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SPECIMEN of Artifacts

Made of Various Metals


WETHALI THE LAND OF HISTORIC FINDS

PART IV

CONTENTS Pages

Chapte XV Specimen of Artifacts made of various metals 220-222

- Shong-Gyaw Shrine 223


- Notable Artifacts 223-226
-Metal Vase displayed in Bangladash National Museum 227

- Stone Artifacts 228-247

- Bronze Artifacts 248-253

- Gold Artifacts 254

- Silver Artifacts 257-255

- Copper Artifacts 258-260

- Terracotta Artifacts 261


U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 220

PART IV

CHAPTER XV

Specimen of Artifacts made of various metals.

Some notable artifacts obtained in ancient Wethali Land are:-


(a) The Fat Monk Images Buddha in Dharmacakra mudra.
(b) A table of auspicious symbols and a lustration pot.
(c) A pair of Copper foot print by the name of ]puúorÜKPaÖ umyvyg'}
(d) A copper plate Land grant
(e) Inscribed bronze Bells(162)
(f) A dedicatory (Cancient miniature bronze ‘ceti’ of Vesali)
(g) Ancient bronze Lamp:
(h) gold necklace
(i) gold coins of Vesali
(j) gold ring of Niticandra, gold locket

- Artifacts (a), (b) are preserved in Mrauk-U Museum

- Artifacts (c) was preserved at the residence of late U Oo Tha Htoon of Mrauk-U

- Artifact (d) was kept under the custody of Archaeological Department in Yangon

- Artifact (e 1) is preserved in Sittwe Buddha museum (Mahakuthala Monastry,Sittwe)

- Artifact (e 2), (g) were preserved by the relatives of late U San Shwe Bu (Hon. Archaeologist) in
Yangon

- Artifact (f) is now preserved in the monastery of Tharlarwaddy village, Mrauk-U

- Artifacts (h, i, j) are kept by U Kaung San Kyaw, a gold suith of Mrauk-U

___________________________________________________________________________________
* Mahakuthala monastary Sittwe
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 221

Buddha in Dharmacakra Mudra Kyauk-taw, Rakhine State


aov’m*D&dawmifajcrS&&Sdaom jrwfpGmbk&m;u pE´mol&d,rif;tm;
w&m;jyausmufqpfvuf&myHk

The Fat Monk Image Inscription on the back of the Fat Monk
ajrmufOD;? yef;aps;ajrmif;ae&mrS&&Sdaom Image
opöuyk&ydkufjArdætu©&mpmwrf;a&;xdk;yg
Adkufylbk&m;yHk
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S.

Copper Plate Inscription from Vesali, (Rev.side)


(c.5th - 6th century A.D.)
222
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 223

SHONG - GYAW SHRINE


Shoung - gyaw Shrine, situated by
Thirichaung creek, an hour's walk west of
Vesali, is no less famous than the Mahamuni.
The present image in this shrine was cast in
1924 to replace the original one believed to
possess the likeness of Mahamuni, the one
carried off to Amarapura. Close to the south-
ern part of the Shrine dismembered pieces
of a mericulously - carved stone pedestal can
be found on a mound.

NOTABLE ARTEFACTS
Some notable artefacts obtained in
the ancient land are:

F e.1 e.2

Maniature bronze cati of


Tharlarwaddy Village
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 224

Artefacts (a), (b), (c), (d) are preserved in


Mrauk-U Meseum.

Artefacts(e) was kept under the custody of


Archaeological Department in Yangon.

Artefacts(f1) is preserved in Sittwe Buddha


Museum.

Artefacts(f2) & (h) are preserved by the rela-


tives of the late U San Shwe Bu (Hon. Archaeologist)
in Yangon.

Artefacts(g) is now preserved in Tharlarwaddy


Village Monastery.

Artefacts(i) & (j) are now kept by U Kaung


San Kyaw, a gold smith of Mrauk-U.
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 255

H Bronze Lamp Inscription from Vesali


(c. 9th - 10th century A.D.)
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 226

A Gold Necklace, an excellent product of a gold smith


belonging to Wethali Age.

a0omvDacwf a&Tyef;wdrfvuf&mvnfqJGb,uf
(a&Tb,uf&&Sdaomae&mrSm a0omvDNrdKU? oif;uspfawmfawmifaemufbuf? aZmf*sDajrmifrS
1949 ckESpfu &&Sdonf/ ,if;ae&mwGif NcHvkyfpm;oluopfwdkuf&ef opfyifvJS&mrS &&Sdonf/)

at'D 520 u eef;pHcJhaom eDwdp`E´rif; trnf a&;xdk;xm;onfh


a&TvufpGyf - tav;csdef (20 *&rf)

A Gold Ring of King Niticandra (AD 520) and a Gold locket


Wethali : The land of Historic finds 227

A metal vase displayed in Bangaladesh National museum.

Vasent Chowdhury, an Indian Scholar and coin collector of Calcutta in his a rticle entitled "
Indian Museum", stated that a metal vase inscribed about a land grant in Harikila Kingdom is now
displayed at National Museum of Bangaladesh in Dakka. It is interesting to note that the two per-
sons by the name of Kula Candra and Ratna Candra were included among the donor lists. They were
supposed to be the decendants of Candra kings of Rakhine Wethali. It is also more interesting to
remember that Rakhine Kawza date (R.E) was engraved as a privileged era which when converted
in to christian era was 715 AD. If we reconvert in to R.E by using the conversion factor 638, it will
become 77 R.E which was happened to be coincided with reign of Theinga candra of Rakhine
Wethali period as recorded in Rakhine chronicles. But that particular date was coincided only with
the Thuria Kethireign of 3rd Dhanyawaddy as recorded by Phayre and European scholars which is
almost impossible. It shows, phayre and European scholar's dating are improper and unacceptable.
Here, the comparison of spans between two sides are as follows:

Arakanese(Rakhine Scholar) Phayre-Europeans Difference


454 years 230 years +224 years

Inscribed metal Vase,


National Museum, Bangladesh.
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 228

I. Stone Artifacts

(1) Miniature stone stupas


Stone stupa with nitches
Stone stupa with Inscription from Thalagiri Hill.
Yedhama verse on miniature stone stupa from Thalagiri Hill
Miniature stone stupa from Meechaungwa(1)
Miniature stone stupa from meechaungwa
Yedhamaa Verse on miniature stone stupa(2) from Meechaungwa
(2) Mahamuni Sculptures
Yaksa General Pannada
Naga King of Mahamuni Shrine
Nagi of Mahamuni Shrine
Diad
Triad
(3) Relief Sculptures found on the Thalagiri Hill
Buddha in Dharmacakra Mudra, Kyauktaw
Carving of Bhumisparsa Mudra
Carving of karana Mudra
Yedhamma Verse recited by Shun Atthazi
Mudra of Mahaparinivana
A noble figure most probably King Sanda Thuria
(4) Stone Pillar of Wethali
Ananda Candra inscription Pillar
(5) Some interesting Stone Slabs
Inscription stone slab yielded from mound four of Wethali excarvation
(a) Triangular stone slab Inscription from Wethali moat
(b) A bull fragment yielded from mound (4) of Wethali excarvation
(c) Sima Pillars yeilded from mound (5) of Wethali excarvation
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 229

rk'fwuJqif;wkrsm;yg&Sdaom ausmufpma&;xkd;ygausmufawmf
ausmufpxlyg aov’m*D&dawmifrS&&Sdaom ausmufpxlyg
yHk(6) yHk(7)

Yedhmma verse on miniature stone stupa from Kyauktaw Hill


a,"r®m*gxma&;xkd;ygausmufpm
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 230

Miniature stone stupa 1 Yedhamma verse on miniature stone


from Meechaungwa stupa 1 from Meechaungwa

ausmufpma&;xdk;yg ausmufawmf rdacsmif;0rS &&Sdaom


ausmufpxlyg

Miniature stone stupa 2 Yedhamma verse on miniature stone stupa 2


from Meechaungwa from Meechaungwa

ausmufpma&;xdk;yg ausmufawmf rdacsmif;0rS &&Sdaom pxlygaemufwpfql


Wethali : The land of Historic finds 231

Mahamuni Sculptures - r[mrkedukef;awmfrS ausmufqpf½kyfrsm;

Yaksa General Pannada


,u©aoemywdyem'

Legible inscription of the Yaksa General Panada


r[moQL&d,oQ`E´a&m? emraemosA¨'gaeyu&aw (ouúw)
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 232

r[mrkedukef;awmfrS em*bk&ifESifh bk&ifrausmufqpf½kyf<uif;

Nega King of Mahamuni Shrine

Nagi King of Mahamuni Shrine


Wethali : The land of Historic finds 233

r[mrkedukef;awmfrSESpf½kyfyl;ESifhoHk;&kyfyl;ausmufqpfvuf&myHkrsm;
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 234

SALAGIRI HILL
Five miles west of Mahamuni lies Kyauktaw Pagoda on top of Kyauktaw Hill erected by a queen
of the Laungret dynasty (1237 - 1401 AD). Within its precints, and ancient stone inscription in the
Nagari character was discovered by Dr. Forchhammer. Known as Salagiri, this hill was where the Great
Teacher came to Rakhine some two thousand and five hundered years ago. Standing on this hill the
Buddha was said to have pointed out to his disciples the place where be had spent his earlier births. The
hill studded with pagodas offer a horizon-sweeping view of the rice plains of Dhannyawady.

RELIEF SCULPTURES FOUND ON THE SALAGIRI HILL


Somewhere from the eastern part of the hill a stone image in Dhamma-cakra-mudra, now kept in
the Mrauk-U Museum, was found earlier in 1923. This relief sculpture found on the Salagiri Hill repre-
senting Buddha preaching King Canda Thuriya (slab. A) belong to 5th century AD. This is the period of
the famous Candra dynasty mentioned in Ananda Candra inscription of Shitethaung Temple, Mrauk-U.
Five more red sandstone slabs with the carvings were found close by to the south of this Salagiri
Hill in 1986. They are the same type as the single slab found earlier in 1923.
Carving of slab (1) represented a Bhumispars mudra of Buddha which was the meaning of Maras attack
and Bodhisattva's Enlightenment.
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 235

Carving of slab (2) represented a Karana mudra of Buddha.


Carvins of slab (3) depicted one of the scenes from the life story of the Lord Buddha. The two deers at
Buddha's feet were the symbol of the deer park and the two figures near them represented U Pathita, Thariputra
designate, who was being absorbed in the Ye Dhamma verse recited by Atthizi Mahatere, the youngest of
Buddha's five diciples in front to the Blessed One in Dhammacakra mudra.
Carving of slab (4) represented the Lord Buddha lay down on a couch spread between two Sala trees
by Ananda. He lay on his right side like a lion with one ley placed on the other. The trees burst into blossoms
although it was not the flowering season and the spirits hovered round the bed. It was a mudra of Mahaparinirvana.
The slab (5) carries the sculpture of a noble man whose headdresses and decorations in the upper
portion of the dress itself bear strong resemblance to the Canda Thuriya figure carved in the slab (A). This
sculpture may therefore be assumed as the figure of King Canda Thuriya of Dhanyawaddy, who was the
patron donor of the Great Mahamuni Image.
The newly - found slabs are now kept under the custody of the Mahamuni Trustee Committee.
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 236

Aerial view of Vesali


Wethali : The land of Historic finds 237

Relief Sculpture found on The Salagiri Hill


" Some where from the eastern part of this hill a stone image in Dhamma-cakra-mudra, now kept in the
Mrauk-U Museum, was found earlier in 1923. This relife sculpture found on the Salagiri representing Buddha
preaching King Candathuria (slab2) belong to 5th century AD. This is the period of the famous Candra dynasty
mentioned in Ananda Candra inscription of Shitethaung temple, Mrauk-U.
Five more red sandstone slabs with the carving were found close by to the south of this salagiri
Hill in 1986. They are the same type as the single slab found earlier in 1923.
Carving of slab(3) represented a Bhumispra mudra of Buddha which was the meaning of Mara's
attack and Bodhisattav's Englightenment.
Carving of slab(4) represented a Karana mudra of Buddha.
Carving of slab(5) depicted ont of the scenes from the life story of the Lord Buddha. The two
deers at Buddha's feet were the symbol of the deer park and the two figures near them represented
UPathita, who was being absorted in the Ye Dhamma verse recited by Atthizi Mahahtero, they youngest
of Buddha's five disciples in front of the Blessed One in Dhammacakra mudra.
Carving of slab(6) represented the Lord Buddha lay down on a couch spread between two Sala
trees by Ananda. He lay on his right side like a lion with one ley placed on the other. The trees burst into
blossoms although it was not the flowering season and the spirits hovered round the bed. It was a mudra
of Mahaparirvana.
The Anandacandra Inscriptions Pillar
This pillar, a monolith inscribed with Sanskrit stanzas and housed in a grille structure on the lest side of
the main stairway of the Shitethauhg Temple,may be considered as the earliest history book in Myanmar.
Originally the pillar was in Vesali from where it was moved here by King Mong Ba Gree (also called Mong
Bong), the 13th King of the Mrauk - U Dynasty, in 1536. This square pillar rises 3.3m(9ft 7in) from ground
and its each side is 0.7m 92ft 4in) broad. The material used is the fine-grained sandstone common at
Dhanyawaddy and in the early sculptureof Vesali. three of its four faces are inscribed.
The eastern face has about one hundred lines of illegible inscriptions which contain accounts of earlier
dynastics. This script closely resemble that of the 6th century Gupta copper plates of Bengal and like the earlier
of these, retains some 5th cnetury characteristics. 5th century forms are noticed in the vowels. The inscription
may therefore be palaeographically dated to the end of the 5th or beginning of the 6th century, and was
presumably written during teh reign of either Bhumicandra or Bhuticandra, who ruled between 489-520 AD.
It is evident that script had been in used for sometime before possibly for as long as a century.

Vesali Pillar
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 238

The archaeological evidence from this period suggests that this was the time of the transfer of the
capital from Dhanyawaddy to Vesali.
The Western face inscription has 72 lines of text whcih is the most important one and is alos the
most read portion of all. It is a prasasti of King Anandacandra who ruled Arakan about 720 AD. {In the
chronicles Anandacandra is known as Htulacandra who may be credited as the Asoka of Arakan(Rakhine)
Vesali}. The inscription was recorded in 51 verses, describing the King's (Anandacandra's) ancestral rulers.
Dr E. H. Johnston* and Dr D. C. Sircar** dated this, palaeographically to be the beginning of the
8th century AD. Dr Johnston's readings reveal a list of kings which he considered reliable beginning from the
Candra Dynasty.
The first part of the inscription contains three sections and quotes the names and ruling period of
each of the kings who were believed to have ruled over the land before Anandacandra. The first of these three
sections deals with kings who ruled for a total of 1016 or 1060 years altogether. We may cite this section as the
First Period.

The First Period


Table I
No Name of Kings Length of Reign Dr Sircar's Tentative Assignment
1 Lost 120 638 BC
2 Lost 120 518 BC
3 Lost 120 398 BC
4 Lost 120 278 BC
5 Bahucali 120 158 BC
6 Raghupati 120 38 BC
7 Lost 120 82 AD
8 Candrodaya 27 202 AD
9 Annaveta kings 5 229 AD
10 Lost 77 234 AD
11 Rimbhyappa 23 311 AD
12 Kuverami 7 334 AD
13 Umarirya 20 341 AD
14 Jugna 7 361 AD
15 Lanki 368 AD

The second section deals with the Candra kings, sixteen of whom (though only 13 kings
were mentioned) are tated to have ruled for a total of 230 years. We may call this section as the Second
Period.

* Dr E.H Johnston - An Englishman, Professor of Oriental Studies of Bailiyaw Colluge, Oxford University, England.
** Dr. D.C. Sircar, former Superintendent of Archaeologicl Department of India.
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 239

The Second Period


Table II
No Name of King Length of Reign Dr Sircar's Tentative Assignment
1 Dvencandra 55 370 AD
2 Rajacandra* 20 425 AD
3 Kalacandra 9 445 AD
4 Devacandra* 22 454 AD
5 Yajnacandra* 7 476 AD
6 Candra-bandhu* 6 483 AD
7 Bhumicandra* 7 489 AD
8 Bhuticandra 24 496 AD
9 Niticandra* 55 520 AD
10 Viracandra* 3 575 AD
11 Priticandra** 12 578 AD
12 Prthvicandra* 7 590 AD
13 Dhrti* 3 597 AD

The last of the three sections deals with the family to which Anandacandra belonged ans
quotes the names of the eight predecessors stated to have ruled together for 199 years and 9 months. We
may call this section the Third Period.

The Third Period


Table III
No Name of King Length of Reign Dr Sircar's Tentative Assigment
1 Mahavira 12 600 AD
2 Vrajayap 12 612 AD
3 Sevinren 12 624 AD
4 Dharma sura 13 636 AD
5 Vajrasakti 16 649 AD
6 Dharmavijaya* 36 665 AD
7 Narendravijava 3 701 AD
8 Dharmacandra* 16 704 AD
9 Anandacandra 9 720 AD

Note: We are in possession of coins struck by the Kings marked with asterisk* mentioned in Table
II & III.
Priticandra marked with asterisks** mentioned in Table II sturck both silver and goldcoins.
Sri Sanghagandacandra, a ninth century King also struck silver coins.
The second part of the inscription is an eulogy of Anandacandra recounting the pious activities in
the first nine years of his reign. From this we can conclude that the inscription was apparently engraved in the
ninth year of the king's reign. He was evidently a Buddhist by personal religion and he calls himself as an
Upasaka, but following the Buddhist tradition of religious tolerance he did not neglect the Brahmans in his
display of liberality. In the inscription (v45) Anandacandra is presumed to possess qualities "like Karna in
bounty and also Yudhisthira in truthfulness, Pradyaumna in beauty and like the Sun on earth in splendor."
Many monasteries named Anandodaya have been built (v47). There have been made gold
and silver caityas containing the relics of the Buddha (v48). There have been images of the Lord of Sages
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 240

(Buddha) composed of brass bell metal and copper (v49). There have been made many pleasing (and)
well executed images of the Buddha (Sugata) made of ivory, wood, terracotta and stone (v50). Innumer-
able clay caitya models and also books of the Holy Law have been caused to be written by the good king
in large numbers (v51). He has out of reverence given many robes and copper bowls to monks coming
from diverse places (v54). The King has also dug two delighful wells named after the monastic commu-
nities called Pundinga and Soma.
The Candra Dynasty mentioned in the second section began in the fourth century. Out of
the list of the thirteen kings of this dynasty we are now in possession of coins struck by ten kings (see
table II). These early coins are all of silver except the coins of Priticandra (11th King of the second
section) 578 AD who struck both silver and gold coins.
In addition to the different coins belonging to different kings of this dynasty (2nd period)
two epigraphic records of kings Niticandra and Viracandra were also found at Vesali about the year
1956, King Dhrticandra was the last of the illustrious candra kings of Rakhine Vesali.
The third period begins with Mahavira who was stationed as Governor at Purampurace,
the sea port and western gate of Rakhine. After the death of Dhriticandra in AD 600 Mahavira was called
upon to succeed him. The former died in AD 600 and the latter succeeded the throne in the same year.
There is no gap in between. The names of the two kings on the list of this period tallies with the coins
found in that area. They were Dharmavijava and Dharma candra. A Dhamaraja coin similar to the above
mentioned two coins are also collected. There is no claim of thrones belonging ot either side of inscrip-
tion and chronicle records yet. Since the two names Dhamaraja and Dhama Sura are quite colse to each
other, it can be presumed as that of Dhama Sura coin. It is possible to claim that Dhamaraja is the
alternative name of Dharma Sura.
By refering to the famous 8th century verse "Thein Kan Maintwin" composed by Thuwunna
Devi Saw Prai Nyo, a poet Queen of Theinga Candra of Chronicle side, who was supposed to be Dharma
Candra in inscription side which was coroborated by other lullaby and Table III or Third period of
Wethali in the Anandacandra inscription pillar, we obtain some important informations as follows.
(1) There were eight numbers of Royal Seats in Vesali Third period (Please see the family
Tree) (2) serial no(8) the Dharma Candra was a cousin brother as well as husband of Saw Prai Nyo, and
Naren dravijaya was her own brother. (3) Anandacandra was the son of Dharmacandra and Saw Prai
Nyo in inscription side where as Sula Sandra was the son of Theinga Sandra and Saw Prai Nyo inchronicle
side. Since the two couples were the same ones, one candraw a conclusion that. Annadacandra and
Sulasandra were ownbrothers.
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 241

Family Tree of Mahavira ( Table III)

1. Mahavira ( V. 33 ) A.D 600

2. Vrajyap ( V. 34 ) A.D 612

3. Servinren ( V. 35 ) A.D 624

4. Dhamasura ( V. 36 ) A.D 636

Elder Son Younger Son

5. Vajasakit ( V.37 ) A.D 649 6. Dharmavijaya ( V.39 )A.D 665


( V.38 ) ( V.40 )

Son Daughter

7. Nerendravijaya ( V.41 ) Saw Prai Nyo


Son AD 701
8. Dhama Candra [ ( V.42 ) A.D 704 ] *Dhama Candra Thuwurna Devi
( V.43 )

9. ( V.44 ) A.D 720-729 *Ananda Candra Sula Candra


( V.45 )

10. A.D 729+10 *Sula Candra Sandradevi

11. A.D 775 Ahmratu ( do )

12. A.D 782.799 PePru ( do )


A.D 799-A.D 800

Nagaton Nagaton
13.A.D 800 - A.D 824
( A.D 824 - 6 ) - A.D 818

*NB
6. Dharmavijaya, 8. Dhamacandra, 9. Ananda Candra. 10. Sulacandra (SulaMaharaza) coins are allready col-
lected.
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 242

3. Stone Slab Inscription from Mound No.4 of Vesali (Vol.II. PI.V)


An inscription 14th belonging to the same as that of the Surya Stone Image inscription from
Shin-nye-det-taung, is the Stone Slab Inscription from Vesali. the inscription was discovered from Mound
No.4, near the village of Thallawaddy in course of an excavation conducted by the Archaeological
Department of the Union of Myanmar in the early eighties of the last century. The inscription was
engraved on a slab of sand stone and it measures 10" in length 4" in breadth and 7" in thickness. There
are seven lines of writing in the inscription. The script of the inscription resembles to that used in the
Gupta period in India about 5th-6th century AD. The language is Sanskrit. At present the inscription is
deposited at ADMC in Yangon.
The inscription records the meritorious deeds of apparently, the parents of the donor. Consider-
ing that the world is like a ditch full of mud the donor expressed the wish that all other beings, like his
parents, may attain marit as a result of having followed five and other moral precepts. The first two lines
of the inscription consists of the well known 'Yedharma' verse also known as the Pratityasamutpadagatha.
The verse served as a primary necessity in every act of dedication in order to sanctify the proceedings of
this sort of acts. Innumerable inscriptions, engraved on slabs of stone or other materials, many of which,
however, were fragmentary in nature, are found almost everywhere in Arakan, specially in Arakan's
countless pagoda. Turning now to the formation of the scripts in this particular inscription, it is found
that the form for a has a curve downward at left with vertical at right Initial vowel from for e is of a
triangular type, tapering downwards the right base. The approach to the formation of scripts in regard to
consonants in this inscription is similar to those found in the inscription of the Vesali period.
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 243
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 244

a0omvDNrdKUa[mif;rS wl;azmfawGU&Sdaom EGm;wifyqHkESifhtaqmuftOD;


yHk(33)
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 245

A 6th century stone inscription inscribed with Yedhamma verse (mound No.4)
a,"r®ma[wkjyb0ga&;xdk;ygouú&mZfausmufpmwpfcsyf
(a0omvDwl;azmfrI\&vm'fwpfck)

70'x50' interior hall of a building outlined by sima pillar (mound No.5)


odrfwdkifrsm;ESifh qif;wkawmfrsm;yg&Sdaom odrftaqmuftOD;
(a0omvDwl;azmfrI\&v'fwpfck)
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 246

4. Bronze Lamps:
(a) A lady figure lamp inscribed with Rakhawana Inscription donated by Aryana.
(b) Lamp decorated with Bird figure.
(c) Lamp decorated with Animal figure.
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 247
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 248

II Bronze Artefacts

(1) Buddha Images (Wethali Phara gri)


(a) A standing figure of Buddha with his right hand raised and the palm turned to the front
with figures directed upwards.
(b) Bhumisparsa Mudra Legs crossed.
(c) Dhayana Mudra - Legs crossed.

(2) Bronze Bells


(a) The Caitya Bell (Ahpaung daw Dettaung Ceti)
(b) The Monastry Bell (Pring Daung village)

(3) Miniature Caity and Temple


(a) Bronze Caity nitches in four face with sitting Buddha Images.
(b) Miniature Architectul design of Maha Bodhi Temple.
(c) Miniature Caity - nitches in four faces with sitting Buddha Image from Thalawaddy
village.
(d) (do) from Htamarite Village Mrauk-U.

The great image of Vesali & Buddhist synod hill.


The 17th high Great Image of Vesali, carved of a single block of sand stone, rests on a hill half a
mile north of the palace city. It was built in 327 AD, the same year that Vesali was established. Lying east
to the Great Buddha is the 70ft high Sanghayana or Buddhist synod hill. A Sanghayana was held by the
combined efforts of one thousand Sri Lankan monks and another one thousand Arakanese monks during
Thiri Dhamma Wizaya's rule in 638 AD.
The Crown Princess mansion lies to the north of the people. Close to the Western Palace City
wall on the Rann-chaung tributary stood the stone piers that helped earn the name of the Stone Pier City.
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 249
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 250
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 251
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 252
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 253
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 254

III GOLD ARTEFACTS

(1) gold Necklace


(2) Niti Candra gold ring & gold locket
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 255

Silver Artifects

Silver coins struck by Wethali kings


Please see Pages (184), Part (III),
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 256
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 257
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 258

IV Copper Artifacts

(1) Copper Plate Land grant


(2) A Tablet of Auspicious Symbols and copper Lustration Pot.
(3) A pair of Buddha Foot Point made of copper - Wethali period.
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 259
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 260
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 261

Terracotta Artifacts

1. Eight Scenes plate of Rakhine(Arakan).


2. Ten seenes plate of Rakhine(Arakan).
PART V

LITERARY HERITAGES
WETHALI: THE LAND OF HISTORIC FINDS.

PART V

CONTENTS Pages

CHAPTERXIV Literary Heritages 262


-Maida Pinna Mawkun hinger (Minister Maida Pinna of 8th century) 263
-Thein Kan Maintwin Ratu (Thuwunna Devi, Saw Pri Nyo) 263-264
-Byee Thonseithone Lone Hledaw Than (8th century poet) 264-265
(Minister Dhamazeya)
-Some Justifications about Wethali, a single Rakhine Dynasty
existing between Fourth and nineth century & Mahamuni Sculptures 265-274
- Wethali Eycavations 275-278
- Apreciations and tragic end of Wethali 279-280
-Maida Pinna Mawkun Linger(ar"ynmarmfuGef;vuFm) 281
-Theinkanmaintwin Ratu(odefuefrdefwGifosdK;vdkuf&wk) 282
-Byee Thonseitthone Hledaw Than(Asnf; 33 vHk;&cdkifvSDawmfoH) 283-284
-Snonymous 285
-List of Illustrations 286-297
-Biblography 298-299
-Glossary 3 00-304
-Clarifications of Some Relavent Topics. 304-311
-Foundamentals of Theravada Buddhism 311-315
-Theravada Buddhism 1 316-317
- Index 318-321
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 262

PART V

CHAPTER XIV

Literary Heritage

Outstanding Rakhawana literatures found in Wethali Periods are:-


(a) Maida Pinna Mawkun Linger - Poet - Maida Pinna
(b) Theinkanmaintwin Ratu - Poet - Thuwunna Devi , Saw Prai Nyo.
(c) Byee thonseitthone Lone Hledaw Than - Poet - Damma Zeya minister
Please see page(283) (284) & (285/286)
(1) Composer of Maida pinna Mawkun linger was Minister Maida Pinna of early 8th century A.D. By
learning that verse we came to know about the importance of cancellations or alterations of Eras in periodisation
of Rakhine History. We learn also about the eras in use in early Rakhine History.
(A) Eras
(1) Koke the min Era
(2) Maha Era
(3) Thathana Era or Religious Era
(4) Kawzar Era or Rakhine Era
(B) Alteration or Cancellations of Era
Fourt times of Cancellation or alteration of eras were observed throughout the history, Firstly. The
cancellation of Kokethamin Era 8645 at the time of Rala Maru rule. Rala maru was the 24th king of Kamma
Raza (or) kanrazagri dynasty Cancellation of 8645 were also done by Bodaw Einsana (grand father of Guadama
Buddha from mertenal side). We gain also the knowledge of Buddha's life. Bodistava Theitdatha prince was
born in Maha 68 renunciation in Maha 97, enlightenment in Maha 103 and Maha Parinibana in 148 Maha. It
is also learnt that, Canda Thuria, the founder King of 3rd Dhanyawaddy was born in 72 Maha, ascended to
Rakhine Throne in 97 Maha and passed away in 149 AD. Its seems both Guatama Buddha and Candra Thuria
were living together within the Maha Era, that means, Guadama Buddha and Canda Thuria were contempo-
rary to each other.
The date of Maha Era 148 was cancelled for 2nd times by king Azartathet of mijjma and Canda Thuria
of Dhanyawaddy simulttaneously and new eras of Religious Era one and new Rakhine Era one as parallel of
Eras. We also noticed that Canda Thuria died in Kawza 2 as well as Religious Era 2. That means Canda Thuria
passed away one year after the Buddha's Parinabana.
Again, it is learnt that 3rd and 4th cancellation were took place in 609 kawza during the Thuria
seitara reign, 16th king in the line of Canda Thuria dynasty and 32nd king. Line of the same Dhanyawaddy
king and also the king of Thiri Candra (or) Damma Wizaya of Wethali period, took the fourth and the last
cancellation of the R.E or Kawza 560 and fresh Kawza or Rakhine Era began. Since no cancellations were
done in Religious Era, the Religious Era become 609+560=1169 in the last cancellation date. Religious Era
1169 is called Dartudikar in Buddhawin Text. That means the years counted on the final cancellation date is
1169 years less than Religious Era Date. By calculation of Christian Era date that corresponding Christian date
became 638 AD in Kaliyug Calender dating system and 677 AD in Vikram Sambwak dating system. That
means two date of 638 AD and 677 AD became conversion factors of Rakhine(Arakanese) Era into Christian
Era respectively.
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 263

MAIDA PINNA MAWKUN LINGER

(1) In ancient days, since Wethali period, we have many outstanding literatures like Maida Pinna
Mawkun Linger, Theinkan Maintwin Ratu and Byee thonsaithone Lone Hledawthan Kabyar (Boat song) of
the Wethali period, Thazwalai Kabyar and Lawkathara pyo , Rakhine Minthamae Ayechun and Mahamuni
Nigoneywa of Mrauk-U Period. Most of them are written in verse describing in connection with Rakhine
(Arakan) ancient history and periodization in one way or other.
Among those literatures, the most remarkable one is Maida Pinna Mawkun Linger, an early eight century
verse composed by the learned minister Maida Pinna. By reading or reviewing this verse, we came to know
about the periodizations of ancient Rakhine(Arakanese) History clearly. We have also gained the knowledge of
cancellation of Eras and many essential points like Buddha synod, sponsored by king Thiri Sandra (a) Thiri
Damma Wizaya of Wethali period and also facts about 4th or the last cancellation date of Rakhine(Araknese)
History and at the same time we came to know the beginning days of new fresh kawza era which happened to
be started from that very point (Note third cancellation took place in the reign of Thuria Seitra in Kawza 609
and the addition 3rd and 4th dates 609+560=1169 which was called as Dartudika in Buddhawin text.
Out of those four times of cancellations mentioned in this verse, firstly Ralamaryu, the 24th king in
Kamrazagri regime and Bodaw Einzana of Myitzima simultaneously cancelled the ancient Kokethamin Era
8645 to 2 and started a new era called Maha Era. In this era, Guatama Buddha was born in 68 Maha gained
enlightement in 103 Maha and attained Nibbana in 148 Maha era. Again King Azarthathet of Mtitjma and King
Sandathuria of 3rd Dhanyawaddy simultaneously cancelled the 148 Maha for the 2nd time and started more
new eras Religious era(1) and Kawza era (1) simultaneously. Since the dates of birth and death of Sandathuria
were in the same Maha era 79 and 149 respectively, it is clear thing to say that Guadama Buddha and king
Sandathuria were in contemporary positions.
According to Professor R.D Benerji of Benerese University of India. Gudmana Buddha's date of Birth
was in 7th century B.C and passed to Nibbana in 6th century BC. So also since King Sandathuria's birth and
death were within the maha corresponding dates of Christian eras became 7th/6th century B.C respectively.
So it was quite obvious to say that Guadama Buddha and Sandathuria were contemporary to each other in the
same era. On the contrary it is a pity to say that Sir Arthur P. Phayre one of the most well known figures of those
days, ignored such cancellations and he glaringly recorded the Rakhine history with make shift periodizations
which is still in used by present scholars. Phayre falsely claimed the date of acession of Candrathuria as 146
A.D ending date of 3rd Dhanyawaddy and starting date of Wethali as 788 A.D and so on up to the end of
Mrauk-U period. That shows the two recordings of Rakhine(Arakanese) Scholars and Phayre were in contra-
dictory to each other so much. Moreover Pharyre adjusted and shortened the span of Rakhine (Arakan)
periods so glaringly that it become all upset in the status of RakhineArakanese) Dynasties very much in deed.
So we can conclude that if we constructed the ancient Rakhine(Arakanese) History and proper
periodizations it is quite obvious and essential to refer Maida Pinna Verse is a must.
(2) The earliest written record on the Arakan(Rakhine) - Bengal relations in Wethali period were
mentioned in the lyrical verse, known as "Theinkan Main Twin. It composed about the King Thiri Sandra of
Wethali (665 - 701 AD) who sent the Crown prince. Theinga Sandra to capture the kingdom of Bengal.
Because of refusal of annual tribute and tried to wage a rebellion against the Rakhine, this Bengal region was
ruled by a shalton king of shalton dynasty. It might be regionalty based imperial state patrorizing either Buddhist
or a revitalized Brahmanisalin. Theinga Sandra occupied the regin and stayed there for 3 years with shalton two
daughter where were offered to him by their father shalton.
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 264

1. This verse was the oldest one not only in Rakhine but also in Myanmar literature. The composer Suwunnadevi
(Saw Prai Nyo) was the Queen of the Crown Prince Theinga Sandra. She composed about her lines and
longings and requesting to her husband who stayed there for 3 years.
2. Shalton king was pronounced in Rakhine as Thuria Tain king (Sakkainda, Ashin 1998). Western
region of Rakhine, Rakhine Magazine No: (18) pr 43-47.
3. Name of two daughters of Shalton were Damsamajali and Durali.
Composer of Theinkan Main Twin verse was Thuwunna Devi Saw Prai Nyo, a poet Queen of
Theinga Candra (a) Damma Candra in Rakhine chronicles and Ananda Candra inscription respectively.
By studying the Ratu of Saw Prai Nyo, the most essential point we observed were a family tree of Mahawihara
the ruler of Table III of Anandacandra inscription side. Saw Prai Nyo discribed about the ruling lines of
Eight successive kings where her cousin or husband king Damma Candra in chronicles sides called
Theinga Candra stood as last Monarch in the acendency. The family tree of king Mahavira, the great great
great grand father. [Please see Page (267)]
Again, continuation of family trees shows that Ananda Candra, the author of Wethali inscriptions
was the son of Dhamma Candra and Saw Prai Nyo, the 9th king on the ruling line of the family tree.
Moreover we learnt from chronicle records that, Saw Prai Nyo was the Queen of Theinga Candra and
their son was Sula Candra . Logically speaking since Saw Prai Nyo was the common Queen of Dhama Candra
and Theinga Candra, we can draw a conclusion that the two names were definitely one person only. That
means Dhamma Candra of Inscription side is the same person of in the name of Theinga Candra in chronicle
side.
So also, Ananda Candra and Sula Candra were the children of common parents, it was sure to say that
the two children should be either same person or the two brothers of same parent. By reading or assessing the
comperison table recorded in annexture(5), Page 193 of Part II of this book, King Ananda Candra continued
to rule Wethali 10 more years after 9 years of engraving time of inscription on the pillar i.e, Ananda Candra
reigned 19 years before the Successor King Sula Candra.

N.B Calculations
By studying the addition of ruling years in date column is 85 years.
Ruling years on Kawza column is 95 years.
The different of ruling years = 10 years.
since the time of his reign is 9 years the addition of 9+10=19 years ie the total number
of year of reigns by king Ananda Candra 19 years is the king evidently extended 10
more years before his death.

Byee thonsetthone Lone Hledaw Than (Boat Song) were composed by minister Dammazeyain later part
of century. This boat song was recited by rowers of Royal boats when the monarch and follower took the
expedition to Tagaung in upper Myanmar for Medical treatment to cure his suffering of severe headache. It was
also said that the Sula Candra met the stormy weather and drowned in the sea near Nargris Bay. It is a tragic
incedants of the Wethali people. Being un acceptable of such incidants, Sanda Devi, the widow Queen dis
allowed those people to reenter the head quarter, the Wethali city.
The Dammazeya and many followers proceeded up streams of Kaladan River and made settlement in
Tripura area for rest of their lives.
Briefly, it was the time of composing, that boat song and also to be claimed that alphabet with 33
consonant or Rakhine Ackhara from Ka to Ah. One of the consonants Sa (0) represent as king Sanda Thuria,
the founder of 3rd Dhanyawaddy was popularly mentioned out of those 33 consonants of Rakhawunna.
After all, we are in the know and sure to say that writing of Rakhawunna were initiated at the very point
of time.
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 265

Moreover, the development of Rakhawunna alphabets were really precious heritage of


Rakhine(Arakanese) people.
Also, Maida Pinna Linger (verse). Thein Kan Main Twin Ratu, and Byee Thonsetthone Hledawthan
Boat Song of really an excellent achivement in literature in Rakhine(Arakan) since the dated of Wethali later
period. Once again and under the threat of invading barbarians the people get united. In 794 A.D. Ngamin
Ngaton (Saw Shwe Lu), son of Sula Candra and Queen Sandadevi avoid prosecution by Mrung Chief had
been in hiding, recovered the throne and ruled the country from the city of Sambwak. After the death of
Ngamin Ngaton his step brother Khatta Thaung was enthroned. The new king shifted his seat to Sambwak and
Vesali got lost into oblivion.
N.B
The Sambawak dynasty had a life span of only 24 years: The seat of goverment then shifted to newer
sites on the bank of the Lemro river with long line of the Lemro kings ruling for 612 years.

Some Justifications about Wethali, a Single Rakhine


Dynasty existing between Fourth and Ninth Century
SHWE ZAN

1. As we know Wethali is one of the most 2. We understand that, the first excavation (pro-
well known periods of ancient Rakhine(Arakanese) cess) was (taken place) in the old site of Wethali in
History. It is also called in Chronicle of the years between 1981 and 1984. That was on the
Rakhine(Arakan) as Kyauk-Hle-Ga city because area around aerial photo site of Wethali. (According
founder King Dven Candra (a) Taing Candra, son to) U Nyunt Han of Archaeological Department, (now
of Surya Ketu, the last King of Third Dhannyawady, Director General of the same Department), who con-
built a stone pier, about one mile in length on the ducted that particular excavation., remarked that
bank of the River Randha Nadi. The city became a Wethali existed in between 4th century and 9th cen-
noted trade port to which as many as a thousand tury, (Special issue of Rakhine State council Maga-
ships from abroad came annually. zine published in 1984.)
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 266

Dates of Buddha's Birth and Death (by R.D Einzana and Azartather. Moreover, Sandathuria
Benerji) not only accepted the Religious Era 1, but he si-
3. "The dates of Guatama's birth and death multaneously started a new Kawza Era 1.
are very important for students of Indian History, 8. We further understand that King
because an era was reckoned from his death, and Sandathuria passed away one year after the
is used by the Buddhists even in Burma Buddha's parinirvana. That is in other sense
(Myanmar/ Rakhine), Siam(Thailand) and Ceylon Sandathuria died in 2 Religious Era or 2-Kawza
(Srilanka). The dates of the earlier events in the Era i.e in BC 491.
historical period in Indian History are also given 9. After the second cancellation of era by
in reference to Buddha's death". King Sandathuria, there were still two more
4. As said above by Benerji, it is also very cancellation of eras (awaiting to be done) in
important to our country for the same reasons. Rakhine era. The Third alteration took place
5. Generally speaking, we have so far, noted on 609 Kawza during the Thuria Seitara, 16th
two kinds of Dynastic records in our Ancient king after Sanda Thuria and the fourth and the
History,especially from the later part of second last cancellation took place on 560 Kawza
Dhannyawady up to the end of Wethali. The first during the reign of Thiri Sandra of Wethali,
one is the dynastic lists mentioned in the Rakhine 32nd king after Sandathuria also known as or
Chronicles and the other is the records inscribed Thiri Dhamavijaya, 19th king in the inscrip-
in the Western face of Shitethoung pillar. tion list.
6. As stated by Benerji, we came to know 10. We have yet one more interesting
that an era is reckoned from the death of Lord Rakhine verse to refer to that is no other than
Buddha, there was an era called Maha which Theinkan Maintwin Ratu, an early eight cen-
was the out come after the alteration of the tury verse composed by Thuwunna devi Saw
ancient era of Kokthamin 8645 to 2 by Bodaw Prai Nyo, the famous poet Queen of Theinga
Einzana (grandfather of Guatama Buddha from Sandra (a) Dharmma Candra. According to
the matermal side.) It was in Bodaw Einzana Myanmar Sar Nyunt baung Part 1, i.e consoli-
or Maha era that Guatama Buddha was born, dated Myanma literature published in (1991),
renounced the world, attained enlightment and this verse is said to be the earliest one in whole
passed to Nirvana. King Sandathuria, the of Myanmar listerature.
founder of the Third Dhannyawady and origi- 11. This verse, collaborated with Table III
nal Donor of the Mahamuni Image, also (took or Third period of Ananda Candras Inscrip-
birth) in this era, became king and died. (In tions and other chronicles like those of Rambrai
other sense, the two were contemporary to Taunkyaung Saya Daw. Sandamarlar Lingara,
each other.) In fact, Guatama was born in 68 we obtained more insight into the Political His-
Maha BC 572, renounced the world in 97 Maha tory of Rakhine(Arakan), especially about in the
BC 543 attained enlightenment in 103 Maha BC Wethali period and Royal family affairs of that
537, Parinirvana. So also, Sandathuria was born period. To materialise these informations it is quite
in 72 Maha BC 568, ascended to the throne in essential to draw a Royal family tree chart as
97 Maha-BC 543 died in 149 Maha-BC 491 or follows.
2 Religious era.
7. We learn from the Maydapyinnya
Mawkun Linga that Rakhine King Ralamaryu,
24th in line of Kanrazargri or Kammaraza Dy-
nasty and Sandathuria followed the altertion
of two eras successively as done by Bodaw
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 267

Family Tree of Mahavira ( Table III)

1. Mahavira ( V. 33 ) A.D 600

2. Vrajyap ( V. 34 ) A.D 612

3. Servinren ( V. 35 ) A.D 624

4. Dhamasura ( V. 36 ) A.D 636

Elder Son Younger Son

5. Vajasakit ( V.37 ) A.D 649 6. Dharmavijaya ( V.39 )A.D 665


( V.38 ) ( V.40 )

Son Daughter

7. Nerendravijaya ( V.41 ) Saw Prai Nyo


Son AD 701
8. Dhama Candra [ ( V.42 ) A.D 704 ] *Dhama Candra Thuwurna Devi
( V.43 )

9. ( V.44 ) A.D 720-729 *Ananda Candra Sula Candra


( V.45 )

10. A.D 729+10 *Sula Candra Sandradevi

11. A.D 775 Ahmratu ( do )

12. A.D 782.799 PePru ( do )


A.D 799-A.D 800

Nagaton Nagaton
13.A.D 800 - A.D 824
( A.D 824 - 6 ) - A.D 818

*NB
6. Dharmavijaya, 8. Dhamacandra, 9. Ananda Candra. 10. Sulacandra (SulaMaharaza) coins are allready col-
lected.
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 268

13. "Mahavira belonged to the Royal fam- Nyo where as in chronicle side, Sula Sandra was
ily of Dhriti Chandra. During the reign, the son of Theinga Sandra and Saw Prai Nyo,
Mahavira was stationed as Governor at Since Dharma Candra and Theinga Sandra were
Purampura (Purapura), the sea-port and West- one and the same person one can draw a conclu-
ern gate of Arakan (Rakhine). After the death sion that Ananda Candra and Sula Sandra were
of Dhrti Candra, in AD 357 Mahavira was called own brothers. That means the two brothers
upon to succeed him. The former died in AD 357 Ananda Candra and Sula Sandra are children of
and the latter succeeded the throne which he did the same parents.
in the same year. There is no gap in between." 16. From an analytical study of the old
14. This is an abstract from a letter addressed records we understand that Sula Snadra suc-
to Pamela Gutman of Australian University by ceeded to the Wethali throne after the death of
Scholar U Aung Tha Oo in the year 1975. Ananda Candra.
15. By refering to the Theingan Maintwin Verse 17. Unlike other reseachers, Dr: Pamela
which corraborated with other chronicle records Gutman propounded a new Theory. Her con-
and Table III or The Third Period of Wethali, we cept is that Mahataing Sandra rebuilt the old
obtain the following informations. Wethali after a lapse of more than half a cenutry
(1) There were eight number of Royal seats of unsettled years after the end of Dven
or Thrones in Wethali Third Period i.e serial Candra's regime. By this she not lengthened
number one to eigh of the above table [ From the Wethali, but also upset or neglected the
Mahavira up to Dharmma candra, husband of Lemro Period. [Please see annexture.]
Thuwunna Devi saw Prai Nyo ]. 18. D.G.E Hall and group accepted the
(2) Beside the present Wethali, there were Wethali (Stone Pier) not as a separate dynasty,
two Dhannywady and an old Wethali existed but as a portion included in the second
before this Wethali period. Dhannyawady period.
(3) All those monarchs were descendents 19. So far, we have discovered or collected
of Sekya clan came out from the Myitzima many artifacts including inscribed stone slabs
Desa. and other material, since prewar days. Of these
(4) 12 Benga provinces were under the collections a few are engraved with the name
Rakhine control since the time of Wethali of Donor Kings Like Bhuti Candra, Vira Candra,
peroid. Niti Candra, Sri Dharmavijaya. In fact, these are
(5) Theingi or Theinga Sandra was a the epigraphic records and land grants of the
cousin brother as well as husband of Saw Prai Donor kings while as in Ananda Candra inscrip-
Nyo, and Narendravijya, 7th in line was her tion Pillar, there were about 37 names of kings
own brother and the two were kith and kin of are engraved in the Western face with three sepa-
Third Dharmavijaya or Thiri Sandra. rate tables. Bhuti Candra, Niti Candra and Vira
(6) Thiridharmavijaya and Thiri Sandra are Candra names are included in the Second Table
one and the same person who sponsored the in Serial number 8,9 and 10. The names of Sri
4th synod and at the same time cancelled the Dharmavijaya, Dharmacandra and Ananda
Kawza era 560. Candra are also engraved in serial numbers 6, 8
(7) On the chronicle side, Theinga Sandra and 9 of the Third Table Fortunately we have
was the husband of Saw Prai Nyo. Where as in collected twelve kinds of silver coins and one gold
the inscription, Dharmma Candra is said to be coin out of thirteen kings mentioned in the
Saw Prai Nyo's husband. Which shows Theinga Second Table and coins of three kings out of nine
Sandra and Dharmma Candra were one and were collected in Third Table, so far.
the same person. 20. All these archaelogical remains proved and
(8) Again in Inscription side, Ananda Candra supported the reliability of Wethali dynasty men-
was the son of Dharmma Candra and Saw Prai tioned in the inscription pillar.
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 269

21. On the contrary, it is strange that we have Prai Nyo of Wethali period as mentioned above
not yet seen any artifacts belonging to the kings and other lyrics and lullaby like Thaswalay
mentioned in the chronicle lists to support the two poem of Laymro Period, Ado Minnyo's
Wethali Theory propounded by Dr. Pamela Rakhine princess lullaby and Mahamuni Nigone
Gutman and followers. (except Wethali Paragri Ywa of U San Hla, we can get more informa-
erected by Mahataing Sandra who is also known tion to equate the kings of the inscription and
as Dven Candra the same king mentioned in In- chronicle sides.
scription Lists.)
22. If we study the verse of two learned
poets, Maydapinnya and Thuwunna Devi Saw

23. Chronicle Side Inscription side Remarks


1. Taing Sandra - 1. Dvencandra - A silver Bull coin engraved with SuryaSandra of
4th - 6th century is in our possession. With
reference to U San Hla Mahamuni Nigon Ywa
Verse, Taing Sandra So we can conclude that this
coin belonged to Taing Sandra, equivalent name
of Dven Candra in the inscription side.
2. Razasandra - 2. Raja Candra - A silver coin engraved with Raja Candra was
collected some years ago together with other
Wethali coins and two Pyu coins at The Khayine
Village of Taungoke Township-Southern part of
Rakhine(Arakan) (p.53, The Golden Mrauk-U.)
5. KalaSandra 3. Kala Candra - Similar name
6. Htula Sandra 22 Ananda Candra - U San Hla in his verse mentioned (xlvwpfjzm
tmeE´m[k ) i.e Htula with altemate name Ananda
Candra coin is collected. (Vol II Plate XLI-
Doctorate Thesis Pamela Gutman.)
7. Thiri Sandra 19- Dharmavijaya - An epigraphic record was discovered - a land
grant inscription indicates the date of issue as the
2nd regnal year of the king( Sandamuni, a scholar
of Ph.D Thesis-Calcutta), A silver coin engraved
with the name of Dharmavijaya was discovered.
Thiri Sandra (a) Dharmavijaya sponsored a
Buddhist council or Synod - A Joint Council was
held with thousand monks in each side at Wethali
in the era RE 560 equivalent christian era 677.
The King also cancelled the RE 560, to mark the
great occassion (Mayda Pinnya Mawkun Linga)
8. Theinga Sandra 20-Dharma Candra -A silver coin engraved with Dharma Candra is
discovered together with Dharmavijaya coin
from Kweday village, Sittwe township (U San Tha Aung
Rakhine Dinga).
9. Sula Snadra 23 Sula Candra -Sula Sandra is the son of Theinga Sandra in
Chronicle side, where as Ananda Cnadra is the
son of Dharma Candra in the inscription side.
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 270

Since Theinga Sandra and Dharma Candra with


common queen Saw Prai Nyo (a) Thuwunna
Devi, were the same parents, we can draw a
conslusion that Ananda Candra and Sulasandra
are the two brothers and moreover Sula Sandra
succeeded the Rakhine Wethali throne after the
death of Ananda Candra. Infact, this happennings
shows the continuation of Wethali from Inscrip-
tion side to Chronicle side. (We are in the know
about this out of analytic study of our records
from both sides.) These occurances also
disapproved the Dr: Pamela Gutman's two
Wethali theory. -Expedition to Chitagong by Sula
Sandra as mentioned in Rakhine (Arakanese)
Chronicles are also recorded in Indian source of
Chitagong History. So also, Dr. Pamela Gutman
accepted the events but with a difference of 200
years are happened due to her wrong concept of two
Wethali Theory.
24. Some special records notice in rest of the kings mentioned in Inscription side-
The rest Kings of The four famous kings
Chronilcle side of Inscription side
3. Mawla Sandra
4. Pawla Sandra
4. Deva Candra - Three types of silver coins were collected-conch-
Bell left turn and Bull right turn.
9. Niti Candra - One silver coin is in our possession. One epi-
graphic record-inscribed in a stone slab was
collected-Niti candra name is engraved.
10. Vira Candra - One silver coin is in our possession . One epi-
graphic record-inscribed in a stone slab was
collected-Vira Candra name is engraved.
11. Priti Candra - Both silver and gold coins were collected.

25. Another important discovery to be men- that lines one to eight contained the names of eight
tioned is a hoard of copper plates were unearthed Kings, the last of them mentioned in line 8, being the
during the second world war by a farmer of Mrauk- issuer of the grant Line 1 may have thus contained
U of those copper plate is left at present. The where the name of a king who was then mentioned along
about the others is unknown. (That plate, bearing with seven of the ancestors. It is not improbable that
writing on both sides was discovered in Mrauk-U line I could have mentioned Dven Candra, the
about 65 years ago.) At present the plate is in the founder of the dynasty. In that case, it was
safe custody of Archaeology Department of Minis- Bhuticandra, eight in line after Dvencandra, who was
try of Culture in Yangon. the father of Niticandra and ruled in 496-520 AD i.e
26. The royal bull seals were affixed in both sides. about the beginning of the sixth century AD, who
Out of estimated 14 inscription lines, upper two lines was probably the issue of the charter as the last line
were lost due to the destruction done by Japanese of the inscription indicates the date of issue as the
soldiers during their occupation days. We noticed 11th regnal year of the king, accepting D.C Sircar's
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 271

dates for the candra kings, the inscription would have existed Wethali but also spoiled the whole show of
been engraved in 507 AD. the successive periods of Lemro dynasty.
27. But, it is very unfortunate indeed that the issue 32. Infact beginning of wethali as 8th century
of the charter and all his ancestors are engraved on is happened because of wrong calculations of
the end portion of the lines, which were cut off by Christian eras by European scholars-
the Japanese. (1) Example one - Europeans starting date of
28. However, the names of the queens can be 3rd Dhannyawady is AD 146 instead of 491 BC.
read in line four to eight, the queen's name in line Actual life span of 3rd Dhannyawady is 906 years.
3 being damaged. There, we are prvilaged to knoe If we deduct 146 from 906, the result is 760 on
the donor's mother, grand mother, great grand which they consider this date as AD 760 and they
mother, great great grand mother and great great claim as the starting date of Wethali i.e 8th cen-
great grand mother. Their names were respectively tury.
Kalyana devi, Kyaw devi, Sakanya devi, Kindal (2) Example two - Dr: Forchhammaer, col-
devi and Kinton devi. lect the wrong kawzadates 151 from the unreli-
29. In lines 10 to 13 we can read the purpose able source and he add this figure untimely with
of issuing the charter, which state that a village conversion factor 638. So the result is 789 AD,
called Dengutta was granted by Kimmajuvdevi in Which he accepted this figure as starting date of
favour of a vihara (Buddhist monastry built by Wethali and he also claimed the date as 8th cen-
herself Queen of Bhuticandra). tury. (Actual Kawza Date is 249 and christian date
In Line 21, there contain the name of 364.) So in this case also starting date become
Mahamantrin (literally, the great minister.) The 789 AD which they claim again as 8th century
name was Rengadityadasa. He seems to have been AD.
the prime minister of the king who issued the char- (3) Therefore, it is very clear to say that the
ter and may have been the executor of the grant. idea or concept of the beginning time of Wethali
The last line of 11th regnal year of the king who as 8th century AD is entirely wrong and is not
issued the charter. acceptable in the wethali historical recordings and
30. Indeed! these are the concrete supporting periodisations.
evidences about the existance of Wethali Dynasty
mentioned in the inscription pillar of shitethaung,
which definitely disapproved the separate
existance of Wethali dynasty mentioned in
chronicle side.
31. From the above reasons and evidences it
is sure and justified to claim that the two lists of
Wethali mentioned in two different sides are not
separate ones, but one and the same single Wethali
with a few difference of names. According to Dr.
Sircar's tentative assignment the starting date of
Wethali (Table II) is 370 AD which is only differ-
ence of 6 years (Starting from later part of 2nd
Dhanyawady to our calculations using Asokan
base dating system of 364 AD) which is a negli-
gible figures compared to thousand years of life
span. Moreover it is not reasonable and proper to
accept the starting date of Wethali as 8th century
and it is also not justifiable and proper to accept two
Wethali theory which will not only upset the actually
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 272

MAHAMUNI Mahamuni Shrine


SCULPTURES Mahamuni shrine, the most noble and auspi-
SHWE ZAN cious monument of Rakhine(Arakanese) people
Before we start the discussions of main topic it stands on a 30 ft high hill north of Dhanyawady pal-
is proper and better to get understanding about the ace site known as Sirigutta hill, this was the original
existance of Dhanyawady city as well as importance resting place of the Mahamuni until the King Bodaw
of sacred Sirigutta Hill to the Buddhists world. Phaya carried the Image off to Amarapura in 1785.
For centuries, people regarded the Mahamuni
Dhanyawady City Site Image and the shrine with sacred devotion and reli-
The old city site of Dhanyawady (lat. 20 52' gious awe, making ad legend to grow the legend
N. long 93 3'E) is located 6 miles north of Wethali being that of the Great Teacher's arrival at Rakhine.
and some 21 miles north of Mrauk-U. At present, Sappadanapakarana a palm leaf manuscript had re-
that old city site of Dhanyawady is under excavaton corded the Buddha with 500 Arahats came to
since October 2003 for the first time by the Archaeo- Rakhine by aerial journey. While sojourning in
logical Department of Union of Myanmar. It is learnt Dhanyawady during Sandathuria's rule, the Blessed
that some remains of old city are already exposed one complied with the King's request for permission
to-day. The explored ruin structures of the old city of casting of an Image of the Teacher.
so far are (1) Palace wall (2) City wall and (3) Pal- Starting from the time of the casting of the
ace Gate. The thickness of palace wall is 15' and Image, Mahamuni and Sirigutta Hill became the cen-
estimated height of this wall is about 12;. The width tre-piece of Rakhine faith. it is clear to say that the
of the palace Gate is 14' wide and the design was Image and Hill became and intergated institution.
slightly curved and bent inward.
The present discoveries were partly realising Different of Periodisations and Datings in Chris-
and fulfilling at least partially for the moment of tian Era of Dhanyawady periods
our expctations. So it is not unjustified to claim that, Table showing the difference of
the Dhanyawady is not a legendary city as alleged
by foreign scholars.
Indeed! this explored site is really the old
city site of 3rd Dhanyawady existing there for more
than two and hlaf milleium years ago.

Visitation of Gutman Buddha


During the life time of Guatama Buddha,
the Blessed one visited Dhanyawady in Maha Era
123 (569 BC Kaliyug, 517 BC Vikram Sambat dat-
ing) and met Sandathuria, the founder of 3rd
Dhanyawady to whom Buddha preached about the
noble paths to Nibbana and immediately afterwards
the King and the people became Buddhists. In other
sense Rakhine Proffessed Buddhism since the life
time of Buddha.1

Note
Birth Parinibbna/Death
1. Buddha - 68 Maha - 623/572 BC - 148 Maha - 543/492 BC
Sandathuria - 72 Maha - 619/568 BC - 149 Maha - 542/491 BC
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 273

periodisations & datings in Christian Era of stone sculptures found in Mahamuni precint were
Dhanyawady periods between Rakhine Scholars belonging to the Mahayana Buddhist Pantheon.
and Phayre-Pamela- According to Late professor U San Tha Aung,
author of Buddhist Art of Ancient Arakan (Rakhine),
The Mahamuni Sculptures those Mahamuni sculptures are the earliest group of
According to SN 4 & 5 of the above Table, speciman of the Buddhist Art of Ancient Arakan
Rakhine Scholar's datings between Sandathuria and (Rakhine) so far found. They consist of single image
Thuria Ketu is 6th century BC and 4th century AD diads and triads. They are all made out of the same
where as Phayre and Pamela's dating of same pe- type of fine-grained red sandstone and the sculp-
riod is between second century AD and 8th century tures are rather similar indesigns and dresses. The
AD. There is a vast difference of dating between BC size of the slabs having single images are almost the
and AD. same where as the slab having diads and triads are
It is the accepted fact of Rakhine Schol- little smaller.
ars that the range (between 6th century BC and Dr. Pamel Gutman described about those
4th century AD) of Dhanyawady of Rakhine and sculptures as deities protecting the central image
Asoka range of India were contempory each other, (Mahamuni) they are stylistically comparable to
and it was the flourishing time of Htayrawada Bud- the art of late Gupta Period in India from around
dhism in both countries. In contrast to these facts the 5th and 8th centuries AD. There are indica-
Pamela Gutman notion is that the range between King tions that the deities they represent belong to the
Sandathuri and Thuria Ketu is 2nd century AD and Mahayana Buddhist pantheon as mentioned
8th century AD and the Scholar wrongly equate the
Rakhine range with Gupta period of India. Accord-
ingly, Australian Scholar, author of Burma's Lost
Kingdoms: Splendours of Arakan mistaken all the

Date of Accessions Rakhine(Arakan) Scholars Phayre & Pamel Difference

1. Mara Yu, founder of 3287 BC 2666 BC 621 years


1st Dhanyawady
2. Kanraagri founder of 1057 BC 825 BC 682 years
2nd Dhanyawady
3. Ralamaryu 24th King 638 15 AD 653
of Kanrazagri Dynasty 691 706
4. Sandathuria founder 580 146 AD 726
of 3rd Dhanyawady 543 689
5. Thuria Ketu, the last 326 788 AD 462
king of 3rd Dhanyawady 362 425
& Starting Date of Wethali

Note
1. Thuria Sakka of Dhanyawady 214-258 RE - 278-234 BC.
Asoka of Mauria, India 218-255 RE - 282-252 BC.
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 274

above. But professor U San Tha Aung interpreted Yaksa and Naga who are all represented as paying
those sculptures quite contrast to pamela gutman's homage to Buddha. This bears testimony to the fact
verions. The rakhine scholar remarked that ap- that, during this period, Buddhist emerged as a reli-
proximate date of making of those image as 4th gion which had synthesised and absorbed within it-
or 5th century AD the Buddhism prevailing at that self most of he prevailiing Indigenous cults".
time cannot be advanced Mahayana. He further stated Both scholars Pamela and U San Tha Aung
that, "what do these images represent then, we have considered about the sculptures Yaksa Senapati
known that all beings, men, nats (celestial Devas) Panada one remaining Image is inscribed out of
Bramahs and creatures of the nether world worshiped which two lines are still legible. One can read Senapati
Buddha and listened to Buddha's teachings. "Ac- Panada very clearly and therefore the image is the
cording to Buddhist iconographical Texts there are image of Yaksa General Panada. Panada was one of
eight classes of beings who listened to Sekyamuni's the 28 Yaksa Generals. But their datings of the sculp-
preachings. tures was not tally to each other. The former assigned
They are Devas, Yaksas, Gandavas, as around the middle of 5th century which was com-
Asurass Gaarudas, Kinaras, Mahoragas and Naga. parable to the Gupta period of India. Where as the
U San Tha Aung Strongly convinced that latter assigned the datings as 4th or 5th AD the Bud-
Mahamuni Sculptures represent those figures. dhism prtevailing at that time cannot be advanced
Infact his interpretations are just in line with the Mahayana. These are main difference of opinions be-
facts mentioned in the Book entitled. "The way tween the two scholars.
of the Buddha" published by Ministry of Infor- Since the latter's opinions are inline with the
mation of India in the occacssion of 2500 years interpretation made by the authoritative Book as "
anniversary of Buddha's parinibbana. The Way of the Buddha", it is proper to accept the
The lines mentioned serial No 26, U San Tha Aung's concept without any doubts.
page 309 of the "book" the way of the Buddha SHWE ZAN
are as follows:
"As various local god and goddesses,

REFERENCES

Forchhammer, E - Mahamuni- Rangoon 1891


Maung Kyaw, U - The Dhanyawady is not Fable
Thahaya Magazine Vol:4-1997
Ministry of infromation, India - The way of the Buddha - May 1956
SN 26 P 309.
Myanmar Ahlin News Paper - The excavation of old city site of
24-12-2003 Dhanyawady.
Pamela Gutman - Burma's Lost Kingdoms:spelendours of
Arakan.
Pharye, Lieut, General - History of Burma 1833 Chronological Table
Sir, Arthur. P. of the Kings of Arakan - P.292-298
San Tha Aung, U - The Buddhist Art of Ancient Arakan P-11 &
P-112 P-119.
Shwe Zan, U. Maung Kyaw, U - Ancient History of Rakhine Vol:1,
Dhanyawady period-2000(un published).
Shwe Zan, U - The golden Mrauk-U, An Ancient capital
of Rakhine - 1997
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 275

3 - WETHALI EXCAVATION
The old City of Vesali was excavated by
the Archaeological Department of the Union of
Myanmar from 1980 to 1984. The excavated sites
Exposed structure (70'x60' hall of a buliding)
yielded part of a religious institution (mound No.
(mound No.2)
1), a 70' 50' hall of a building (mound No. 3), part
of a city wall and a stone inscription (mound No.
4) and a 70' 50' interior hall of a building outlined
by sima pillars (mound No. 5). This last one may
be considered as the oldest sima hall to be found
in Rakhine. Mounds (2) and (3) are near Wethali
while the rest are to be found within Thallawaddy
village, south to it.

A fragment of a back portion stone figure


of a sitting bull (mound No.3)
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 276
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 277

After the lapsed of 20 years, the excavation of old Wethali site is resumed again for the second

time since october 2003, by the same Dapartment. It is learnt that, the excavated site of mound No:7 and

mound No:8 yielded some important explorations like 350' lone and 15' wide of City Wall and Palace Gate

respectively.

The City Wall was built in double steps design of constructions. The width of the city gate is 27'

wide. Moreover the two door Pillars of hardwood (Kyun) about 6' in circumference, supposed to be the two

door posts of the City Gate, were unearthed.

By looking the present results of the excavations, our memory occured to the verse of Ananda

Candra inscriptions inscribed in the western face of Shite thaung pillar. The inscriptions contained about 72

miles of writings and were composed of 65 verses. Out of those verses, the three verses like Numbers 19,20,21

seemed to be some what relavent to the recent explorations of old Wethali City. Essence of those three verses

revealed that:-

Dven Candra the founder of the City having constructed the City, which laughed with the heavenly

beauty, the pocessing form reigned for 55 years.

It shows that, present excavations of Wethali old site is supposed to be partly realisation of the

lines of the verses mentioed above and it will be assured to say that, the present old City iste, is really a City of

Wethali that founded by Dven Candra about more than one and half millenium years ago and the City was

existed in between 4th Century AD and 9th Century AD as claimed by Archaeological Department after the

first excavation in 1984.

In deed; The title of the book " Wethali: The Land of Historic Finds" is the most apprepriate and

rightly chosen Heading for this book. Like j & g saw puzzle we had recovered A to Z of artifacts ranging from

Inscription to literary haritage of the time, which contained enough pieces to be made up of many differently

shaped that fit together to form a real picture of Wethali Age.


U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 278
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 279

Appreciations and tragic end of Wethali

Artifacts belonging to the same period were recovered time and again. Also literary heritages written in
Brahmi Deva Nagari Sanscrit and Rakhawunna were read through Metal Plates and Palm Leaf documents
"Yedhamma Hetu Pavawa Ghahta" were witnessed in the engraved Lines of Sanscrit and Rakhawunna inscrip-
tions slabs and plates. Through Copper plate Land grant Yaksa Senapati Panada inscription of Mahamuni
sculptures. Queen of Niticandra inscription of Vesali and Thandway. Viracandra inscription of Vesali and Dhamma
Vizeya inscriptions and Prasect of Ananda Candra people could learn about the Buddhistic activities and
benevolent donations and pious gifts of Wethali Kings, Queens and people of Wethali of building Cetiya shown
in Vira inscription. It also indicates that Wethali people were the staunch believers of Buddha Sasana and
finding of Yedhama Ghatha in every book and corner of Rakhine state shown that Therawada Buddhism was
widely spread and flourished in Wethali period.
Again if we looking back of the specimen of artifacts made of variety of materials like
sand stones, copper, bronze, silver, gold and other metals with different kinds of architectural and cultural
designs, we came to know that Wethali should be claimed as a land of many kinds of artifacts made of Metal
obtained from geological resources and the people were well developed and advanced in metalogy, gold and
silver smiths architectures. Engineering painting and sculpture , artists and we also learnt that Wethali people
were also well advanced in Language and literature as well as developments of script from Pali, Brahmi, Deva
Nagari Sanscrit and Rakhawunna and. This shows standard and civilisation of Wethali people were not lagging
behind than Indian of the West and Pyus of the neighbouring east countries. Literature like Maida Pinna Mawkun
Linga composed by early 8th century minister Maida Pinna, Theinkan Maintwin verse composed by Poet
Queen Saw Prai Nyo (a) Thuwunna Devi an 33 consonent of Boat Song (Byee Thonsaithone Lone Hledawthan)
composed by Minister Dharmazeya also of 8th century were in earliest list of not only in Rakhine but also in
Myanmar literature. By learning those literatures, we could also know about the Cancellation of Rakhine Eras
as well as functioning of Maha Era, Kawza Era and Religious Era in used in ancient time of 3rd Dhanyawady
were obtained for Wethali and successive periods. By learning the Theinkan Maintwin verse we came to know
about the expedition of Theinga Candra , Dharmma Candra, an alternate name in scription side to Benga and
the family tree of Mahavira of third Table of Ananda Candra inscription were clearly known also.
Again, by learning and reciting song of Minister Dhammazaya, Our memory occured to the expe-
dition of King Sula Sandra to Tagaung. Thindwe of upper Myanmar by rowing boats in upstream to Ayawaddy
river and also the tragic death of Sula Candra at the Bay of Bengal near the point of Nargris (Mawtin Soon)
were also known to us.
This expeditions and travelling also show that, they made also sea trades with other countries
especially with neighbouring countries like Pyu kingdom and other eastern countries and with India, Persia and
Arab countries in western directions. The Wethali people were well advanced and developed in alphabets,
scripts, language and literature. Infact Wethali age was pioneer or pilot age of Rakhawunna language and
writings and composing of literatures translations of Rakhine language and literature from other language were
also taken common works in those days.
As regards of foreign trades both land and sea were well established, the Monetary transactions
of trade and commerce in local and foreign countries were looked well advanced in those days.
In summary civilisation and culture of Wethali can be claimed to be a country of well civilised of the
time so also peace and tranquility occured before the tragic end of the country destroyed and come to an end
by barbarians, like "Sung" come from the north-east directions.
Before conclusion we like to mention about the note worthy results of excavations of the old
Wethali site.
During the first time of excavation (1981 to 1984) a hall of a brick building lined with sima pillar
and fragmants of stone were recovered . supposed to be the Sima Hall from mound number 5 of the excavation
proccess. It was an indication of flourishing of Therawada Buddhism during the Wethali period. Out of the
many excavated historical sites in Union of Myanmar. Wethali Sima Hall was noted as the only excavated
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 280

building to be claimed as the structure belonged to Therawada Buddhists of the Rakhines.


So also in the second time of Wethali excavation in 2003 AD. It is learnt that excavated site of
Mound No:7 and No:8 yielded some important exploration like 350' long and15' wide of City wall and palace
gate respectively. The city wall was built in double steps design of constructions. The width of the city gate is
27' wide. Moreover the two pillar of hard wood 6' in circunterence, supposed to be the door post of the city
gate were unearthed. By looking the present results of the excavations our memory occured to the verses of
Ananda Candra inscriptions in the western face of the Shitthaung Pillar. Out of 72 verses, three verses like
numbers 19, 20 and 21 seemed to be some what relevent to the recent exploration of old Wethali city and we
should say that , those proccess was enlightened two verses mentioned above the inscriptions pillar realising
about the beauty of Wethali at least partially for the moment.

To sumerize the Wethali accounts the city offered articles to foreigner as well as foreign made
articles to commerce. It was learnt that more than one thousand vessels would moor in its port yearly. Wethali
kings stamped coins and circulated is various donominations. Coins in gold, silver and copper by 15 Kings and
more kings have so far been recorded.

Buddhism thrived under the Candra kings. The Mahamuni shrine was repaired and its proper
maintainence was conducted from time to time. Stone inscriptions containing the gahta Ye Dhamma Hetu
Pabhava - belonging to that period have been found throughout the country. Pagodas, monastries and sima hall
were built. Buddha images were cast and land grants were made to religious institution. The Buddhist synod of
638 AD relieved the spirit of Buddhism. In this period literature thrived, treaties and books from neighbouring
India,Tibet and other lands were translated and many authoritative works on traditional medicine, arts, warfare,
metallurgy and architecture appeared. King Ananda Candra dispatched pulpit, an excellent cow-elephant, and
brilliant robes of silk to the noble congregation of Monks in the land of King Silamegha. Vedic religious peace-
ful by co-existed with that of Buddhism in this period.

Sanskrit and Pali were the medieval used in the literary field. Dhamajaya, the minister is supposed
to have adapted the Devanagiri alphabet for local use. Translation of existing sanskrit books was done and
Rakhine literary pieces like Pinnyamedha (Maydha Pinnya) chronicles and Thein Kan Maintwin lyrical verses
were composed.

There is no evidence so far recording of the destruction of Wethali. However the


Rakhine(Arakanese) chronicles record that in 769 AD the king Sula Candra met his death at Cape Nageris, on
his return from Tagaung Thindwe and the lost was a tragic one for Wethali people. Three Mrung chiefs did not
seem to be as able to rule as well as the previous Candras, so that in 776 AD Wethali met its tragic end in the
hands of invading Pyus. In the end of the 8th century Shans (sungs). (Mongolians) attacked Rakhine(Arakan)
and destroyed the cities of (Dhanyawady and Wethali) completely and Wethali was lost in oblivion.
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 281
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 282
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 281

Maida Pinna Mawkun Linger


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y-'k-w rSD pwkwu DÅ s r[ðo[l rnf&ordik ;f &u©Kd ifwikd ;f odYk pd,cf ikd ;f vDbd arm*¾vyd w k Å wdó ax&fvsS if
odcifa&0 ax&ig;jzm &[EÅm&dYk <uvmxdck g ol&, d mpuú &dYk &mZtm; a[mMum;a'oem a'0g"lw okwt HÅ qH;k
av;aomif;vH;k rSm "r®pu©K &rSK[daMumif; av;aomif;&[ef; uGswfwef;0ifMu xdu k p&G,fh omoemh0efxrf;
&[ef;oHCm pOfvmyGm;x oD[Ve,fh 0g'wlbd *kPfo*drø Sm ywÅmyOörD MuD;&GDcsyfjym; ig;axmiftm;jzihf
&G;D xm;aocsm oH;k ESpMf umvSsif atmifjrifjyD;pD; oD&pd jE´m; &dYkrif;zsm;um; &kyyf mG ;ykx;kd apwDrsKd ;e,f aemufw;kd uefw;l
aumif;rSKjzmjzm jynf&GmcGsefbPf ,Gjyefw0uf &efrsufuif;jidrf; r,drf;r,kwf MudK;ukyf'ge oDvwjzm
bm0emw&yf 0dyóem rsm;pGmtm;xkwf avmukwo f bif r*fy, JG ifonf zdv k 0f ifeAd mÁ ef a&mufaMumif;wnf;
/
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 282

Theinkanmaintwin Ratu odefuefrdefwGif osSdK;vdkuf&wk (ok0PÖa'0D apmjynhfndk)


(1) odeu f efred w f iG ?f q,fEh pS cf iG u
f ?kd vGr;f yifjrihpf nf?Mum&Snw f mtul;?waygif;rif;vGi?f &Guu f siaf wmifav
jrL;u?jydKufoG,fEl;pD;oG,fjzm?rwwfomacs?þaxGaxGudk?MunhfavorSsomwnhf?yifwkf;rSm?nSm&Gufa<u?
avjyif;cwfvpf? yk&pfa0a0ESi?fh iSuaf &TarmifEpHS ?kH ETv J nfcsif;,Su?f yef;ESpcf ufu?kd ,kvsS ufEKS wf0,fií kH ? pmcGYH
wH&k iT Ef pS v
f Ykd ? wxl;axGvm? bmomvlv?kd rudEk KS wfjzihw f Ykd í? þodYk cspfz,
G q
f if? &moDciG q fh ,hEf pS vf rf;? jirf;
vdktnD? rd*oDyif? a&SYqDjrifaomf? pufcGihfra,mif,rf;cJh? axmufvSrf;rpmem? ynmtxk? jrwfolYMunhfrSef?
Mumav[efr?l ol&wefrif;\aoG;? 'ef&rmpmvD? 'l&bDEiS ?fh cspfnw D al &;ud?k aemufar;ravSsmufv?kd ae
vnf;ESpq f ih?f ESpyf iG pfh nkH ?D r'Da&S;t[db k Ykd ? uGsef;awmifnakd vmu"mwf? wdik ;f rZösrd m? ,if;ujzmonh?f &mZm
rsdK;&d;k jrwf\? qufrjywford ;f ,lc?H bdutouf? EG,rf ysufonf? ueufjzefYumpH\? &Spw f efyv’i&f ;kd ? bd;k
uqufc?H zeef;pHonf? eef;&efwYkd trsdK;wnf;? uwd;k teHYv?kd oif;ysHYarT;MudKif? &Sp&f yfvKS id o f nf? r@dKifcsuf
jrKyf? xdkxufjynfe*dk&f a0ogvD? "nESpfcef;? ESpfjynfjref;onf? xD;eef;tvDvDwnhf? rsdK;omuDpOfrysuf?
ESpfaygif;&SnfMumr[mEG,f&dk;quf\? r,SufaESmjyD? oSspfaomif;tcsm? qufumpdk;pH? eef;&efr,hfXmeDodkY?
&moDrpGe;f cif?atmifpnf&rG ;f í?puf yef;jzefYapcsio f nf? aemifciG Mf umvGe;f pGwum;vnf;/
(2) aemufciG Mf umvGe;f ? &moDpeG ;f vSsif&pfoef;vSn h uf m? &Spjf zmtHvk mMudK;? tmumwdr;f nGw?f jydKvwfbd
oGirf ,fvsS ifvufurkd ;kd í? aMumufpEd;k nSK;d rsufEmS ? vufa&TjzefYom;? odMum;udak vSsmufrmS \? awmifnmr
a[haoG;? ESpyf g;armifp?kH bke;f armif&yd v f KSH onf?y'HMk umeHUarT;\?cspfa<u;rwifcif?q,ho f ;kH ESp0f ,f? i,f&, G f
wkef;uyifwnhf? zewf&Sifavmif;bk&m;? jcm;0rf;ruGm? &if;csmarmifESpfyg;udk? ay;jrm;pkvsm;wif? vufxyf
a&oGef;? q,hfESpfcef;rl? xl;qef;obifqifí? cspfMudK;rSsifacG&pfywf? e0&wfpD? od*aÐ &TewfESihf? pdefjc,fowf
tv,fwGif? armif;rjrm;ajrmif? wpfaxmifru? pHMuwkef;udkyifwnhf? oHk;ESpfcGif&moDrSm? ukvm;aejyef?
ol&wefu? tm;[efjywHkvgí?b@mquffroGif;? Oy&mZf&Sif? r,hfxdyfwifudk? tvsifcsDapvQif;[k? aomif;
wGi;f ZrÁLydik ?f tmPmrdeYfjrwf? zrif;ewfu? trwfwpfaxmif? jrm;ajrmifvufeufuikd Ef iS ?fh awmifr@dKijf ydK cref;?
qifjref;ppfajc? yJw h ifa0onf/ þajrodro hf rd u
hf se;f rSs? eef;tdraf &SYocif? ewfawmfurl? pwl&yg'f? eu©wt f xGe;f ?
us;D uef;wm&m? [oFmtxGuf ppfwufcso D nfvsS iw f nh/f aemufciG af rmufoZl m? c&dik wf vTm;? tydik pf m;onf?
pum;oH;k MudrMf umcJ?h awmifwmudck siw fh uG jf yef?r,fbYkdpjH ref;? a&TbekH ef;ESi?fh *Pef;ocsmF ? ,lZemrl? e0g'orSe\ f /
vsifjrefjyefapaMumif;? qkawmif;qk,l?odrfhodrfhqlonf?&Sifvlrsm;taygif;wnf;/ eef;avmif;r,fhocif?
atmifyef;pdu k af xmif? bke;f acgifjyefapcsio f nf? avSsmufwifumyef;pGwum;vnf;/
(3) avSsmufwifumyef;? &moDqef;vif? eef;jrihfatmifajr? q,hfESpfaxG&pfoef;jrL;? armufolZmonf?
'gumqdyfurf;OD;rSm? aus;Zl;*kPf&Spfwef? trwfvdr®m? [dkjrdKY&GmwGif? tmPmxHk;cJhjyefrS?ajymifq'´efrmwif&dk;?
xGufvSsifrjyef? rvSefwdkYrif;rsdK;wnfh? qdk;aumif;ESpfyg;wGif? &dyfjcnftjyif? oufcifod&if;yif[k? ynm&Sif
xdef;tkyfrS? jrdKYjyaus;&Gm? om,mpnfum;vS\? rif;a,musfm;"r®wm? ynmrJheuf? OmPfupufaomf? jynf
xufrxm;&mwnhf/ a&S;usrf;vmxHk;pma[mif;? usdK;aMumif;odjyef? bGJYrGeftrwfaumif;udk? aemufw
aMumif;ukvm;&Gm? tydkiftyfjyD;? ppfolMuD;[k? apmpD;xm;cJhrSm\? z&mZmrdefYawmfjrwf? OD;xdyf&Gufyef? eef;
&eftrd af &SYewfu?kd &dn k w G af vSsmufxm;wif? &moDajymif;í? rd;k aESmif;0gv? aqmif;ptul;wGiüf ? rsm;jyifppf Akv d af jc?
xdkajrt0uf? vufeufxm;cJhap[k? ajrmufavjzL;vmvSsif? zrif;rdefYcsuf? OD;xufyef&Gufqifí?
a&SYvmvSsifaemufvnf;aumif;? vHk;aygif;&SKajrmf? OmPfawmfomtaMumif;wnf;/ rif;avmif;Oy&m? Munf;
a&wif;usrf;? jrpfvrf;ESpzf ufrmS vnf;? aeYrcsmtxyfxyf? &ufpyfapuGsef? a&mufvmS jyefaomf? trSerf ,Hk
vwfc/hJ aemuf&yfyikd o f cif? a[reftusL;? &JrLS ;ppfatmifjrifonf? a&mufwifMumeef;uwum;/
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 283

Byee Thonseitthone Hledaw Than


Asnf;(33)vHk; &cdkifvSDawmfoH

u- udkrlum;? uOöeyyÁwm? iGDawmifomu? [oFm0rf;bJ? ysHus0Jonf? rpJ&Hum? &Humaomfvnf;?


[efpad v? [efpaG v/
c- udkrlum;? jrwfvSonf;cH? &aohysHudk? tMuH,lrSm;? rif;om;jynfoSsif? jypfrSm;vSsifum? jynfawmf
0ifum? 0ifumaomfvnf;? [efpad v?[efpaG v/
*- udrk u l m;? *E¨rmvm? yef;eYoH mESi?fh vif&mS r&? e*g;rvSsif? aeYnrjywf? vSnzfh sufwwfonf? oljrwf
&Tiuf m? &Tiuf maomfvnf;? [efpad v? [efpaG v/
C- udrk u l m;? C&m0go? udprö sm;ajrmif? vlwYkd abmif0,f? cGma&SmifcsDjyD;?rif;MuD;wwyf? om;vGwv f yf
onf? txG#fwifum? wifumaomfvnf;? [efpdav? [efpGav/
i- udkrlum;? iqrkqdk;? e,frsdK;vnfbd? rPdywÅjrm;? ukefcgpm;onf? avS;rSsm;udkifum? udkifumaomf
vnf;? [efpdav? [efpGav/
p- udrk u l m;? pE´mol&,
d ? rif;vSjynfosS if? awmif;yefvsS ifau? oSsifyifu, kd pf m;? oGe;f íxm;onf?
zl;rsm;vG,fum? vG,fumaomfvnf;? [efpdav? [efpGav/
q- udkrlum;? q'´efqifrif;? avnSif;cH&m? rkqdk;vmí? jzwfumpG,fzsm;? ay;urf;jim;onf? rif;tm;quf
um? qufumaomfvnf;? [efpdav? [efpGav/
Z- udrk u l m;? Zeuúrif;MuD;? oabFmpD;í? ysufp;D a&wGi?f arsm&muyif? urf;rSm,wifonf? jynf&iS pf u H m?
pHumaomfvnf;? [efpdav? [efpGav/
ps- udrk ul m;? psmeftbdOmPf? rk;d odYk ysHonf? xdevf sHajymif0if;? wefc;kd jyif;onf? xGe;f vif;"r®m? usihMf uH
&Sm\? oka'¨mrif;rSm? q&maomfvnf;? [effpdav? [efpGav/
n- udrk ul m;? an,s"Hw&m;? xdik g;yg;ud?k ydik ;f jc;xifxif? odjrifuv kH ?kH jyD;jynhpf okH nf? Akvd yf v
kH rl sm;? odjrif
Mum;atmif? a[mMum;Ak'¨m? Ak'¨maomfvnf;? [efpdav? [efpGav/
#- udkrlum;? #ulrif;MuD;?rD;ausmif;pD;í? c&D;vGef&Snf? oHvsifjynfudk? 0ifavncg? ncgaomfvnf;?
[efpad v? [efpaG v/
X- udrk u l m;? Xmyemud?k jrihv
f wS ef;aqmif? uGsef;vH;k ajymifonf? rsm;ajrmif&pS o f , G ?f arGawmf"mwfu?kd
awmifxG#fwnfum? wnfumaomfvnf;? [efpdav? [efpGav/
!- udkrlum;? !@Kvrif;? MuD;tifaMumufvS? !KX*grPD;? wdkufpnfwD;vsuf? rif;MuD;usdjynf? ppfxdk;
avonf? 0ef;vnf;atmifum? atmifumaomfvnf;? [efpdav? [efpGav/
¡- udkrlum;? ¡X&xm? e*g;omvSsif? &DrSmrsdK;jrwf? vSnhfywfwukwf? ork'´&m? rd*vsmudk? ewfrSmrif;
jrwfpD;jyD;vwfonf? oufjrwfMuif&m? Muif&maomfvnf;? [efpdav? [efpGav/
P- udkrlum;? PpOfyifu? wdrfnGefYjrvGef? y&pHy? uuúKvudk? jyefuapmihfum? apmihfumaomfvnf;?
[efpad v? [efpaG v/
w- udrk ul m;? wm0wd o H m? xufrmS aeem;? rdewfom;ud?k w&m;om,m? jrwfpmG bk&m;? vmvwfjim;onf?
ewfrsm;aomif;aomif;? tavmif;uGswfum? uGswfumaomfvnf;? [efpad v? [efpaG v/
x- udrk u l m;? xHyg;ruGm? r,foZl mESi?fh ruGmwlp?kH aysmfMuukeo f nf? tm&Hak y;vrf;? &Tr;f &Tr;f aomfvnf;?
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 284

‘'- udkrlum;? ‘'@Krif;MuD;? MuD;tifaMumufvS? 'kXumrPD;? wdkufpnfwD;vsuf? rif;MuD;usD;jynf?


xd;k 0ifavonf? cef;v,fatmifum? atmifumaomfvnf;? [efpad v? [efpaG v/
"- udrk u l m;? "uúrif;om;? pGr;f pGr;f tm;ESi?fh ywÅjrm;iHu
k m? ysHusvmonf? qif;0g&kyaf &? vSewfausud?k
jrifau0ef;au? 0ef;umaomfvnf;? [efpdav? [efpGav/
e- udrk u l m;? e*g;&mZm? bk&m;vsmESi?fh ewf&mG vlYjynf? ajymihMf unf0if;vsif;? anmifyif&if;ü? oDwif;
oHk;um? oHk;umaomfvnf;? [efpdav? [efpGav/
y- udkrlum;? yy0wD?a'0D&wem? awmifnmxG#fxm;? rdzk&m;udk? tm;&MudK;um? MudK;umaomfvnf;?
[efpad v? [efpaG v/
z- udkrlum;? z,ukr®m? MuD;pGmajymiftm;? yihfulusm;udk? vTm;vTm;cGyfum? cGyfumaomfvnf;? [efpdav?
[efpaG v/
A- udrk u l m;? Amvvlru kd ?f rde;f rppfu?kd ypfwwfwef;wif? ozef;yifwiG ?f jrifvsS ifrif;MuD;? aqmif;a&Tx;D
ESihf? bdodufcHum? cHumaomfvnf;? [efpdav? [efpGav/
b- udrk u l m;? b'´urÇm? ay:cgtp? Ak'a¨ nmifjzL? rdawÅ;[lonh?f ig;ql&ifyif? &Siyf ifaomfvnf;?
[efpad v? [efpaG v/
r- udkrlum;? ra[mfo"m? bkef;ynmESihf? ykpämewfvl? ar;Mu[lonf? vG,fulajzum? ajzumaomf
vnf;? [efpdav? [efpGav/
,- udkrlum;? ,u©pG,fjzL;? bDvl;ESihfjrif;? twefcsif;onf? &efudkrdum? rdumaomfvnf;? [efpdav?
[efpaG v/
&- udkrlum;? &xm;,mOfom? aepMumESihf? awZmenf;wl? awmufap[lonf? awmufapaomfvnf;?
[efpad v? [efpaG v/
v- udrk u l m;? vbufrif;zsm;? pGr;f pGr;f tm;ESi?fh &xm;pD;um? ppfx;kd vSmonf? Akv
d yf gig;&m? ig;&maomf
vnf;? [efpdav? [efpGav/
0- udrk u l m;? a0blvawmif? jrihaf cgifa&Taqmif;? bDv;l aygif;ESi?fh ab;avmif;xG#zf sm;? rif;om;vkvif?
usqH;k usifonf? &efciG af jzum? ajzumaomfvnf;? [efpad v? [efpaG v/
o- udkrlum;? oHwkur®m? apmrif;vsmonf? q&mjrwfxH? usdK;EGHcpm;? aemifawmftm;udk? w&mq,fol?
xD;jzLESif;au? ESif;auaomfvnf;? [efpdav? [efpGav/
[- udrk u l m;? [oFmiSuif ,f? ppfjzpfarud?k ajcylavmifqm? rMuHomonf? a&rSmarSsmum? arSsmumaomf
vnf;? [efpdav? [efpGav/
V- udkrlum;? Vvrif;om;? &xm;rpD;? rif;MuD;oljrwf? jA[®'wfudk? trwfnDnm? jyifESif;vSmonf?
t&,lum? ,lumaomfvnf;? [efpdav? [efpGav/
t- udkrlum;? trÇcsdKZD;? o&ufoD;udk? uDs;om;wGifjyD? oD;aqmifcsDonf? a'0Dpm;um? pm;umaomfvnf;?
[efpad v? [efpaG v/
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 285

SYNONYMOUS
(Names, words and spelling)

Europeans or Indian or Rakhine(Arakan) / Myanmar(Burma)


Sanskrit or Bangali

1. Deven Candra Mahating Sandra


or
Thuria Taing Sandra

2. Candasurya Sandathuria

3. Arakan Rakhine

4. Arakanese Rakhine

5. Vesali Wethali

6. Eskkyamuni Thekkyamuni

7. Suryaa Thuria

8. Dhannyawaddy Dhanyawady

9. Sandway Thandway

10. Pagan Bagan

11. Towngoke Toundgoke

12. Surya dynasty Thuria dynasty

13. Candra Sandra

14. Shitthaung Shitethaung

15. Dharmmavijaya Dharmavizaya


U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 286

Part I LIST OF ILLUSTRATI0NS

Cover -Shitthaung Pillar. Red sand stone

14.5.3 m Inscribed in Sanskrit in three sides in the 6' 6" and 11th centuries.

Plate1 The great Image of Vesali

Plate2 Mahamuni Shrine stands on a 30 ft high

Hill north of the palace site, known as

sirigutta hill., this was the originalres.

ting place of the Mahamuni until the

King Bodaw Phaya carried the image

off the Amarapura in 1785.

Plate3 A bronze replica of the Mandalay

donated by U Rai Gyaw Thu 19th century.

Plate4 A 4' 4" high image flanked by two

smaller ones on the near by pedestal

Plate5 Naga King of Mahamuni

Plate6 Yaksa General Panada

legal inscription of Yeksa General

Plate7 The Great Mahamuni

Plate8 Shin Gyaw Muni

Plate9 Yan Aung Myin Muni

Plate10 Sandamuni

Plate11 Thetkyamuni

Plate12 Thetkyamuni Copper Image

Plate13 Pay Homage to Sandamuni Phargri


Wethali : The land of Historic finds 287

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Inscriptions of the Dhanyawady Period
*******************************
Part II
1. Plate - I
Pan-zee-mraung-phyar Fat Monk Image Inscription, Mrauk-U
(c. 2nd century B.C. to 1st century B.C.)
Photograph from the book, Arakanese Script, 6th century and Before.
by Aung , San Tha, Rangoon, 1974, pl.9.

2. Plate - II
Taund-pauk-kri Rock Inscription, Kyauktaw
(c. 2nd century B.C. to 1st century B.C.)
Photograph. Ibid., p.64.

Inscriptions of the Vesali Period


**************************

1. Plate - IIIa
Shitthaung Pillar Inscription of Anandacandra, Mrauk-U, East - face, (Upper-part)
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
Photograph from the book, Ancient Arakan, by Gutman, P. 1976, pl. VIII.

Plate - IIIb
Shitthaung Pillar Inscription of Anandacandra, Mrauk-U, East - face, (Lower-part)
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
Photograph, Ibid., pl. IX.

2. Plate - IV
Shan-nge-det-taung Surya Image Inscription, Vesali
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
Photograph, Ibid., pl. XV.

3. Plate - V
Vesali Mound Stone Slab Inscription, Vesali
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
Photograph from the book, The Golden Mrauk-U, by Shwe Zan, U, 1994, p. and
pl.170, fig.1.

4. Plate - VI
Kyintaung Phara Stone Slab Inscription, Minbra
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
From estampage prepared by author

5. Plate - VIIa
Vesali Votive Stupa Inscription, Vesali, (Face-1)
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 288

From estampage prepared by author


Plate - VIIb
Vesali Votive Stupa Inscription, Vesali, (Face-2)
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
From estampage prepared by author

Plate - VIIc
Vesali Votive Stupa Inscription, Vesali (Face-3)
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
From estampage prepared by author

6. Plate - VIIIa
Vesali Copper Plate Inscription, Vesali, (Obv. side)
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
Photograph from San Tha Aung's book, op cit, pl. 34.

Plate - VIIIb
Vesali Copper Plate Inscription, Vesali, (Rev. side)
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
Photograph, Ibid., pl. 35.

7. Plate - IX
Sirigutta Hill Yaksa Senapati Panada Inscription, Mahamuni
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
Photograph from P.Gutman's book, op cit., pl. XXXIII (a)

8. Plate - X
Meechaungwa Votive Stupa Inscription, Kyauktaw, (A)
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
From estampage prepared by author

9. Plate - XI
Meechaungwa Votive Stupa Inscription, Kyauktaw, (B)
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
From estampage prepared by author

10. Plate - XII


Shitthaung Kyaung Votive Stupa Inscription, Mrauk-U
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
From estampage prepared by author

11. Plate - XIII


Tezarama Kyaung Votive Stupa Inscription, Mrauk-U
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
Photograph from P. Gutman's book, op cit., pl. XXI(b)
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 289

12. Plate - XIV


Selagiri Votive Stupa Inscription, Kyauktaw
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
Photograph, Ibid., pl. XVII (a)

13. Plate - XV
Selagiri Stone Slab Inscription, Kyauktaw
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
Photograph, Ibid., pl. XVII (b)

14. Plate - XVI


Vesali Stone Slab Inscription of Queen of Niticandra, Vesali
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
Photograph from San Tha Aung's book, op cit., pl. 15.

15. Plate - XVII


Sandoway Stone Slab Inscription of Queen of Niticandra, Sandoway
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
From estampage prepared by author

16. Plate - XVIII


Sandoway Brick Slab Inscription, Sandoway
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
From estampage prepared by author

17. Plate - XIX


Vesali Stone Slab Inscription of Viracandra, Vesali
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
Photograph from San Tha Aung's book, op cit., pl. 16.

18. Plate - XX
Vesali Parakri Stone Slab Inscription, Vesali
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
Photograph, Ibid., pl. 22.

19. Plate - XXI


Thinkyittaw Hill Stone Slab Inscription, Vesali
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
Photograph, Ibid., pl. 17.

20. Plate - XXII


Vesali Stone Plaque Inscription, Vesali
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
Photograph, Ibid., pl. 21.
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 290

21. Plate - XXIII


Tharapabbadataung Stone Slab Inscription, Vesali
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
From estampage prepared by author

22. Plate - XXIV


Ohtein Stone Slab Inscription, Taunggouk
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
Photograph from U. Kothalla's Book, Arakanese Literature Track, 1998, p. 87.

23. Plate - XXV


Gant-ga-rwa-ma Stone Slab Inscription, Kyaukphru
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
Photograph from San Tha Aunt's book, po cit., pl. 18.

24. Plate - XXVI


Praing-daung Bell Inscription, Vesali
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
Photograph, Ibid., pl. 24.

25. Plate - XXVII


Apaung-daw Bell Inscription, Vesali
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
Photograph, Ibid., pl. 25.

26. Plate - XXVIII


Nga-lon-maw-Stone Slab Inscription, Snadoway
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
Photograph, Ibid., pl. 20.

27. Plate - XXIX


Pataw Zeti Stone Slab Inscription, Pataw
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
From estampage prepared by author

28. Plate - XXX


Man-tha-chaung Stone Slab Inscription, Vesali
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
Photograph from P. Gutman's book, op cit., pl. XVI

29. Plate - XXXI


Vesali Buddha Image Inscription, Vesali
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
Photograph, Ibid., pl. XXXIV (b)
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 291

30. Plate - XXXII


Vesali Fragmentary Buddha Image Inscription, Vesali
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
Photograph, Ibid., pl. XXXIV (c).

31. Plate - XXXIII


Vesali Bronze Buddha Image Inscription, Vesali
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
photograph, Ibid., pl. XXXIV (a).

32. Plate - XXXIV


Vesali Visnu Image Inscription, Vesali
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
Photograph, Ibid., pl. XXXIII (b)

33. Plate - XXXV


Thinkyittaw Hill Pillar Inscription, Vesali
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
Photograph, Ibid., pl. XXIV

34. Plate - XXXVI a


Vesali Fragmentary Throne Inscription, Vesali, (Left - part)
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
From estampage prepared by author

Plate - XXXVI b
Vesali Fragmentary Throne Inscription, Veali, (Right - part)
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
From estampage prepared by author

35. Plate - XXXVII a


Bhanta Stone Slab Inscription of Dharmavijaya, Vesali, (Upper - part)
(c. 6th - 7th century A.D.)
From estampage prepared by author

Plate - XXXVII b
Bhanta Stone Slab Inscription of Dharmavijaya, Vesali, (Lower - part)
(c. 6th - 7th century A.D.)
From estampage prepared by author

36. Plate - XXXVIII


Vesali Fragmentary Caitya Inscription, Vesali
(c. 6th - 7th century A.D.)
Photograph from San Tha Aung's book, op cit., pl. 44.
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 292

37. Plate - XXXIX a


Shitthaung Pillar Inscription of Anandacandra, Mrauk-U, West-face, (Part-1)
(c. 8th century A.D.)
Photograph from San Tha Aung's book, Anandacandra - 8th century Vesali King, p. 51.

Plate - XXXIX b
Shitthaung Pillar Inscription of Anandacandra, Mrauk-U, West-face, (Part-2)
(c. 8th century A.D.)
Photograph, Ibid., p. 52.

Plate - XXXIX c
Shitthaung Pillar Inscription of Anandacandra, Mrauk-U, West-face, (Part-3)
(c. 8th century A.D.)
Photograph, Ibid., p. 53.

Plate - XXXIX d
Shitthaung Pillar Inscription of Anandacandra, Mrauk-U, West-face, (Part-4)
(c. 8th century A.D.)
Photograph, Ibid., p. 54.

Plate - XXXIX e
Shitthaung Pillar Inscription of Anandacandra, Mrauk-U, West-face, (Part-5)
(c. 8th century A.D.)
Photograph, Ibid., p. 55.

Plate - XXXIX f
Shitthaung Pillar Inscriptin of Anandacandra, Mrauk-U, West-face, (Part-6)
(c. 8th century A.D.)
Photograph, Ibid., p. 56.

38. Plate - XL a
Shitthaung Pillar Inscription of Anandacandra, Mrauk-U, North-face, (Upper-part)
(c. 9th - 10th century A.D.)
Photograph from P. Gutman's book, op cit., pl. XII.

Plate - XL b
Shitthaung Pillar Inscription of Anandacandra, Mrauk-U, North-face, (Lower-part)
(c. 9th - 10th century A.D.)
Photograph, Ibid., pl. XIII.

39. Plate - XL I
Shitthaung Pillar Inscription of Anandacandra, Mrauk-U, (Top-part)
(c. 9th - 10th century A.D.)
Photograph, Ibid., pl. XIV
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 293

40. Plate - XL II
Kyirapran Fragmentary Stone Slab Inscription, Vesali
(c. 9th - 10th century A.D.)
From estampage prepared by author

41. Plate - XL III


Vesali Moat Triangular Stone Slab Inscription, Vesali
(c. 9th - 10th century A.D.)
Photograph from Aung Tha Oo's book, U, Rakhine-yei-kyay-hmu-ca-caung, p and pl. 51.

42. Plate - XL IV
Vesali Bronze Lamp Inscription, Vesali
(c. 9th - 10th century A.D.)
Photograph, Ibid., p and pl. 40.

43. Plate - XL V a
Wanti-taung "Pyu" Inscription, Vesali
(c. 6th century A.D.)
Photograph from P. Gutman's book, op cit., pl. XXX.

Legends on Coins of the Vesali Period


******************************

1. Plate - XL VI
Legend on Deva's Coin
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
Photograph from San Tha Aung's book, Arakanese Coins, 1979, pl. 2, fig. 2.

2. Plate - XL VII
Legend on Yajnacandra's Coin
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
Photograph, Ibid., pl. 2, fig. 3.

3. Plate - XL VIII
Legend on Candrabadhu's Coin
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
Photograph, Ibid., pl. 3, fig. 1.

4. Plate - XLIX
Legend on Bhumicandra's Coin
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
Photograph, Ibid., pl. 3, fig. 2.

5. Plate - L
Legend on Niticandra's Coin
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 294

(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)


Photograph, Ibid., pl.4, fig. 1.

6. Plate - LI
Legend on Viracandra's Coin
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
Photograph, Ibid., pl. 5. fig. 1

7. Plate - LII
Legend on Priticandra's Coin
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
Photograph, Ibid., pl. 6, fig. 1.

8. Plate - LIII
Legend on Prithivicandra's Coin
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
Photograph, Ibid., pl. 7, fig. 1.

9. Plate - LIV
Legend on Dhrticandra's Coin
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
Photograph, Ibid., pl. 8, fig. 1.

10. Plate - LV
Legend on Suryacandra's Coin
(c. 5th - 6th century A.D.)
Photograph, Ibid., pl. 13, fig. 1.

11. Plate - LVI


Legend on Dharmmavijaya's Coin
(c. 6th - 7th century A.D.)
Photograph, Ibid., pl. 16, fig. 1.

12. Plate - LVII


Legend on Dharmmacandra's Coin
(c. 6th - 7th century A.D.)
Photograph, Ibid., pl. 16, fig. 1.

13. Plate - LVIII


Legend on Dharmmarajah's Coin
(c. 7th - 8th century A.D.)
Photograph, Ibid., pl. 17, fig. 1.
14. Plate - LIX
Legend on Simghagandacandra's Cion
(c. 8th - 9th century A.D.)
Photograph, Ibid., pl. 18, fig. 1.
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 295

15. Plate - LX a
Legend on Harikela's Coin
(c. 7th - 10th century A.D.)
Photograph, Ibid., pl. 14, fig. 1.

Plate - LX b
Legend on Harikela's Coin
(c. 7th - 10th century A.D.)
Photograph, Ibid., pl. 14, fig. 2.

Plate - LX c
Legend on Harikela's Coin
(c. 7th - 10th century A.D.)
Photograph, Ibid., pl. 15, fig. 1.

Plate - LX d
Legend on Harikela's Coin
(c. 7th - 10th century A.D.)
Photograph, Ibid., pl. 15, fig. 2.

Plate - LX e
Legend on Harikela's Coin
(c. 7th - 10th century A.D.)
Photograph, Ibid., pl. 15, fig. 3.

Part IV LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

Buddha in Dharmacakra mudra kyauktaw, Rakhine(Arakan).


The Fat monk Image
Inscription on the back of the Fat monk Image.
A table of Auspicious Symbols, A bronze Lustration pot
A pair of Buddha foot print made of copper called Sahkthumpona Kawmala yg'
Copper Plater Inscription from Vesali, (Rev. side) (c. 5th-6th century A.D.)
Miniature bronze Cati of Thalarwady village.
Inscribed bronze bells (182)
Ancient bronze lamps.
Gold Necklace
Gold coins of Vesali
Silver coins of Vesali
Bronze Buddha Images (crowned and uncrowned)
Bronze Lamp Inscriptions from Vesali (c. 9th - 10th century A.D.)
A gold necklace, and ornament excellent product of a gold smith of Vesali
The necklace was obtained from south-western side of Zawgyi Mraung in the year 1949 by a
gardener during the sawing of a tree.
A Gold ring of inscribed with king Niticandra (AD 520) and a gold locket.
A metal vase displayed in Bangaladesh National Museum.
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 296

A stone stupa with nitches


Inscribed stone stupa from Selagiri Hill, Kyauktaw.
Yedhamma Verse on miniature stone stupa from Kyauktaw Hill.
Miniature stone stupa 1 from Meechaungwa
Yedhamma Verse on miniature stone stupa 1 Meechaungwa
Miniature stone stupa 2 from Meechaungwa
Yedhamma verse an miniature stone stupa 2 from Meechaung
Yaksa General Panada
Legible inscription of the Yaksa General Panada
Naga King of Mahamuni Shrine
Nagi of Mahamuni Shrine
Diad of Mahamuni Shrine
Traid of Mahamuni Shrine
Salagiri Hill and Gessapanadi river
Aerial view of Vesali
stone slab Inscription from Mound No.4 of Vesali, 5th-6th century A.D
Triangle Stone Slab Inscription between 1982-1984
A 6th century stone inscription inscribed with Yedhamma verse (mound No.4)
70'x50' interior hill of a building outlined by some pillar (mound No.5)
Wethali copper lamp(1) of lady figure inscribed with the Rakhawunna letter as the gift of Ahyana
A copper lamp (2) of animal figure obtained from Wethali
The great image of Vesali.
A standing copper Buddha Image of Ahbaya Mudra belonging to Wethali period obtained
know Shingyan village of Kyauktaw.
A standing copper Buddha Image in Ahbaya Mudra of Wethali Period
A standing copper Buddha Image of Lemro Period.
Crowned Buddha-bronze-Dhayana mudra legs crossed (Vesali period).
The Caitya Bell (Prine down Dettaung Ceti).
The Caitya Bell (Ahpaundaw Dettaung Ceti)
Two - Miniature Copper Cetis nitches with sitting Byddha figure in four sides
Excellent Architectural designs Tharlawady village and Htamarite village of Mrauk-U.
Heritages of Wethali stone pier city.
A miniature copper ceti with Arches in four side with sitting Buddha Image inside. An excellent
Architectural designs casted with copper metal
A miniature copper ceti of Maha Bodi design from Vesali city.
Copper Plate Inscription from Vesali ( Obv.side) 8th-6th century
Copper Plate Inscription from Vesali (Rev.side) 5th-6th century
Eight Scenes plate of Arakan (Rakhine)
Ten Scenes plate of Arakan (Rakhine)
Exposed structure (70'x60') Hall of Building (Mound No.2)
A fragment of a back portion stone figure of a sitting bull (Mound No.3)
A 6th century stone inscription inscribed with Yedhamma verse (Mound No.4)
70'x50' interior hall of a building outlined by sima pillar (Mound No.5).
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 297

Chart I Comparative statements between Rakhine scholars and Sir Authur P.Phyre showing
Ancient Dynasties and different
Chart II Periodisation Chronological table of the Kings of Rakhine
Chart III Comparative dates between chronicle sides of Wethali Period
Appendix I The picture of Metal vase
Appendix II Thein Kan Maintwin Ratu odeu f efred w
f iG &f wk
Appendix III Thazwalai poem ompGavuAsm
Appendix IV Rahine Mongthamee lullaby &cdik rf if;orD;{csi;f
Appendix V Ending of Mahamuni Village Poem r[mrkeed *d ;kH &GmuAsm
Appendix VI List of Inscription records engraved with Kawza or R.E datings in Lemro Period
Appendix VII Table showing comparative Dates between Rakhawunna Chronicle side an St: General
Arthur P.Phyre

Key to Illustrations
***************
1. Map - I
Map of India and mainland Southeast Asia
Photograph from P. Gutman's book, Ancient Arakan, pl. I
2. Map - II
Map of Arakan in relation to Bengal and Burma
Photograph, Ibid., pl. II.
3. Map - III
Map of Sites of the old capitals of Arakan
Photograph, Ibid., pl. III.
4. Map - IV
Map of Arakan between 500-700 A.D. Photograph from M. Robinson and L.A.
Shaw's book, The Coins and Banknotes of Burma, p. xii.
5. Map - V
Map of Arakan during the 19th century
Photograph, Ibid., p. xiii.
6. Map - VI
Map of Aerial photograph of Dhanyawady
Photograph from San Tha Aung's book, Tha Buddhist Arts of Ancient Arakan, pl. 7.
7. Map - VII
Map of Aerial photograph of Vesali
Photograph, Ibid., pl. 8.
8. Map - VIII
Map of the Present-day Arakan State
Photograph, Ibid., pl. 11.
9. Map - IX
Map of Historical Site in Mrauk-U
Photograph from U Shwe Zan's book, The Golden Mrauk-U, pp. 34-5.
10. Map - X
Map of the 17th Century Depiction of Mrauk-U
Photograph from Tun Shwe Khine's book, A Guide to Mrauk-U, pp. 2-3.
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 298

Bibliography

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2. Aung Tha Oo, U - Historical back ground of Ananda Chandra Inscription
3. Ashin Candamala - History of Buddhism in Arakan (Rakhine)
4. Bonerji, R.D.M.A and Manindra Chandra Nundy. A Junior History of India, Benerese University,
India, 1932.
5. Collis, Morris - The land of the Great Image.
6. Chowdhury, Vasent, 'Indian Museum' title of the Book, town prese
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Chapter I, the Mahamuni Pagoda
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12. Kyaw Zaw Hla - Sandamuni Image
13. Rakha Aung - The Rakhine Kingdom
14. Sandamuni Bhikkhu - The origin and Development of Arakanese Script, Ph.D, Thesis Calcutta
University, India.
15. San Shwe Bu - The eye copy of Toun Paukkri Inscription
16. Sein Nyo Tun, U, i.c.s Retired - Review of the most Ancient Rakhine History 14-5-56
17. San Tha Aung, U - The Buddhist Art of Ancient Arakan Rangoon 1979.
18. San Tha Aung, U - The Scripts of Arakan (Rakhine) 6th century and before (Burmese), Yangon.
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20. San Tha Aung, U - The Mog or Magh or the Arakanese of Bangaladesh
21. Shwe Zan, U - A series of Buddhist Reliefs from Salagiri in golden Mrauk-U, an ancient capital of
Rakhine
22. Shwe Zan, U - Some justifications about Wethali, A single Rakhine Dynasty existing between
fourth and ninth century P.P 206-212. Myat Pan Thazin Magazine of Rakhine women Association,
Yangon.
23. Shwe Zan, U - Mahamuni Sculptures, Customs Magazine 2005, p290.
24. Shwe Zan, U - The golden Mrauk-U, an Ancient capital of Rakhine, Yangon 2004.
25. Shwe Zan, U. Maung Kyaw, U - Study of Rakhine History Vol:2 P.152 Wethali Kyaukhlaga period
(unpublished)
26. Sircar, D.C - Select Inscription
27. Thin Kyi, Dr: - Arakanese capitals: a Preliminary survey of their geographical sitting "Journal of
the Burma Research society L III in December 1970, pp 1-13.
28. Tun Shwe Khine, U - Rakhine culture at Wethali Age (in Burnese)
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 299

29. csefxGef;?OD; &cdkif&mZ0if,Ofaus;rIordkif;ESifhokawoDwdkU\ tawG;tjrif &ckdifhaMu;rHkr*¾Zif;trSwf(2)


30. pE´rm vuFm&?OD; &rf;NAJawmifausmif;q&mawmf &cdkfif&mZ0ifusrf;? yxrwJG 1992 AD ? 1930 ckESpf? 0gqdk
vqkwf 5 &uf
31. apmjynfhñdk? ok0PÖa'0D? odefuefrdefwGif &wk (oQKd;vdkuftrsKd;tpm;jrefrmpmñTefUaygif;usrf;? yxrwGJ?
tcef;(2)
32. pHomatmif?OD; ]a0omvD} &cdkifjynfe,fpmapmif,Ofaus;rIaqmif;yg;
33. pHomatmif?OD; &ckdif'*Fg;rsm; 1979 ckESpf? ZGefv? (tcef; 3ESifh4)
34. pHomatmif?OD; at'D(6) &mpkESifh ,if;rwdkifrD &cdkifjynfxHk;tu©&m(1974)
35. pHomatmif?OD; tmeE´mp`E´&Spf&mpka0omvDrif;
36. apm0if;? a*g,majr - &cdkfifjynfe,fAk'¨bmom? 'DZifbm 1993 ck
37. pHvS?OD; - "n0wDNrdKU\edukrf;&Gm ordkif;vuFm(0g) uAsm? &ckdifouú&mZf 3119 ckESpf wqifha&;ul;aom
ayy&ydkufrS xkwfEIwfí
38. bpH?OD; - &cdkfife,fedrdwf aqmif;yg;? &cdkifo[m,toif;(&efukef? r*¾Zif; trSwf 2? 1996ckESpf)
39. bpH?OD; - ppfawGNrdKU vr®awmfawmif&yfuGuf? acgif;avmif;ausmif;wGif udef;0yfvsuf&SdonfhAk'¨qif;wkawmf
rSwfpk
40. ar"ynm trwfBuD; - ar"ynmarmfuGef;vuFm
41. jrifhaqG?OD;? y#dXme? 0dZÆmESifhodyÜHwuúokdvf? rEÅav;? tmeE´mp`E´ouúw ausmufpm
42. oef;xGef; BA, B.L. Ph.D (London) acwfa[mif;jrefrm&mZ0if
43. xGef;a&Tckdif?OD;? &cdkifa&S;a[mif; NrdKUawmfrsm; (ppfawG aumvdyfr*¾Zif;? 1985 ck)
44. OmPdó&?t&Sif oJukef;q&mawmf? jrwfr*Fvmpmapmif 1996 ck arvxkwf pm 48^49
45. a&TZH?OD;? &cdkifordkif;acwf umvykdif;jcm;rI? ajrBuD;uoufaownfoa&GU

Plan -
Part I 1. Ground Plan of the Mahamuni Shrine

Chart 1 - Table showing a vision of dating link of Rakhina dynasties by foreign scholars.

Chart 2 - Comparative statement between Rakhine Scholars and Sir Arthur P. Phyre showing
Ancinet Dynasties and different periodisations

Chart 3 - Table showing various periodisations


U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 300

GLOSSARY
Abhaya Mudra - A standing figure of Buddha called Anekasa, that is recitation by a
with his right hand raised and the palm number of monks surrounding the image.
turned to the front with figures directed
the side of the body. It is the posture of Asura - One of the creatures of the nether world.
protection and is called Abhaya mudra.
This mudra stands for the assurance of Avici - Buddhists believe that by performing meri-
fearless, tranquility and protection given torious deeds like offering alms and four
by the Buddha. necessaries to the Sanghas and giving
Abhaya and Verada Combined mudra - charities to the poor and the needy and
Here the right hand of the standing Buddha doing good deeds personally or in words
is in Abhaya mudra. But the left hand instead or in thoughs, one gains merit and will go
of hanging down is bent like the hard with to Devas abode after death. Where asby
the hand palm spread outwards and the doing evil deeds or getting involved in evil
fingers pointing down The gesture of the left acts personally or in words or in thoughts,
hand is in this Varada mudra.Therefore this one falls into a downward state of
standing Buddh, is posing a combination of existance, a state of suffering or even to
Abhaya and Varada mudra. the abyss of such as Rauruwa, Avici etc,.
Here again, the figure represents the descent after death.
of the Buddha from the heaven of the thirty
gods. Arahant - Buddhists believe in three ways to sal-
vation, i.e, the Arahantship, the
Abhiseka Ceremony - e.g. Buddha Abhiseka Pratyekabudhahood and the supereme
Mungala ceremony for the ceremony of Buddhahood. The one who attained
the Buddha Abhiseka Mungala, three Arahantship is called Arahant.
Chancellors have to invite in advance, five,
seven or nine Buddhist monks, venerable Arahantship - The Arahantship is one of the three
of age and renowned for their holiness. ways to salvation of a Buddhist. The lay
These invited monks sit in a circle around people strive for Arahantship (i.e to at-
the image, their fingers holding the white tain perfect knowledge) as the way to Nir-
cloth on which the image reposes. Then vana.
they recite in union the Buddha Abhiseka
verse, when the recitation ends, the Brah- Bhumisparsa Mudra - In this mudra, the left
mins blow on their right-voluted conches, hand rests on the lap with palm upward
while the lay musical bands stationed out- and the right palm down, resting on the
side the hall produce an outburst of sound right knee and touching the seat or ground
marks the conclusion of the Buddha below.
Abhiseka Mungala Ceremony. This mudra illustrates the story of
Buddha calling the earth as his witness fot
Abhidhamma - A mixture of metaphysics, psy- testifying to his attainment of perfect
chology and mind devolopment. knowledge and enlightenment. The rep-
resentation of the enlightenment or
Alavaka - A natorious ogre during the life time Sambodhi and the incidents connected
of Gautama Buddha. with it, form the favourite themes with the
Buddhist artists of all schools. According
Anekasa - The Buddha images are worshipped to the wellknown story of the Blessed-
after glorifying by conducting a ceremony One's life, he called on the earthgoddness
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 301

Prithivi or Vasumdhari to come and be the As an auspicious symbol the fig-


witness of his perfect knowledge by touch- ure of byala can be found erected near the
ing the earth. This mudra indicates the pagodas.
moment when he caused to be a
Bodhisattva and became Buddha. He did Byagghapala - The Buddha holding the tiger in
this because Mara, the Evil One, while his right fist depictiong the Jataka tale of
attacking the Blessed One with his four Byagghapala Mahanthero who being
fold army, challenged him to do it by say Arahant did not suffer though he was de-
ing that there was no body near at hand to voured by the tiger for its piecemeal.
witness his attainment of perfect knowl-
edge and enlightenment. Chakras - Wheels

Bodhisatva - A Bodhisatva is a person(monk or Catulokapala - Four guardian deities of Universe


hayman) which is in a position to attain Navana
as a Sravaka or as a Pretyekabuddha, but out Ceti - See Pagoda.
of great compassion (maha karuna) for the
world, the remowees it and goes on sulfing in Chattra - Umbrella or decorated top of a pagoda.
samsara for the sake of others. perfects him
self during a incalculable period of time and Christ - The Anoited name given to Jesus.
finally realize Nirvana and becomes a
Samgaksawbuddha a Fully Enlightened Bud Christian - One who believes in the religion of
dha, He discovers the Truth and declares it to Christ, (a follower of Christ.)
the world. His capacity for service to other is
unlimited. Church - a building set apart for public worship.

Brahma - Supreme being, - creator of Univese. Cityas - See Pagoda.

Brahmin - Member of the highest Hindu caste in Devas - Spirit beings


India.
Dhamma - Pali word for Buddhist teachings
Brahminism - Religion of Barahmins
Dharma - Dhamma in Sanskrit
Brahmi Script - Script used around the begin-
ning of Christian era in India. Dharmacakra Mudra - This pose symbolizes the
Buddha - Blessed One - the one who attained first preaching of the law by Buddha at
enlightenment. Sarnath. Buddha preached his first sermon
at the out-skirt of Benares City in a park
Buddhism - The teaching of Lord Buddha the then known as Deer Park. This place is
way to attain Nirvana. now called Sarnath.
Indian images of the Buddha in
Byala - The mythological animal of the Rakhines- Dharmacakra Mudra from the Gupta period
having four legs, smiling face, beautiful tail onward have the left hand placed near the
is considered as a symbol of peace and heart with the tips of the middle finger and
prosperity. thumb joined together. The palm of the hand
The onlookers always derive plea turned towards the heart. In the case of the
sure from the ever-smiling looks of the right hand the tips of the thumb and the fore
animal. fingers are made to touch each other, so as to
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 302

form a circle, the other fingers are kept open. Sri Lanka to day there is no Hinayana seet in
existance any where in the world. Therefore
Dhayana mudra - This mudra is also called Samadhi in 1950 the world fellow ship of Buddhists is
mudra, or meditative mudra or samahita mudra. augerrated in Colonbo un---------- decided
In this particular pose, the palm of the that the terms Hinayana should be dropped
right hand is placed in that of the left hand and when refering to Buddhism existang to-day in
both together are laid in the crossed legs of Sir Lanka, Thailand, Burma(Myanma), Cam
the seated image. This is the attitude of ardent bodia, Laos, ets. This is the brief history of
meditation. Occationally, an alms bowl or Theravada, Mahayana and Hinayana.
medicant bowl or a vase round, oval or pointed,
may rest on the hand. Mara - The Evil One; the Tempter

Dosa - Hate (one of the three impurities of mind Mandating - Centre or middle point of anything
i.e. lobba, dosa and moha) or nucleus or principal.

Ghata - A Pali Verse e.g. Ye Dhamma hetu Mandala - Centre or middle point of anything or
Pabhava. nucleus or principal.
Naga - Legendary snake
Guatama Buddha - Gautama is the fourth Bud-
dha who attained enlightement. Nats - Guardian spirit being

Hindu - A member of any of the races of Nirvana - Extinction, departure from crving, the
Hindustan in India. A believer in a form of final bliss.
Hinduism.
Pagoda - a solid hemispherical structure wor-
Hti - Umbrella or a devorated cone shaped at the shipped by Buddhist as representing Lord
top of a pagoda. Buddha Maha Parinirvana.

Jataka - Traditional tales from the Buddha's life, Pahtans Pagoda - The name of the pagoda repre-
generally refered to as the 550 Jataka. senting 24 verses of Pahtans and each
verse represented by a statue of Buddha.
Lobba - Greed (one of the three impurities of
mind lobba, dosa and moha) Pali - An ancient language spoken in northern In-
dia during the time of Lord Buddha and
Mahayana - The great vehicle- (Believer in the Tripitaka text was written in Pali.
doctrine of Bodhisatteva an off shoot of
Buddhism) About the 2nd Century AC. the Pantein - Gold smith.
Mahayana became slowly defined.Nagajurna
devloped the Mahayana phtosophy of Sunyata Pitakas - Three Cannons of Buddhist scripture.
and proved that every thing is Void in a small (Vinaya, Sutta, and Abhidhamma)
text called Madhyamika. karika, About the 4th
Century there were Asanga and Vasubandhu Pratyeka Buddha - (individual Buddha) is a per-
who were amomous amount of works and son who realizes Nirvana alone by him-
Mahayana after the first Century AC the self at a time when there is no
Mahayanist took a difinite stand and only then Sammasambuddha in the world. He also
the terms Mahayana and Hinayana seets de renders service to others, but in a limited
veloped in India and had existance in depen way. He is not capable or revealing the
dent from the form of Buddhism existang in
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 303

truth to others as a Sammasambuddha, a the differences were not confined to the Vinaya
fully Enlightened Buddha, does. but were also connected with the Dhamma.
Parinirvana, Maha - The final bliss of Lord Bud- At the end of this Council, the President of
dha. The Council Moggaliputta Tissa, compiled a
book called The Kathavatthu refuting the he
Sakra- Brahma, a highter deity. retical false views and Theories held by some
sects, The teaching approued and accepted
Sanghas - Guardians of Buddhism, who by this Council was known as Theravad. The
observeten precepts, wearing yellow Abhidhama Pitaka was included at this Coun
robes, with shaved head and strictly fol- cil.
lowing Vinaya. After the Third Council, Asoka's son
Ven.Mahinda brought the Tripitaka to Sri Lank,
Sanskrit - A spoken language in ancient India. along with commentaries that were recited at
the Third Council. The tent brought to Sri
Sravaka - A Sravaka is a disciple of a Pouddha. Lanka were precerued until to day without
Adisciple may be a monk or a num a layman losing a page. The texts were written in Pali
or a laywoman. Best on his or her liberation of which was based on the Maghadhi Language
sravaka fallows and practised the teaching of the spoken by the Buddha. There was nothing
Buddha and finally attain Nirvana. He also serues known as Mahayana at that time.
others. but his eapacities to do so is limited.
Varada Mudra - The Varada Mudra symbolizes
Stupa - The stupa- a miniature pagoda which is the bestowal of boon or palm spread out
an emblem of Buddha's Parinirvana, for wards with the fingers pointing down
the stupa is a monument erected over the wards. A standing figure of Buddha with
relices of the Buddha. his hand in varada alone denotes the de-
scent of the Buddha from the heaven of
Sucita, Sumala, Sunanda, Supava - Four Chief the thirty three gods.
Queens of Sakra (a Brahma-a higher deity).
Vasundhri - Earth goddess,Prithivt
Saradaw - Usually venerable chief abbot of a
monastery. Vinaya - Conduct

Sutta - Sermon Visnu - A Hindu god.

Tantric Buddhism - An advanced state of Wunti goddess (Wunti Nat) - The goddess
Mahayana Buddhism. Wunti is believed to preserve the settle-
ments and therefore offertories were made
Tipitaka-Tripitaka - The three baskets of Bud- to it wherever a village,a town or a dis-
dhist scriptures Vinaya, Sutta and trict was ceremonially opened.
Abhidhamma. The goddessis also called as the
goddess of the village or the goddess of
Theravada Buddhism - Buddhism practicing in the town. In fact, Wunti equals the Hindu,
Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambo- goddess to Durga.
dia, etc. In the 3rd century BC during the line Before the Buddist lent starts it is
of Emporor Asoka, the Third Council was held customary of the Rakkines to hold a
to discuss the differences of opinion among fastival of Wunti.
the Bhikhus of different seets. At this council
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 304

In ancient times the festival was Zambu Kyun - (Zambu Island) According to
headed by the headman or even the king tradition, there are four main islands in the
himself . Thamoddaya (ocean); Pubbawidayha (Eastern
Island), Ahparagawyana (Western Island),
Ye Dhamma hetu pabhava - out of all the laws, Uttaraguru (Nothern Island) and Zambudiap
the law of cause is the origin. The Ye (Southern Island).
Dhamma verse, therefore gives the Cream
of Buddhism.

Clarifications of Some Relavent Topics.

Abstract from Buddhist Art of Ancient Arakan.

Postures and Gestures of Buddha Images1

Different images of Buddha represent distinct incidents of the Blessed-One's life. These inci-
dents can be identified from the posture of Buddha's hands or some attendant figures.
The technicla term used to denote the hand poses of the images is mudra. Mudras usually
indicate some action in which Buddha was engaged. The action is depicted by means of a particular
gesture which is the expression of an idea.
We can recognize the following mudras in the Buddhist Art of Ancient Arakan,
1. The Bhumisparsa mudra
2. The Dhyana mudra
3. The Dharmacakra mudra
4. The Abhaya mudra
5. The Abhaya and Varada Combined mudra
6. The Internal; Varada mudra

We recognize four attitudes for these images.


They are: -
(1) and (2) In standing or walking posture. Generally speaking, this posture is used in depicting
the taming of the Nalagiri elephant or the descent of the Buddha from the heaven of thirty three gods where
he went to preach the true law to his mother since reincarnated as a god, for three months. See Plate 53.
________________________________________________________________________________

1. Buddhist art of Ancient Arakan (Rakhine) by U San Tha Aung.


Wethali : The land of Historic finds 305

(3) In sitting posture. Generally speaking this posture is used in depicting the calling upon
Mother Earth to stand witness or the preaching of the Dharmacakra Sermon or the Buddha in deep medita-
tion. See Plates 47, 73 and 42.
(4) In reclining posture. This posture is used in depicting the death or the
Mahaparinirvana.
We can further differentiate the sitting postures as follows. The term "sana" is used
to denote the sitting posture as well as the seat.
(a) The legs are placed one upon the other with both the soles invisible. This sana is
called the pariyanka sana. The position of the legs, right on left, is a sign of antiquity. See plates 33 to
35.
(b) The legs are closely crossed with the feet brought to rest on the thighs and the
soles of the feet turned upwards with the right foot forward. This sana is called vajra sana or
vajraparyarika sana or padma sama. The padma sana is also used to denote the lotus seat. See plates
37 to 43.
(c) A European style of sitting in which both the legs are made to dangle down from
the seat. This sana is called pralambana sana.

The Bhumisparsa Mudra


In this mudra, the left hand rests on the lap with palm upward and the right, palm
down resting on the right knee and touching the seat or ground below. See plates 44 to 50, 54 to 70.
This mudra illustrates the story of Buddha's calling the earth as his witness for testify-
ing to his attainment of perfect knowledge.]
The representation of the Enlightenment or Sambodhi and the incidents connected with
it, form the favorite themes with the Buddhist artists of all schools. According to the wellknown story
of the Blessed-One's life, he called on the earth-goddess Prithivi or Vasmdhari to come and be the
witness of his perfect knowledge by touching the earth. This mudra indicates the moment when he
ceased to be a Bodhisattva and became Buddha. He did this because Mara, the evil one, while attack-
ing the Blessed--One with his fourfold army, challenged him to do it by saying that there was no body
near at hand to witness his attainment of perfect knowledge or enlightment.
In Buddhist iconography, this particular posture of touching the earth has become one
of the mudras or special attitudes. It is called the Bhumisparsa mudra or the attitude of touching the
earth.
The representation of Enlightenment by the artists can be divided into two or three
parts. They are (1) the temptation of Bodhisattva by Mara's daughters, (2) the attack on the
Bodhisattva by Mara's followers and (3) the call on Vasumdhari, the earth goddess to stand witness.
Mara had three beautiful daughters. Desire, Pleasure and Passion. The temptation by
Mara's daughters, are depicted in one case as follows. There are three groups with two female figures
in each group. In one group one female is dancing and the other has adopted an elegant posture. This
represent the daughters to disrupt him from attaining enlightenment. In the next group both the
females or one of them is addressing the Bodhisattva when their allurements have failed. In the re-
maining group, both females are kneeling in submission with dishevelled hair.
The attack on Bodhisattva by Mara's followers is represented by pictures of Mara
himself in the act of shooting arrows towards the Bodhisattva with followers represented as demons.
In the story of Mara's attack, Mara with his demon army attacked Bodhisattva with whirlwind, tem-
pest, flood and earthquake.
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 306

In one huge stele at Jadispur near Nalanda, the demonic army of Mara ranged in vertical rows
on both sides of the Blessed-One. They were attacking him with all sorts of weapons. On the leftside of the
Blessed-One's head was a demon with a wheel on one hand while another one below him was shooting at
him with arrows. Below this demon was a dwarf thorwing stone. A man behind him seemed to be rushing
through the air with a sword in his hand. There were four figures on the other side of the Blessed-One
representing the army of Mara. They were also rushing to the attack on the Blessed-One.
The answer of Vasumdhari, the earth goddess, to the call of the Master is represented by a
woman usually placed on the front side of the pedestal below the Blessed-One. See Plates 33, 58 and 59
again. She is kneeling mostly towards the left but facing front and is wringing the water from her hair brought
in a tress infront of her breast testifying the Blessed-One's merit. Vasumdhari, in this form, is very common in
Arakanese Buddhist art.
We have a tradition, which is observed to this dat to close a meritorious ceremony by
the donor dropping droplets of water from a cup while the presidign monk offers prayers for the merit
done, thereby treating the mother earth as a witness.

The Dhyana Mudra

This mudra is also called samadhi mudra or meditative mudra or samahita mudra. See
Plates 33 to 43.
In this particular pose, the palm of the right hand is placed in that of the left hand and
both together are laid in the croosed legs of the seated image. This is the attitude of ardent meditation.
Occasionally, an alms bowl or mendicant bowl or a vase round, oval or pointed, may rest on the
hands. See Plates 36 to 43.
This mudra, unlike the Bhumisparsa mudra, belongs to many moments showing
Buddha's life before and after Enlightenment. Some of the moments are listed below.
1. When after seeing the last of the four signs namely a wandering religious monk, he
sat on his pleasance, thinking.
2. When after hearing the news that his wife Yasodhara had given birth to a son one
mornin, he sat up in bed that same night and saw his women sleeping like corpses.
3. When he did his first meditation after renunciation.
4. When after six years of fast and penances, he rejected extreme asceticism and
accepted Sujats's rice- alms. Here the alms bowl is present.
5. When he sat with alms bowl in lap under the hood of Muchalinda Naga. It has been
said that after enlightenment, there was a great storm in Bodh Gaya and rain fell in torrents for several
days. At that time a Naga king, named Muchalinda, protected the Buddha by coiling his body around
that of the Blessed-One and spreading his hood as an umberlla over the Blessed-One's head.
6. When he sat in the House of Gems (Ratana Ghara) meditating the abhidhamma in
the fourth week after his Enlightenment.
7. On his first visit to Rajagriha, before he gained enlightenment, when he was visited
by king Bimbisara who offered him his throne.
8. On his second visit to Rajagriha, after enlightenment, when king Bimbisara pre-
sented the Bamboo Grove (Veluvana).
9. When he reformed a very proud and despotic king Jambupati. Here Buddha was
regally-attired in royal regalia and could be seen as a Cakravartin or King of the world. He was in
dhyana mudra with a mendicant bowl in his hands.
In addition to the above moments there may be many more moments showing Buddha's life with
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 307

Buddha in this mudra.

The Dharmacakra Mudra

This pose symbolizes the first preaching of the law by the Buddha at Sarnath. Buddha
preached his first sermon at the outskirts of Benares city in a park then known as the Deer Park
(Mrigadava). This place is now called Sarnath.
Indian images of the Buddha in Dharmacakra Mudra from the Gupta period onwards
have the left hand held near the heart with the tips of the middle finger and the thumb joined together.
The palm of the hand turned towards the heart. In the case of the right hand the tips of the thumb and the
forefinger are made to touch each other, so as to form a circle, the other fingers are kept open. The palm
of the hand is facing the front. See Plate 71.
The Gandhara image of the Buddha in Dharmacakra Mudra, however, has a different
positioning of the hands. The palm of the left hand in a cup form is turned upwards and that of the right
hand turned towards the heart. See Plate 72.
Figuratively speaking, the posture of the hands in both cases, is setting thence-forward
the wheel of the law in motion. The ideology here is characteristically expressive. Buddha was in the act
of explaining and teachings the true knowledge he obtained through his own efforts.
What is this true knowledge? An extract from Dhammacakkappavattanakatha, Mahavagga,
Part I, pp 15-16, about this true knowledge will not be out of place here.
"Now this, O monks, is the noble turth of pain: birth is painful, old age is painful, sickness
is painful, death is painful. Contact with unpleasant things is painful, seperation from pleasant things is
painful and not getting what one wished is also painful. In short the five khandhas of grasping are painful.
Now this, O monks, is the noble turth of the cause of pain: that craving, which leads to
rebirth, combined with pleasure and lust finding pleasure here and there, namely the craving for passion,
the craving for existence, the craving for non-existence.
Now this, O monks, is the noble truth of the cessation of pain: the cessation without a
remainder of that craving, abandonment, foresaking, release, non-attachment.
Now this, O monks, is the noble truth of the way that leads to the cessation of pain: this
is the noble Eight-fold Path, namely, right views, right intention, right speech, right action, right liveli-
hood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration."
This Dharmacakra mudra hand pose is not only used to represent the first sermon at
Mrigadava (Sarnath) but also the miracle of Sravasti. In addition to these, this hand pose represents the
preaching of Dharmacakra sermon as in the case of our Araknese Sculpture which will be discussed
below.

The first sermon at Mrigadava

After attaining Enlightenment the Buddha was in doubt whether he should spread his
wisdom to the world. The god Brahma descended from heaven and persuaded him to do so. He then left
the place and journeyed to the Deer Park (Sarnath). There he met his five former companions. These five
companions were his former disciples who had left him when he gave up the austerities. To these five
former disciples he preached his first sermon thus setting in motion the wheel of the law. They were very
much impressed with his teaching and once more became his disciples.
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 308

The miracle of Sravasti

In the sixth year after his enlightenment six Tirthika teachers or Naked Asceties, tried to
vanquish Buddha in various manners. They invited Buddha to a disputation. Presenajit, king of Kosala,
invited teh different parties to a meeting in the capital of Kosala which was Sravasti.\
Buddha performed here a number of miracles, the climax of which is Yamakapratihara or
Twin Miracles. In these miracles, Buddha made fire and water issue simultaneously from different parts
of his body and preached to the spectators simultaneously from the four cardinal points. Flames came
out from his shoulders, while water poured from his feet. His body issued six-coloured rays which
spread over the universe. Replicas of himself in different mudras can be seen at the four cardinal points.
The Tirthikas, seeing these miracles, fled in disarray and were thus vanquished.
Just by seeing the hand pose of Dharmacakra mudra one cannot make out what scenethe
sculpture represents. There need to be additional information. The first sermon at Benares had the wheel
and deer mark in all cases. They were absent in the case of miracle in Sravasti. The two, scenes were
usually found in eight-scene steles in the same horizontal row, one on each side of the central Buddha
image.
We have found one relief sculpture in dharmacakra mudra from the base of Selargiri hill,
opposite Kyauktaw town in 1923. This scene represents neither the first Sermon nor the Miracle at
Sravasti. Instead it represents a local tradition which I have mentioned before as Selargiri tradition. In
this tradition Buddha came to Arakan(Rakhine) and stopped at the Selargiri hill. King Candra Suriya of
Dhanyawadi whose city was only five miles east of the hill, came to Selargiri hill to meet the Blessed One and
invite him to his city. Buddha preached the dharmacakra sermon to the king.See the Plate 73.
The Buddha image has an elliptical halo behind his head. The cranial protruberance is not
outstanding. The spiral knots of the curly hair, which appear from a distance as small circles are in rows.
The rows are curved slightly downwards above the forehead. These spiral knots of hair are in the form
of Mathura Buddhas. But the curving of the rows slightly downwards above the forehead are similar to
Sarnath Buddhas. The eyes are downcast, the nose prominent, the lips full and appear as if expressing
something. The ear lobes are large but do not touch the shoulder. The neck has the Trivali or the three
graceful folds. The right shoulder is bare. The upper garment, uttrasanga, can be seen over the left
shoulder. The flaps fall gracefully. The hand pose is in Dharmacakra mudra. This hand pose is more akin
to Gandhara art than that of any other Indian art from Gupta period onwards. See plates 71 and 72 again.
We can see the lower garment, antaravasaka, from the waist. The legs are crossed with the right knee
slightly raised. The Buddha sits on an undecorated hexagonal raised seat.
Close to the seat below him is a royal figure sitting at ease on the ground listenning to
what he says. The headdress of this figure consists of a lower diadem and three receeding tiers. The open
end of the headdress is docorated all around with a floral motif. Some curls of hair can be seen protrud-
ing under the headdress. He also has prominent features. His eyes are also downcast. The ear lobes are
extended because of his heavy errings which fall below the shoulders. His head is bent slightly backwards
and his facial expression shows great satisfaction to hear the sermon given by the Blessed One. He wears
a jewelled necklace, upper arm bands and belt. His left arm is bent across the chest and the hand is placed
on the upper right arm showing respect to the preacher. His right hand falls on the leg. In the background
and above the royal listener a tree and an architectual design can be noticed.
The sculptor had masterfully done the carving of this piece of art. The lanscape back-
ground and the positioning of the human figures give us an admirable three dimensional effect.
It is regrettable to note that scholars who had seen this sculpture, although admitting that the relief
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 309

is unique in Indian and Southeast Asian art, cannot accept the Arakanese Tradition. After all, this sculpture was
found in Arakan and the place found was also the traditionally famous Selargiri Hill. Why should not the
sculptor present status of the place in his relief sculpture? Just by seeing the present status of the place one
should not discard the greatness of the Ancient Arakan and its Art. To compare, one can travel to the present
Rajagriha and see for oneself the quiet place and reflect whether it could have been the centre of a mighty
empire at one time.
The form of the hand postures and the headdresses may be used to determine the date of
this relief. It should definitely be earlier than the fifth century A.D. This relief supports the Selargiri
Tradition. We can conclude from this dating that this tradition is an age-old one.

The Abhaya Mudra

See Plate 74. The plate shows a standing figure of Buddha with his right hand raised and
the palm turned to the front with fingers directed upawards. The left hand hangs down by the side of the
body. It is the posture of protection and is called Abhaya mudra. This mudra stands for the assurance of
fearlessness, tranquility nad protection given by the Buddha.
A figure of standing Buddha in this mudra represents the incident of the attempted assas-
sination of the Blessed-One by assassins at the instigation of Devadatta a cousin of Buddha.
If there is an elephant near the feet of the Blessed-One, the figure represents the incident
of the taming of Nalargiri elephant.
If there is an umbrella over the head of the Buddha, the figure represents the descent of
the Buddha from the heaven of the thirty three gods after preaching his Mother.

The Varada mudra

The Varada mudra symbolizes the bestowal of boon or benediction by the Buddha. In art
this pose is depicted by putting the palm spread outwards with the fingers pointing downwards. A
standing figure of Buddha with his hand in varada mudra alone denotes the descent of the Buddha from
the heaven of the thirty three gods.

A Combination of Abhaya and Varada mudras

See Plate 74 b, c. Here the right hand of the standing Buddha is in Abhaya mudra. But,
the left hand, instead of hanging down, is bent like the right hand with the hand palm spread outwards
and the fingers pointing down. The gesture of the left hand is in this Varada mudra. Therefore, this
standing Buddha, is posing a combination of Abhaya and Varada mudras.

Internai Varadaa Mudra

See Plate 75 and 73. The royal garbs of the two Buddha images, such as the crown, the
ear-rings and the necklets, are quite different. But both of the images sit with their right legs placed on
the left legs, which is a sign of antiquity. And both of them made the same gesture of hands. Of course,
the attendant figures are different.
The Buddha image in Plate 75 b wears a crown consisting of low pointed leaves enclos-
ing an almost cylindrical usnisa. The image wears small round ear-rings which do not touch the shoulders.
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 310

Instead two curve ear pendants dropped from the middle of the ears onto the shoulders. The image wears arm-
lets and a lowered torque decorated with jewels which falls on the breast (a sort of an ornament for the chest).
The Buddha image in Plate 76 wears a crown consisting of six high pointed leaves enclosing a
stupa shaped usnisa. The crown has two horn-like flaps curving upwards just above the top of the ears. The
image wears circular ear-rings in the form of a four petal flower which rest on the shoulders. There is a shoulder
flap on each of the shoulders. The neck has trivali or the three graceful folds. The upper garment is ornamented
on the whole of the front part. The image wears a necklace with a locket. The lower garment reaches below the
knees. The image does not have armlets or bracelets.
The pedestals of both the images are below and are perforated and ornamented with
artistic desings. Such perforated pedestals show that the images are rather old.
In each case, the right hand of the Buddha image is bent upwards. The palm of the hand
holds a small object and is turned towards the chest. It reaches almost near the right shoulder. The three
middle fingers which hold the object can be clearly seen. The palm of the left hand is placed on the lap
and appears to hold some object.
The posture appears as if something is to be given away. If it is so, this mudra may be
called as the internal varada mudra, the gesture of hands shown by Buddha while conferring boons.
Or else, is it Tarpana mudra? By definition, this mudra is the mudra of doing homage to
the departed fathers (in this case departed former Buddhas). This mudra is also called the mudra of
Nama Snagiti. Any arm showing this gesture is bent and is raised upward in a line with the shoulder. The
palm of the hand is turned inwards with fingers slightly bent and pointed towards the shoulder.
In order to interpret the scenes shown by these images, we need to study the presence of
the attendant figures also.
In Plate 76 there are two small cetis at the back side of the pedestal, one on each side of
the Buddha image. Placed on special brackets fixed at the middle side of the pedestal are two small
sitting Buddhas in Bhumisparsa mudra. The one on the right hand side of the central Buddha image is
broken off and is missing. In the front part of the pedestal are two human figures kneeling in prayers and
facing the Buddha image. Here again, the one on the left hand side is broken and is missing. Fixed to the
front part of the pedestal is the figure of kneeling Vasumdhari, the Earth Goddess, wringing her hair with
her hands, brought in a trees over the left shoulder in front of her breast. We can notice the head of an
animal fixed at the left side of the base of the pedestal.
The two front figures in prayers and facing the Buddha image may be the merchant
brothers Taphussa and Bhallika offering rice cakes and honey to Buddha sitting under the rajayatana
tree, south of the Bodhi tree, at the end of the seventh week after enlightenment. The Buddha accepted
the offerings in the bowl presented by the four Lokapala nats. After finishing the meal, the Buddha
preached the Law to the two small cetis can best be interpreted as Professor Luce had done in his book
"Old Burma - Early Pagan." "The earth touching symbol is generally associated with the oldest symbol
in Buddhist art the caitya. The latter symbolized the Death or parinirvana as the former the Triumph or
Enlightenment. On these two poles move the axis and philosophy of Buddhism". We can interpret them
as follows. The Cetis remind us that the decay is inherent and the Enlightenment remind us that one can
work out his salvation with diligence. Buddha must have preached the two merchant brothers about
these facts. The presence of Vasumdhari or the Earth Goddess is to testify the enlightenment of the
Buddha.
After the Sermon the brothers requested the Blessed-One to give them something in
order that they may worship as the Blessed-One's self while they live in their own land. The Buddha
complied the request by giving them His Hairs.
In Plate 75 there are only two attendant figures. They are two kneeling human figures in prayers,
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 311

one on each side of the Buddha image. Their hands are clasped against the chest, palm to palm, both of which
are extended upwards with all fingers erect. Both of them wear a sort of horned like conical cap. At the back
side of the pedestal an image of an elephant is perforated.
The scene shown by this image may be interpreted either as-
1. Buddha giving His Hairs to merchant brothers Taphussa and Bhalika.
or 2. The emancipation of orgres Suciloma and Kharaloma. This happen during the four-
teenth year after Enlightenment. The two orgres lived near Gaya Village close to the Mahabodhi tree.
The Blesseed-One went to the abode of Suciloma and stayed there waiting for the orgre to come. The
orgre sensing the presence of Buddha create himself a terrifying figure and tried his best to frighten the
Blessed-One. When the Buddha answered to his satisfaction. The orgre Kharaloma also listened the
Buddha's answers and both of them were emancipated.
or 3. The conversion of Uruvela Kassapa and his brothers. The Buddha succeeded convert-
ing the hermits Uruvela Kassapa and his brothers after showing many Miracles including bringing of
different fruits from the Jambudipa Island.
The elephant present at the back side of the pedestal may be the elephant king of the
Parileyyaka forest.

Fundamentals of Theravada Buddhism1

Happiness and sorrow exist in this world. Happiness means lucky, successful, possessing
or enjoying pleasure or good. Every human being likes to be happy. But in some form or other sorrow is
inevitable in every aspect of life. Man, weak as he is, is subjected to sickness, old age and death. Contact
with unpleasant things, separation from pleasant thisngs and not getting what one wants are all painful.
From all that he loves man must part. Nothing is permanent.
Buddhists believed in the conception of the world as samsara, a stream without end,
where the law of Karma functions. All beings are subject to rebirth, decay, disease, death, and again
rebirth. The process is continous.
The doctrine of the Chain of Dependent Origination or the Chain of Causation (Patticca-
samuppada), a series of twelve causes and effects, explain this chain of rebirths or the wheel of existance.

Avijja-paccaya sankhara: "Through ignorance conditioned are the sankharas," i.e, the
rebirth-producting Volitions (cetana) or karmaformations.

Sankhara-paccaya vinnanam: "Through the karmaformations (in past life, is conditioned


Consciousness (in the present life)."

Vinnanapaccaya nama rupam: "Through conciousness are conditioned the mental and physical
phenomena (namarupa)", i.e, that which makes up our so called
individual existence.

__________________________________________________________________________________
1. Buddhist Art of Ancient Arakan by U San Tha Aung.
Nama rupa paccaya salayatanam: "Through the mental and physical phenomena are conditioned
the 6 bases." i.e, the 5 physical sense organs and conciousness
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 312

as the sixth.

Salayatanna paccaya phasso: "Through the 6 bases is conditioned the (sensorial and mental)
impression

Phassa paccaya vedana: " Through the impression is conditioned feeling."

Vedana paccaya tenha: "Through feeling is conditioned clinging.

Tanha paccaya upadanam: "Through craving is conditioned clinging".

Upadana paccaya bhavo: "Through clinging is conditioned the precess of becoming",


consisting in the active and the passive life porcess i.e, the
rebirth producing karma process (kamma bhava) and, as its
results, the rebirth process (Uppathibhava).

Bhava paccaya jati: "Through the (rebirth producing karma) process of becoming is
conditioned rebirth".

Jati paccaya jara maranam: "Through rebirth are conditioned Old age and death (sarrow,
lamentation, pain, grief and despair. Thus arises, this whole
mass of suffering again in the furure)."

The highest goal of a man should, therefore, be the stage in which there is neither birth,
nor disease, nor fear, nor anxieties, nor old age, nor death, and in which there is no continous renewl of
activity.
Buddha meditate, for six years, on the human suffering, its causes and the means by
which it could be overcome. He had found the secret of sorrow, and understood at last why the world is
full of suffering and unhappiness of all kinds, and what man must do to overcome them. He pointed a
way from the world of suffering to a beyond, the undying, and those who follow the path for liberation
may also cross to the wisdom beyond. The goal is to attain Nirvana, which is a state when one becomes
free from sensual passion, free from the passion of ignorance, free from the passion of existence, free
from Samsara.
The sermon of the Turning of the wheel of the law, which Buddha preached to his first
disciples, the five ascetics at Varanasi, is the kernel of Buddhism. This contains the "Four Noble Turths,"
and the "Noble Eight-fold Path" which are accepted as basic categories by all Buddhist sects.
The voluminous writings of Pali Canon, which consists of three sections called ti-pitakas
or three pitakas, known as Vinya (Rules of the order), Sutta (the Teachings or Sermons) and Abhidamma
(a complex mixture of metaphysics, psychology and mind development), in the final analyses, all lead to
the Four Noble Turths. Refer page 76.
The last of the Four Noble Truths is the Noble Eight-fold Path which is the Path leading
to the cessation of Pain and Sorrow.
Now, we are shown the Path. How shall we traverse this Path? From where shall we
start? The following is the method usually practiced by Theravada Buddhists.
Out of the three pitakas the largest is the sutta pitaka, which is divided into five "groups" (Nikaya).
They are:-
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 313

1. Digha Nikaya, 2. Majjhima Nikaya, 3. Samyutta Nikaya, 4. Anguttara Nikaya and


5. Khuddaka Nikaya.

The Dhamapada, a part of the Khuddaka Nikaya of the Sutta Pitaka, has in the Pali
version 423 verses divided into 26 chapters. The verses of the Dhamapada were believed from very early
times, i.e, from the period of the First Council which settled the Canon, to have been the utterances of
the Buddha himself.

Verse 183 of the Dhamapada states


"Sabbapapassa akaranam
kusalassa upasampada
sacittapariyodapanam
etam buddhana sasanam"

We may translate the verse as follows.


"to abstain from all evil,
to do good deeds,
to purify one'sf own mind,
these are teachings of all the Buddhas."

To abstain from all evil

All evil mean evil courses of action (akusalakammapatha). They are ten in number and
are called ten duccaritas. They are:-
Kaya kamma 1. Panatipata (destruction of living beings)
(bodily action) 2. Adinnadana (stealing)
3. Kamesumicchacara (unlawful sexual intercourse)
4. Musavada (lying)
Vaci kamma 5. Pisunavaca (tale-bearing) (slander)
(verbal action) 6. Pharusavaca (harsh language)
7. Samphappalapa (frivolous talk)
Mano kamma 8. Abhijjha (covetousness)
(mental action) 9. Vyapada (ill -will)
10. Miccha ditthi (wrong views)

All these actions are unwholesome. They all cause to unfavourable kamma results and
contain the seed to unhappy destiny or rebirth. He who does these actions, if reborn as man, will be short
lived, afflicted with diseases, ugly looking, poor and needy and born of parents of inferior or mean
lineage, ie. of low descent.

To do good deeds

Good deeds mean ten sucaritas or ten good courses of action (kusala kamma patha) and
ten punnya-kariya or ten domains of meritorious actions.
Ten sucaritas are nothing but the courses of action opposite to ten duccaritas.
They are-
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 314

1. To abstain from killing


2. To abstain from stealing
3. To abstain from unlawful sexual intercourse
4. To abstain from lying
5. To abstain from tale bearing
6. To abstain from harsh language
7. To abstain from frivolous talks
8. Absence of convetousness
9. Absence of ill-will
10. Right understanding.

Ten punnya-kariya are

1. dana - alms giving or charity


2. sila - morality or precept
3. bhavana - mental development
4. apacayana - to honour or worship teachers, parents and tri-ratana.
5. veyyavacca - to do service or to attend to above
6. pattidana - sharing of one's marit or transference of merit
7. pattanumodana - to approve, to express gratitude to another people doing
meritorious deeds
8. dhammasavana - to listen to dhamma discourses
9. dhammadesana - to lecture dhamma discourses
10. ditthijukamma - to have right view

Ten sucaritas are the courses of action practiced to avoid the ten duccaritas. These ac-
tions prevent one from going to lower courses of existance, i.e, the nether or infernal world mostly
translated with hell, in future births.
Ten punnya-kariya are the ten domains of meritorious actions which will provide kusala-
kamma (favoureable results), and will follow in future births as one's pure and real property.
People following these actions will be reborn in heaven; or reborn as man he will be long-
lived, possessed of beauty, influence, noble descent and knowledge.

To purify one's own mind

When one's mind is defiled one is tempted to do evil deeds and talk evil words. When
one's mind is pure one does good deeds and talk good words. For that reason one should control one's
own mind from being defiled.
"Defilements" are called the mind-defiling passions. They are ten in number and are known
in Pali as ten kilesas. They are:-

1. Lobha (greed)
2. Dosa (hate)
3. Moha (delusion)
4. Mana (conceit)
5. Ditthi (speculative views)
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 315

6. Vicikiccha (sceptical doubt)


7. Thina (mental torpor)
8. Uddhacca (restlessness)
9. Ahirika (shamalessness)
10. Anottappa (lack of moral dread or unconcientiousness)

All these kilesas spran from the three basic kilesas namely, lobha, dosa nad moha. With
these three kilesas as roots other kilesas formed in the mind. In order that they do not occur in mind or
to purify the mind one should control with bhavana or mental development. Some interpret bhavana
meiditation. Actually it is the mental development and not meditation. This mental development may be
distinguished into two kinds: Development of Tranquility (samatha- bhavana), i.e, concentration (samadhi),
and Development of Clear sight (Vipassana-bhavana), i.e, wisdom (panna).
Tranquility (samatha) is the unshaken, peaceful and, therefore, undefiled state of mind. It
bestows a three fold blessing: favourable rebirth, a present happy life, and purity of mind which is the
condition to insight. This samatha bhavana, if practiced, can send a person only up to Brahma's abode as
teh highest award. So, a person should not be satisfied with samatha bhavana alone.
Insight (vipassapa) is the intuitive insight into the Impermanency, Misery and Imperson-
ality (annica, dukkha, anatta) of all bodily and mental phenomena of existance, included in the five
khandha. Man is actually a compound of five psychosomatic elements, the five khandha, namely corpo-
reality group or form, conciousness, feeling, perception and mental formation. Only vipassana bhavana
can open a person to supermundane insight (lokuttara). So, one should give more attention to this
vipassana bhavana.
In addition to suppressing lobha, dosa and moha with bhavana, one should develop the
four sublime states, i.e, all embracing Kindness, Compassion, Altruistic Joy and Equanimity called brahma-
vihara.
In conclusion, sorrow (dukkha) is inherent in human life. It is due to craving for indi-
vidual satisfaction. The craving is the cause of human misery. It is ultimately due to ignorance which
leads to the delusion of selfhood. Ignorance concern primarily with the fundamental nature of all bodily
and mental phenomena of existance included in the five khandha, which has three striking cahracteristics.
They are impermanency (annica), misery or sorrow (dukkha) and impersonality (anatta). Sorrow can
only be done by taking a middle course between self-indulgence and extreme asceticism and leading a
moral and well ordered life. This can be done by observing and practising the rules mentioned in Dhamapada
verse 183.
If one observes these rules, which are nothing but the essence of Buddhism, he is a
person who believes in Theravada Buddhism or to state simply, he is a Buddhist.
If he strives diligently by practicing bhavana, especially vipassana bhavana, he can attain
a state of perfect inward peace, accompanied by the conviction of having attained spiritual freedom, a
state in which words cannot describe. Only he who has experienced it knows what it is. Finally, he can
attain nirvanna.
U Shwe Zan, B.Sc, B.C.S. 316

Theravada Buddhism1

The Buddha spoke to all kinds of people: kings and princes, Bramins, farmers, beggers,
learned men and ordinary people. His teachings were tailored to the experiences, level of under standing
and mental capacity of his audience. What he taught was called Buddha Vacana, i.e, word of the Buddha.
There was nothing called Theravada or Mahayana at that time.
After establishing the order of monks and nums, the Buddha laid down certain disciplin-
ary rules called the Vinaya for the giodance of the order. The rest of his teachings were called the
Dhamma which included his discourses, sermons to monks, nums and lay people.
There months after the Buddha's Maha parinibbana, his immediate disciples conveneda
council at Rajagaha, Maha Kassapa, the most respected and elderly monk, presided at the specialised in
the two different areas-the Dhamma and the Vinaya-were present. One was Ananda, the close constant
companion and the disciple of the Buddha for 25 years. Endowed with a remarkable memory. Ananda
was able to recite what was spoken by the Buddha. The other personality was Upali who remembered all
the Vinaya rules.
Only these two section-the Dhamma and the Vinaya were recited at the first council.
Though there were no different of opinion on the Dhamma (no mention of Ablidhamma) there was some
discussion about the Vinaya rules.
Before the Buddha's Parinibhana, he had told Ananda that if the Sangha wished to amend
or modify some minor rules, they could do so. But on the occasion Ananda was so overpowered with
grief because Buddha was about to die. That it did not occur to him to ask the master what the minor
rules were. As the members of the Council were unable to agree as to what constituted the minor rules.
Maha Kassapa finally ruled that no disciplinary rule Laid down by Buddha should be change, and no new
ones should be introduced. No intunsic reason was given. Maha Kassapa did say one thing, however if
we changed the rules, people will say that Ven.Gotama's disciples changed the rules even before his
funeral fire has ceased burning.
At the Council, the Dhamma was divided into various parts was assigned to an Elder and
his pupils to commit to memory. The Dhamma was then passed on from teacher to pupilorally. The
Dhamma were recited by groups of people who often cross check with each other to ensure that no
ommissions or traditional were made. Historians agree that oral tradition is more than a report written by
one person from his memory several years after the evnet.
One hundred years later, the Second Council was held to discuss some Vinaya rules.
There was no need to change the rules those months after the Parinibana of the Buddha because little or
no political, economic or social changes took place during that short interval. But 100 years lates, some
monks saw the need to change, certain minor rules. The orthodox monks said that nothing should be
changed while the other insisted on modifying some rules. Finally, a group of monks left the Community.
Even though it was called the Mahasanghika, it was not known as Mahayana. And in the Second Coun-
cil, only matters pertaining to the Vinaya were discussed and no controversy about the Dhamma is
reported.
In the 3rd century B.C during the time of Emperor Asoka, the third Council ws held to
discuss the differences the opinion among the bhikhus of different sects. At this Council the differences
were not confined to the Vinaya but were also connected with the Dhamma. At the end of the Council,
the president of the Council Moggaliputta Tissa, complied a book called the Kathavatthu refuting the
heretical false views and theories held by some sects. The teaching approved and accepted by this coun-
cil was known as Theravada. The Abhidhamma Pitaka was included at this Council.
After the Third Council Asoka's son Ven Mhinda brought the Tirpitaka to Sri Lanka,
1. Veni Raharla
Wethali : The land of Historic finds 317

along with the commentaries. That were recited at the Third Council. The texts brought to sri lanka were
preserved until to day without losing a page. The texts were written in Pali which was based in Magadhi
language spoken by the Buddha. There was nothing known as Mahayana at that time.
Between the 1st century B.C to the 1st century A.D., the terms Mahayana and Hinayana
appeared in the Saddharma Pundirika Suttsa or the Sutra of the Lotus of the Good law.
About the 2nd century A.D the Mahayana became clearly defined. Nagajurna develop-
ment the Mahayana philosophy of sunyata and proved that every thing is void in a small text called
Madhyamika-karika. About the 4th century. There were Asanga and Vasubandha who wrote enormous
amount of works on Mahayana. After the first century A.D. The Mahyanists took a definite stand and
only then the terms Mahayana and Hinayana were introduced.
We must not confused Hinayana with Theravada because the terms are not synonymous.
Therawad Buddhism went to Sri Lanka during the third century B.C when there are no Mahayana seets
developed in India and had an existence independent from the form of Buddhism existing in Sri Lanka.
Today there is no Hinayana sect in existance any where in the world. Therefore, in 1950 the world
fellowship of Buddhists in augarated in Colombo unanimously decided that the term Hinayana should
bedropped when referring to Buddhism existing today in Sri Lanka. Thailand, Burma, Cambodia, Laos,
etc. This is the brief history of Theravada, Mahayana and Hinayana.
Now, what is the difference between Mahayana and Theravada.
1. Both accept Sakyamuni Buddha as the teacher.
2. The four Noble Truths are exactly the same in both schools.
3. The Eight fold path is exactly the same in both schools.
4. The Pattica samupada or the Dependent Origination is the same in both schools.
5. Both rejected the idea of a supreme being who created and governed this world.
6. Both accept Anieca, Dukkha, Anata and Sila, Samadi, Panna without any difference.
These are the most important teachings of the Buddha and they are all accepted by both
schools without question.
There are also some points where they differ. An obvious one in the Bodhisattva ideal.
Many people say that Mahanaya is for the Bodhisattva is for Arahantship.
I must point out that the Buddha was also an Arahant. Pacceka Buddha is also an Arakant.
A disciple can also be Arahan. The Mahayana texts never use the term Arahantyana, Arahant Vehicle.
They used three terms: Bodhisattvayana, proteka tradation these three are called Bodhi.
Some people imagine that Therawada is selfish because it teachs that people should seek
their own salvation. But how can a selfish person gain enlightenment. Both schools accept the three
Yanas or Bodhis but consider the Bodhisattva ideal as the highest. The Mahayana has created many
mystical Bodhisattva as a man amongst us who devotes his entire life for the attainment of perfection,
ultimately becoming a fully Enlightened Buddha for the welfare of the world for the happiness of the
world.
There are three types of Buddhahood the Samma Sambuddha who gains full Enlighten-
ment by his own effort, the Pacceka Buddha who has lesser qualities than the Samma Sambuddha, and
the savaka Buddha who is an Arahan disciple. The attainment of Nibbana between the three types of
Buddhahood is exactly the same the only difference is that the Samma Sambuddha has many more
qualities and capacities than the other two.