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INDUSTRIAL TRAINING

REPORT
220/132/33 KV SUBSTATION NAYAGAON
JABALPUR
Submitted By

BHAGVAT SHUKLA
(0201EE163D01)

SUBMITTED TO:

Department of Electrical Engineering

JABALPUR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

GUIDED BY:-
NISHEET SONI
(ASST.PROFESSOR)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CH.NO. TOPIC NAME

1. INTRODUCTION
2. ABOUT SUBSTATION
3. SELECTION OF SITE
4. EQUIPMENT IN A 220KV SUB-STATION
 Bus-bar
 Insulators
 Isolating Switches
 Circuit breaker
 Protective relay
 Instrument Transformer
 Current Transformer
 Voltage Transformer
 Capacitor Voltage Transformer
 Metering and Indicating Instrument
 Miscellaneous equipment
 Transformer
 Lightening arrestors
 Line isolator
 Wave trap
5. SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM
6. TRANSFORMER
7. INSULATOR
8. CIRCUIT BREAKER & ISOLATOR
9. CONTROL AND RELAY ROOM
10. WAVE TRAP
11. CONCLUSION
INTRODUCTION

The present day electrical power system is ac i.e. electric power is generated, transmitted
and distributed in the form of Alternating current. The electric power is produce at the
power station, which are located at favourable places, generally quite away from the
consumers. It is delivered to the consumer through a large network of transmission and
distribution. At many place in the line of power system, it may be desirable and necessary
to change some characteristic (e.g. Voltage, ac to dc, frequency power factor etc.) of
electric supply. This is accomplished by suitable apparatus called sub-station for
example, generation voltage (11KV or 6.6KV) at the power station is stepped up to high
voltage (Say 220KV to 132KV) for transmission of electric power. Similarly near the
consumer’s localities, the voltage may have to be stepped down to utilization level. This
job is again accomplished by suitable apparatus called sub-station.
ABOUT THE SUBSTATION

1. Definition of sub-station:
“The assembly of apparatus used to change some characteristics (e.g. Voltage ac to dc freq. p.f.
etc) of electric supply is called sub-station”

2. Sub-Station:
A substation is a part of an electrical generation, transmission, and distribution system.
Substations transform voltage from high to low, or the reverse, or perform any of
several other important functions. Between the generating station and consumer,
electric power may flow through several substations at different voltage levels.

3. Types of Substation:
Substations may be described by their voltage class, their applications within the power
system, the method used to insulate most connections, and by the style and materials of
the structures used. These categories are not disjointed; to solve a particular problem, a
transmission substation may include significant distribution functions, for example.

• Transmission substation
• Distribution substation
• Collector substation
• Converter substation
• Switching station

• Transmission substation:
A transmission substation connects two or more transmission lines. The simplest case is
where all transmission lines have the same voltage. In such cases, substation contains
high-voltage switches that allow lines to be connected or isolated for fault clearance or
maintenance. A transmission station may have transformers to convert between two
transmission voltages, voltage control/power factor correction devices such as
capacitors, reactors or static VAR compensators and equipment such as phase shifting
transformers to control power flow between two adjacent power systems.

Transmission substations can range from simple to complex. A small "switching station"
may be little more than a bus plus some circuit breakers. The largest transmission
substations can cover a large area (several acres/hectares) with multiple voltage levels,
many circuit breakers and a large amount of protection and control equipment (voltage
and current transformers, relays and SCADA systems). Modern substations may be
implemented using international standards such as IEC Standard 61850.
SELECTION OF SITE

Main points to be considered while selecting the site for Grid Sub-Station are as follows:
i) The site chosen should be as near to the load centre as possible.
ii) It should be easily approachable by road or rail for transportation of
equipments.
iii) Land should be fairly leveled to minimize development cost.
iv) Source of water should be as near to the site as possible. This is because
water is required for various construction activities (especially civil
works), earthing and for drinking purposes etc.
v) The sub-station site should be as near to the town / city but should be
clear of public places, aerodromes, and Military / police installations.
EQUIPMENT IN A 220KV SUB-STATION
The equipment required for a transformer Sub-Station depends upon the type of Sub-
Station, Service requirement and the degree of protection desired.

220KV EHV Sub-Station has the following major equipments:

 Bus-bar
 Insulators
 Isolating Switches
 Circuit breaker
 Protective relay
 Instrument Transformer
 Current Transformer
 Voltage Transformer
 Metering and Indicating Instrument
 Miscellaneous equipment
 Transformer
 Lightening arrestors
 Line isolator
 Wave trap


 BUS BAR
When a no. of lines operating at the same voltage have to be directly connected
electrically, busbar are used, it is made up of copper or aluminum bars (generally of
rectangular X-Section) and operate at constant voltage.

 Insulators
The insulator serves two purpose, they support the conductor (or bus bar) and confine
the current to the conductor. The most commonly used material for the manufactures of
insulators is porcelain. There are several type of insulator (i.e. pine type, suspension type
etc.) and there used in Sub-Station will depend upon the service requirement.
 Isolating Switches:
In Sub-Station, it is often desired to disconnect a part of the system for general
maintenance and repairs. This is accomplished by an isolating switch or isolator.

An isolator is essentially a knife Switch and is design to often open a circuit under no
load, in other words, isolator Switches are operate only when the line is which they are
connected carry no load. For example, consider that the isolator are connected on both
side of a circuit breaker, if the isolators are to be opened, the C.B. must be opened first.

 Circuit breaker:
A circuit breaker is an equipment, which can open or close a circuit under normal as well
as fault condition. These circuit breaker breaks for a fault which can damage other
instrument in the station.

It is so designed that it can be operated manually (or by remote control) under normal
conditions and automatically under fault condition.

There are mainly two types of circuit breakers used for any substations. They are

(a) SF6 circuit breakers

(b)Spring circuit breakers

For the latter operation a relay which is used with a C.B. generally bulk oil C.B. are used
for voltage up to 66 KV while for high voltage low oil & SF6 C.B. are used. For still
higher voltage, air blast vacuum or SF6 cut breaker are used.

The use of SF6 circuit breaker is mainly in the substations which are having high input
kv input, say above 220kv and more. The gas is put inside the circuit breaker by force
i.e. under high pressure.

When if the gas gets decreases there is a motor connected to the circuit breaker. The
motor starts operating if the gas went lower than 20.8 bar. There is a meter connected to
the breaker so that it can be manually seen if the gas goes low. The circuit breaker uses
the SF6 gas to reduce the torque produce in it due to any fault in the line. The circuit
breaker has a direct link with the instruments in the station, when any fault occur alarm
bell rings.

 Protective relay:
A protective relay is a device that detects the fault and initiates the operation of the C.B.
to isolate the defective element from the rest of the system”. The relay detects the
abnormal condition in the electrical circuit by constantly measuring the electrical
quantities, which are different under normal and fault condition. The electrical quantities
which may change under fault condition are voltage, current, frequency and phase angle.
Having detect the fault, the relay operate to close the trip circuit of CB.
 Instrument Transformer:
The line in Sub-station operate at high voltage and carry current of thousands of amperes.
The measuring instrument and protective devices are designed for low voltage (generally
110V) and current (about 5A). Therefore, they will not work satisfactory if mounted
directly on the power lines. This difficulty is overcome by installing Instrument
transformer, on the power lines.

There are two types of instrument transformer-

1. Current Transformer:
A current transformer is essentially a step-down transformer which steps-down the
current in a known ratio, the primary of this transformer consist of one or more turn of
thick wire connected in series with the line, the secondary consist of thick wire connected
in series with line having large number of turn of fine wire and provides for measuring
instrument, and relay a current which is a constant faction of the current in the line.
Current transformers are basically used to take the readings of the currents entering the
substation. This transformer steps down the current from 800 amps to 1amp. This is done
because we have no instrument for measuring of such a large current.

The main use of his transformer is:

(a) distance protection


(b) backup protection
(c) measurement

2. Potential Transformer:
It is essentially a step – down transformer and step down the voltage in known ratio. The
primary of these transformer consist of a large number of turn of fine wire connected
across the line. The secondary way consist of a few turns and provides for measuring
instruments and relay a voltage which is known fraction of the line voltage.

3. C V T:
A capacitor voltage transformer (CVT ) is a transformer used in power systems to step-
down extra high voltage signals and provide low voltage signals either for measurement
or to operate a protective relay. In its most basic form the device consists of three parts:
two capacitors across which the voltage signal is split, an inductive element used to tune
the device to the supply frequency and a transformer used to isolate and further step-
down the voltage for the instrumentation or protective relay. The device has at least four
terminals, a high-voltage terminal for connection to the high voltage signal, a ground
terminal and at least one set of secondary terminals for connection to the instrumentation
or protective relay. CVTs are typically single-phase devices used for measuring voltages
in excess of one hundred kilovolts where the use of voltage transformers would be
uneconomical. In practice the first capacitor, C1, is often replaced by a stack of
capacitors connected in series. This results in a large voltage drop across the stack of
capacitors that replaced the first capacitor and a comparatively small voltage drop across
the second capacitor,C2, and hence the secondary terminals.

 Metering and Indicating Instrument:


There are several metering and indicating Instrument (e.g. Ammeters, Volt-meters,
energy meter etc.) installed in a Substation to maintain which over the circuit quantities.
The instrument transformers are invariably used with them for satisfactory operation.

 Miscellaneous equipment:
In addition to above, there may be following equipment in a Substation :

i) Fuses
ii) Carrier-current equipment iii) Sub-Station
auxiliary supplies

 Transformer:
There are four transformers in the incoming feeders so that the four lines are step down
at the same time. In case of a 220KV or more KV line station auto transformers are used.
While in case of lower KV line such as less than 132KV line double winding
transformers are used Auto transformer.
Transformer is static equipment which converts electrical energy from one voltage to
another. As the system voltage goes up, the techniques to be used for the Design,
Construction, Installation, Operation and Maintenance also become more and more
critical. If proper care is exercised in the installation, maintenance and condition
monitoring of the transformer, it can give the user trouble free service throughout the
expected life of equipment which of the order of 25-35 years. Hence, it is very essential
that the personnel associated with the installation, operation or maintenance of the
transformer is through with the instructions provided by the manufacture diverted around
the protected insulation in most cases to earth.
Auto transformer:
Transformer is static equipment which converts electrical energy from one voltage to
another. As the system voltage goes up, the techniques to be used for the Design,
Construction, Installation, Operation and Maintenance also become more and more
critical. If proper care is exercised in the installation, maintenance and condition
monitoring of the transformer, it can give the user trouble free service throughout the
expected life of equipment which of the order of 25-35 years. Hence, it is very essential
that the personnel associated with the installation operation or maintenance of the
transformer is through with the instructions provided by the manufacture.

 Lightening Arrester:
To discharge the switching and lightening voltage surges to earth.

 Wave trap:
Wave trap is an instrument using for tripping of the wave. The function of this trap is
that it traps the unwanted waves. Its function is of trapping wave. Its shape is like a drum.
It is connected to the main incoming feeder so that it can trap the waves which may be
dangerous to the instruments here in the substation.
SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM (SLD)

A Single Line Diagram (SLD) of an Electrical System is the Line Diagram of the
concerned Electrical System which includes all the required ELECTRICAL
EQUIPMENT connection sequence wise from the point of entrance of Power up to the
end of the scope of the mentioned Work.

As these feeders enter the station they are to pass through various instruments. The
instruments have their usual functioning.

They are as follows in the single line diagram:


 Lightening arrestors
 CVT
 Wave trap
 Isolators with earth switch
 Circuit breaker
 BUS
 Potential transformer with a bus isolator
 Isolator
 Current transformer
 A capacitor bank attached to the bus
The line diagram of the substation:

Fig:1 single line diagram of 220 KV substation nayagaon(part A)

Fig:2 single line diagram of 220 KV substation nayagaon(part B)


TRANSFORMER
Transformer is a static machine, which transform the potential of alternating current
at same frequency. It means the transformer transforms the low voltage into high
voltage and high voltage into low voltage at same frequency. It works on the
principle of static induction principle. When the energy transformed into higher
voltage, the transformer is called step up transformer but in case of other is known
as step down transformer.

 POWER TRANSFORMER:

Fig: 132/33 KV 40 MVA transformer at barahuwa sub-station


 INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMER:

Fig: Instrument Transformer at Barahuwa Sub-Station


 Auto Transformer:
 POWER TRANSFORMER: o Single phase transformer
o Three phase transformer
 INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMER: o Current transformer
o Potential transformer
 AUTO TRANSFORMER: o Single phase transformer o Three phase
transformer
 On the basis of working:
o Step down: convert HIGH VOLTAGE into LOW VOLTAGE o
Step up: convert LOW VOLTAGE into HIGH VOLTAGE 
On the basis of structure:
o Core Type o Shell Type
INSULATORS
An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely,
and therefore make it nearly impossible to conduct an electric current under the
influence of an electric field. This contrasts with other materials, semiconductors and
conductors, which conduct electric current more easily. The property that
distinguishes an insulator is its resistivity; insulators have higher resistivity than
semiconductors or conductors.

INSULATING MATERIAL
The main cause of failure of overhead line insulator, is the flash over, occurs in between
line and earth during abnormal over voltage in the system.

During the flash over, the huge heat produced by arching, causes puncher in insulator
body.

PROPERTIES OF INSULATING MATERIAL:


For successful utilization, this material should have some specific properties as listed
below:

 It must be mechanically strong enough to carry tension and weight of conductors.


 It must have very high dielectric strength to withstand the voltage stresses in
High Voltage system.
 It must possessed high Insulation Resistance to prevent leakage current to the
earth.
 The insulating material must be free from unwanted impurities.
 It should not be porous.
 There must not be any entrance on the surface of electrical insulator so that the
moisture or gases can enter in it.
 There physical as well as electrical properties must be less affected by changing
temperature.

TYPES OF INSULATING MATERIALS:


Two types of insulating material are mainly used:

i) Porcelain
insulator ii) Glass
insulator

i) Porcelain insulator:

Porcelain in most commonly used material for over head insulator in present days. The
porcelain is aluminium silicate. The aluminium silicate is mixed with plastic kaolin,
feldspar and quartz to obtain final hard and glazed porcelain insulator material.

The surface of the insulator should be glazed enough so that water should not be traced
on it.

Fig: porcelain insulator


ii) Glass insulator:

Now days glass insulator has become popular in transmission and distribution system.
Annealed tough glass is used for insulating purpose.

Fig; glass insulator

Advantages of Glass Insulator:


 It has very high dielectric strength compared to porcelain.
 Its resistivity is also very high.
 It has low coefficient of thermal expansion.
 It has higher tensile strength compared to porcelain insulator.
 As it is transparent in nature the is not heated up in sunlight as porcelain.
 The impurities and air bubble can be easily detected inside the glass insulator
body because of its transparency.
 Glass has very long service life as because mechanical and electrical properties
of glass do not be affected by ageing.
 After all, glass is cheaper than porcelain.

Disadvantages of Glass Insulator:


 Moisture can easily condensed on glass surface and hence air dust will be
deposited on the wed glass surface which will provide path to the leakage current
of the system.
 For higher voltage glass can’t be cast in irregular shapes since due to irregular
cooling internal cooling internal strains are caused.
TYPES OF INSULATORS:
There are five types of insulators:

1. Pin type insulator


2. Suspension type insulator
3. Strain type insulator
4. Shackle type insulator
5. Stay type insulator

1. Pin type insulator:


Pin Insulator is earliest developed overhead insulator, but still popularly used in power
network up to 33 KV system. Pin type insulator can be one part, two parts or three parts
type, depending upon application voltage. In 11 KV system we generally use one part
type insulator where whole pin insulator is one piece of properly shaped porcelain or
glass. As the leakage path of insulator is through its surface, it is desirable to increase
the vertical length of the insulator surface area for lengthening leakage path.

Fig: pin type insulator

2. Suspension type insulator:


In higher voltage, beyond 33KV, it becomes uneconomical to use pin insulator because
size, weight of the insulator become more. Handling and replacing bigger size single unit
insulator are quite difficult task. For overcoming these difficulties, suspension insulator
was developed.
In suspension insulator numbers of insulators are connected in series to form a string and
the line conductor is carried by the bottom most insulator. Each insulator of a suspension
string is called disc insulator because of their disc like shape.

fig: suspension type insulator

3. STRAIN TYPE INSULATOR:


When suspension string is used to sustain extraordinary tensile load of conductor it is
referred as string insulator. When there is a dead end or there is a sharp corner in
transmission line, the line has to sustain a great tensile load of conductor or strain. A
strain insulator must have considerable mechanical strength as well as the necessary
electrical insulating properties.

Fig: strain type insulator

4. SHACKLE TYPE INSULATOR:


The shackle insulator or spool insulator is usually used in low voltage distribution
network. It can be used both in horizontal and vertical position. The use of such insulator
has decreased recently after increasing the using of underground cable for distribution
purpose. The tapered hole of the spool insulator distributes the load more evenly and
minimizes the possibility of breakage when heavily loaded. The conductor in the groove
of shackle insulator is fixed with the help of soft binding wire.

Fig: shackle type insulator

5. STAY TYPE INSULATOR:


For low voltage lines, the stays are to be insulated from ground at a height. The insulator
used in the stay wire is called as the stay insulator and is usually of porcelain and is so
designed that in case of breakage of the insulator the guy-wire will not fall to the ground.

Fig: stay type insulator


CIRCUIT BREAKER & ISOLATOR

CIRCUIT BREAKER:
A circuit breaker is the equipment, which can open or close a circuit under normal as
well as fault condition. These circuit breaker breaks for a fault which can damage other
instrument in the station.

It is so designed that it can be operated manually (or by remote control) under normal
conditions and automatically under fault condition.

A circuit breaker is an automatically operated electrical switch designed to protect an


electrical circuit from damage caused by over current or overload or short circuit. Its
basic function is to interrupt current flow after protective relays detect a fault.

Fig: SF6 circuit breaker

WORKING PRINCIPLE OF CIRCUIT BREAKER:


The Circuit Breaker mainly consist of fixed contacts and moving contacts. In normal
“no” condition of circuit breaker, these two contacts are physically connected tp each
other due to applied mechanical pressure on the moving contacts.

There is an arrangement stored potential energy in the operating mechanism of circuit


breaker which is realized if switching signal is given to the breaker. The potential energy
can be stored in the circuit breaker by different ways like by deforming metal spring, by
compressed air or by hydraulic pressure.

TYPES OF CIRCUIT BREAKER:


According to different criteria there are different type of circuit breaker:

According to their arc quenching media the circuit breaker can be divided as:
 Oil circuit breaker
 Air blast circuit breaker
 SF6 circuit breaker
 Vacuum circuit breaker

 OIL CIRCUIT BREAKER:


A high-voltage circuit breaker in which the arc is drawn in oil to dissipate the heat and
extinguish the arc; the intense heat of arc decomposes the oil, generating a gas whose
high pressure produced a flow of fresh fluid through the arc that furnishes the necessary
insulation to prevent a re-strike of the arc.

The arc is then extinguished, both because of its elongation upon parting of contacts and
because of intensive cooling by the gases of oil vacuum.

Fig: oil circuit breaker

 AIR BLAST CIRCUIT BREAKER:


Fast operations, suitability for repeated operation, auto re-closure, unit type multi break
constructions, simple assembly and modest maintenance are some of the main features
of air blast circuit breakers. The compressors plant necessary to maintain high air
pressure in the air receiver. The air blast circuit breakers are especially suitable for
railway and arc furnaces, where the breaker operates repeatedly. Air blast circuit breaker
is used for interconnected lines where rapid operation is desired.
Fig: air blast circuit breaker

High pressure air at a pressure between 20 to 30 kg/cm2 stored in the air reservoir. Air is
taken from the compressed air system. Three hollow insulator columns are mounted on
the reservoir with valves at their basis. The double arc extinguished chambers are
mounted on the top of the hollow insulator chambers. The current carrying parts connect
the three arc extinction chamber to each other in series and the pole to the neighbouring
equipment. Since there exist a very high voltage between the conductor and the air
reservoir, the entire arc extinction chambers assembly is mounted on insulators.

 SF6 CIRCUIT BREAKER:


In such circuit breaker, sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) gas is used as the arc quenching
medium. The SF6 is an electronegative gas and has a strong tendency to absorb free
electrons.

The SF6 circuit breakers have been found to a very effective for high power and high
voltage service. SF6 circuit breakers have been developed for voltage 115 KV to 230
KV, power rating 10MVA.

It consists of fixed and moving contacts. It has chamber, contains SF6 gas. When the
contacts are opened, the mechanism permits a high pressure SF6 gas from reservoir to
flow towards the arc interruption chamber. The moving contact permits the SF6 gas to
let through these holes.

A typical SF6 circuit breaker consists of interrupter units. Each unit is capable of
interrupting currents up to 60 KA and voltage in the range 50-80 KV. A number of units
are connected in series according to system voltage. SF6 breakers are developed for
voltages range from 115 to 500 KV and power of 10MVA rating and with interrupting
time of 3 cycles and less.
Fig: SF6 circuit breaker

The use of SF6 circuit breaker is mainly in the substations which are having high input
kv input, say above 220kv and more. The gas is put inside the circuit breaker by force
i.e. under high pressure. When if the gas gets decreases there is a motor connected to the
circuit breaker. The motor starts operating if the gas went lower than 20.8 bar. There is
a meter connected to the breaker so that it can be manually seen if the gas goes low. The
circuit breaker uses the SF6 gas to reduce the torque produce in it due to any fault in the
line. The circuit breaker has a direct link with the instruments in the station, when any
fault occur alarm bell rings. The spring type of circuit breakers is used for small kv
stations. The spring here reduces the torque produced so that the breaker can function
again. The spring type is used for step down side of 132kv to 33kv also in 33kv to 11kv
and so on. They are only used in low distribution side.

 VACUUM CIRCUIT BREAKER:


Vacuum circuit breakers are the breakers which are used to protect medium and high
voltage circuit from dangerous electrical situations. Like other types of circuit breakers,
vacuum circuit breakers are literally break the circuit so that energy can not continue
flowing through it, thereby preventing fires, power surge and other problems which may
emerge. These devices have been utilized since the 1920s and several companies have
introduced refinements to make them even safer and more effective.
ISOLATORS:
Isolator is used to ensure that an electrical circuit is completely de-energized for service
or maintenance.

In Sub-Station, it is often desired to disconnect a part of the system for general


maintenance and repairs. This is accomplished by an isolating switch or isolator.

An isolator is essentially a knife Switch and is design to often open a circuit under no
load, in other words, isolator Switches are operate only when the line is which they are
connected carry no load. For example, consider that the isolator are connected on both
side of a circuit breaker, if the isolators are to be opened, the C.B. must be opened first.
“An Isolator or a disconnector is a mechanical switch device, which provides in the open
position, an isolating distance in accordance with special requirements. An isolator is
capable of opening and closing a circuit when either negligible current is broken/made
or when no significant change in the voltage across the terminals of each of the poles of
isolator occurs. It is also capable of carrying current under normal circuit conditions and
carrying for a specified time, current under abnormal conditions such as those of short
circuit.”

Fig: isolator
CONTROL & RELAY ROOM

The control room has various control panels which shows the information like
incomming power, outgoing power, frequency, time common to all sub-stations, status
of various lines(healthy, faulted, under outage or maintenance), status of various
protective instruments like isolators, circuit breaker, temperature of various instruments,
working tap of transformer etc.

The DAS (Data Acquisition System) is used to accumulate the data received from
various sources.

The relay room is separate from the control room. All relay used here are numerical and
are either from Siemens® or ABB®.

The protection system is so fast that it can detect a fault within 30 ms and hence the
circuit breaker can be operated within as less as 80 ms. For 400KV side C.B., one time
auto reclosure is allowed in order to clear the faults automatically.

BATTERY ROOM:
 The control panels and relays of the sub-station required DC supply of 110 V.
 The DC supply is made with the help of battery bank reserve normally kept in a
separate room called battery room.
 The batteries used in this sub-station are Nickel-Cadmium (NI-Cd) batteries. These
batteries re used due to their advantages like low maintenance, longer life (15-20
years) etc.  Each cell is of 2 V and 300 Ah Capacity.

Fig: batteries of substation


Protective Relaying:
Protective relays are used to detect defective lines or apparatus and to initiate the
operation of circuit interrupting devices to isolate the defective equipment. Relays are
also used to detect abnormal or undesirable operating conditions other than those caused
by defective equipment and either operate an alarm or initiate operation of circuit
interrupting devices. Protective relays protect the electrical system by causing the
defective apparatus or lines to be disconnected to minimize damage and maintain service
continuity to the rest of the system.

There are different types of relays:

i. Over current

relay

ii. Distance

relay

iii. Differential

relay

iv. Directional

over current

relay

i. Over Current Relay:


The over current relay responds to a magnitude of current above a specified value. There
are four basic types of construction: They are plunger, rotating disc, static, and
microprocessor type. In the plunger type, a plunger is moved by magnetic attraction
when the current exceeds a specified value. In the rotating induction-disc type, which is
a motor, the disc rotates by electromagnetic induction when the current exceeds a
specified value.

ii. Distance Relay: has the overall effect of measuring impedance. The relay
operates instantaneously (within a few cycles) on a 60-cycle basis for values of
impedance below the set value. When time delay is required, the relays energizes a
separate time-delay relay or function with the contacts or output of this time-delay
relay or function performing the desired output functions operating current passing
through it according to the settings applied to the relay.
iii. Differential Relay:
The differential relay is a current-operated relay that responds to the difference between
two or more device currents above a set value. The relay works on the basis of the
differential principle that what goes into the device has to come out .If the current does
not add to zero, the error current flows to cause the relay to operate and trip the circuit.

iv. Directional Over current Relay:


A directional over current relay operates only for excessive current flow in a given
direction. Directional over current relays are available in electromechanical, static, and
microprocessor constructions. An electromechanical overcorrect relay is made
directional by adding a directional unit that prevents the over current relay from
operating until the directional unit has operated. The directional unit responds to the
product of the magnitude of current, voltage, and the phase angle between them or to the
product of two currents and the phase angle between them. The value of this product
necessary to provide operation of the directional unit is small, so that it will not limit the
sensitivity of the relay (such as an over current relay that it controls). In most cases, the
directional element is mounted inside the same case as the relay it controls. For example,
an over current relay and a directional element are mounted in the same case, and the
combination is called a directional over current relay. Microprocessor relays often
provide a choice as to the polarizing method that can be used in providing the direction
of fault, such as applying residual current or voltage or negative sequence current or
voltage polarizing functions to the relay.
WAVE TRAP

Line trap is also known as wave trap. What it does is trapping the high frequency
communication signals sent on the line from the remote sub-station and diverting them
to the telecom/teleprotection panel in the substation control room (through coupling
capacitor and LMU).

This is relevant in power line carrier communication (PLCC) systems for communication
among various substations without dependence on the telecom company network. The
signals are primarily teleprotection signals and in addition, voice and data
communication signals.

The line trap offers high impedance to high frequency communication signals thus
obstructs the flow of these signals in to the substations bus-bars. If there were not to
there, then signal loss in more and communication will be ineffective/probably
impossible.

Wave trap is an instrument using for tripping of the wave. The function of this trap is
that it traps the unwanted waves. Its function is of trapping wave. Its shape is like a drum.
It is connected to the main incoming feeder so that it can trap the waves which may be
dangerous to the instruments here in the substation.