight is one kind of force. It is mass multiplied by the acceleration due to
gravity. You know that gravity is the attraction exerted on any material towards
the center of the earth.
Weight is also measured in Newtons.
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Figure 6 Force and Weight


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WORK AND POWER


Work
In this segment we look at work. Work is done when an object is moved over a
distance. It is force multiplied by distance. Work = N x m.
Work is denoted by Joule and is measured in Newton meters.
You can see that the object with a force of 600 Newton is moved a distance of
30 meters.
The work is 600 Newton multiplied by 30 meters which is 18 000 Newton
meters.
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Figure 7 Work
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Power
Power is work over time or more specifically force multiplied by distance over
time.
Power is measured in Watts which is Newton meters per second.
You probably know the term horse power. When steam engines were first used
their power was compared to the power of horses because they were used for
work which was previously done by horses. Now the international SI system
uses watts and kilowatts instead of horsepower.
You can see that the object with a force of 600 Newton is moved a distance of
30 meters in 10 seconds.
The power is 600 Newton multiplied by 30 meters divided by 10 seconds which
is 1 800 watts or 1.8 kilowatts.
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Figure 8 Power
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PRESSURE
Pressure is the force acting on a unit of area.
It is denoted by Pascal (Pa) and measured in Newtons per square meter.
Static pressure acts equally in all directions. It is denoted by a small ’p’ and
measured in Newtons per square meter.
Static pressure is calculated as height multiplied by density multiplied by
gravity.
Dynamic pressure acts only in the direction of the flow.
It is denoted by a small ’q’ and sometimes called q pressure and, like static
pressure, measured in Newtons per square meter.
Dynamic pressure is calculated as half the density multiplied by the speed
squared.
The static pressure for aircraft technical systems is denoted by ’bar’ and
measured in decaNewtons per square centimeter.
One bar is equal to 100 000 PASCAL.
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Figure 9 Pressure / Static and Dynamic Pressure


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SPEED OF SOUND
Sound waves are the same as pressure waves.
The speed of sound is the speed of the small pressure waves which occur
when you ring the bell.
The speed of sound is denoted by ’a’.
In the formula of the speed of sound, the number 20 is an approximation of the
total of all the relevant constant values and ’T’ for temperature represents the
only variable value.
Note that the temperature must be expressed in Kelvin!
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Figure 10 Sound Waves


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Speed of Sound cont.


Now you know that the speed of sound depends on the temperature.
For example if the temperature on a Summer day is 15 degrees Celsius, which
is 288 degrees Kelvin then we calculate the speed of sound to be 339.4 meters
per second.
If the temperature decreases in Winter to minus 50 degrees Celsius, which is
223 degrees Kelvin then the speed of sound is 298.6 meters per second.
The speed of sound is less at high altitudes because the temperature is lower.
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Figure 11 Speed of Sound


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Speed of Sound cont.


Now let’s see what happens if the source of the sound moves, for example if
we have an aircraft flying.
First we see an aircraft flying at a speed which is below the speed of sound.
You can see that the pressure wave moves ahead of the aircraft and also
behind it.
Next we see an aircraft flying at the same speed as the speed of sound.
The pressure wave cannot escape at the front of the aircraft and we get a big
pressure wave forming. This pressure wave is known as a shock wave.
Finally we see an aircraft flying at a speed which is above the speed of sound.
In this case the pressure waves increase behind the aircraft and shock waves
form outside the periphery of the pressure waves.
Now you know that different aircraft speeds affect the sound waves.
The pilot must know the relationship between the speed of the aircraft and the
speed of sound.
On most aircraft the pilot must make sure that the speed of the aircraft is less
than the speed of sound.
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Figure 12 Aircraft Speed


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Speed of Sound cont.


Now let’s see what happens when an aircraft flies at a constant speed but in
different temperatures. In this example the aircraft is flying at a low altitude with
a speed of 300 meters per second.
You can see that the aircraft speed is below the speed of sound at this altitude.
We assume the speed of sound is 330 meters per second.
Now the same aircraft is flying at an altitude of 10 kilometers. The aircraft
continues to fly with a speed of 300 meters per second.
At this higher altitude the temperature is lower and the speed of sound
decreases to 300 meters per second.
Now the aircraft is flying at the speed of sound and you can see that shock
waves are produced.
A special indication known as the Mach number, ’M’ is used to keep the pilot
informed of the relationship between the speed of the aircraft and the speed of
sound.
The Mach number is the speed of the aircraft divided by the speed of sound.
In our example the aircraft flying at an altitude of 10 kilometers has a Mach
number of one (M = 1). A Mach number of one indicates that the aircraft is
flying at the speed of sound.
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Figure 13 Mach Number


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Speed of Sound cont.


These graphics illustrate the 3 sound regions which are defined by the Mach
numbers. In the subsonic region all speeds around the aircraft are below the
speed of sound.
This is the region up to the critical Mach number.
In the transonic region some speeds around the aircraft are below the speed of
sound and some are higher than the speed of sound.
This is the region between the critical Mach number and 1.3 Mach.
Finally we have the supersonic region.
Here all speeds around the aircraft are higher than the speed of sound. This is
the region at Mach numbers higher than 1.3.
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Figure 14 Sound Regions


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ATMOSHERE
To understand aerodynamics we need to know something about the
atmosphere where flying happens.
The atmosphere is the whole mass of air extending upwards from the surface
of the earth.
The atmosphere has many layers. The troposphere is the lowest of these
layers. In the troposphere we have clouds and rain and many different weather
conditions.
The stratosphere is the layer above the troposphere.There are no rain clouds in
the stratosphere and the temperature does not change as the altitude
increases.
The tropopause is the name given to the boundary between the troposphere
and the stratosphere.
The tropopause has different heights around the earth. It is approximately 8
kilometers over the north and south poles and 16 kilometers over the equator.
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Figure 15 Atmosphere
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Atmoshere cont.
You know from watching the weather forecast that temperature, pressure and
density vary quite a lot in the troposphere.
These variations must be reduced to a standard so that we have a basis for
comparing aircraft performance in different parts of the world and under varying
atmospheric conditions.
A standard atmosphere was introduced by the International Civil Aviation
Organisation, the ICAO . This standard atmosphere is known as the ISA for
ICAO standard atmosphere or International Standard Atmosphere.
Now let’s take a look at the temperature, pressure and density of the ISA at
sea level and at high altitudes.
You can see the standard sea level values for temperature, density and
pressure. Note that the standard altitude for the tropopause is 11 kilometers.
Under standard conditions temperature decreases with altitude at a rate of 6.5
degrees per kilometer. This gives a standard temperature of minus 56.5
degrees Celsius at the tropopause.
You can see that there is no change in temperature in the stratosphere.
You can see that the density and pressure gradually decrease with altitude.
This graph shows the basic tendencies for temperature, pressure and density.
You can find more precise information in the standard atmosphere tables which
you can usually find in the appendix of technical documentation.
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Figure 16 ICAO Standard Atmosphere (ISA)


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BASIC AERODYNAMICS
CONTINUITY EQUATION
In the subsonic region the speed is so slow that a flying body does not
compress the air. We say that the air is incompressible in the subsonic region.
Now let’ have a closer look at the behaviour of the air streamlines.
The streamlines are parallel to each other if there is no disturbance.
The airflow between the streamlines is similar to the flow in a closed tube. You
will see later that we use the term stream tube.
Here you see the flow pattern in a tube with different diameters.
You can see that as the diameter gets smaller the streamlines move closer to
each other.
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Figure 17 Flow Pattern in a Tube


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Continuity Equation cont.


Here we isolate the stream tube and identify two cross−sections, A1 and A2.
Assume that the area of the cross−section at point A one is 20 square
centimeters and the speed of the airflow at this point is 10 meters per second.
The continuity equation states that the speed of the airflow is inversely
proportional to the area of the cross section of the tube as long as the
density remains constant.
For example if the area of the cross section is halved then the speed of the
airflow is doubled or if the area is four times smaller then the speed is four
times greater.
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Figure 18 Continuity Equation


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Continuity Equation cont.


We use the term diffuser outlet when the diameter increases and the speed
decreases and the term jet outlet when the diameter decreases and the speed
increases.
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Figure 19 Defuser & Jet Outlet


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BERNOULLI’S PRINCIPLE
In this segment we look at another important equation used in aerodynamics,
Bernoulli’s equation.
We will describe this equation using a tube with a valve.
You can see that the valve is closed and that the tube is filled with fluid on the
left side of the valve.
Valve Closed
The fluid inside the tube has a static pressure. The static pressure is
represented by the blue arrows in the tube and by the blue line on the graph at
the bottom of the picture.
The static pressure acts in all directions.
The total pressure is represented by the green circle in the tube and by the
green line on the graph at the bottom of the picture.
You can see on the graph that the total pressure is equal to the static pressure
when the valve is closed.

Valve Open
When the valve is moved to the quarter open position the fluid begins to flow.
You can see that the static pressure decreases and a new pressure, the
dynamic pressure, is introduced. You should remeber that the dynamic
pressure only acts in the direction of the flow. The dynamic pressure is
represented by the red arrows in the tube and the red line on the graph. The
graph shows the amount of static pressure, dynamic pressure and total
pressure in the quarter open position.
The static pressure decreases every time the valve is opened more and the
dynamic pressure increases as the valve opens.
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This is the physical law known as Bernoulli’s principle.


The Bernoulli equation states that total pressure is always the sum of
static pressure and dynamic pressure or in short hand notation P tot
equals p plus q.
The total pressure remains constant.

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VALVE CLOSED 1/4 OPEN POSITION


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Figure 20 Valve positions


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Bernoulli’s principle cont.


Now let’s see how pressure is measured. You know that the airflow around the
surface of this object has static pressure and dynamic pressure.
At the point of stagnation the speed of the airflow falls to zero and the static
pressure equals the total pressure. You know that there is no dynamic pressure
if there is no flow.
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Figure 21 Point of Stagnation


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Bernoulli’s principle cont.


At the graphic below you can see how we measure the static and dynamic
pressure when we have a speed.
The actual static pressure is sensed directly at the static port.
The static pressure line and the total pressure line are attached to a differential
pressure gauge.
The net pressure indicated on the gauge is the dynamic pressure. As you know
the dynamic pressure is the total pressure minus the static pressure.
The dynamic pressure varies directly with changes in density and with the
square of the change in speed.
If the density is constant, the dynamic pressure increases sixteen times if the
speed increases four times.
The dynamic pressure is indicated to the pilot as the indicated air speed or IAS
in short.
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Figure 22 Pressure Measuring


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LIFT PRODUCTION
In this segment we see how lift is produced. We begin by looking at a special
design of tube known as a venturi tube.
You can see that the inlet and the outlet of the venturi tube are the same size.
The speed of the airflow increases until it reaches the narrowest point in the
tube.
You know that as the speed increases the static pressure decreases and the
dynamic pressure increases.
The speed decreases again after the narrowest point and returns to the inlet
level by the time the airflow reaches the outlet.
During this phase the static pressure increases again and the dynamic
pressure decreases.
The speed of the airflow in the Venturi tube is like the speed of a ball rolling
along a surface like this one.
As the ball rolls downhill some of the potential energy, that is the static
pressure, is exchanged for kinetic energy, that is dynamic pressure.
As the ball rolls past the lowest point the speed decreases and the static
pressure increases again.
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INLET OUTLET
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Figure 23 Venturi Tube


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Lift production cont.


Now let’s replace the upper surface of the Venturi tube with a straight line and
see what happens to the airflow.
As you can see this doesn’t change things very much. The streamlines are still
closer to each other in the center and the static pressure decreases in this
area.
If we remove the upper surface we find that the streamlines themselves
provide the upper boundary.
The next step is to change the lower surface of the venturi tube into a profile
and to add some streamlines below it.
Now we have a surface with an area of low static pressure above it and area of
unchanged static pressure below it.
This difference in static pressure acts on the surface to create the force which
we call lift.
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Figure 24 Lift
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Lift production cont.


You can see that the paper lifts when we blow above it.
The dynamic pressure above the paper increases and the static pressure
decreases.
The static pressure below the paper remains unchanged.
The difference in static pressure above and below the paper lifts it up.
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Figure 25 Lift
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Lift production cont.


You see that some of the streamlines approaching the profile in a low position
slope upwards in front of the wing and pass the aerofoil on the upper surface.
This is called an up−wash.
Looking at the trailing edge you see that some of the streamlines of the upper
surface flow downwards when leaving the profile.
This is called the down−wash.
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Figure 26 Up-wash / Down-wash


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Lift production cont.


Here you see the side view of a cylinder in an airstream.
The static pressure on the upper surface of the cylinder is the same as the
static pressure on the lower surface.
If we have no differential pressure we have no lift.
Let’s see what happens if we rotate the cylinder.
When the cylinder rotates the circulatory flow causes an increase in local
speed on the upper surface of the cylinder and a decrease in local speed on
the lower surface.
This generates lift
This mechanically induced circulation is called the Magnus effect.
You can see that the circulatory flow produces what we call an up−wash
immediately in front of the cylinder and a down−wash immediately behind the
cylinder.
You can also see that the fore and aft neutral streamlines are lowered.
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Figure 27 Magnus Effect


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Lift production cont.


This profile also generates a circulation which produces an up−wash and a
down−wash.
But where does the circulation around the profile come from as the wing profile
doesn‘t rotate as the cylinder does when creating the Magnus effect?
As you see the air near the trailing edge tends to flow upwards to the upper
surface of the wing where the static pressure is low due to the higher speed.
So the air forms a vortex which is soon washed away by the airflow.
There is a rule that says that vortices always form in pairs, rotating
counterclockwise. The matching vortex to that at the trailing edge is the
circulating vortex, that reinforces the airflow on the top of the aerofoil, making it
faster.
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Figure 28 Circulation
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PROFILE AND WING GEOMETRY


PROFILE GEOMETRY
In this lesson we look at the geometry of a wing and a profile. This is important
for our understanding of lift and drag.
We begin with the geometry of a profile.
As you can see a profile is a cross section of a wing.
The aircraft wing is sometimes called an airfoil and the profile is then an airfoil
section.
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Figure 29 Geometry of a Profile


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Profile Geometry cont.


The profile has a leading edge and a trailing edge.
The chord line is a straight line connecting the leading edge and the trailing
edge.
The mean camber line is a line drawn halfway between the upper and the lower
surfaces of the profile.
The shape of the mean camber line is very important in determining the
aerodynamic characteristics of a profile.
The end points of the mean camber line are the same as the end points of the
chord line.
The camber of the profile is the displacement of the mean camber line from the
chord line.
The maximum camber and the location or the maximum camber help to define
the shape of the mean camber line.
These quantities are expressed as a fraction or a percentage of the basic
chord dimension.
A typical low speed profile might have a maximum camber of 5 % located 45 %
aft of the leading edge.
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Figure 30 Camber of a profile


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Profile Geometry cont.


The maximum thickness of a profile is defined as a fraction or a percentage of
the chord.
The maximum thickness as a fraction is also known as the fineness ratio.
The location of the maximum thickness is also defined as a percentage of the
chord.
For example a typical low speed profile might have a maximum thickness of
18% located 30% aft of the leading edge.
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Figure 31 Thickness of a Profile


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Relative Wind
The flight path velocity is the speed of the aircraft in a certain direction through
the air.
The relative wind is the speed and direction of the air acting on the aircraft
which is passing through it.
You can see that the relative wind is opposite in direction to the flight path
velocity.
The relative wind depends on the flight path and is therefore not always
horizontal.
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Figure 32 Relative Wind


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Angle of Attack
The angle of attack is the angle between the chord line of the profile and the
relative wind.
It is denoted by  alpha).
The angle of incidence is the angle between the chord line of the profile and
the longitudinal axis of the aircraft.
It is denoted by gamma.
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Figure 33 Angle of Attack / Angle of Incidence


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WING GEOMETRY
In this segment we look at wing geometry. The wing area is the projection of
the outline on the plane of the chord.
It includes the area of the fuselage which is between the wings.
On this simplified graphic the wing area, S, is the wing span, b, multiplied by
the chord of the wing, c.
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Figure 34 Wing Area S


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Wing Geometry
On this more realistic tapered wing we have different wing chords. You can see
that the root chord, Cr, is the chord at the wing centerline and the tip chord, Ct,
is the chord at the wing tip.
The taper ratio  (lambda), is the ratio of the tip chord to the root chord.
λ = Ct/Cr

The wing area S is the average chord multiplied by the wing span.
The average chord, c, is the geometric average of all the chords and the wing
span, b, is measured from tip to tip.
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Figure 35 Taper Ratio λ


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Aspect Ratio
The aspect ratio is the wing span, b, divided by the average chord, c.
Typical aspects ratios vary from 35 for a high performance sail−plane to 3.5 for
a jet fighter plane.
You can see in the formula that the aspect ratio can also be expressed as the
wing span squared divided by the wing area.

L+ b
C
2
L+ b
S
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Figure 36 Aspect Ratio


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Sweep Angle
The sweep angle is the angle between the line of 25 percent chords and a line
perpendicular to the root chord.
Positive sweep = Backwards !
Negative sweep = Forewards !

Dihedral
The dihedral of the wing is the angle formed between the wing and the
horizontal plane passing through the root of the wing.
We have a positive dihedral when the tip of the wing is above the horizontal
plane and a negative dihedral when the tip of the wing is below the horizontal
plane.
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Figure 37 Sweep Angle / Dihedral


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LIFT AND DRAG


INTRODUCTION
You know that the main function of a profile is to provide lift so that the aircraft
can overcome the force of gravity and rise into the air.
In this lesson you will see that the design of the profile is very important.
Here you see the distribution of static pressure on a profile. The red area in
front of the leading edge is where the static pressure is higher than the ambient
static pressure.
This is because the velocity of the air approaching the leading edge slows to
less than the flight path velocity.
The static pressure is highest at the point of stagnation where the air comes to
a stop.
In the blue areas above and below the profile the static pressure is lower than
the ambient static pressure.
This is because the air speeds up again as it passes above and below the
profile so that the local air velocity is greater than the flight path velocity.
We have maximum air velocity and minimum static pressure at a point near the
maximum thickness of the profile.
The air velocity decreases and the static pressure increases after this point.
In the red area at the trailing edge the static pressure is higher than the
ambient static pressure.
This is caused by low velocity turbulent air in this area.
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Figure 38 Distribution of Static Pressure


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AERODYNAMIC FORCES
The aerodynamic force is the resultant of all forces on a profile in an airflow
acting on the center of pressure.
The aerodynamic force has two components
S lift which is perpendicular to the relative wind and
S drag which is parallel to the relative wind.
Here the center of pressure is identified. This is the point on which all
pressures and all forces act.
This point is located where the cord of a profile intersects with the resultant of
the aerodynamic forces lift and drag.
The aerodynamic forces of lift and drag depend on the combined effect of
many variables:
S The dynamic pressure,
S the surface area of the profile,
S the shape of the profile and
S the angle of attack.
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Figure 39 Aerodynamic Force


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Aerodynamic Forces cont.


Now we look at how to calculate the lift. You might think that this is simple − all
we need to know about is the surface and the pressure.
However it’s not as easy as you might think. In reality a profile has different
pressures because of different angles of attack.
First let’s look at the simple calculation of theoretical lift.
The theoretical lift is the dynamic pressure multiplied by the surface area.
You already know that the dynamic pressure is half the air density multiplied by
the velocity squared.
Theoretical Lift = ½ x ρ x V2 x A
In this example we assume that the air density is 1.225 kilograms per cubic
meter and the air velocity is 28 meters per second and the surface area of the
profile is 0.05 square meters.
This gives a theoretical lift of 24 Newton.
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Figure 40 Theoretical Lift


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Aerodynamic Forces cont.


It is not possible to calculate the actual lift. We have to measure it using a wind
tunnel.
You can see that a universal joint provides the bearing for this construction.
There are 2 scales attached to the support arm
S a horizontal scale to measure the drag and
S a vertical scale to measure the lift.
Now let’s see what happens when we switch on the wind tunnel.
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Figure 41 Wind Tunnel


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CL AND CD
You can see that the measured lift is only 8.4 Newton.
This is much less than the theoretical lift of 24 Newton.
The theoretical lift must therefore be adjusted.
A coefficient of lift, CL, is introduced to the lift equation to account for the
difference between the measured lift and the theoretical lift.
The coefficient of lift is the measured lift divided by the theoretical lift.
In our example it is 0.34.
The lift equation is now the coefficient of lift multiplied by the dynamic pressure
multiplied by the surface area.
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Figure 42 Lift Equation


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CL and Cd cont.
For the same reasons a coefficient of drag, CD, is introduced to the drag
equation to account for the difference between measured drag and theoretical
drag.
The coefficient of drag is the measured drag divided by the theoretical drag.
The drag equation becomes the coefficient of drag multiplied by the dynamic
pressure multiplied by the surface area.
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Figure 43 Drag Equation


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EFFECT OF ANGLE OF ATTACK


You know that the coefficient of lift is the ratio of the measured lift to the
theoretical lift.
The coefficient of lift is a function of the angle of attack and of the shape of the
profile.
We look at the effect of the angle of attack in this segment.
In this wind tunnel experiment you will see that each angle of attack produces a
different measured lift and therefore a different coefficient of lift.
The vertical scale will show the coefficient of lift as the angle of attack changes.
The relationship between the angle of attack and the coefficient of lift will be
plotted on the graph below.
Now observe the coefficient of lift on the scale and the relationship between the
angle of attack and the coefficient of lift on the graph.
You can see on the graph that the coefficient of lift increases up to the
maximum coefficient of lift, CL max, and then decreases again.
The maximum coefficient of lift corresponds to the maximum angle of attack,
alpha max.
If the angle of attack increases above α max the airflow cannot follow the upper
surface of the profile and an airflow separation known as stall occurs.
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Figure 44 Angle of Attack (AOA)


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EFFECT OF PROFILE SHAPE


The shape of the profile is the second influence on the coefficient of lift.
A profile can have different thickness and different camber and its shape may
be influenced by disturbances such as ice on the leading edge.
Here you see a cross section of the profile we used in the wind tunnel
experiment and the graph showing the associated coefficient of lift curve.
Now let’s see the coefficient of lift curve for a profile with the same camber but
with greater thickness.
You can see that the thicker profile has the same coefficient of lift at lower
angles of attack but a higher coefficient of lift when the angle of attack
increases above approximately ten degrees.
You can see also that the thicker profile has a higher maximum coefficient of lift
and a higher alpha max.
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Figure 45 Change of the Profile Thickness


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Effect of Profile Shape


Now let’s see the coefficient of lift curve for a profile with the same thickness as
the basic profile but with a higher camber.
You can see that the profile with the higher camber has a much higher
coefficient of lift at the zero angle of attack.
You can also see that this profile has a higher maximum coefficient of lift but a
lower alpha max than the basic profile.
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Figure 46 Change of the Profile Chamber


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Effect of Profile Shape


An advantage of a high maximum lift coefficient is that the aircraft can fly
slowly.
The disadvantages are that the thickness and camber necessary for profiles
with a high maximum lift coefficient may produce high drag and low critical
Mach number.
In other words a high maximum lift coefficient is just one of many features
desired in a profile.
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Figure 47 Profile
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EFFECT OF ICE ON SURFACE


Upper surface frost and especially leading edge ice formation reduce the
maximum coefficient of lift and the maximum angle of attack.
This is quite dangerous for low speed flights and the reason we have anti−icing
or deicing systems.
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Figure 48 Effect of Ice on Surface


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FACTORS AFFECTING DRAG


Next we look at the factors affecting the coefficient of drag.
The drag equation is similar to the lift equation except that we use the
coefficient of drag instead of the coefficient of lift.
You know that the coefficient of drag is the ratio of the measured drag to the
theoretical drag.
The coefficient of drag is a function of the angle of attack and of the shape of
the profile.
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Figure 49 Coefficient of Drag


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Factors affecting drag cont.


We use the wind tunnel experiment again to show that each angle of attack
produces a different measured drag and therefore a different coefficient of
drag.
The horizontal scale will show the coefficient of drag as the angle of attack
changes.
The relationship between the angle of attack and the coefficient of drag will be
plotted on the graph below.
You can see on the graph that at lower angles of attack the coefficient of drag
is low and small changes in the angle of attack produce only slight changes in
the coefficient of drag.
At higher angles of attack the coefficient of drag is much greater and small
changes in the angle of attack produce significant changes in the coefficient of
drag.
You can see that a stall produces a large increase in drag.
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Figure 50 Factors affecting Drag II


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POLAR DIAGRAM
Here you can see how the lift and drag coefficients can be combined to give us
information about the performance of profiles.
Now we’re going to look at the polar diagram. This shows the coefficient of lift
plotted against the coefficient of drag for each angle of attack.
This method of evaluating windtunnel tests was invented by Otto Lilienthal the
first researcher and pioneer in the field of aerodynamics and flying at the end of
the nineteenth century.
He used this diagram to find out the angle of attack that brings the best glide
ratio.
You find the angle for the best glide ratio by drawing a tangent from the
intersection of the axis to the graph.
The point where this tangent contacts the graph represents the angle of the
best glide ratio. No higher lift to drag ratio is possible by this profile.
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Figure 51 Polar Diagram


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LILIENTHAL DIAGRAM
The glide ratio represents not only the aerodynamic efficiency of a profile but
can tell you about the layout of a complete aircraft if you draw the diagram with
the coefficients of the aircraft.
A higher glide ratio means a lower drag at a given lift. This results in a lower
installed engine thrust to overcome the drag and this means lower weight,
lower fuel consumption, higher payload or longer range.
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Figure 52 Lilienthal Diagram


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Lilienthal Diagram
This picture shows the relationship between the polar diagram and the
behaviour of a real aircraft.
You see 4 forces acting on the aircraft while it is gliding with zero engine thrust.
The potential energy of the lost height substitutes the thrust of the engines and
compensates the drag.
The weight of the aircraft acts vertical to the ground and the drag parallel to the
glide path.
The third force is the lift perpendicular to the glidepath and finally the resultant
of lift and drag.
The angle ϕ between the lift vector and the resultant is the same as the angle
of the glide path to the horizon.
The smaller this angle, the smaller the dragvector, the smaller the necessary
thrust, the higher the efficiency of the aircraft.
This triangle can also be identified in the polar diagram, because CD is
proportional to the drag and CL to the lift.
Therefore the polar diagram can tell us a lot about the performance of the real
aircraft.
You see: the smaller the drag, the smaller the glide angle.
When the aircraft should fly horizontally, the engine thrust has to compensate
the drag. So an aircraft with a small glide angle needs less thrust.
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Figure 53 Relationship between Polar Diagram and Behaviour of an Aircraft


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LIFT AND DRAG

LIFT TO DRAG RATIO


A variation of the polar diagram is the lift drag ratio diagram.
Here the ratio of the lift to the drag is plotted against the angle of attack.
As you can see the ratio of the lift to the drag is the same as the ratio of the lift
coefficient to the drag coefficient.
The lift drag ratio diagram shows the maximum lift drag ratio.
This point which is the same as the best glide ratio in the polar diagram
represents the most efficient operation of the profile. It is the point where we
get the most lift for the least drag.
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Figure 54 Lift - Drag Ratio


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CATEGORIES OF DRAG
INTRODUCTION
You know that drag is the aerodynamic force which is parallel to the relative
wind.
It is the opposite force to thrust.
The total aircraft drag is the sum of the:
S Induced Drag
S Parasite Drag
S Compressible Drag
The induced drag is the drag on the wing which is caused by the lift.
The parasite drag is not related to the lift. It can be form drag which is drag
caused by the distribution of pressure or friction drag which is drag caused by
skin friction or interference drag which is drag caused by aerodynamic
interference.
Compressible drag is caused by the shock waves on an aircraft approaching
the speed of sound.
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Figure 55 Categories of Drag


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INDUCED DRAG
If an aircraft wing had an infinite span the air would flow directly from the
leading edge to the trailing edge.
The blue lines represent the airflow over the wing and the red lines represent
the airflow under the wing.
In reality, of course, an aircraft wing has a finite span − it has ends which are
called wing tips.
The air with higher pressure under the wing ’spills over’ the wing tips into the
air with lower pressure above the wing.
This turbulence at the wing tips causes the streamlines to form wing tip
vortices.
The streamlines below the wing bend towards the wing tips and the streamlines
above the wing bend towards the center.
The turbulence absorbs energy and increases the drag. This type of drag is
called induced drag.
On the graphic below you can see that on a wing with an infinite span the lift
distribution is always the same and on a wing with a finite span we get a loss of
lift near the wing tips.
The induced drag is lower if the finite wing has an elliptical lift distribution such
as the one you see here.
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Figure 56 Induced Drag


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EFFECT OF UP/ DOWN WASH


You know from an earlier lesson that there is a circulation around the profile.
If the wing span is infinite the circulation around the profile causes an upwash
on the leading edge and a downwash on the trailing edge.
This circulation is called the bound vortex.
On a finite wing span we have the bound vortex and we also have the wing tip
vortices.
The graph shows that the total of the bound vortex and the wing tip vortices
creates the upwash and the downwash on the wing.
The design of the gutter above the entry doors on this Aircraft reflects the
upwash and the downwash caused by the vortices.
You can see that the gutters are in line with the flow pattern of the airstream
around the wing.
They are sloped upwards to reflect the upwash forward of the wing and
downwards to reflect the downwash aft of the wing.
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Figure 57 Effects of Up/Down Wash


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EFFECT OF ASPECT RATIO


The induced drag is affected by the aspect ratio, the wing tip design and the
aircraft speed.
You can see that the wing tip vortex and therefore the induced drag is less on
the aircraft with the high aspect ratio.
The wing tips can be designed to reduce the induced drag.
On smaller aircraft we have a special wing tip form and on larger aircraft we
have wing tip fences such as on this Airbus 310 or winglets such as on this
Boeing 747.
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Airbus 310

Boeing 747
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Figure 58 Induced Drag Affection by the Aspect Ratio and the Wing Tip Design
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Effect of Aspect Ratio cont.


These designs reduced the energy of the wing tip vortices.
You can see examples of different wing tip designs from nature.
A heavy bird spreads its feathers like winglets to reduce the drag and a fast
flying bird has a high aspect ratio and sharp wing tips. This bird doesn’t need
winglets because the pressure difference is very low at the wing tips.
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Figure 59 Wing Tips in Nature


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Effect of Aspect Ratio cont.


During low speed flight the aircraft has a high angle of attack and therefore a
high lift coefficient.
There is a high pressure difference between the lower and the upper surface of
the wing and this creates large wing tip vortices and therefore high induced
drag.
During high speed flight the aircraft has a low angle of attack and therefore a
low lift coefficient.
There is a low pressure difference between the lower and the upper surface of
the wing and this creates small wing tip vortices and therefore low induced
drag.
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Figure 60 Induced Drag Affection by the Aircraft Speed


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FORM DRAG
You know that form drag is a parasite drag and that it is caused by the
pressure distribution on a body.
Take a look at the cylinder in an airstream. There is no friction in the airstream
and we have a perfectly symmetrical flow pattern.
You can see on the graphic that the pressure in front of the cylinder is the
same as the pressure aft of the cylinder.
In this situation there is no drag.
On the bottom of the graphic we have an airflow with friction. You can see that
we don’t have a symmetrical flow pattern any more and that the pressure in
front of the cylinder is not the same as the pressure behind the cylinder.
This difference in pressure causes form drag.
Form drag depends on the frontal area of a body and also on the speed of the
airflow.
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AIRFLOW WITHOUT FRICTION


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Figure 61 Airflow with and without Friction


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Form Drag
Now let’s compare the form drag of three different bodies with the same frontal
area:
S a disc,
S a disc with a bullet shaped nose and
S a disc with a bullet shaped nose and a streamline tail.
The disc has very high form drag.
If we add a bullet shaped nose the drag decreases to 20% and if we then add a
streamline tail the drag goes down to less than 10%.
Form drag is reduced by streamlining.
One obvious way of streamlining an aircraft is to have retractable landing gear.
Sometimes form drag on the wing is distinguished from form drag on other
parts of the aircraft.
Form drag on the wing is called wing drag or profile drag.
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Figure 62 Ways to reduce Form Drag


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FRICTION DRAG
Now let’s have a look at friction drag: Here you see 10 different profiles. You
can see that they all have the same height or diameter, D, and different length,
L.
The length to diameter ratio is shown on the left side of the profiles. This ratio
ranges from 1 at the top to 10 at the bottom.
The profile with the highest length to diameter ratio has the lowest form drag
and the profile with the length to diameter ratio of one has the highest form
drag.
There is a relationship between form drag and friction drag.
A profile with a low form drag has a high friction drag and a profile with a high
form drag has a low friction drag.
You can see on the graph that the profiles with the length to diameter ratios of
2, 3 and 4 produce the lowest combination of form and friction drag.
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Figure 63 Form Drag


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Friction Drag
Now let’s see what causes friction drag. First we assume that the surface of
the aircraft is perfectly smooth.
You can see that the airflow immediately above the surface is the same as the
freestream velocity.This is indicated by the length of the arrows.
In reality the surface of the aircraft is quite rough and the velocity of some
trapped air particles is reduced to zero.
This means that the airflow immediately above the surface is retarded.
The retarded layer of air at the surface slows down the layer immediately
above it and this layer in turn slows down the next layer and so on until the
freestream velocity is restored.
The retarded air is called the boundary layer.
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Figure 64 Boundary Layer


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BOUNDARY LAYER
There a 2 basic types of boundary layer − the turbulent boundary and the
laminar boundary layer.
The laminar boundary layer is immediately downstream of the leading edge.
The air particles in the laminar boundary layer do not move from one layer to
another. This is known as laminar flow.
The turbulent boundary layer is downstream of the laminar boundary layer.
The laminar flow breaks down and we get turbulent flow.
The air particles in the turbulent boundary layer travel from one layer to another
and this produces an energy exchange.
The turbulent boundary layer is much thicker than the laminar boundary layer
and produces about 3 times more friction drag.
The turbulent boundary layer also produces higher kinetic energy next to the
surface and this reduces the tendency for a flow separation.
Small disturbances inside the laminar boundary layer bring it into the turbulent
boundary layer or produce a flow separation.
Because of this it is important that the area of the profile corresponding to the
laminar boundary layer is kept clean and smooth.
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Figure 65 Laminar and Turbulent Boundary Layer


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Boundary Layer cont.


The behaviour of an air particle around a profile is similar to the behaviour of a
ball rolling into a valley.
You already know that an air particle around a profile moves from a high
pressure area to a low pressure area and then back to a high pressure area
again.
The area where the ball enters the valley corresponds to the high pressure
area where the air particle meets the leading edge of the profile and the lowest
point of the valley corresponds to the lowest pressure point along the profile.
You know that this is the point of maximum thickness.
The laminar boundary layer is between the leading edge and the point of
maximum thickness which is also the point of lowest static pressure.
An air particle moves smoothly and with acceleration in the laminar boundary
layer just like the ball as it accelerates from the top of the hill to the bottom of
the valley.
You can see that the ball decelerates as it rolls up the other side of the valley
and stops before it reaches its former elevation.
In the same way the air particle loses energy due to the friction it encounters as
it enters the turbulent boundary layer after the point of maximum thickness.
The air particle is unable to reach the area of high static pressure at the trailing
edge and we get a flow separation where the air particle stops moving.
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Figure 66 Air Particle in a Boundary Layer


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Boundary Layer cont.


Now you can give the ball some additional energy with this billiard cue.
The additional energy from the billard cue takes the ball back to the elevation it
started from.
A slot in the profile assists the air particle to reach the high pressure area at the
trailing edge in the same way that the billiard cue assists the ball to reach its
former elevation.
The slot transfers air with high energy from the lower side to the upper side of
the profile and this gives the stationary air particle the energy it needs to move
to the high pressure area at the trailing edge.
The slot prevents a flow separation.
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Figure 67 Slot in the Profile


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Boundary Layer cont.


Take a look at the two profiles with the same thickness.
The lower profile has lower friction drag than the upper profile.
This is because the low drag laminar region is greater on the lower profile than
on the upper profile.
The transition to the turbulent boundary layer takes place at 45% of the chord
of the lower profile compared to 30% of the chord of the upper profile.
The lower profile is known as a laminar profile.
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Figure 68 Laminar Profile


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INTERFERENCE DRAG
In this segment we use an example to illustrate interference drag. You can see
that we have three separate aircraft components:
S a wing which creates a drag of 700 daN
S a strut which creates a drag of 50 daN
S an engine which creates a drag of one 150 daN
The sum of the drag on each of these separate components is 900 daN.
The total drag on the wing with the strut and the engine attached is greater
than the sum of the drag on the individual components.
This difference is the interference drag.
Interference drag is the turbulence in the airflow caused by the sharp corners
which result when components are joined together or placed in close proximity.
Interference drag can be reduced by fairings.
Now you know something about each of different types of parasite drag.
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Figure 69 Interference Drag


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COMPRESSIBLE DRAG
Compressible drag only occurs in transonic and supersonic flight.
It is caused by the shock waves on an aircraft approaching the speed of sound.
Sometimes it is called wave drag.
In subsonic flight the local velocities on a profile are greater than the free
stream velocity but, by definition, less than the speed of sound.
In transonic flight we get a mix of subsonic and supersonic airflow and we
encounter shock waves.
You can learn more about shock waves in Module 11 in the lessons on high
speed flight. For now we concentrate on how shock waves create drag.
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Figure 70 Compressible Drag I


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Compressible Drag cont.


Here you can see a close up view of the boundary layer in front of and behind
the shock wave.
You can see that the boundary layer thickens as it passes through the shock
wave.
A flow separation is caused by the thickening of the boundary layer and the
existence of an adverse pressure gradient across the shock wave.
This flow separation causes additional drag which is called compressible drag.
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Figure 71 Compressible Drag II


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TOTAL DRAG
In this segment we look at how induced drag and parasite drag combine to give
total drag.
The red curve represents the induced drag. It shows that the induced drag is
high at low speeds and decreases as the speed increases.
The blue curve represents the parasite drag. The parasite drag increases with
increases in speed.
The green curve represents the total drag. It is the sum of the induced drag
and the parasite drag.
You can see that the total drag is very high at low speeds because of the high
induced drag.
It then decreases to a minimum at an intermediate speed and then increases
again because of the increasing parasite drag.
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Figure 72 Total Drag


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LIFT DISTRIBUTION

LIFT DISTRIBUTION
INTRODUCTION
In this lesson we look at the lift distribution.
Here you see 4 different wing shapes with their lift distribution.
S an elliptical wing
S a rectangular wing
S a tapered wing
S a swept wing
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Figure 73 Wing Shape and Lift Distribution


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LIFT DISTRIBUTION

EFFECT OF UP/DOWN WASH


Wing Design
While the wing with elliptical lift distribution stalls all over the wingspan at the
same time, the rectangular wing begins to stall at the root and tapered wings
and swept wings stall at the tip section first.
The reason for the different stall characteristics of each of these wing shapes
is, that the downwash behind the wing changes the local angle of attack.
A high downwash produces a low local angle of attack and an low downwash
produces a high local angle of attack.
Elliptical Wing
The elliptical wing has a constant downwash behind the wing.
This constant downwash gives a constant local angle of attack and therefore a
constant flow separation across the span of the wing.
The entire wing stalls at the same time.
Rectangular Wing
The rectangular wing has a large tip vortex and therefore a larger downwash at
the tip than at the root.
We have a higher downwash and a lower angle of attack at the tip of the
rectangular wing.
This means that the tip sections are the last to stall.

Tapered Wing
On the tapered wing the downwash increases towards the root and the tip
stalls before the root.
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Swept Wing
A swept wing also tends to stall at the tip section first.
Swept wings are used on most aircraft.
A tendency to stall at the tip section first has dangerous implications for the
lateral control and stability of the aircraft.

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Figure 74 Wing Design


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WING DESIGN
The wing can be designed so that the root stalls before the tip and the aircraft
remains controllable.
This is achieved by geometrically twisting or ’washing out’ the wing or by
aerodynamically twisting the wing.
Geometrically Twisted Wing
On a geometrically twisted wing the camber of the profile is constant across the
span of the wing but the angle of incidence is greater at the root than at the tip.
You can see that the chord lines are not parallel.
When the aircraft approaches the stall angle there is a flow separation on the
root before the tip.

Aerodynamically Twisted Wing


On an aerodynamically twisted wing the camber of the profile at the root is
greater than the camber at the tip and the angle of incidence is constant across
the wing span. You can see that the chordlines are parallel.
When the aircraft approaches the stall angle there is a flow separation at the
root before the tip.
In reality most aircraft wings are tapered and swept and use a combination of
geometric wash out and aerodynamic wash out.
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Figure 75 Wing Twist


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STALL CONDITIONS
The total wing lift is the resultant of the lift distribution. It is represented by the
large blue arrows on the lower graphic.
The total wing lift acts on the center of lift.
The chord line through the center of lift is known as the mean aerodynamic
chord, or MAC for short.
The position of the center of lift can be described in percentage terms.
The leading edge corresponds to 0 % and the trailing edge to 100% so in this
example we can say that the center of lift is located at approximately 30 %
MAC.
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Figure 76 Mean Aerodynamic Chord


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Stall Conditions cont.


The total weight of the aircraft acts on the center of gravity.
The aircraft rotates around its center of gravity.
When the position of the center of lift is the same as the position of the center
of gravity we have no aircraft rotation. The aircraft is in level flight.
When the position of the center of lift moves forward of the position of the
center of gravity we have a nose up reaction and when the position of the
center of lift moves aft of the position of the center of gravity we have a nose
down reaction.
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Figure 77 Center of Lift Conditions


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Wing Root Stall


Here we have a stall at the root of the wing.
You can see the loss of lift that results from the flow separation in the area of
the root.
When we have a flow separation at the root of the wing the center of lift moves
towards the tip and also behind the center of gravity.
The aircraft rotates to the nose down position.
The aircraft loses altitude rapidly, the airspeed increases and the angle of
attack decreases.
The aircraft recovers from the stall without pilot input.
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Figure 78 Wing Root Stall


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Wing Tip Stall Prevention


A flow separation at the tip of the wing is much more dangerous. The center of
lift moves towards the root and also forward of the center of gravity.
The aircraft rotates to the nose up position.
The angle of attack increases and the stall condition gets worse. Pilot input is
required to keep the aircraft under control.
A stall strip is a knife edge like device which is used on smaller aircraft to
prevent the wing tip from stalling first.
Here the stall strip is mounted at the leading edge of the wing root.
The disadvantage of this device is that it disturbs the lift.
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Figure 79 Wing Tip Stall Effects


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Wing Tip Stall Prevention cont.


Slats are used to prevent wing tip stall on some larger aircraft.
On aircraft such as the Boeing 737 or the MD11 the slats extend automatically
if the angle of attack is too high.
The slats are located at the leading edge of the wing tips.
When the slat is extended a slot opens and the boundary layer receives more
energy. As you know this prevents a flow separation at the wing tip.
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Figure 80 Wing Tip Stall Prevention


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BOUNDARY LAYER CONTROL


As air particles flow over this swept wing they are split in 2 directions.
One is at right angles to the leading edge and the other follows the leading
edge.
This produces a spanwise flow.
The spanwise flow has the effect of thickening the boundary layer towards the
wing tip − especially during low speed flight with a high angle of attack.
This increases the possibility of a flow separation.
Wing fences reduce the effects of the spanwise flow.
The wing fences are placed at several locations on the wing.
They tend to keep the air particles going in a straight line direction.
Wing fences are also called boundary layer fences.
A saw tooth leading edge has the same effect as wing fences.
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Figure 81 Saw Tooth Leading Edge and Wing Fences


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Vortex Generator
A vortex generator is another device which is used to improve boundary layer
control.
It is a small, low aspect ratio wing which is placed vertically on the surface of a
large wing.
The vortex generator produces lift and has an associated tip vortex which is
comparable to induced drag.
The vortex is large relative to the generator because the aspect ratio is small.
The vortex generator takes relatively high energy air from outside the boundary
layer and mixes it with low energy air in the boundary layer.
The generator must be the right size and in the right location to go through the
boundary layer.
The number of vortex generators and their location depends on flight test
investigation.
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Figure 82 Vortex Generator


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THEORY OF FLIGHT

THEORY OF FLIGHT
FORCES ACTING ON AN AIRCRAFT
You know that the 4 forces acting on an aircraft are:
S Lift
S Weight
S Thrust
S Drag
Thrust is the force which moves the aircraft forward through the air.
Thrust is provided by jet engines or by a propeller.
Drag is the aerodynamic force which is parallel to the flight path.
You can see that drag acts towards the rear of the aircraft.
Lift is the aerodynamic force which is ninety degrees to the flight path.
You can see that lift acts toward the top of the aircraft.
Weight is the force of gravity.
It always acts towards the center of the earth.
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Figure 83 Forces acting on an Aircraft


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forces acting on an aircraft cont.


In theory lift, thrust, weight and drag all act through the aircraft’s center of
gravity.
The center of gravity can be thought of as a center of balance.
An equilibrium exists when the aircraft is in steady, level flight.
The aircraft is trimmed so that the lift is equal to the weight, or in other words
the sum of the vertical forces is 0 and the power plant is set so that the thrust
is equal to the drag, or in other words the sum of the horizontal forces is equal
to 0.
A third condition for equilibrium is that the clockwise rotation of the aircraft is
equal to the anti clockwise rotation or in other words the sum of the moments is
equal to 0.
Moments are caused by forces on a lever that do not act through the point of
rotation.
The value of a moment is equal to the force multiplied by the moment arm.
The moment arm is the shortest distance between the point of rotation and the
line of action of the force.
Earlier we assumed that all forces acted through the center of gravity. In reality
however, it is a requirement for stable flight that the center of lift is aft of the
center of gravity.
The distance between the center of gravity and the center of lift creates the
rotating effect known as a moment.
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Figure 84 Center of Lift / Center of Gravity


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forces acting on an aircraft cont.


The lift force acts with the moment arm L 1 to produce an anti clockwise
rotation and a downward force on the aircraft nose.
This must be balanced with a clockwise rotation which gives an upward force
on the aircraft nose.
The stabilizer force acts with the moment arm L 2 to produce the clockwise
rotation and an upward force on the aircraft nose.
The lift on the wing now has to carry the weight of the aircraft and the
downward acting stabilizer force.
But what about the thrust and the drag?
In reality the thrust line is below the drag line.
The thrust force acts with the moment arm L 3 to produce a clockwise rotation
and an upward force on the aircraft nose and the drag force acts with the
moment arm L 4 also to produce a clockwise rotation and an upward force on
the aircraft nose.
The sum of the moments is 0.
The anti clockwise rotation is equal to the clockwise rotation or the lift force
multiplied by the moment arm L 1, is equal to the sum of the thrust force
multiplied by the moment arm L 3, the drag force multiplied by the moment arm
L4 and the stabilizer force multiplied by the moment arm L 2.
Here all conditions for steady flight are satisfied.
The sum of the horizontal forces is 0, the sum of the vertical forces is 0 and the
sum of the moments is 0.
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Figure 85 Steady Flight Conditions


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THEORY OF TURN
In this segment we look at the theory of turn.
When an aircraft is in constant altitude, wings level flight you know that the lift
is equal to the weight of the aircraft.
To produce a turn, an additional force is necessary.
This force is called centrifugal force and acts on an aircraft during a steady,
co−ordinated turn.
You can see that the centrifugal force acts horizontally.
If the aircraft is to maintain altitude during a turn the lift in the turn must be
equal to the resultant of the centrifugal force and the weight.
When this happens you can see that the vertical lift and the vertical weight
remain the same as in level flight.
The load factor is the resultant force divided by the weight.
The load factor ” n ” is also called the g−load.
In the example with a bank angle ”  ” of 45_ the load factor is 1.41.
A higher bank angle gives a higher load factor.
On the turn with a 45_ bank angle the resultant force is 1.41 times the weight
so the load factor n is 1.41.
On a the turn with a 60_ bank angle the resultant force is twice the weight so
the load factor n is 2.
The structural strength of the aircraft and consideration for passenger comfort
limit the maximum load factor and therefore the maximum bank angle during a
turn.
For example the load factor on military or acrobatic aircraft is much higher than
on passenger aircraft.
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Figure 86 Theory of Turn


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LIFT COMPENSATION DURING TURN


You know that we need additional lift during the turn to compensate for the
extra weight brought about by the resultant of the centrifugal force and the
weight.
You can see from the lift equation that the extra lift can be generated by
increasing the coefficient of lift or by increasing the speed.
First let’s see what happens when the aircraft is in cruise flight.
You can see that the coefficient of lift is much less than the maximum
coefficient of lift.
The pilot can increase the coefficient of lift up to the maximum during a turn.
When the aircraft is in low speed flight the coefficient of lift is at, or close to, the
maximum.
The pilot must increase the speed to create the additional lift required for the
turn.
The stall speed during a turn divided by the stall speed during level flight is
equal to the square root of the load factor.
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Figure 87 Lift Compensation during Turn


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FLIGHT STABILITY AND DYNAMICS


STATIC STABILITY
When we talk about stability we refer to how the aircraft is able to follow a
planned straight and level course without pilot action.
There are two types of stability
S static stability and
S dynamic stability.
First we look at static stability.
Here you see a ball on a concave surface. This is an example of static stability.
When the ball is displaced from the center it returns to its original position of
equilibrium.
Now you see a ball on a convex surface. Again you can move the ball to the
left or the right.
This is an example of negative static stability.
When the ball is displaced from the center it moves away from its original
position of equilibrium.
Finally you see a ball on a flat surface. Again you can move the ball to the left
or the right.
This is an example of neutral static stability.
When the ball is displaced from the center it shows no tendency to roll back or
away from its original position of equilibrium.
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Figure 88 Static Stability


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DYNAMIC STABILITY
Dynamic stability refers to how the continuous motion of a body varies over
time.
Dynamic stability only applies if we have positive static stability.
Here you see an example of neutral dynamic stability.
We assume that there are no friction forces acting between the ball and the
surface. The ball theoretically oscillates forever after the initial displacement.
This is called an undamped oscillation.
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Figure 89 Undamped Oscilliation


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dynamic stability cont.


This is an example of positive dynamic stability.
We assume that there is friction between the ball and the surface. The motion
of the ball tends to ’damp out’ after the initial displacement.
When we have damped oscillation the ball is dynamically stable.
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Figure 90 Damped Oscillation


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dynamic stability cont.


Here you see an example of negative dynamic stability.
We assume that there is another force acting on the ball which is stronger than
the friction − for example a wind which blows the ball in the direction of the
motion.
The ball departs further and further from its equilibrium position. When we have
divergent oscillation like this the ball is dynamically unstable.
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Figure 91 Divergent Oscillation


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STATIC AND DYNAMIC STABILITY


Here you see another example to illustrate stability. The center of gravity of this
ruler is located at hole number 4.
If the pivot point and the center of gravity are in the same place then we have a
neutral static stability. There is no tendency to move back to the original
position from the displaced position.
If the ruler is tilted to the left it stays in this position and if it is tilted to the right it
stays in this position.
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Figure 92 Neutral Static Stability


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static and dynamic stability cont.


If the pivot point is below the center of gravity we have a negative static
stability.
When we have a displacement out of the vertical position the weight and the
moment arm L1 move the ruler away from the original equilibrium position.
If the pivot point is above the center of gravity we have a positive static
stability.
When we have a displacement out of the vertical position the weight and the
moment arm L2 bring the ruler back to the original equilibrium position.
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NEGATIVE STATIC STABILITY POSITIVE STATIC STABILITY


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Figure 93 Negative and Positive Static Stability


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static and dynamic stability cont.


The distance between the pivot point and the center of gravity influences the
stability.
The longer the distance the greater the stability.
If the pivot point is in hole 1 the large moment arm L1 gives a high tendency
for the ruler to return to the equilibrium position after displacement.
If the pivot point is in hole 3, the relatively small moment arm L3 gives a lower
tendency for the ruler to return to the equilibrium position after displacement.
You will see how this is relevant to aircraft stability in the segment on
longitudinal stability.
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Figure 94 Influences on Stability


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FLIGHT STABILITY INTRODUCTION


Here you see 3 aircraft encountering a disturbance.
The aircraft on the right of the graphic has positive dynamic stability after the
disturbance.
Positive dynamic stability is usually required in aircraft design. It prevents
continuous oscillations of the aircraft around its axes.
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Figure 95 Flight Stability


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flight stability introduction cont.


Aircraft Axes
The 3 aircraft axes are:
S the longitudinal axis,
S the vertical axis
S and the lateral axis.
These axes are perpendicular to each other and intersect at the center of
gravity.
Lateral stability refers to the roll movement around the longitudinal axis.
Directional stability refers to the yaw movement around the vertical axis and
longitudinal stability refers to the pitch movement around the lateral axis.
The aircraft has positive static stability when the sum of all the forces and all
the moments is equal to 0.
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Figure 96 Aircraft Axes


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DIRECTIONAL STABILITY
The directional or ’weathercock’ stability of an aircraft is the stability around the
vertical axis.
The directional stability depends on the fin of the aircraft which is also called
the vertical stabilizer and on the ’sweepback’ of the wing. First we look at the
effect of the fin.
Here you see an aircraft which has been deflected from its flight path.
This results in a pressure along the surface of one side of the aircraft, in this
example the right side.
If the turning moment behind the center of gravity is greater than the turning
moment in front of the center of gravity the aircraft turns back to its original
flight path.
The aircraft is directionally stable.
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Figure 97 Directional Stability


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directional stability cont.


Some aircraft increase the surface area behind the center of gravity to improve
the directional stability.
One method of doing this is with a dorsal fin and another, used on some
military aircraft and on the old Boeing 707, is a keel surface. Both of these
features increase the side forces to produce positive directional stability.
The sweepback of a wing also improves directional stability.
When the aircraft is deflected from its original flight path the forward going wing
presents a larger frontal area to the airflow than the other wing.
The drag on the forward going wing is therefore greater than on the other wing
and this produces a yawing moment which returns the aircraft to its original
flight path.
You will realise that the forward going wing also produces higher lift.
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Figure 98 Directional Stability II


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LATERAL STABILITY INTRODUCTION


Lateral stability is the stability of the aircraft around the longitudinal axis.
It is mainly determined by the wing or more specifically by the angle of attack,
the dihedral angle and the sweepback angle.
First we look at the effect of the angle of attack.
You know that during level flight the lift is equal to the weight.
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Figure 99 Lateral Stability I


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LATERAL STABILITY
Now let’s see what happens when we have a gust of wind under the right wing.
The gust moves the right wing upward and the left wing downward and the
aircraft rotates around the longitudinal axis.
While the left wing is going down, it meets the relative wind coming from the
opposite direction. This wind stops the movement of the wing but cannot turn it
back.
You know that the angle of attack is the angle between the flight velocity and
the chord line.
Now let’s take a closer look at what happens to the down going wing.
When the gust forces the aircraft to rotate we have an additional velocity − the
down going wing velocity.
The resultant of the flight velocity and the down going wing velocity is used to
determine the angle of attack.
The effective angle of attack is now the angle between the resultant velocity
and the chord line.
You can see that this new angle of attack is higher than the previous angle of
attack and produces more lift.
As you can imagine there is a similar but opposite effect on the up going wing.
This wing gets an decrease in lift.
The increase in lift on the down going wing and the decrease in lift on the up
going wing stops the roll motion but does not bring the aircraft back to the level
flight position.
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Figure 100 Lateral Stability II


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EFFECT OF DIHEDRAL
Now let’s see how the dihedral angles help to restore level flight.
The lift is always at right angles to the lateral axis. In level flight the lift is
vertically straight up but as you can see here in disturbed flight the lift is
inclined in the direction of the lower wing.
In this situation the lift and the weight create a resultant force.
The resultant force causes a sideslip which means that the aircraft glides to
one side without changing flight direction.
The sideslip causes a flow of air in the opposite direction to the relative wind.
Because of the dihedral angle the relative wind strikes the down going wing at
a greater angle than the up going wing.
This increases the lift on the down going wing and decreases the lift on the up
going wing.
This difference in lift turns the aircraft back to its original flight position and the
sideslip motion is stopped.
The relative wind also strikes the vertical stabilizer and this also assists the turn
back motion.
Lateral stability affects directional stability and vice versa.
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Figure 101 Effect of Dihedral


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effect of dihedral cont.


The sideslip angle is the angle between the aircraft centerline and the sideslip
direction.
You know that the relative wind is opposite to the sideslip direction.
The wing in the sideslip direction, the right wing, produces more lift than the
other wing.
This wing has a longer effective leading edge and a thicker effective profile
than the left wing.
The difference in lift on the wings brings the aircraft back to level flight.
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Figure 102 Sideslip


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LATERAL DIRECTIONAL INTERACTIONS


In the previous segments we separated the lateral and the directional effects of
the swept wing during a disturbance.
You saw that the lateral response and the directional response both produce a
sideslip because of different effective lift on the wings.
In reality when an aircraft in free flight is placed in a sideslip the lateral
response and the directional response happen together and the sideslip
produces a rolling moment and a yawing moment.
The complex interaction of the rolling moment and the yawing moment
produces two main types of aircraft reaction, the spiral dive and the dutch roll
effect.
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Figure 103 Lateral Directional Interactions


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SPIRAL DIVE
The tendency for spiral dive exists when there is a greater effect on the
directional stability than on the lateral stability.
When this aircraft with a large vertical stabilizer is disturbed from level flight it
begins a slow spiral which gradually increases to a spiral dive.
When we have a sideslip the strong directional stability effect tends to turn the
nose of the aircraft into the wind and the relatively weak dihedral effect cannot
restore the aircraft laterally.
The rate of divergence in the spiral motion is usually so gradual that the pilot
can control the tendency without difficulty.
FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY!

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Figure 104 Spiral Dive


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DUTCH ROLL
Dutch roll is a lateral − directional oscillation.
The tendency for dutch roll exists when there is a greater effect on the lateral
stability than on the directional stability.
When the aircraft is disturbed from its directional equilibrium the forward wing
produces more lift and more drag than the other wing.
When the effect of the lift is greater than the effect of the drag we get a sideslip
in the opposite direction and the dutch roll cycle is repeated.
This yaw and roll motion of the aircraft is like the motion of someone ’waltzing’
on skates. In fact the term ’dutch roll’ comes from ice skating.
The dutch roll problem is found on all aircraft with swept wings.
It can be partially overcome by reducing the sweep angle of the wings and by
improving the directional stability.
The directional stability can be improved by increasing the size of the vertical
stabilizer but this has weight and drag disadvantages.
Most aircraft use a yaw damping system to improve directional stability. This is
an automatic system which deflects the control surface on the vertical
stabilizer, called the rudder, to give the necessary directional stability.
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Figure 105 Dutch Roll


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LONGITUDINAL STABILITY
Longitudinal stability is the stability of the aircraft around the lateral axis.
It is positive if the aircraft tends to return to its equilibrium, or the trim angle of
attack, after it is displaced by a gust.
The longitudinal stability depends on the angle of attack and the pitching
moment effects of the horizontal stabilizer and the wing.
The horizontal stabilizer produces a downward force during level flight.
This force acts with a long moment arm around the center of gravity.
The wing produces upward lift forces during level flight which act with a short
moment arm around the center of gravity.
As long as both forces are balanced there will be no change of the attitude.
When a gust hits the lower front part of the aircraft we get a nose up rotation.
This changes the angle of attack of the horizontal stabilizer which decreases
the stabilizer force.
The nose up rotation also produces additional lift on the wing because of the
increasing angle of attack.
The moment of the additional lift and the lever arm L1 and the reduced
downward force on the stabilizer with the moment arm L2 bring the aircraft
back to equilibrium.
When a gust hits the upper front part of the aircraft we get a nose down
rotation.
This changes the angle of attack of the horizontal stabilizer which increases the
down going stabilizer force.
The nose down rotation also reduces the lift on the wing.
The moment of the reduced lift and the lever arm L1 and the increasing
FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY!

downward force on the stabilizer with the moment arm L2 return the aircraft to
the previous position.

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Figure 106 Longitudinal Stability


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Longitudinal stability cont.


In general positive longitudinal stability is achieved when the center of gravity
as the resultant of all aircraft weights is forward of the aerodynamic center, also
called the neutral point, which is the center of all lift forces.
If the distance between the center of gravity and the aerodynamic center is
great then the longitudinal stability is high and if this distance is small then the
longitudinal stability is low.
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Figure 107 Quality of Longitudinal Stability


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EJAMF M08 B1 E

TABLE OF CONTENTS
M8 BASIC AERODYNAMICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 FRICTION DRAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
BOUNDARY LAYER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
PHYSICS OF AERODYNAMICS & ATMOSHERE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 INTERFERENCE DRAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
FUNDAMENTAL UNITS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 COMPRESSIBLE DRAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
SPEED AND ACCELERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 TOTAL DRAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
FORCE AND WEIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 LIFT DISTRIBUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
WORK AND POWER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
PRESSURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 EFFECT OF UP/DOWN WASH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
SPEED OF SOUND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 WING DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
ATMOSHERE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 STALL CONDITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
BASIC AERODYNAMICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 BOUNDARY LAYER CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
CONTINUITY EQUATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 THEORY OF FLIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
BERNOULLI’S PRINCIPLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 FORCES ACTING ON AN AIRCRAFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
LIFT PRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 THEORY OF TURN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
PROFILE AND WING GEOMETRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 LIFT COMPENSATION DURING TURN . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
PROFILE GEOMETRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 FLIGHT STABILITY AND DYNAMICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
WING GEOMETRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 STATIC STABILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
LIFT AND DRAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 DYNAMIC STABILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 STATIC AND DYNAMIC STABILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
AERODYNAMIC FORCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 FLIGHT STABILITY INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
CL AND CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 DIRECTIONAL STABILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
EFFECT OF ANGLE OF ATTACK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 LATERAL STABILITY INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
EFFECT OF PROFILE SHAPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 LATERAL STABILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
EFFECT OF ICE ON SURFACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 EFFECT OF DIHEDRAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
FACTORS AFFECTING DRAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 LATERAL DIRECTIONAL INTERACTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . 206
POLAR DIAGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 SPIRAL DIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
LILIENTHAL DIAGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 DUTCH ROLL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
LIFT TO DRAG RATIO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 LONGITUDINAL STABILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
CATEGORIES OF DRAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
INDUCED DRAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
EFFECT OF UP/ DOWN WASH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
EFFECT OF ASPECT RATIO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
FORM DRAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

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Figure 1 International SI-System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Figure 36 Aspect Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Figure 2 International SI-System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Figure 37 Sweep Angle / Dihedral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Figure 3 International SI-System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Figure 38 Distribution of Static Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Figure 4 Speed and Acceleration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Figure 39 Aerodynamic Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Figure 5 Acceleration due to Gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Figure 40 Theoretical Lift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Figure 6 Force and Weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Figure 41 Wind Tunnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Figure 7 Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Figure 42 Lift Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Figure 8 Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Figure 43 Drag Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Figure 9 Pressure / Static and Dynamic Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Figure 44 Angle of Attack (AOA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Figure 10 Sound Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Figure 45 Change of the Profile Thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Figure 11 Speed of Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Figure 46 Change of the Profile Chamber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Figure 12 Aircraft Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Figure 47 Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Figure 13 Mach Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Figure 48 Effect of Ice on Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Figure 14 Sound Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Figure 49 Coefficient of Drag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Figure 15 Atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Figure 50 Factors affecting Drag II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Figure 16 ICAO Standard Atmosphere (ISA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Figure 51 Polar Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Figure 17 Flow Pattern in a Tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Figure 52 Lilienthal Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Figure 18 Continuity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Figure 53 Relationship between Polar Diagram and Behaviour of an
Figure 19 Defuser & Jet Outlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Aircraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Figure 20 Valve positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Figure 54 Lift - Drag Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Figure 21 Point of Stagnation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Figure 55 Categories of Drag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Figure 22 Pressure Measuring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Figure 56 Induced Drag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Figure 23 Venturi Tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Figure 57 Effects of Up/Down Wash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Figure 24 Lift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Figure 58 Induced Drag Affection by the Aspect Ratio and the Wing
Tip Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Figure 25 Lift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Figure 59 Wing Tips in Nature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Figure 26 Up-wash / Down-wash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Figure 60 Induced Drag Affection by the Aircraft Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Figure 27 Magnus Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Figure 61 Airflow with and without Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Figure 28 Circulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Figure 62 Ways to reduce Form Drag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Figure 29 Geometry of a Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Figure 63 Form Drag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Figure 30 Camber of a profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Figure 64 Boundary Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Figure 31 Thickness of a Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Figure 65 Laminar and Turbulent Boundary Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Figure 32 Relative Wind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Figure 66 Air Particle in a Boundary Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Figure 33 Angle of Attack / Angle of Incidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Figure 67 Slot in the Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Figure 34 Wing Area S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Figure 68 Laminar Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Figure 35 Taper Ratio l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

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Figure 69 Interference Drag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Figure 104 Spiral Dive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
Figure 70 Compressible Drag I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Figure 105 Dutch Roll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Figure 71 Compressible Drag II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 Figure 106 Longitudinal Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Figure 72 Total Drag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Figure 107 Quality of Longitudinal Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Figure 73 Wing Shape and Lift Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Figure 74 Wing Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Figure 75 Wing Twist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Figure 76 Mean Aerodynamic Chord . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Figure 77 Center of Lift Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Figure 78 Wing Root Stall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Figure 79 Wing Tip Stall Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Figure 80 Wing Tip Stall Prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Figure 81 Saw Tooth Leading Edge and Wing Fences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Figure 82 Vortex Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Figure 83 Forces acting on an Aircraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Figure 84 Center of Lift / Center of Gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Figure 85 Steady Flight Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Figure 86 Theory of Turn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Figure 87 Lift Compensation during Turn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Figure 88 Static Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Figure 89 Undamped Oscilliation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Figure 90 Damped Oscillation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Figure 91 Divergent Oscillation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Figure 92 Neutral Static Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
Figure 93 Negative and Positive Static Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
Figure 94 Influences on Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
Figure 95 Flight Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Figure 96 Aircraft Axes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
Figure 97 Directional Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Figure 98 Directional Stability II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
Figure 99 Lateral Stability I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
Figure 100 Lateral Stability II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Figure 101 Effect of Dihedral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Figure 102 Sideslip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
Figure 103 Lateral Directional Interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207

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EJAMF M08 CAT B1 E

TABLE OF FIGURES

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EJAMF M08 CAT B1 E

TABLE OF FIGURES

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