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Prefaced by

Dr. Norman


1970 Nobel Peace Prize Laureate Founder of The World Food Prize

The 21 st Century Paris - Hanoi

The 21 st Century Paris - Hanoi For my Father who told me tenderly how many

For my Father who told me tenderly how many times with all his heart when Peace returned we

would come back Hanoi



he never returned

since he had left his beloved Capital and he died after 1975 for regretting to build that inhuman

“machine” to destroy all his own sons ..... still feel his suffering .....

Until now I

For Hanoi, “the City of Peace” & her Sword

Lake with all my Love and Emotion …once upon a time as a very young and young baby in Hanoi….

Paris, at the end of Tan Ty 2001

Nguyễn Hữu Viện

" The city has had an impressive course of improvement, especially in the rehabilitation of its historic heritages, assistance to artistic and cultural exchanges, encouragement of traditional craft, improvement of health services for the old people, protection of environment and green parks. Hanoi has also paid appropriate attention to the cause of education and

training of the younger generation, regarding it as a priority in its development policy. Moreover the city has also shown its all-round and humanitarian viewpoint in relation to all the existing problems that it is now facing: to maintain its efforts for developing the urban and technological infrastructure, especially in the improvement of the living condition of over 2.5 million people. "

Federico Mayor, Director General of UNESCO At the UNESCO Award "City for Peace" La Paz of Bolivia on July 26, 1999

"Chúng ta đang có co may sống trong một kỷ nguyên kỳ diệu, ranh giới của hai thiên niên kỷ, thiên kỷ truớc với chinh chiến đau thuong và thiên kỷ tới của hoà bình, an lạc, công lý và đạo lý." Dr. Linus Pauling

" Since wars begin in the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that the defences of peace must be constructed "

Constitution of UNESCO, 1945

“The destiny of world civilization depends upon providing a decent standard of living for all mankind. The guiding principles of the recipient of

the 1969 Nobel Peace Prize, the International Labour Organization, are expressed in its charter words, ‘Universal and lasting peace can be established only if it is based upon social justice. If you desire peace, cultivate justice.’ This is magnificent; no one can disagree with this lofty principle.”


Peace starts with a smile”


I would hope that the nations of the world might say that we had built a lasting peace, built not on weapons of war but on international policies which reflect our own most precious values.


" Since wars begin in the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that the defences of peace must be constructed "

Constitution of UNESCO, 1945

“The destiny of world civilization depends upon providing a decent standard of living for all mankind. The guiding principles of the recipient of the 1969 Nobel Peace Prize, the International Labour Organization, are expressed in its charter words, ‘Universal and lasting peace can be established only if it is based upon social justice. If you desire peace, cultivate justice.’ This is magnificent; no one can disagree with this lofty principle. Almost certainly, however, the first essential component of social justice is adequate food for all mankind. Food is the moral right of all who are born into this world. Yet today fifty percent of the world’s population goes hungry. Without food, man can live at most but a few weeks; without it, all other components of social justice are meaningless. Therefore I feel that

the aforementioned guiding principle must be modified to read: If you desire peace, cultivate justice, but at the same time cultivate the fields to produce more bread; otherwise there will be no peace.”

the aforementioned guiding principle must be modified to read: If you desire peace , cultivate justice,


the aforementioned guiding principle must be modified to read: If you desire peace , cultivate justice,


the aforementioned guiding principle must be modified to read: If you desire peace , cultivate justice,

I feel honored and privileged to be asked to write the Preface for the Dictionary of Peace, a collection of thoughts from the writings of




hundred years.

over the past one

The achievement of global peace has eluded humankind to date. Certainly it will require a greater triumph of love over hate, benevolence over selfishness, and respect over intolerance than the peoples and nations have been able to demonstrate so far.

A necessary, but by no means sufficient, condition for world peace will be the enjoyment by all people of what I consider to be the basic human requirements to permit the realization of individual genetic potential—adequate nutrition, health, shelter, education, and freedom to attain a decent standard of living.

Sadly, despite the tremendous scientific, economic, social, and political progress over past 100 years in some nations, eight out of ten babies born into the world today, begin life in abject poverty, without access to the basic nutrition and health services needed for a humane and productive life. Yet we have the technical and financial means—if we were to mobilize them—to assure the world’s poorest citizens have access to these basic blessings. In doing so, both the rich and poor would benefit, and humankind would have moved a long way down the road toward global prosperity and world peace.

I applaud the efforts of Nguyen Huu Vien, a child of war in Vietnam and a political refugee, to compile this anthology dedicated to the aspirations of Peace for all the peoples of the world. It is my hope that the thoughts contained

herein will provide inspiration to each reader and motivation to make even a modest contribution to a better world.

herein will provide inspiration to each reader and motivation to make even a modest contribution to

Dr. Norman BORLAUG

1970 Nobel Peace Laureate

Founder, The World Food Prize


I have been preparing this Dictionary of Peace for several years as an answer to the International Year's programme for the Culture of Peace in the Year 2000 proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly and the United Nations Educational,

Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) and the 100 th Nobel Peace Prize (1901 - 2001).

Anniversary of


I hope this modest book will be a tool of the Culture of Peace and education support for a reader who can find the essential concepts on the universal culture of Peace. Education is a basic human right and a fundamental means for the promotion and protection of all human rights and basic freedom. That is why the promotion of Peace and Human Rights through teaching and training has become one of priorities of UNESCO.

This dictionary is selected and based principally on all the speeches and lectures

delivered by the Nobel Peace Prize Laureates. That is why this is an anthology on Peace and a collection of the only collective voice of all the heroes of peace in the most warlike 20 th century. This dictionary of peace is the collective utopian testaments from the 'élites' of our planet for the next generations.

I hope the landscape and perspective of Peace will be open towards news horizons of our common aspirations at the dawn of the 21 st Century on all continents. We believe that the United Nations Institutions and particularly the UNESCO will give the most effective assistance to the ideal and cause of Peace and Human Rights throughout the world. But the struggle and the fight for a durable peace and human rights still remains in the last year of this century ….

The author particularly thanks Dr. Norman BORLAUG, 1970 Nobel Peace Prize for his major role in temporarily alleviating world famine, Founder of the World Food Prize, Father and a Central Figure in the "Green Revolution", has saved literally millions of lives, Scientist, Agriculturist, Forester, Farmer, but more importantly, a Man with the most noble mission: to alleviate hunger and his leading research achievement was to hasten the perfection of dwarf spring wheat, for prefacing this dictionary in spite of the multiples charges of his high functions and activity at 87 for fighting world hunger .

Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) and the 100 Nobel Peace Prize (1901 - 2001). Anniversary of

Paris/Hanoi Autumn 2001


0,1,2,3 … We have to choose between a global market driven only by calculations of short-

0,1,2,3 …

We have to choose between a global market driven only by calculations of short- term profit, and one which has a human face. Between a world which condemns a

quarter of the human race to starvation and squalor, and one which offers everyone at least a chance of prosperity, in a healthy environment. Between a selfish free-for-all in which we ignore the fate of the losers, and a future in which the strong and the successful accept their responsibilities, showing global vision and leadership.



We have entered the third millennium through a gate of fire. If today, after the

horror of 11 September, we see better, and we see further - we will realize that humanity is indivisible. New threats make no distinction between races, nations or regions. A new insecurity has entered every mind, regardless of wealth or status. A deeper awareness of the bonds that bind us all - in pain as in prosperity - has gripped young and old.



The 20th century was perhaps the deadliest in human history, devastated by innumerable conflicts, untold suffering, and unimaginable crimes. Time after time, a group or a nation inflicted extreme violence on another, often driven by irrational hatred and suspicion, or unbounded arrogance and thirst for power and resources. In response to these cataclysms, the leaders of the world came together at mid-century to unite the nations as never before.



The reforms will continue in Korea. We are committed to the early completion of

the current reform measures, as well as to reform as an on-going process of transformation into a first-rate economy of the 21st century. This we hope to achieve by combining the strength of our traditional industries with the endless possibilities that lie in the information and bio-tech fields.



Today, the Jews have been outlawed in many countries. This is happening more and more as governments become more unfeeling and the people more fearful and

suspicious. Here is just one recent example. A group of some thirty people of the Jewish faith, including men, women, and children, had been forced to seek refuge on a

little strip of no-man's-land to which neither of the neighbouring states had established a title. There these people were left day after day without ground cover and without any kind of roof over their heads. On neither side of the frontier did the local authorities dare to allow them into their country. Nor would they let them have any food, or even water. It was cold, and two young girls of eighteen or nineteen contracted pneumonia. They lay there on the bare ground in a high fever while more days passed. Nobody dared to help these "untouchables", to use the new European meaning of the word. In the end, some journalists happened by who, believing in the old Samaritan tradition, managed to help them through the worst of their distress. It is not known what finally became of these poor people.

Michael HANSSON President of the Nansen International Office for Refugees

This growing concern is comforting, even though it comes 500 years later, to the suffering, the discrimination, the oppression and the exploitation that our people has been exposed to, but who, thanks to their own cosmovision - and concept of life, have managed to withstand and finally see some promising prospects. How those roots, that were to be eradicated, now begin to grow with strength, hopes and visions for the future!

Rigoberta MENCHU TUM

I always wonder that 4-500 years ago as St. Francis of Assisi composed this prayer that they had the same difficulties that we have today, as we compose this prayer that fits very nicely for us also.


It is only now that all the horror of our existence rises up at us. But the essential fact that we must surely feel in our hearts, and which we ought to have felt for a long time, is that we are becoming inhuman in proportion as we become supermen. We have

tolerated the mass killing of men in war -- about 20,000,000 in the second World War

  • -- the reduction to nothing by the atomic bomb of whole towns with their inhabitants,

the transformation of men into living torches by incendiary bombs. While we avowed that these deeds are the result of inhumane action, the avowal is accompanied by the reflection that the fact of war condemns us to accept them. By

resigning ourselves without resistance to our fate we make ourselves guilty of inhumanity.


Of the 600 million children today (1965) believed to be living at, or below, the minimum subsistence level, some sixteen and a half million still die before they attain their first birthdays. Despite the progress of the last decade, mortality rates among infants in the less developed regions are still as much as five times higher than in the developed areas; they are up to forty times higher for children in the one to five age group. It is estimated that some 500 million children have actually experienced hunger or suffer from varying degrees of starvation or malnutrition. The grim picture of the emaciated child, misshapen, with its swollen belly and tragic questioning eyes, has left an indelible mark on those sensitive to harrowing misery.






The dangers posed by the tens of thousands of nuclear weapons that are

still deployed at various stages of readiness for use -- primarily in the United States and Russia but also, with numbers in the hundreds, in the "intermediate" and undeclared nuclear-weapon states. Contrary to public perceptions, it is still all too possible that these nuclear weapons COULD be used, in greater or lesser numbers, as a result of various combinations of crisis conditions, electronic and mechanical malfunctions, breaks in the chain of official command and control, and human errors, misjudgments, or misguided impulses.









I now say that the world has the technology – either available or well advanced in

the research pipeline – to feed on a sustainable basis a population of 10 billion people. The more pertinent question today is whether farmers and ranchers will be permitted to use this new technology? While the affluent nations can certainly afford to adopt ultra low-risk positions, and pay more for food produced by the so-called “organic” methods, the one billion chronically undernourished people of the low-income, food-deficit nations cannot.


Special 30th Anniversary Lecture, The Norwegian Nobel Institute, Oslo

September 8, 2000

September 8, 2000 Twenty-seven years ago, in my acceptance speech for the Nobel Peace Prize, I

Twenty-seven years ago, in my acceptance speech for the Nobel Peace Prize, I said that the Green Revolution had won a temporary success in man's war against hunger, which if fully implemented, could provide sufficient food for humankind through to the end of the 20'th century. But I warned that unless the frightening power of human reproduction was curbed, the success of the Green Revolution would only be ephemeral. I now say that the world has the technology - either available or well-advanced in

the research pipeline - to feed a population of 10 billion people. The more pertinent question today is whether farmers and ranchers will be permitted to use this new technology.

Norman E. Borlaug

The International Conference on the Economic Aspects of Disarmament, meeting

in Oslo, heard from a survey prepared for it that 180 billion dollars (1965) are being spent annually on arms. Each atomic submarine costs approximately 160 million dollars and the latest supersonic fighter planes are priced at several millions of dollars. A Polaris nuclear-powered submarine costs 200 million dollars.

UNICEF, together with all those engaged in the struggle for social betterment and the raising of standards of living, the governments, the organizations, and individuals who have understood its purposes and provided moral and material support, has the formula to put life and substance into the words of the Declaration. If only the nations of the world could together agree to spend a fraction of their outlay on building "deterrent strengths", to develop the capacity of the young generation to adjust in health and happiness to the needs of a dynamic society! Perhaps each abortive disarmament conference would set itself a penalty - a contribution to UNICEF, the equivalent cost of one submarine or a dozen fighter planes. Today's children are surely the central factor in the strategy for peace and survival.






A ……. Here also we have ancient habits to deal with, vast structures of power, indescribably



Here also we have ancient habits to deal with, vast structures of power,

indescribably complicated problems to solve. But unless we abdicate our humanity altogether and succumb to fear and impotence in the presence of the weapons we have ourselves created, it is as imperative and urgent to put an end to war and violence between nations as it is to put an end to racial injustice. Equality with whites will hardly solve the problems of either whites or Negroes if it means equality in a society under the spell of terror and a world doomed to extinction.

Martin Luther KING

In newly emergent democracies many who have been disappointed in their expectations of immediate material betterment have sought to work out their frustrations by subscribing to outmoded and obscure conspiracy theories that foster prejudice, paranoia and violence. The search for scapegoats is essentially an abnegation of

responsibility: it indicates an inability to assess honestly and intelligently the true nature of the problems which lie at the root of social and economic difficulties and a lack of resolve in grappling with them. The valuation of achievement in predominantly material terms implies a limited and limiting view of human society, denying it many of the qualities that make it more than a conglomerate of egoistic consumer-gatherers who have advanced little beyond the prehistoric instinct for survival.


And we read in the Scripture, for God says very clearly: Even if a mother could forget her child - I will not forget you - I have carved you in the palm of my hand. We are carved in the palm of His hand, so close to Him that unborn child has been carved in the hand of God. And that is what strikes me most, the beginning of that sentence, that even if a mother could forget something impossible - but even if she could forget - I will not

forget you. And today the greatest means - the greatest destroyer of peace is abortion.


Peace, to us, a value and an interest. Peace is an absolute human value which

will help man develop his humanity with freedom that cannot be limited by regional, religious or national restrictions. It restores to the Arab-Jewish relationship its innocent nature and gives the Arab conscience the opportunity to express - through absolute human terms - its understanding of the European tragedy of the Jews. It also gives the Jewish conscience the opportunity to express the suffering of the Palestinian peoples which resulted from this historical intersection and to find an echo for this suffering in the pained Jewish soul. The pained people are more capable than others of understanding the suffering of other people.

Yasser Arafat

  • I don't believe in accidents. There are only encounters in history. There are no



  • I must say, with due respect and humility, that from 1975 onward, the United

States was an accomplice to Indonesia's crime of genocide by providing to the Indonesian government weapons and military training


Salomon Centre, May 25.

The Soviet press, Soviet representatives abroad, and some of my Soviet colleagues during foreign missions, in contacts with people in the West who are concerned about my fate, in an attempt to disorganize my defence, assert that I am against detente, have spoken out against SALT, and have even permitted the divulgence of state secrets; they also emphasize the mildness of the measures taken against me. My attitude and open way of life and actions are well known and show how absurd these

accusations are.

  • I have never infringed state secrecy, and any talk of this is slander. I regard

thermonuclear war as the main danger threatening mankind, and consider that the problem of preventing it takes priority over other international problems; I am in favour of disarmament and a strategic balance, I support the SALT-II agreement as a necessary stage in disarmament negotiations. I am against any expansion, against Soviet intervention in Afghanistan, but in favour of aid to refugees and the starving throughout the world. I regard as very important an international agreement on refusal to be the first to use nuclear weapons, concluded on the basis of a strategic balance in the field of conventional weapons.


The principle of non-violent resistance seeks to reconcile the truths of two

opposites - acquiescence and violence - while avoiding the extremes and immoralities of both. The non-violent resister aggress with the person who acquisces that one should not be physically aggressive toward his opponent; but he balances the equation by

agreeing with the person of violence that evil must be resisted. He avoids the non-

resistance of the former and the violent resistance of the latter. With non-violent

resistance, no individual or group need to submit to any wrong, nor need anyone resort to

violence in order to right a wrong.

Martin Luther King

Now, of course, it is an act of faith. But all of life is actually based on faith.

When I got married even when I'm head-over-heels in love, there's no guarantee that the

person I married I will still love a few years down the line. It is an act of faith. It is an act

of faith that that bus coming down the road is not certainly going to break the laws of

gravity and float up in the sky. There's nothing to actually stop that from happening. It's

an act of faith to say that this universe is rational is orderly.


Despite grand debates on world order, the act of humanitarianism comes

down to one thing: individual human beings reaching out to their counterparts who find

themselves in the most difficult circumstances. One bandage at a time, one suture at a

time, one vaccination at a time.

Médecin sans Frontières

We achieve everything by our efforts alone. Our fate is not decided by an almighty God.

We achieve everything by our efforts alone. Our fate is not decided by an

almighty God. We decide our own fate by our actions. You have to gain mastery over



is not a matter of sitting back and accepting.

We achieve everything by our efforts alone. Our fate is not decided by an almighty God.

Aung San Suu Kyi

He who, after a hard fight, is willing for the sake of the fatherland to serve the

German people with love and loyalty and to defend present-day Germany, is more

valuable for the durability of the state than a superficial convert.

The concept of active cooperation has taken the place of opposition to the

new form of government and of dreamy resignation entranced with the beauty of times

past. Therefore, not only the present but also the future will have this republican

Germany to reckon with.


Speaking surely also meant negotiating and being open to conciliation, not

unilateral concession. An active peace policy will remain for a long time to come the

test of our intellectual and material vitality.


And active policy of co-existence should be based neither on fear nor on

blind confidence. I know that the Western alliance would function; the potential

adversary will have no illusions about this. But we must also discard that unimaginative

principle that nations with different social and economic system cannot live side by side

without being in grave conflict.


Many people are very, very concerned with the children in India, with the children

in Africa where quite a number die, maybe of malnutrition, of hunger and so on, but

millions are dying deliberately by the will of the mother. And this is what is the greatest

destroyer of peace today. Because if a mother can kill her own child - what is left for me

to kill you and you kill me - there is nothing between. And this I appeal in India, I appeal

everywhere: Let us bring the child back, and this year being the child's year: What have

we done for the child? At the beginning of the year I told, I spoke everywhere and I said:

Let us make this year that we make every single child born, and unborn, wanted. And

today is the end of the year, have we really made the children wanted? I will give you

something terrifying. We are fighting abortion by adoption, we have saved thousands

of lives, we have sent words to all the clinics, to the hospitals, police stations - please

don't destroy the child, we will take the child. So every hour of the day and night it is

always somebody, we have quite a number of unwedded mothers - tell them come, we

will take care of you, we will take the child from you, and we will get a home for the

child. And we have a tremendous demand from families who have no children, that is the

blessing of God for us. And also, we are doing another thing which is very beautiful - we

are teaching our beggars, our leprosy patients, our slum dwellers, our people of the street,

natural family planning.

And active policy of co-existence should be based neither on fear nor on blind confidence. I


Friends will be found active in adult and youth education, but perhaps their

unique contribution in the intellectual field of peacemaking has been made through the

Friends' International Centres. Over a period of twenty-seven years these have been

established in many of the great cities of Europe and at some of the international

crossroads of the East. The aim of such Centres is one of reconciliation and creative

peacemaking, and a great variety of activities have resulted. Here men and women can

come, seeking together the truths of the spirit, and find freedom of converse on neutral

ground where conflicting views can be discussed in friendship. These Centres are staffed

by people drawn from at least three and sometimes more countries and in themselves

demonstrate the possibility of international understanding when united by the same spirit.

From them Quaker ambassadors of peace can go out to plead with authorities or act as

reconcilers in times of crisis.






Some people, however, appear to have lost heart because Japan and Russia are

engaged in a sanguinary conflict. But the most ardent advocates of peace never

expected that treaties of arbitration would at once put an end to all wars, any more than

those who, when mankind was emerging from barbarism, first framed crude laws and set

up rude courts of justice, expected that by so doing all men would immediately cease to

fight out their personal differences.




This award could not be for me alone, nor for just South Africa, but for Africa as

a whole. Africa presently is the most deeply torn with strife and most bitterly stricken

with racial conflict. How strange then it is that a man of Africa should be here to receive

an award given for service to the cause of peace and brotherhood between men.




When that moment comes, we shall, together, rejoice in a common victory over racism,

apartheid and white minority rule. That triumph will finally bring to a close a history of

five hundred years of African colonisation that began with the establishment of the

Portuguese empire. Thus, it will mark a great step forward in history and also serve as a

common pledge of the peoples of the world to fight racism, wherever it occurs and

whatever guise it assumes.



In our African language we say 'a person is a person through other persons.' I

would not know how to be a human being at all except I learned this from other human

beings. We are made for a delicate network of relationships, of interdependence. We are

meant to complement each other. All kinds of things go horribly wrong when we break

that fundamental law of our being. Not even the most powerful nation can be completely


Desmond TUTU

We stand here today as nothing more than a representative of the millions of our people

who dared to rise up against a social system whose very essence is war, violence,

racism, oppression, repression and the impoverishment of an entire people.

















communication (1908), minds can be reshaped as quickly and easily as matter. There

are some forms of resistance and even of hesitation that only time, allied with education,

can overcome. Jurists and journalists can do a great deal to pave the way for the reform of

nefarious practices. They can succeed - and there are examples of this in influencing a

nation to give up barbaric measures which its government has been unwilling to



Most certainly, agricultural scientists have a moral obligation to warn the

political, educational, and religious leaders about the magnitude and seriousness of the

arable land, food, population and environmental problems that lie ahead. These problems

will not vanish by themselves. Unless they are addressed in a forthright manner future

solutions will be more difficult to achieve.


I am impatient

and do not accept



for slow change and evolution to

improve the agriculture and food production of the emerging countries. I

advocate instead a "yield kick-off"; or " yield blast-off". There is no time to be lost,

considering the magnitude of the world food and population problem.

are some forms of resistance and even of hesitation that only time, allied with education, can


All Africa has this single aim : our goal is a united Africa in which the

standards of life and liberty are constantly expanding; in which the ancient legacy of

illiteracy and disease is swept aside; in which the dignity of man is rescued from beneath

the heels of colonialism which have trampled it. This goal, pursued by millions of our

people with revolutionary zeal, by means of books, representations, demonstrations, and

in some places armed force provoked by the adamancy of white rule, carries the only real

promise of peace in Africa. Whatever means have been used, the efforts have gone to end

alien rule and race oppression.

Albert John LUTULI

As a military man, as a commander, as a minister of defence, I ordered to carry

out many military operations. And together with the joy of victory and the grief of

bereavement, I shall always remember the moment just after taking such decisions: the

hush as senior officers or cabinet ministers slowly rise from their seats; the sight of their

receding backs; the sound of the closing door; and then the silence in which I remain


Yitzhak Rabin

One of the most persistent ambiguities that we face is that everybody talks

about peace as a goal. However, it does not take sharpest-eyed sophistication to discern

that while everybody talks about peace, peace has become practically nobody's business

among the power-wielders. Many men cry Peace! Peace! but they refuse to do the things

that make for peace.

Martin Luther King

  • I wish to dwell for a moment on the subject of America. This land of limitless

opportunities is marked by its ability to carry out new and daring plans of enormous

imagination and scope, while often using the simplest methods. In other words, it is a

nation idealistic in its concepts and practical in its execution of them. We feel that the

modem peace movement has every chance in America of attracting strong support and of

finding a clear formula for the implementation of its aims.

Bertha von SUTTNER

America's future will be determined by the home and the school. The child

becomes largely what it is taught; hence we must watch what we teach it, and how we

live before it.


  • I would also say that America and Europe cannot be separated. They need

each other as self-confident, equal partners. The heavier the burden the United States has

to carry, the more will that great country be able to rely on our friendship.


In this respect the United States offers the most striking example. Great Britain

also owes its strength at least in part to its capacity to absorb foreign elements, including

Jews. Our own country's history gives similar evidence of the assets brought us by

immigrant families over the centuries. It is no exaggeration to say that the remarkable

development and progress that Norway has enjoyed since the beginning of the last

century are in no small measure due to the immigrants, without whose talents Norway

would not today stand where she does, either intellectually or economically.

There is much talk of the danger of mixing races, without anyone's being able to

offer a precise scientific definition of the term "race". Still, scientific study of the human

species does confirm the existence of several distinct generic types. It has found that even

such a homogeneous people as the French is composed of three, and our own nation of

two quite different types. When we talk of the mixing of races, we generally mean the

mixing of different nationalities. Naturally, the fusion of people of different nations, or

"races" - if you prefer to use the word in its usual connotation - is easier if the differences

are not too great, but the fusion, the assimilation, the absorption also depend to a large

degree upon the character of the nation concerned, on its intellectual intensity, on the

very rhythm in which life is lived. Thus, for example, the intensity of the American

way of life, both intellectual and material, transforms most immigrants into

"Americans" within a relatively short period of time. Very few of the families that have

emigrated to Norway have failed to become "Norwegian" within the course of one or, at

the most, two generations.











There is a possibility that some centres of political and economic power, some

statesmen and intellectuals, have not yet managed to see the advantages of the active

participation of the Indian people in all the fields of human activity. However, the

movement initiated by different political and intellectual "Amerindians" will finally

convince them that, from an objective point of view, we are a constituent part of the

historical alternatives that are being discussed at international levels.

Rigoberta MENCHU


Political imprisonment, torture, the death penalty - these are the specific issues

that Amnesty International has sought to grapple with during the sixteen years of its

existence. We have also tried to find constructive ways to prevent such injustices in the

future. Our program has been carried out mainly by individuals and small groups of men

and women, bearing the cost of their own labours, working together in a worldwide non-

governmental organization.

Amnesty International

Norman Angell, the recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize for 1933, is one of the

educators, one of those who instruct public opinion, who pave the way for reforms which

the statesmen attempt to carry out. His share in this educational task has been original and

influential. Ralph Norman Angell Lane is a farmer's son from Norfolk who will be sixty

years old next Boxing Day. His health was never strong and in his youth he lived several

years in California. Thus he established contacts with the United States and with

American public opinion which he has kept up throughout life. He became a journalist,

and when first I met him - now more than twenty years ago - he was the business

manager of the Paris edition of the Daily Mail and had been living in France for some

years. His intimate knowledge of public opinion in three of the big powers of the world

has qualified him superbly for his chosen work.


Norman Angell is a great writer and journalist. He possesses the greatest gift of

the pamphleteer, the gift of saying the same thing again and again, but in new ways, with

new and apt illustrations. He has been compared with Swift and with Cobden . That is

high praise, but well-deserved praise. He is fundamentally different from both of them.

He does not have Swift's cutting contempt. Nor has he Cobden's persuasive and magnetic

eloquence, which drew tens of thousands to his meetings and carried the cause of free

trade to victory in less than a generation, both in England and in Europe - alas, for all too

short a time.

Christian Louis LANGE

For each name that is known, there are the countless unknown: anonymous

prisoners of conscience held in secret interrogation centres, in overcrowded jails, in

labour camps on remote islands. There are young people who have been born and who

have grown up in the prisons where their mothers are held. There are children who have

been kidnapped and kept as hostages by government agents seeking to arrest their

relatives. The victims of arbitrary arrest and detention come from all walks of life:

workers, peasants, lawyers, journalists, professors. Among them also are the voices of the

human imagination, painters, actors and actresses, film-makers and dancers, musicians,


Amnesty International

Apartheid is upheld by a phalanx of iniquitous laws, such as the Population

Registration Act, which decrees that all South Africans must be classified ethnically and

duly registered according to these race categories. Many times, in the same family one

child has been classified white while another with a slightly darker hue has been

classified Coloured, with all the horrible consequences for the latter of being shut out

from membership of a greatly privileged caste. There have, as a result, been several child

suicides. This is too high a price to pay for racial purity, for it is doubtful whether any

end, however desirable, can justify such a means. There are laws, such as the Prohibition

of Mixed Marriages Act, which regard marriages between a white and a person of

another race as illegal. Race becomes as impediment to a valid marriage. Two persons

who have fallen in love are prevented by race from consummating their love in the

marriage bond. Something beautiful is made to be sordid and ugly. The Immorality Act

decrees that fornication and adultery are illegal if they happen between a white and one

of another race. The police are reduced to the level of Peeping Toms to catch couples red-

handed. Many whites have committed suicide rather than face the disastrous

consequences that follow in the train of even just being charged under this law. The cost

is too great and intolerable.

Desmond TUTU

These calls to arms are for the purpose of re-establishing the natural order of

affairs as it was before its violation by foreign invasions in an era when force superseded

law; they are simply the result of these invasions and of the oppressive measures taken to

assure their continued effect. These wars would not have occurred, nor would these

situations themselves have arisen, if a regime of international justice such as that

advocated by the friends of peace had been established rather than repressed for over two

thousand years by the apologists of war.


Man's greatest advances these last few generations have been made by the

application of human intelligence to the management of matter. Now we are confronted

by a more difficult problem, the application of intelligence to the management of

human relations. Unless we can advance in that field also, the very instruments that man's

intelligence has created may be the instruments of his destruction.


Any life lost in war is the life of a human being, irrespective of whether it is an

Arab or an Israeli.

The wife who becomes widowed is a human being, entitled to live in a happy

family, Arab or Israeli.

Innocent children, deprived of paternal care and sympathy, are all our children,

whether they live on Arab or Israeli soil, and we owe them the biggest responsibility

of providing them with a happy present and bright future.

Mohamed Anwar El SADAT

Compulsory arbitration is a practical instrument of pacification and, as such, it

can and should be enacted by the Hague Conference. By laying down the procedure and

the rules for arbitration, by placing a permanent court of arbitration at the disposal of

conflicting powers, the Conference has no more than made a start upon its task in the

realm of international justice. All of this is discretionary and left to the goodwill of



In this sphere of arbitration treaties, the Hague Conference could introduce a

ruling that certain categories of international disputes should be submitted to arbitration.

In my opinion this is the most that can be hoped for at present - I repeat, in the sphere of

arbitration treaties.

Charles Albert GOBAT

For certain problems, arbitration had been recognized as the fairest and most

efficient instrument for settling disputes not resolved through diplomatic channels. Its use

remained optional, but it still constituted a piece of legal machinery easily set in motion -

something not to be disdained. When two powers agree to settle a dispute legally by

arbitration, it is preferable that they should not first have to discuss details of the

organization of the tribunal or of procedure. such discussion can easily become a source

of friction which, although completely dissociated from the dispute itself, makes

settlement of the dispute that much more difficult. How much better it is to be able to use

an instrument set up in advance when there was no particular dispute in view, and no

objective except that of finding the best means to serve the general cause of justice!


In the first place, when a dispute does arise, the idea of settling it by arbitration

is now readily accepted, whereas previously those who proposed such a solution were

regarded by men of action as pure theorists, I can confirm this from personal experience.

The important thing is that arbitration be used to avoid conflict; whether it is

used here or there, whether through this or that procedure is of little consequence. Let me

add, however, that we should not want too many such arbitrations. Undoubtedly; it is

better to plead than to fight; but it is better still to come to a direct understanding without

having to plead. It is the fear of arbitration and possible public censure by a tribunal,

however, that prompts a government to be prudent enough to relinquish an unfounded



For a long time practically the only solution visualized was a court of arbitration.

This is the older method, one by which conflicts apparently not soluble through

diplomatic channels are placed before an ad hoc court of arbitration. Great progress was

made when arbitration treaties were concluded in which the contracting powers

pledge in advance to submit all conflicts to an arbitration court, treaties which not only

specify the composition of the court, but also its procedure.


Armaments are necessary - or are maintained on the pretext of necessity -

because of a real or an imagined danger of war. Let us assume that the ideal were

reached; let us imagine a state of international life in which the danger of war no longer

exists. Then no one would dare to demand a penny for obviously completely superfluous

armaments. The theory held by us pacifists, particularly by Alfred Fried, was:

"Disarmament will be the result of secure peace rather than the means of obtaining it."

The security of which we speak





by the development of

international law through an international organization based on the principles of law and

justice. So long as peace is not attained by law (so argue the advocates of armaments) the

military protection of a country must not be undermined, and until such is the case

disarmament is impossible.


With respect to the dismantling of surplus nuclear and chemical weapons and,

especially, the protection and ultimate disposition of their active ingredients, it is

deplorable how much foot-dragging has characterized U.S. and Russian implementation

of such measures -- including, particularly, cooperative programs between the two

countries that have been authorized and negotiated but only fractionally carried out.

While this problem has received some high-level political attention on both sides, it needs

more. The bureaucrats in both countries with responsibility for these matters, most of

whom appear to be in no great hurry to get on with the job, need to be reminded that

protecting plutonium and highly enriched uranium -- and ultimately disposing of these

materials in ways that effectively preclude their re-use in weapons -- represent not only

one of the most urgent of arms-control and non-proliferation tasks but also one of

the most cost-effective.









Accordingly, I call on all scientists in all countries to cease and desist from work

creating, developing, improving and manufacturing further nuclear weapons - and, for

that matter, other weapons of potential mass destruction such as chemical and biological

weapons. If all scientists heeded this call there would be no more new nuclear warheads;

no French scientists at Moruroa; no new chemical and biological poisons. The arms

race would be over.


protecting plutonium and highly enriched uranium -- and ultimately disposing of these materials in ways that

The economic burden of

armaments is now almost overpowering, and where

public opinion can bring itself effectively to bear on government, the pressure is nearly

always for the greatest possible amount of butter and the fewest possible number of


protecting plutonium and highly enriched uranium -- and ultimately disposing of these materials in ways that



Mankind's survival is dependent upon man's ability to solve the problems of racial

injustice, poverty, and war. The solution of these problems is in turn dependent upon man

squaring his moral progress with his scientific progress, and learning the practical art of

living in harmony.

Martin Luther KING

Asia was rich in the intellectual and institutional traditions that would provide

fertile grounds for democracy. What Asia did not have was the organizations of

representative democracy. The genius of the west was to create the organizations, a

remarkable accomplishment that has greatly advanced the history of humankind.

Brought into Asian countries with deep roots in the respect for demos, western

democratic institutions have adapted and functioned admirably, as can be seen in the

cases of Korea, Japan, the Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, India, Bangladesh, Nepal,

and Sri Lanka. ….

protecting plutonium and highly enriched uranium -- and ultimately disposing of these materials in ways that

KIM Dae Jung

Poverty Still Haunts Asia. Despite the successes of smallholder Asian

farmers in applying Green Revolution technologies to triple cereal production since

1961, the battle to ensure food security for millions of miserably poor people is far from

won, especially in South Asia. Of the roughly 1.3 billion people in this sub-region, 500

million live on less than US$ 1 per day, 400 million are illiterate adults, 264 million lack

access to health services, 230 million to safe drinking water, and 80 million children

under 4 are malnourished (Eliminating World Poverty. UK White Paper, 1997).


Special 30th Anniversary Lecture, The Norwegian Nobel Institute,


September 8, 2000

From my earliest youth, I have known that while obliged to plan with care the

stages of our journey, we are entitled to dream, and keep dreaming, of its destination. A

man may feel as old as his years, yet as young as his dreams. The laws of biology do not

apply to sanguine aspiration.

Shimon PERES

As a result of the World War and of a peace whose imperfections and risks are no

longer denied by anyone, are we not even further away from the great aspirations and

hopes for peace and fraternity than we were one or two decades ago?




This is an attack on the citizens of many nations. But above all, it is an assault

on democracy, and the right to live free from fear.

Now is the time for people of all races and creeds to stand united. Together we

can - and must - overcome terrorism.


(On the Events of September 11 th )

But if, in fact, the world is so gloomy, it is to be hoped that many of those who

complain will, at least once in their lives, make a sacrifice for the establishment of a

better state of affairs in this world, the sacrifice of a minute to be occupied in reading and

signing a declaration which favours taking an axe to the root of the evil. Otherwise, all

their laments are in vain.




This terrorist attack has been called an attack on freedom. It obviously is.

Civilians in an open society not at war have been killed. But many have also expressed

concern that other freedoms are at risk as well in the aftermath of the terror. History has

shown too many times that when a country sees itself in a state of war, individual

freedoms are subordinated to the survival of the state.

attacks on innocent people anywhere cannot be tolerated. Those who

perpetrated this heinous crime need to be brought to justice. They need to be found and

tried in a court of law. Their network needs to be dismantled.

But I share the concern of many others who dedicate their lives to peace and

justice and human rights that the very difficult question of how to respond must be

considered long and hard and not contribute to an escalation of violence.



(On September 11 th )




More than half a century after the Jewish holocaust and centuries after the

genocide of the indigenous peoples of Australia and the Americas, the same attitude

that has allowed these crime to take place persists today. Opinion-makers and leaders,

academics, writers and journalists who pretend to be objective and neutral in the face of

racism and discrimination, the rape of a small nation by a larger power, the persecution of

a weaker people by a ruthless army, must share the guilt. No amount of intellectual

arguments will suffice to erase their responsibility.


Always one to practise what he preached, AUNG SAN himself constantly

demonstrated courage - not just the physical sort but the kind that enabled him to speak

the truth, to stand by his word, to accept criticism, to admit his faults, to correct his

mistakes, to respect the opposition, to parley with the enemy and to let people be the

judge of his worthiness as a leader. It is for such moral courage that he will always be

loved and respected in Burma - not merely as a warrior hero but as the inspiration and

conscience of the nation. The words used by Jawaharlal Nehru to describe Mahatma

Gandhi could well be applied to Aung San: 'The essence of his teaching was fearlessness

and truth, and action allied to these, always keeping the welfare of the masses in view.'


Aung San Suu Kyi of Burma: If we have to use the word courage, she's it

personified, personified. Six years under house arrest the democratically elected leader of

her country Burma took the vote, 62% of the vote. No man in history has ever pulled a

democratic vote like that and 40 indigenous peoples. We're not just dealing with one, but

40 indigenous groups.

The SLORC regime, the State Law and Order Restoration Council of Burma-

military thugs is what they are-have told her you're free anytime you want to go. Suu says

no. That's courage of the most incredible kind. I want any woman who sees this to say a

wee prayer for Aung San Suu Kyi of Burma. I don't think I would have that kind of



In relation to these matters, we appeal to those who govern Burma that they

release our fellow Nobel Peace Prize laureate, AUNG SAN Suu Kyi, and engage her

and those she represents in serious dialogue, for the benefit of all the people of Burma.

We pray that

those who have the power to do so will, without further delay,

permit that she uses her talents and energies for the greater good of the people of her

country and humanity as a whole.


My visit with President Clinton, Vice President Al Gore, and the National

Security Council was extremely productive. I went to plead on behalf of Aung San

Suu Kyi and the embattled people of Burma. President Clinton and Vice President Gore

listened intently and all the men in the room were obviously moved as I recounted the

terrible suffering the Burmese people face daily in the refugee camps in Thailand.

President Clinton promised he would release a statement condemning the regime in


As I left the Oval Office, I looked once more on the face of my President. Already

there was obvious fatigue. "Thank you Mr. President," I said quietly. Then I hugged him!

I don't really know why I did that except perhaps I felt he needed a hug. The next day the

President issued a statement asking for the immediate and unconditional release of Aung

San Suu Kyi and all political prisoners in Burma. Such a response provides the beacon

of light the rest of the world looks to as its lighthouse, the lighthouse of democracy in a

sea of confusion. The message is that the light still burns bright in the hearts of at least

one American and a very important one at that. It shows we do care and I know the State

Law and Order Restoration Council, or SLORC, which rules Burma with an iron fist, also

heard. The Burmese Junta heard my President's words and will be worried.


In Myanmar, Madam AUNG SAN Suu Kyi is still leading the struggle for

democracy. She retains wide support of the people. I have every confidence that there,

too, democracy will prevail and a representative government will be restored.”

Desmond TUTU

And question of questions: Where was God in all this? It seemed as impossible to

conceive of Auschwitz with God as to conceive of Auschwitz without God.

Therefore, everything had to be reassessed because everything had changed. With one

stroke, mankind's achievements seemed to have been erased. Was Auschwitz a

consequence or an aberration of "civilization"? All we know is that Auschwitz called

that civilization into question as it called into question everything that had preceded

Auschwitz. Scientific abstraction, social and economic contention, nationalism,




expression in Auschwitz.









Neither should it ever happen that once more the avenues to peaceful change

are blocked by usurpers who seek to take power away from the people, in pursuit of their

own, ignoble purposes.

consequence or an aberration of "civilization"? All we know is that Auschwitz called that civilization into


On the other hand, the award is a democratic declaration of solidarity with those

who fight to widen the area of liberty in my part of the world. As such, it is the sort of

gesture which gives me and millions who think as I do, tremendous encouragement.

Albert John LUTULI

This award is for you - Mothers, who sit near railway stations trying to eke out

an existence, selling potatoes, selling meali, selling pigs' trotters.

This award is for you - Fathers, sitting in a single-sex hostel, separated from your

children for eleven months of the year.

This award is for you - Mothers in the squatter camps, whose shelters are destroyed

callously every day and who have to sit on soaking mattresses in the winter rain, holding

whimpering babies and whose crime in this country is that you want to be with your


This award is for you - three and a half million of our people who have been uprooted

and dumped as if they were rubbish. The world says we recognize you, we recognize that

you are people who love peace.

This award is for you - dear children, who despite receiving a poisonous gruel,

designed to make you believe that you are inferior, have said 'there is something that God

put into us which will not be manipulated by man, which tells us that we are your

children.' This award is for you-and I am proud to accept it on your behalf as you spurn a

travesty of an education.

This award is for you, who down the ages have said we seek to change this evil system

peacefully. The world recognizes that we are agents of peace, of reconciliation, of love,

of justice, of caring, of compassion. I have the great honour of receiving this award on

your behalf. It is our prize. It is not Desmond Tutu's prize. The world recognizes that and

thank God that our God is God. Thank God that our God is in charge.

Desmond TUTU

There is no room for complacency. All of us who believe in peace must redouble

our efforts to reassure all our countrymen that their rights and security will be assured.

I have no doubt that we will succeed. There is growing awareness among all

South Africans of our interdependence - of the fact that none of us can flourish if we do

not work together - that all of us will fail if we try to pursue narrow sectional interests.


Frederik Willem DE KLERK

There is no room for complacency. All of us who believe in peace must redouble our


My friends, the simple fact of the matter is this: if we cannot make globalisation

work for all, in the end it will work for none.

The unequal distribution of benefits, and

the imbalances in global rule-making, which characterize globalisation today, inevitably

will produce backlash and protectionism. And that, in turn, threatens to

undermine and ultimately to unravel the open world economy that has been so

painstakingly constructed over the course of the past half-century.



But my banishment, without trial in infringement of all constitutional

guarantees, the isolation measures applied, interference of the KGB in my life, are

completely illegal and inadmissible as an infringement of my personal rights, and as a

dangerous precedent of the actions of the authorities, who are casting aside even that

pitiful imitation of legality in the persecution of dissidents that they displayed in recent

years. Only a court has the right to establish that a law has been infringed and to define

the manner of punishment. Any deliberations about culpability and mercy without a trial

are inadmissible and against a person's rights.


  • I travelled to Pyongyang for the historic meeting with Chairman Kim Jong-il of

the North Korean National Defence Commission. I went with a heavy heart not knowing

what to expect, but convinced that I must go for the reconciliation of my people and

peace on the Korean peninsula. There was no guarantee that the summit meeting would

go well. Divided for half-a-century after a three-year war, South and North Korea have

lived in mutual distrust and enmity across the barbed-wire fence of the demilitarised


KIM Dae Jung

May the men who hold the fate of nations in their hands avoid with anxious care

all that may worsen the situation in which we find ourselves and make it even more

dangerous. And may they take to heart the words of the Apostle Paul: "So far as it lies in

your power, be at peace with all men."

These words apply not only to individuals, but to nations as well. May they, in

their efforts to maintain peace, go to all lengths possible to give the spirit time to grow

and to act.


The World War showed how very necessary it is that this work be brought to a

victorious conclusion. It is a matter of nothing less than our civilization's "to be or not

to be". Europe cannot survive another world war.

Christian Louis LANGE

  • I come from a beautiful land, richly endowed by God with wonderful natural

resources, wide expanses, rolling mountains, singing, birds, bright shining stars out of

blue skies, with radiant sunshine, gold sunshine. There is enough of the good things that

come from God's bounty, there is enough for everyone, but apartheid has confirmed some

in their selfishness, causing them to grasp readily a disproportionate share, the lion's

share, because of their power.

Desmond TUTU

any concrete political prognoses. There is a large measure of tragedy in my life at

present. The sentences lately passed on my close friends - Sergei Kovalev (who just

exactly at the time of the Nobel Prize ceremony was sentenced to seven years'

imprisonment and three years' exile) and Andrei Tverdokhlebov - represent the clearest

and most unequivocal evidence of this. Yet, even so, both now and for always, I intend to

hold fast to my belief in the hidden strength of the human spirit. Andrei SAKHAROV

As believer, I think this was my mission. This is the way fate threw me into it.


If we have no peace, it is because we have forgotten that we belong to each



Mother Teresa

The most striking aspect of the Berlin wall was the absurd division of what had

remained intact of the whole organism of a metropolis, with all the lamentable

consequences for the people.


Unfortunately some didn't depart, they stay on, and they themselves betray the

principles, the ideals they fought for. They stay too long in power, and power corrupts.

And they betray the many years of dreams, of sacrifice.


The Tibetan plateau would be transformed into the world's largest natural park or

biosphere. Strict laws would be enforced to protect wildlife and


life; the

exploitation of natural resources would be carefully regulated so as not to damage

relevant ecosystems; and a policy of sustainable development would be adopted in

populated areas.

any concrete political prognoses. There is a large measure of tragedy in my life at present.






In the last 20 years, biotechnology has developed invaluable new scientific

methodologies and products which need active financial and organizational support to

bring them to fruition.


Special 30th Anniversary Lecture, The Norwegian Nobel Institute,


September 8, 2000 I believe that it is also important for governments to fund significant programs

September 8, 2000

  • I believe that it is also important for governments to fund significant programs of

biotechnology research in the public sector. Such publicly funded research is not

only important as a complement and balance to private sector proprietary research, but it

is also needed to ensure the proper training of new generations of scientists, both for

private and public sector research institutions.


Special 30th Anniversary Lecture, The Norwegian Nobel Institute,


September 8, 2000

  • I live in an apartment with a policeman stationed at the door round-the-clock. I

often live completely alone, since my wife is forced to spend a great deal of time in



My wife and I normally cannot communicate with the West by telephone. This is

especially hard for us, since our children live in America. Our letters often fail to get

through. (They are illegally seized by the KGB.)

  • I still receive some scientific mail from the West, but probably not all of it. I am

deeply grateful to my correspondents, but I don't receive personal letters. I didn't receive

a single letter of congratulations from the West on my 60th birthday, not even from our

children. To give you an example of the KGB's pettiness, on May 16 1 sent a telegram to

my friends who had gathered in our Moscow apartment to celebrate my 60th birthday,

but that telegram wasn't delivered until the following evening. Many domestic telegrams

sent to me, or that I send, never reach their destination. The same is true for letters.

  • I wish to devote the major part of my energy to scientific work. But it is simply

impossible to talk of "quiet scientific work" when I am kept isolated in illegal exile and

the repeated thefts of my scientific and other manuscripts require me to spend enormous

energy simply restoring those works.


Everywhere else in the world they would be highly commended, but in South

Africa, a land which claims to be Christian and which boasts a public holiday called

Family Day, these gallant women are treated so inhumanely. Yet all they want is to have

a decent and stable family life. Unfortunately, in the land of their birth it is a criminal

offence for them to live happily with their husbands and the fathers of their children.

Black family life is thus being undermined, not accidentally but by deliberate

government policy. It is part of the price human beings, God's children, are called to pay

for apartheid. An unacceptable price.

Desmond TUTU

We will prevail because we regard the building of peace as a great blessing for

us, for our children after us.

We will prevail because we regard the building of peace as a great blessing for us,

Yitzhak Rabin

The blood of the workers who had put their trust in me. It was my stupidity

in not taking it to victory that time. I wanted to improve on myself.


In order to expand food production for a growing world population within the

parameters of likely water availability, the inevitable conclusion is that humankind in the

21 st century will need to bring about a “Blue Revolution” to complement the “Green

Revolution” of the 20 th century. In the new Blue Continued genetic improvement of

food crops – using both conventional as well as biotechnology research tools – is needed

to shift the yield frontier higher and to increase stability of yield. While biotechnology

research tools offer much promise, it is also important to recognize that conventional

plant breeding methods are continuing to make significant contributions to improved

food production and enhanced nutrition.


Special 30th Anniversary Lecture, The Norwegian Nobel Institute,


September 8, 2000

And here we come back to history. We must remember the suffering of my

people, as we must remember that of the Ethiopians, the Cambodians, the boat people,

Palestinians, the Mesquite Indians, the Argentinian "desaparecidos” - the list seems



…When religion is manipulated, when ethnicity, rivalries among communities are

exploited, it brings war, it brings violence. …

One of the leaders of this modern 20th century that I admire the most…is Willy

Brandt. Why Willy Brandt? Simple reason: One day I had heard in the news that he

had been to Poland and kneeled down, apologized for World War II.

Well, a leader who has courage and humility, and to be humble, you must really

have a lot of courage. A leader who acknowledges his country's collective responsibility,

and apologizes, that is a great leader. That's why I always admire Willy Brandt.

We eat the same bread ……



We read that in France, just as in Germany, the war veterans meet together. When

these old comrades call upon Mr. Briand ( Prix Nobel )for his opinions, is it not a

pleasure for him to speak to them and feel himself one of them? I have read the speech

given by Mr. Briand before the soldiers who fought in the East, in which he said that one

of the three happiest moments of his life came when he received the news that the

Germans had failed to take Verdun. Why then should a German be blamed if he counts as

one of his happiest moments the time when he heard that the Battle of Tarmenberg had

saved German soil from enemy hands? I address Mr. Briand himself and remind him of

his words in Geneva when he spoke of the great deeds of both nations in their struggles

with each other in the mighty days of the past - deeds so great that they make new deeds

unnecessary. I, like Mr. Briand, am sure that those who experienced the glory and

horror of the front in the World War will be those who will support a new era of peace. A

few individuals who make speeches to the contrary cannot delude us about that.


We are in the midst of building the peace. The architects and the engineers of this

enterprise are engaged in their work even as we gather here tonight, building the peace,

layer by layer, brick by brick. The job is difficult, complex, trying. Mistakes could

topple the whole structure and bring disaster down upon us.

And so we are determined to

do the job

well -- despite the toll of murderous

terrorism, despite the fanatic and cruel enemies of peace.

Yitzhak Rabin

East Timor is at the cross-roads of three major cultures: Melanesian which binds

us to our brothers and sisters in the South Pacific region; Malay-Polynesian binding us to

Southeast Asia; and the Latin Catholic influence, a legacy of almost 500 years of

Portuguese colonisation. This rich historical and cultural existence places us in a unique

position to build bridges of dialogue and co-operation between the peoples of the



The realisation that we are all basically









the same human beings, who seek







brotherhood and sisterhood; a warm feeling of love and compassion for others.

This, in turn, is essential if we are to survive in this ever shrinking world we live in. For if

we each selfishly pursue only what we believe to be in our own interest, without caring

about the needs of others, we not only may end up harming others but also ourselves.

This fact has become very clear during the course of this century. We know that to wage

a nuclear war today, for example, would be a form of suicide; or that by polluting the air

or the oceans, in order to achieve some short-term benefit, we are destroying the very

basis for our survival. As inter-dependents, therefore, we have no other choice than to

develop what I call a sense of universal responsibility.

The Dalai Lama

Buddhism, the foundation of traditional Burmese culture, places the greatest

value on man, who alone of all beings can achieve the supreme state of Buddha-hood.

Each man has in him the potential to realize the truth through his own will and endeavour

and to help others to realise it. Human life therefore is infinitely precious.






The people of Burma had wearied of a precarious state of passive apprehension

where they were 'as water in the cupped hands' of the powers that be.

Emerald cool we may be

As water in cupped hands

But oh that we might be

As splinters of glass

In cupped hands.

Glass splinters, the smallest with its sharp, glinting power to defend itself against hands

that try to crush, could be seen as a vivid symbol of the spark of courage that is an

essential attribute of those who would free themselves from the grip of oppression.

Bogyoke Aung San regarded himself as a revolutionary and searched tirelessly for

answers to the problems that beset Burma during her times of trial. He exhorted the

people to develop courage: 'Don't just depend on the courage and intrepidity of others.

Each and every one of you must make sacrifices to become a hero possessed of courage

and intrepidity. Then only shall we all be able to enjoy true freedom.'


Scientists tell us that the world of nature is so small and interdependent that a

butterfly flapping its wings in the Amazon rainforest can generate a violent storm on the

other side of the earth. This principle is known as the “Butterfly Effect.” Today, we

realize, perhaps more than ever, that the world of human activity also has its own

“Butterfly Effect” -- for better or for worse.


C ………. In attempting to bring mankind to a condition of permanent peace in which war



C ………. In attempting to bring mankind to a condition of permanent peace in which war

In attempting to bring mankind to a condition of permanent peace in which war

will be regarded as criminal conduct, just as civilized communities have been brought to

a condition of permanent order, broken only by criminals who war against society, we

have to deal with innate ideas, impulses, and habits, which became a part of the

caveman's nature by necessity from the conditions under which he lived; and these

ideas and impulses still survive more or less dormant under the veneer of civilization,

ready to be excited to action by events often of the most trifling character. As Lord Bacon

says, "Nature is often hidden, sometimes overcome, seldom extinguished." To eradicate

or modify or curb the tendencies which thus survive among civilized men is not a matter

of intellectual conviction or training. It is a matter primarily of development of character

and the shifting of standards of conduct - a long, slow process in which advance is to be

measured, not by days and years, but by generations and centuries in the life of nations.

Elihu ROOT

Our cause is the cause of equality between nations and peoples. Only thus can

the brotherhood of man be firmly established. It is encouraging and elating to remind you

that, despite her humiliation and torment at the hands of white rule, the spirit of Africa in

the quest for freedom has been, generally, for peaceful means to the utmost…

Albert John LUTULI

The first and most obvious cause for international controversy which

suggests itself is in the field of international rights and obligations. Claims of right and

insistence upon obligations may depend upon treaty stipulations, or upon the rules of

international law, or upon the sense of natural justice applied to the circumstances of a

particular case, or upon disputed facts. Upon all these there are continually arising

controversies as to what are the true facts; what is the rule of international law applicable

to the case; what is the true interpretation of the treaty; what is just and fair under the

circumstances. This category does not by any means cover the entire field out of which

causes of war arise, but no one should underestimate its importance.

Elihu ROOT

In the name of all those who suffer in the cause of peace, I dare ask the peoples

to take the first step on this new road. None of them will lose by it one jot of the power

necessary for their own defence. If thus we undertake the liquidation of war, then a little

confidence can be born among peoples.


My eternal gratitude to those who nominated me. I am forever morally indebted to

them, and I can assure them, that God's modest gifts of health and wisdom to me will

always be put to the service of peace and justice not only for my country and people but

also for the cause of peace, freedom and democracy everywhere my faint voice

can be heard.


These declarations, although enforced by no binding stipulation, nevertheless

have become principles of action in international affairs because, through the progress of

civilization and the influence of many generations of devoted spirits in the cause of

humanity, the world had become ready for the setting up of the standard. The

convention would have been a dead letter if the world had not been made ready for it,

and, because the world was ready, conformity to the standard year by year has become

more universal and complete. Since this convention, which was binding upon no state,

113 obligatory general treaties of arbitration have been made between powers who have

taken part in the Hague Conferences, and sixteen international controversies have been

heard and decided, or are pending before that tribunal according to the last report of the

Administrative Council of the Court.

Quite apart from the statistics of cases actually heard or pending, it is impossible

to estimate the effect produced by the existence of this court, for the fact that there is a

court to which appeal may be made always leads to the settlement of far more

controversies than are brought to judgment. Nor can we estimate the value of having this

system a part of the common stock of knowledge of civilized men, so that, when an

international controversy arises, the first reaction is not to consider war but to consider

peaceful litigation.

Elihu ROOT

Now, having freely admitted the limitations of our work and the qualifications to

be borne in mind, I feel that I have the right to have my words taken seriously when I

point out where, in my judgment, great advance can be made in the cause of

international peace. I speak as a practical man, and whatever I now advocate I

actually tried to do when I was for the time being the head of a great nation and keenly

jealous of its honour and interest. I ask other nations to do only what I should be glad to

see my own nation do.


In the five decades of Israel's existence, our efforts have focused on re-

establishing our territorial centre. In the future, we shall have to devote our main effort to

strengthen our spiritual centre. Judaism -- or Jewishness -- is a fusion of belief, history,

land and language. Being Jewish means to belong to a people that is both unique and

universal. My greatest hope is that our children, like our forefathers, will not make do

with the transient and the sham, but will continue to plow the historic Jewish furrow in

the fields of human spirit, that Israel will become the centre of our heritage, not

merely a homeland for our people; that the Jewish people will be inspired by others, but

at the same be to them a source of inspiration.

Shimon PERES

Upon the union of the male germ cell with the female egg cell, a new cell is

created which almost immediately splits into two parts. One of these grows rapidly,

creating the human body of the individual with all its organs, and dies only with the

individual. The other part remains as living germ plasm in the male body and as ova in

the female. In this way there live in each one of us actual, tangible, traceable cells which

come from our parents and from their parents and ancestors before them, and which -

through conception - can in turn become our children and our children's children. Each of

us is, literally and physiologically, a link in the big chain that makes up mankind.

Christian Louis LANGE

In such a world all war would be civil war, and we must hope that it will grow

increasingly inconceivable. It has already become capable of such unlimited destruction

and such fearful possibilities of uncontrollable and little understood "chain

reactions" of all sorts that it would seem that no one not literally insane could decide

to start an atomic war.

I have spoken against fear as a basis for peace. What we ought to fear, especially

we Americans, is not that someone may drop atomic bombs on us but that we may allow

a world situation to develop in which ordinarily reasonable and humane men, acting as

our representatives, may use such weapons in our name. We ought to be resolved

beforehand that no provocation, no temptation shall induce us to resort to the last

dreadful alternative of war.

May no young man ever again be faced with the choice between violating his

conscience by cooperating in competitive mass slaughter or separating himself from

those who, endeavouring to serve liberty, democracy, humanity, can find no better way

than to conscript young men to kill.

Emily Greene BALCH

And so, the challenge




grasp and shape history: to show that past

grievances and injustices can give way to a new generosity of spirit and action.


As war is an adventure, peace is also a challenge and a gamble. If we do not

fortify peace to stand against storms and wind, and if we do not support it and strengthen

it, the gamble will then be exposed to blackmail, perhaps to fall. Therefore, I call on my

partners in peace on this high platform to expedite the peace process, achieve early

withdrawal, pave the road for elections, and to move to the second stage in record time,

so that peace will grow and become a firm reality.

John HUME As war is an adventure, peace is also a challenge and a gamble. If

Yasser Arafat

Let me put it this way. People are always scared of change. Change frightens

them. But we need to educate the people about the benefits that the change will bring

them. And that is why we need to mesh various branches of our sciences together, so that

the people who do not know much cannot scare others.


Special 30th Anniversary Lecture, The Norwegian Nobel Institute,


September 8, 2000

Too many lives have already been lost in Ireland in the pursuit of political goals.

Bloodshed for political change prevents the only change that truly matter: in the human

heart. We must now shape a future of change that will be truly radical and that will offer

a focus for real unity of purpose: harnessing new forces of idealism and commitment for

the benefit of Ireland and all its people.


A major change has occurred in the world balance of forces, and this change is

intensifying. It is true, of course, that the development of new technology and the growth

in number of weapons have not been confined to the Soviet Union. This is a mutually

stimulating process in virtually all technologically developed countries. In the United

States, in particular, such developments have perhaps proceeded on a higher scientific-

technological level and this, in turn, caused alarm in the Soviet Union.

John HUME As war is an adventure, peace is also a challenge and a gamble. If


We must dare to believe that in their heart of hearts men desire peace on earth, but

we shall never achieve this merely by coining slogans such as 'We Want Peace!' Our aim

must be backed by intense efforts to find constructive proposals. The challenge facing

peace workers is not to be found in a single universal question-and-answer, but in

peaceful solutions to a host of conflicts, and in the exertion to achieve peace on many

different levels.


We speak here of the challenge of the dichotomies of war and peace,

violence and non-violence, racism and human dignity, oppression and repression, and

liberty and human rights, poverty and freedom from want.


I look to a day when people will not be judged by the colour of their skin, but by

the content of their character.

Martin Luther KING

I'm often asked why I lead the International Green Cross. And the first question is

always about the 1986 nuclear accident at Chernobyl: was that disaster the defining

moment for my concern about ecological issues?

Chernobyl did have a tremendous impact on my thinking about the

environment and nuclear weapons. But my understanding of the importance of the natural

environment came much earlier. I am of peasant stock, and as a young man I worked on a

collective farm in Stavropol. A large part of my life was spent on the land. I saw the

effects of such problems as soil erosion, the spread of the deserts, and air and water

pollution. I saw that man's intrusions in nature were often imprudent and harmful to man

himself. Acting as the master and even king of nature, man gave no thought to the



Everything I experienced in Mit Abul-Kum made me happy. Nothing is of such

great importance as the fact that you are a child of this Earth. The earth can never die

- in it lies the mystery of creation.

Mohamed Anwar El SADAT

The child of today is the farmer, the teacher, the politician, and the worker of

tomorrow. The child, indeed, is the father of the man, or, as is said in Proverbs 22:6,

"Train up a child in the way he should go and when he is old, he will not depart from it."


Systematic analysis, appraisal, evaluation, and research were required if the

overall needs of the child were to be fully understood and progress made. It became clear

that the child had to be prepared for life in all its manifestations as well as protected

against its hazards.






What about the children? Oh, we see them on television, we read about them in


papers, and we



with a broken

heart. Their fate is always the most tragic,

inevitably. When adults wage war, children perish. We see their faces, their eyes. Do

we hear their pleas? Do we feel their pain, their agony? Every minute one of them dies of

disease, violence, famine. Some of them -- so many of them -- could be saved.


It will and must be measured by the happiness and welfare of the children, at once the

most vulnerable citizens in any society and the greatest of our treasures.

The children must, at last, play in the open veld, no longer tortured by the pangs of

hunger or ravaged by disease or threatened with the scourge of ignorance, molestation

and abuse, and no longer required to engage in deeds whose gravity exceeds the demands

of their tender years.


The health of children and young people could not be viewed as a separate field of












development. Children could not be regarded as a separate entity, but rather as an

integral part of the population, the family, and the community, requiring certain priority

consideration in national, economic, and social development planning. Services for the

child should be taken for granted as a vitally important aspect of government

responsibility to ensure economic viability, progress, and stability.






For unflagging interest and enjoyment, a household of children, if things go

reasonably well, certainly all other forms of success and achievement lose their

importance by comparison.


It was soon acknowledged, however, that many more children were victims of a

hostile environment, of poverty, inertia and neglect. Children in Asia, the Middle East,

Africa, and Latin America died in their millions of sickness and starvation, abandoned in

the backwash of history, left behind in the surge of time. Child suffering could not be

distinguished by virtue of its cause or origin. Children in desperate need anywhere and

everywhere required help and attention.

What about the children ? Oh, we see them on television, we read about them in






China has been more successful in achieving broad-based economic growth and

poverty reduction than India. Nobel Economics Laureate, Professor Amartya Sen,

attributes this to the greater priority the Chinese government has given to investments in

rural education and health care services. Nearly 80 percent of the Chinese population is

literate while only 50 percent of the Indian population can read and write. India has more

than half of its population below the poverty line whereas China has less than 30 percent.

Only 17 percent of Chinese children are malnourished compared to 63 percent in India.

With a healthier and better-educated rural population, China’s economy has been able to

grow about twice as fast as the Indian economy over the past two decades and today

China has a per capita income nearly twice that of India.


Special 30th Anniversary Lecture, The Norwegian Nobel Institute, Oslo

September 8, 2000

I then think the Dalai Lama is the holiest man, a man that I adore. When I think of

him, I just fill with tears because his spiritually and kindness are so overwhelming that

when you're in his company-you're the only person in the room-and there may be

thousands around you. You're centred so much with this beautiful spiritual force and a

force of goodness, that you would wonder how the world would allow the Chinese

communists to take over his country and to kill a culture-try to kill the Tibetan culture.

It's so cruel. It's one of the most magnificent cultures that has ever existed on this planet

Earth. In its gentleness and in its faith and in its humility and in its understanding and in

its love, the Dalai Lama could show the world leadership how to love one another.

I think of the cruelty-not of the Chinese people, because the Chinese people are

wonderful, gentle souls-but of a government that is allowed to do this and continue to

have Most Favoured Nation status, when it should be ostracized by the rest of the world

instead of being developed into a second super power.

We don't need any more super powers. Tina Turner said it better than I could ever

say it: "We don't need another hero." If we have to have heroes, I want Father Tutu as

mine. He's mine - what a man, what a man. The Dalai Lama's mine. Those are my

heroes, not the other guys.


In any case, we have no choice. The alternative is unacceptable. Let me quote

the last sentence of the Russell-Einstein Manifesto:

We appeal, as human beings, to human beings: Remember your humanity and

forget the rest. If you can do so, the way lies open for a new paradise; If you cannot, there

lies before you the risk of universal death.


And as if that was not enough - it was not enough to become a man - Christ died

on the cross to show that greater love, and he died for you and for me and for that leper

and for that man dying of hunger and that naked person lying in the street not only of

Calcutta, but of Africa, and New York, and London, and Oslo - and insisted that we love

one another as he loves each one of us.


Only Jesus Christ could take a few loaves of bread and feed the thousands ...

Only Jesus Christ could solve problems such as these.


(On describing the problems posed to him with the break-up of the 15 republics of the Soviet Union.)

These ideas of peace and justice were a prelude to Christianity which, while

preaching brotherhood among all men, established its principal centre in Rome. When the

Empire fell under the sword of the barbarian, the ideal of humanitarianism and peace

survived in Italy by finding refuge and support in the Roman church. The church set out

to educate even the barbarians; it opposed the cruelty of the times with the Christian law

of love; and it almost always used its moral authority, intensified by the very violence

and rampant anarchy of the day, to foster the free and civil association of peoples. This

international arbitration, which, for want of any communal law, we still regard as the best

protection of peace today, was practiced by the best and greatest of the pontiffs of the

early Middle Ages who censured injustice and the corruption of the aristocracy and who

defended the liberty of the common man.




The church must, therefore, uphold the sanctity of law and promote its

development in the name of Christ, both inside and outside national boundaries. She

must, therefore, fight against all glorification of violence and against any force contrary

to the rule of law, and she must preach that nations and communities, like individuals,

must act according to ethical principles, basing their hopes for coexistence on the

principles of truth, justice, and love.

Wherever the church has erred in this respect she must humbly confess it and

correct the mistakes.


Cicero was against all wars unless they were absolutely unavoidable.

"Disputes", he said, "can be settled in two ways: by reason or by force; one way belongs

to man and the other to the beasts; one should employ force only when reason proves

impossible." He possessed a much greater breadth of vision than Aristotle, who justified

slavery and believed that it would last until doomsday. "Beneath the cloak of the slaves",

said Cicero, "breathes a man who is not just a thing, but a person who hires out his

services and who has a right to decent treatment and a fair wage." He wanted all people

to be equal in the eyes of justice: "True law is reason, just and consistent with nature; it

imposes obligations and forbids fraud; it cannot be different in Athens from what it is in


Although in the realm of ethics Cicero was far ahead of his time, he was not

alone in propounding such ideas.




The most important conditions for international trust and security are the openness

of society, the observation of the civil and political rights of man -- freedom of

information, freedom of religion, freedom to choose one's country of residence (that is, to

emigrate and return freely), freedom to travel abroad, and freedom to choose one's

residence within a country.


What the main sections of the civil rights movement in the United States are

saying is that the demand for dignity, equality, jobs, and citizenship will not be

abandoned or diluted or postponed. If that means resistance and conflict we shall not

flinch. We shall not be cowed. We are no longer afraid.

services and who has a right to decent treatment and a fair wage." He wanted all





The Nobel Prize is a symbol of peace, and of the efforts to build up a real

democracy. It will stimulate the civil sectors so that through a solid national unity,

these may contribute to the process of negotiations that seek peace, reflecting the general

feeling - although at times not possible to express because of fear - of the Guatemalan

society: to establish political and legal grounds that will give irreversible impulses to a

solution as to what initiated the internal armed conflict .




Certainly the ease and speed of communication as a result of technological

developments have had a great impact on the ability of civil society from diverse

cultures to dialogue and formulate global political strategies, but e-mail alone has not

"moved the movement." ….


As civil society we exist relative to the state, to its institutions and its power.

We also exist relative to other non-state actors such as the private sector. Ours is not to

displace the responsibility of the state. Ours is not to allow a humanitarian alibi to mask

the state responsibility to ensure justice and security. And ours is not to be co-managers

of misery with the state. If civil society identifies a problem, it is not theirs to provide a

solution, but it is theirs to expect that states will translate this into concrete and just

solutions. Only the state has the legitimacy and power to do this. Today, a growing

injustice confronts us. More than 90% of all death and suffering from infectious diseases

occurs in the developing world. Some of the reasons that people die from diseases like

AIDS, TB, Sleeping Sickness and other tropical diseases is that life saving essential

medicines are either too expensive, are not available because they are not seen as

financially viable, or because there is virtually no new research and development for

priority tropical diseases. This market failure is our next challenge. The challenge

however, is not ours alone. It is also for governments, International Government

Institutions, the Pharmaceutical Industry and other NGOs to confront this injustice. What

we as a civil society movement demand is change, not charity.

Médecin sans Frontières

None of us are entirely innocent. But thanks to our strong sense of civil

society, thanks to our religious recognition that none of us are perfect, thanks to the

thousands of people from both sides who made countless acts of good authority, thanks to

a tradition of parliamentary democracy which meant that paramilitarism never displaced

politics, thanks to all these specific, concrete circumstances we, thank god, stopped short

of that abyss that engulfed Bosnia, Kosovo, Somalia and Rwanda.

of misery with the state. If civil society identifies a problem, it is not theirs to


Gentlemen, at this most solemn moment of my life, before you citizens and

representatives of this illustrious Norway whose example has taught all nations, large and

small, how to achieve without violence the greatest civil victories - in view of the

patriotic and humanitarian ideals in the name of which Italy has come into its third

existence, and in memory of the long list of heroes and martyrs who died on the

battlefields, in prisons, or on the scaffold for those ideals - I give the solemn assurance, as

a seal to my speech, that Italy will never fail in the commitment she made before the

world: to be, once free to control her own destiny, an element of order and of progress, of

pacification and of civilization in Europe. Yes, I am fully convinced that she will never

fail, for one can say of Italy what your great Ibsen said of your country:

After a heavy sleep,

She awoke renewed in strength, ready for the word of command,

And now she is the race which has the will and the faith,

Will and faith in the peaceful progress of mankind.




The idea that the reign of peace must come one day has been given expression by

a number of peoples who have attained a certain level of civilisation … But the

situation today is such that it must become reality in one way or another; otherwise

mankind will perish.


Civilization is a method of living and an attitude of equal respect for all people.


Civilization and morality have not yet influenced nations to consider inviolable

a promise or agreement, solemnly signed and sealed, when it becomes part of

international law. Ordinary citizens are obliged and, if need be, compelled by force to

meet their commitments. But let higher obligations of an international order be involved,

and governments repudiate them, more often than not with a disdainful shrug of the


Charles Albert GOBAT

Other civilizations, perhaps more successful ones, may exist an infinite number

of times on the preceding and following pages of the Book of the Universe. Yet we

should not minimize our sacred endeavours in this world, where, like faint glimmers in

the dark, we have emerged for a moment from the nothingness of unconsciousness into

material existence. We must make demands of reason and create a life worthy of

ourselves and of the goals we only dimly perceive.


What I have called "pacigérance" is clearly part of the larger struggle for

civilization which is progressing on an increasingly broad front: it is civilization's

battle between rule by law and rule by power. In this context, pacifists should stress

more and more that it is the rule of law for which they are fighting. It is quite usual to

maintain that treaties become just so much wastepaper when war breaks out. This is a

military concept that pacifists should not tolerate. We should do everything within our

power to insure that the idea of law conquers. What contributes largely to the confusion

of ideas is the accepted division of the world into major powers and small states. We

understand a "power" to be a state which has a large population and well-developed

armed forces, army and navy, and so on. This is comparable to believing that a great man

is a very tall and big man. By a great man, however, we mean a man who, because of his

spiritual gifts, his character, and other qualities, deserves to be called great and who as a

result earns the power to influence others. By the same token it must follow that the state

we now call a small state is in reality a power if it plays such a role in the development of

civilization that it marches in the front ranks and wins victories in the fight for law which

surpass those of the so-called great powers.

Fredrik BAJER

Please allow me, ladies and gentlemen, to say some words about my country and

the Civilization of the Mayas. The Maya people developed and spread

geographically through some 300,000 square km; they occupied parts of the South of

Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, as well as Honduras and El Salvador; they developed a very

rich civilization in the area of political organization, as well as in social and economic

fields; they were great scientists in the fields of mathematics, astronomy, agriculture,

architecture and engineering; they were great artists in the fields of sculpture, painting,

weaving and carving. …

Today it is important to emphasize the deep respect that the Maya civilization

had towards life and nature in general.

Rigoberta MENCHU


However alluring the picture of an amphictyonic council embracing all civilized

nations may be, I do not believe that our efforts should be directed toward this end, an

end whose realization can scarcely be glimpsed even in some dim and distant future. In

any case, the Hague Conference can offer to mankind, to civilization, and to justice the

same services that an international parliament could offer. And since it already exists,

there is no need to create it. What is necessary is to perfect its organization and to ensure

its ability to function properly.

Charles Albert GOBAT

Now that war is upon us, I feel it is imperative that the present conflict not be

inflamed and extended into a "clash of civilizations," nor that it be painted as a jihad

or a crusade--two concepts that have been sorely abused over the course of history. There

is truly nothing more disturbing than killing in the name of God and religion. …

Oscar Arias SANCHEZ

(On the Events of September 11 th )

As long as we have decided to coexist and live in peace, then we should

coexist on a solid basis that can last through all time and that is acceptable to the future

generations. In this context, full withdrawal from the West Bank and the Gaza Strip

requires deep discussions about the settlements that cut through geographic and political

unity, prevent free movement between the areas of the West Bank and the Strip, and

create hotbeds of tension that conflict with the spirit of peace, which we want to be free

of anything that spoils its purity.

Yasser Arafat

Under the threat of mankind’s self-destruction, co-existence has become a

question of the very existence of man. Co-existence became not one of several

acceptable possibilities but the only chance of survival….

Willy BRANDT How can there be co-operative co-existence , which is the only kind that means


How can there be co-operative co-existence, which is the only kind that means

anything, if men are cut off from each other, if they are not allowed to learn more about

each other? So let's throw aside the curtains against contacts and communication … ..

Willy BRANDT How can there be co-operative co-existence , which is the only kind that means


The conflict in East Timor can be traced back to the political context of the Cold


You might recall a picture that made headlines in the spring of 1975. I refer to the

picture of an American helicopter landing on the rooftop of the US Embassy in Saigon to

rescue remaining diplomats, CIA operatives and a few privileged South Vietnamese

stooges as Saigon fell to the Vietcong. Cambodia and Laos followed. This picture

illustrated, better than a thousand words, the ignominious American retreat from


…… ..

The invasion of East Timor which took place within hours of Ford's departure

from Jakarta was a mere footnote in the Cold War events of 1975.

Thousands of East Timorese who died in the days, weeks, months and years that

followed were mere footnotes to the post-Vietnam and Cold Wars.


The Cold War with its sterile paradox of freezing frontiers without eliminating

the risk of conflict did not point the way to a solution. So the powers concerned began to

keep extreme risks within bounds and to reduce tensions. In Cuba and Berlin they learned

how to keep conflicts under control. De Gaulle and Nixon set the course for co-operation

rather than confrontation, and Brezhnev and Kossygin began in their own way to steer

towards a new relationship with the West.


The agenda of dangers still to be overcome is hardly less daunting than the one

faced by the founders of the Pugwash Conferences in the Cold War gloom of the 1950s.

But the world did finally escape the Cold War, and with a bit of luck, a bit of wisdom,

and a lot of work it may yet escape the remaining dangers, too.









Unless there is a change in the basic philosophy, we will not see a reduction of

nuclear arsenals to zero for a very long time, if ever. The present basic philosophy is

nuclear deterrence. This was stated clearly In the US Nuclear Posture Review which


"Post-Cold War environment requires nuclear deterrence," and this is echoed by

other nuclear states. Nuclear weapons are kept as a hedge against some unspecified


This policy is simply an inertial continuation from the Cold War era. The Cold

War is over but Cold War thinking survives, Then, we were told that a world war

was prevented by the existence of nuclear weapons. Now, we are told that nuclear

weapons prevent all lands of war. These are armaments that purport to prove a negative.


The set of problems in the post-Cold-War security landscape has to do with

the dangers and destruction engendered by local armed conflicts, actual and incipient,

arising from all of the traditional causes of war: religious and ethnic hatreds, disputes

over territory and resources, the tensions of emergent statehood, the aspirations of power-

hungry dictators, and the stresses of frustrated economic aspirations. Such conflicts

occurred throughout the Cold War, of course, as well as before; but, like the proliferation

dangers they may have become even more dangerous in its aftermath. Confined in

geographic scope but not in ferocity or in the indiscriminate killing of non-combatants,

these wars have been fuelled in many cases by vast flows of conventional weaponry from

armories built up to service the Cold War, as well as by emergent indigenous arms

industries in the South; they have already seen the use of chemical weapons in some

instances, and are likely to see wider use of weapons of mass destruction in the future;

and the existing array of regional and global security institutions seems almost powerless

to prevent or contain them.









In surveying where the problem of peace stands, we must begin by casting a

glance back upon the period of the World War and at the lines on which the world has

been tackling this problem ever since. The more the history of the World War and what

led up to it is studied, the more clearly those tragic years become revealed as a vast

collapse of civilization. It was a war which resulted from the false standards of

patriotism and ideas of what constitute the honour and vital interests of nations. It

revealed the incapacity of nations to find the best way to defend these interests and to

become adjusted to the facts of the modern world. Two of these great facts are the

increasing cultural and material interdependence of nations and the growing deadliness of

warfare. The world before 1914 was already a world in which the welfare of each

individual nation was inextricably bound up with the prosperity of the whole community

of nations. Moreover, war has become a thing potentially so terrible and destructive that

it should have been the common aim of statesmen to put an end to it forever. But the

standards of statecraft insisted upon the untrammelled claim of each nation to uphold its

own view of its rights by force and to build whatever armaments it considered necessary

for this purpose.


Almost all regimes which did not place the sanctity of life at the heart of their

worldview, all those regimes have collapsed and are no more. You can see it for

yourselves in our own time.

Yitzhak Rabin

No national interest can today be isolated from collective responsibility for

peace. This fact must be recognised in all foreign relations. As a medium for achieving

European and world-wide security, therefore, foreign policy must aim to reduce tensions

and promote communication beyond frontiers ….


The terrorist attacks in the United States of America last week shook all of

humanity. It starkly reminded us again of the depth to which we can sink in our

inhumanity towards one another.

It was a source of encouragement to note that almost the entire world responded

with utter revulsion to such cowardly acts that cruelly and horrendously took the lives of

so many innocent people merely going about their ordinary daily lives. Amidst the

indescribable tragedy the overwhelming decency of human beings the world over found

expression in the unreserved condemnation of those terrible deeds of cruelty.

To that we wish to add our collective voice of condemnation of those acts

and to express our deep felt sympathy to the American government, people and

particularly those who lost family and friends. We share in their sense of loss and can

only trust that they will take some sustenance from the knowledge that so many people

all over the world mourn with them.

Nelson MANDELA Frederik Willem de KLERK Desmond TUTU

(On the Events of September 11 th )

At a time when the commemoration of the Fifth Centenary of the arrival of

Columbus in America has repercussions all over the world, the revival of hopes for the

Indian people claims that we reassert to the world our existence and the value of our

cultural identity. It demands that we endeavour to actively participate in the decisions that

concern our destiny, in the building-up of our countries/nations. Should we, in spite of

all, not be taken into consideration, there are factors that guarantee our future: struggle

and endurance; courage; the decision to maintain our traditions that have been exposed to

so many perils and sufferings; solidarity towards our struggle on the part of numerous

countries, governments, organizations and citizens of the world.

Rigoberta MENCHU


Since these developments were not without periods of regression, because the

intense hopes were followed by disappointment, Germany's development was also not

without fluctuation. The feelings and emotions of an individualistic people like the

Germans cannot easily be reduced to a common denominator. Nevertheless, it can

be said today, and it has been demonstrated by recent debates in the Reichstag, that the

overwhelming majority of the German people are united in a desire for peace and



If peace, the ideal, is to be our common destiny, then peace, the experience,

must be our common practice. For this to be so, the leaders of all nations must remember

that their political decisions of war or peace are realised in the human suffering or well-

being of their people.


If we could but recognize our common humanity, that we do belong together,

that our destinies are bound up with one another's that we can be free only together, that

we can survive only together, that we can be human only together, then a glorious South

Africa would come into being where all of us lived harmoniously together as members of

one family, the human family. In truth a transfiguration would have taken place.

Desmond TUTU

It is the political authority over common interests that internationalism wants

to transfer to a common management. Thus, a world federation, in which individual

nations linked in groups can participate as members, is the political ideal of

internationalism. Before the war, a first groping step was taken in this direction with the

work at The Hague. The League of Nations marks the first serious and conscious attempt

to approach that goal.

Christian Louis LANGE

But common sense dictates that I cannot for ever convince society that real

peace is at hand if there is not a beginning to the decommissioning of weapons as an

earnest of the decommissioning of hearts that must follow.












unknown: a common stand taken by America, Russia, Europe, India, China,

Cuba, most of the Islamic world and numerous other regions and countries.

Despite many serious differences between them, they united to save civilization.

It is now the responsibility of the world community to transform the

coalition against terror into a coalition for a new, peaceful and just world order.

Let us not, as happened during the 1990's, miss the chance to build such an



(On the Events of September 11 th )

At a meeting in Pasadena, I testified under oath that a statement that I had

prepared to the effect that I was not a Communist, never had been a Communist, and

never had been associated with the Communist Party, was true ...

I would like to know more about Marxism than I know. I believe that we never

can know too much about anything



do not understand dialectical materialism, either.

But I do not believe in censorship. I believe in freedom of publication.


Linus Carl

Today we know how rich and at the same time how limited man is in his

possibilities. We know him in his aggression and in his brotherliness. We know that he is

capable of applying his inventions for his own good, but also of using them to destroy

himself. Let us drop all these terrible excessive demands. I believe in active

compassion and therefore in man’s responsibility. And I believe in the absolute

necessity of peace.


It should be a comprehending leadership. It should reveal a vivid awareness

of the present expansive, urgent, and dangerous world situation. The leaders must

understand its antecedents and background. They must know the real battleground,

therefore the forces and factors that oppose, and those that are with us. They must indeed

know our world, our time, and our destiny. In discovering the leaders of tomorrow we

must become acquainted with the unanswered questions of ambitious youth and the

possibilities of human nature. Above all, we must rely upon the superhuman resources.




The compromises we have reached demand sacrifices on all sides. It was not

easy for the supporters of Mr Mandela or mine to relinquish the ideals they had cherished

for many decades.

But we did it. And because we did it, there is hope.

Frederik Willem DE KLERK

The second dream is about the Middle East. In the Middle East most people are

impoverished and wretched. A new scale of priorities is needed, with weapons on the

bottom and regional market economy at the top. Most inhabitants of the region -- more


sixty percent



under the

age of eighteen.

The Middle





kindergarten, a huge school. A new future can be and should be offered to them. Israel

has computerized its education and has achieved excellent results. Education can be

computerized throughout the Middle East, allowing young people, Arabs and others, to

progress not just from grade to grade but from generation to generation.

Shimon PERES

A new power is emerging from the depths and slowly spreading over land and

water. It is the concept of peace of the ancient sagas, enriched by new and immense

cultural progress. Those who seek after the lost paradise can see it shimmering in the

sunrise of a new era, presaging the fulfilment of the Christian prayer and the heathen

saga, presaging the kingdom of peace which we pray for in saying "Our Father - Thy

kingdom come" and which the old inhabitants of the North sensed in the happy era of the

ancient sagas - when the streets were paved with gold which remained untouched and

when human beings were good, their customs and laws mild and wise.




Thus the concept of peace, mankind's most brilliant treasure, has at last been

disclosed to the eyes of us all. No one now denies its beauty; all extol its worth. But these

tributes have all too often taken the form of words alone, seldom that of actions as well.




One has only to think about it to appreciate the difficulties bound to arise in any

attempt to draft a formula which will be acceptable to the representatives of so many