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EFFECT OF SHOCK VIBRATIONS DUE TO SPEED


CONTROL HUMPS TO THE HEALTH OF CITY
BUS PASSENGERS USING OSCILLATORY
MODEL WITH SIX DOF

DATASET · NOVEMBER 2012

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Vlastimir Dedović Dragan Sekulic


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International Conference on Traffic and Transport Engineering - Belgrade, November 29-30, 2012

EFFECT OF SHOCK VIBRATIONS DUE TO SPEED CONTROL HUMPS TO


THE HEALTH OF CITY BUS PASSENGERS USING OSCILLATORY
MODEL WITH SIX DOF
Vlastimir Dedović1, Dragan Sekulić2
1, 2
University of Belgrade, Faculty of Transport and Traffic Engineering, Belgrade, Serbia

Abstract: Speed control humps (SCH) are one of the most efficient means used in streets to slow down the vehicle flow, improving
traffic safety. An analysis of the effects of shock vibrations on passengers due to driving the typical city bus over the humps is made.
Evaluation procedure estimates accelerations on occupants' seats as the value influencing their health. Peak vertical accelerations of
passengers are calculated as the response of flat longitudinal oscillatory model of the bus with six degrees of freedom (DOF) while
passing over three types of SCHs. Simulation is carried out through program written in Matlab, and ISO 2631-5 Standard evaluation
method and criteria are used. The results show that passengers' health, particularly of those using seats on rear platform, may be
jeopardized even after one pass over the 5 cm high rounded profile hump at speed of 15 km/h.

Key words: city bus, speed humps, shock vibrations, ISO 2631 Standard, occupants health

1. Introduction

Vibrations are some of most harmful impacts that vehicle occupants are exposed. They may incite sensation of
discomfort, reduce work capacity, and by longer exposure may jeopardize health and provoke injuries and even vehicle
occupants disability (Dedović and Mladenović, 1999). Health problems that occur relatively often are musculoskeletal
disorders – pain in shoulders, neck, upper part of the back and very characteristic low back pain (Kompier, 1996;
Whitelegg, 1995; Okunribido, et al., 2007; Bovenzi and Hulshof, 1999).

Passenger's low back pain is often connected to the effects of shock vibrations (Stayner, 2001) having the origin in
collision of wheel and pothole or bump on road surface. Stronger shocks can provoke serious damage and injuries of
spinal column of the vehicle occupant (Bowrey, et al., 1996).

While passing over SCH vehicle occupants are exposed to high intensity vibrations (Granlund, J.; Lindstroms, F.
2003On the other side, SCHs are most efficient measure for vehicle speed reduction (Bjarnason, 2004) and in urban
zones their use contributes to the reduction of the number of traffic accidents (ITE, 1993).

First cases of musculoskeletal disorders with bus passengers are noted in Great Britain (Bowrey, et al., 1996). The paper
(Bowrey, et al., 1996) quotes the passenger felt acute low back pain while a double-decker passed over SCH. Roentgen
control of the passenger confirmed the fracture of third lumbar vertebra. In the second example from (Bowrey, et al.,
1996), in similar situation, passenger got neck injury and injury of the right shoulder soft tissue. Paper (Aslan, S., et al.
2005presents cases of five bus passengers with spinal column injuries that occurred while passing over SCHs.

The use of SCHs in Belgrade, for the reason of their positive influence to traffic safety, is frequent. That's why there is a
need to analyze the effect of vibrations which occur during bus pass over SCH, to the health of vehicle occupants. This
is particularly important for bus passengers in mass public transport.

The paper analyzes the effect of shock vibrations due to bus pass over SCH using the model with six DOF and their
influence to passengers of city bus IK-103. This is a typical bus used in mass public transport in Belgrade and other
cities. The analysis is made according procedure proposed by ISO 2631-5 Standard (2004). Evaluation of vibrations
effect to the occupants is completed for three usual profiles of SCHs, considering number of passes over and different
bus speeds.

2. Bus Oscillatory Model

The bus IK-103 (Fig. 1) is a typical modern city bus with two rigid axles and pneumatic suspension system
(Nijemčević, et al., 2001). Front axle has two pneumatic suspension elements and four hydraulic telescopic shock
absorbers, and rear one is equipped with four pneumatic suspension elements and four shock absorbers. Front axle is
fitted with two wheels, and rear one with two twin wheels (four tires). All tires are of the same size.

1
Corresponding author: v.dedovic@sf.bg.ac.rs

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Fig. 1.
City Bus IK-103

Fig. 2 shows the arrangement of the rear axle of the bus considered and Fig. 3 presents the scheme of the rear
suspension elements, with the geometry used for the calculation of equivalent stiffness and equivalent damping. Plane
oscillatory model of the bus with six DOF is shown in Fig. 4.

Fig. 2. Fig. 3.
IK-103 Bus Rear Axle Rear Axle Suspension Elements

The independent displacements of the concentrated masses of the considered mechanical oscillatory system are vertical
displacements of the passenger in the middle of the bus (passenger1), of the passenger in the rear end of the bus
(passenger2), of the vehicle center of gravity (T) and of front and rear axles, as well as the angular motion of the
suspended mass around the (transversal) y-axis.

Driver's working conditions and his exposure to shock vibrations are not considered here, and they were subject of
another investigation (Sekulic, et al., 2012).

Fig. 4.
Plane Oscillatory Model of the Bus IK-103

The effect of vibrations transmitted from the road to the passengers' bodies depends also on the characteristics of their
seats suspension. Considering that this is a typical city bus, passengers' seats are made in form of a plastic shell, with
thin layer of elastic foam. The seats are fixed to the vehicle floor without any suspension element (Nijemčević, et al.,
2001). Elastic and damping characteristics of the passengers' seats are given in Table 3.

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Oscillatory model of the bus has been defined according the following assumptions:
 the bus is symmetrical relative to longitudinal (x) axis
 there are no angular movements around x-axis
 the excitations on both left and right wheels are the same
 all possible displacements of concentrated masses around the static equilibrium position are small
 all elastic and damping characteristics are linear
 the bus wheels are in permanent contact with road surface
 the bus movement is linear and at constant speed.

The meaning of the labels from Fig. 3 and 4 is shown in Tables 1, 2 and 3, together with the values of parameters used
in simulation. The values are assumed after the relevant literature (Nijemčević, et al., 2001; Mladenović, 1997; Simić,
1979).

Table 1
Geometry parameters of the IK-103 bus
Geometry parameter Value
l - distance between axles 5.65 [m]
a - distance from the front axle to CG 3.12 [m]
b - distance from the rear axle to CG 2.53 [m]
p1 - distance from the passenger1's seat to CG -0.10 [m]
p2 - distance from the passenger2's seat to CG -4.23 [m]
ra - distance from the rear axle suspension element to the vertical axis of the rear wheel 0.30 [m]

Table 2
Masses parameters of the IK-103 bus
Mass parameter Value
mp1 - mass of the passenger1 80 [kg]
mp2 - mass of the passenger2 80 [kg]
m - suspended mass of the partially loaded bus 11900 [kg]
mt1 - mass of the front axle 745 [kg]
mt2 - mass of the rear axle 1355 [kg]
Jy - inertia moment of the suspended mass related to transversal axis 50000 [kgm2]

Table 3
IK-103 bus oscillatory model parameters
Oscillatory model parameter Value
cp1 , cp2 - passengers' seat spring stiffness 950000 [N/m]
bp1 , bp1 - passengers' seat damping 200 [Ns/m]
c1 - one front axle pneumatic suspension element stiffness 175000 [N/m]
cp - equivalent stiffness of front axle pneumatic suspension elements 350000 [N/m]
b1 - one front axle shock absorber damping 20000 [Ns/m]
bp - front axle shock absorbers equivalent damping 800000 [Ns/m]
c2 - one rear axle pneumatic suspension element stiffness 200000 [N/m]
cz - equivalent stiffness of rear axle pneumatic suspension elements 811250 [N/m]
b2 - damping of one rear axle shock absorber 22500 [Ns/m]
bz - equivalent damping of rear axle shock absorbers 91265 [Ns/m]
cpn - front and rear tire stiffness (per tire) 1000000 [N/m]
cpp - equivalent front axle tires stiffness 2000000 [N/m]
czz - equivalent rear axle tires stiffness 4000000 [N/m]
bpn - front and rear tire damping (per tire) 150 [Ns/m]
bpp - equivalent front axle tires damping 300 [Ns/m]
bzz - equivalent rear axle tires damping 600 [Ns/m]
According to Fig. 3, the equivalent stiffness and equivalent damping for the rear axle are calculated using Eq. (1) and
Eq. (2):
(b  ra ) 2 (b  ra ) 2
c z  c 2  c 2  2c 2  2c 2
, ,,
(1)
2
b b2
(b  ra ) 2 (b  ra ) 2
bz  b2  b2  2b2  2b2
, ,,
(2)
2
b b2

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To start the analysis of the effect of shock vibrations to occupants’ comfort, the differential equations of motion of
concentrated masses of the oscillatory model are needed. Using the Lagrange's equations of second order, and
considering earlier assumptions, the differential equations of motion of the proposed model are defined by following
expressions (Eq. (3) – Eq. (8)):

m p1zp1  bp1 z p1  c p1 z p1  bp1 z  c p1 z  bp1 p1  c p1 p1  0 (3)

m p 2 zp 2  bp 2 z p 2  c p 2 z p 2  bp 2 z  c p 2 z  bp 2 p2  c p 2 p2  0 (4)

mz  (bp1  bp 2  bp  bz ) z  (c p1  c p 2  c p  cz ) z  (abp  p1bp1  p2bp 2  bbz ) 


(5)
(ac p  p1c p1  p2 c p 2  bcz )  bp1 z p1  c p1 z p1  bp 2 z p 2  c p 2 z p 2  bp zt1  c p zt1  bz zt 2  cz zt 2  0

J y  ( p1 bp1  p2 bp 2  a 2 bp  b 2 bz )  ( p1 c p1  p2 c p 2  a 2 c p  b 2 c z ) 


2 2 2 2

(abp  p1bp1  p2 bp 2  bbz ) z  ( ac p  p1c p1  p2 c p 2  bc z ) z  p1bp1 z p1  p1c p1 z p1  (6)

p2 bp 2 z p 2  p2 c p 2 z p 2  abp zt1  ac p zt1  bbz zt 2  bc z zt 2  0

mt1zt1  (bp  bpp ) zt1  (c p  c pp ) zt1  bp z  c p z  abp  ac p  bpp1  c pp1 (7)

mt 2 zt 2  (bz  bzz ) zt 2  (cz  czz ) zt 2  bz z  cz z  bbz  bcz  bzz2  czz2 (8)

Numerical solving of the differential equations is made through the program written in Matlab ®, and Matlab's function
ode45 was used. Starting conditions defined for all variables were set to zero. According to ISO 2631-5 Standard,
samples of the vertical acceleration signal are recorded at each 1/160 s. The time of simulation was limited to eight
seconds.

Within the evaluation of the effect of shock vibration to the passengers' body in this paper, the dominant vertical
acceleration on the passengers' seats was considered and the relevant part of the program from Annex D of the ISO
2631-5 Standard has been applied.

The Annex D considers the seated human body acceleration along all three axes (x, y and z). With this paper, only the
part of program analyzing the effect of shock vibrations along the vertical axis on human health is applied. It is
sufficient for the analysis, having in mind that vertical acceleration has major intensity and, accordingly, the most
important negative effect to passengers' bodies.

3. Bus Excitation

Speed control humps, used on routes of city bus lines in mass passenger public transport (MPPT) in Belgrade wherever
needed to considerably reduce vehicle velocity, have two main configurations. Fig. 5 shows a flat platform, and Fig. 6
the type with rounded profile. Characteristic dimensions of the humps are shown in Fig. 5 and Fig. 6, and corresponding
parameter values are presented in Table 4 and Table 5.

Fig. 5.
Speed Control Humps: A) Flat Platform B) Rounded Profile

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International Conference on Traffic and Transport Engineering - Belgrade, November 29-30, 2012

Fig. 6.
Cross Section of Speed Control Humps: A) Flat Platform B) Rounded Profile

The analytic expressions describing SCH in form of flat platform is given by Eq. (9), and one describing rounded
profile by Eq. (10) (Salau, et al., 2004; Oke, et al., 2005). Characteristic dimensions are taken from manufacturer's data
(Technical data for road humps, 2010).

h l ru 
 l V  t , 0  t  V 
 ru 
 l ru l ru  l pl 
h , t  (9)
 V V 
 (t )   
  V  t 
h h  ( l  l ) l  l l  l  l 
 h, t
ru pl ru pl ru pl rs

 l rs l rs V V 
 
0, t  l ru  l pl  l rs 
 V 

  V l1, 2 
h1, 2  sin( l  t ), 0  t  V 
  (10)
 (t )   1, 2

 l1, 2 
0, t  V 

Table 4 Table 5
Dimensions of Flat Platform Dimensions Of Rounded Profile Humps
h - height of flat platform 0.08 [m] Rounded profile Type 1 Type 2
lru, lrs - length of ascending and h1,2 - height of profile 0.03 [m] 0.05 [m]
1.00 [m]
descending ramp l1,2 - length of profile 0.83 [m] 0.96 [m]
lpl - length of flat platform 10.00 [m]
luk - overall length of flat platform 12.00 [m]

The excitations due to flat platform and to rounded profiles for constant bus speed of 10 km/h are shown in Fig. 7.

Fig. 7.
Excitation due to a) Flat platform h=0.08 m and b) Rounded profiles h=0.03 m and h=0.05 m, bus speed 10 km/h

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International Conference on Traffic and Transport Engineering - Belgrade, November 29-30, 2012

4. ISO 2631-5 Standard

The ISO 2631-5 Standard defines the method of quantification of shock vibrations acting to the human body in sitting
position. It also gives the procedure for the evaluation of vibrations effect to the human health. Based on the method
described, the pressure exerted to the lumbar part of spinal column, consequent to shock vibrations, can be calculated.
By comparison to the evaluation criteria, it is possible to assess the risk of getting health problems.

The ISO Standard defines Daily equivalent static compression dose for lumbar spine - Parameter Sed - as the value
through which the effect of shock vibrations can be evaluated, (Eq. (11)).

1/ 6
 
S ed    (mk  Ddk ) 6  (11)
k  x , y , z 

where:
mk - are constants with values 0.015[ MPa /( m / s 2 )] , 0.035[MPa /( m / s 2 )] and 0.032 [MPa /( m / s 2 )] ,
for x, y and z axes respectively
Ddk ( k  x, y , z ) - is the average daily acceleration dose for x, y and z axes [m / s 2 ] .

Average daily acceleration dose can be calculated according the Eq. (12):

1/ 6
t 
Ddk ( k  x , y ,z )  Dk ( k  x , y ,z )  d  (12)
 tm 
where:
Dk ( k  x, y , z ) - are the acceleration doses for x, y and z axes [m / s 2 ] ,
t d - is the period of daily exposure to shock vibrations and
t m - is the time interval referring to which acceleration doses Dk ( k  x, y , z ) are defined.

Acceleration dose can be calculated according the Eq. (13):


1/ 6
 
Dk ( k  x , y ,z )   A6ik ( k  x , y ,z )  (13)
 i 
where:
Aik ( k  x, y , z ) - are the peaks of the lumbar spine acceleration responses for x, y and z axes [m / s 2 ] ;

The procedure for calculation of the parameter Sed is described in detail in the Annex A of the ISO 2631-5 Standard
(2004). For the calculated values of the parameter Sed one can estimate the effect of vibrations by comparison with the
limit values - criteria, as follows:
- if Sed<0.5 [MPa] the probability of negative effect of vibrations to health is low
- if Sed>0.8 [MPa] the probability of negative effect of vibrations to health is significant

The evaluation criteria for the parameter Sed are set with the assumption that human body is exposed to shock
vibrations during 240 days per year.

5. Results of the Simulation and Their Analysis

The law administrates the maximum speed of 50 km/h for MPPT bus (Subotić, 2009). The actual bus speed range in
Belgrade is 10 to 50 km/h (GSP Beograd, 2005). That is why the range of 10 do 50 km/h is considered for the analysis
of the effects of shock vibrations caused by SCH to the occupant's body.

Fig. 8 shows the change of parameter Sed for passengers in function of the bus speed for three types of SCH. The
change of parameter Sed is analyzed for six passes over per day. The analysis is made for two positions of sitting
passenger – in the middle part of the bus (passenger1) and on the rear bus overhang (passenger2).

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After the Fig. 8, in all three cases, the parameter Sed has greatest values for the passenger2. In case of flat platform,
values of the parameter Sed for the passenger2 overcome both criteria 0.5 MPa and 0.8 MPa, at bus speeds greater than
18 km/h and 21 km/h respectively (Fig. 8a). For the bus speed of 50 km/h the value of the parameter Sed rises above 2.0
MPa, so shock vibrations have particularly negative effect to his health.

Passing over SCH with rounded profile h=0.03 m, passenger2 is exposed to high risk of getting health problems at
speed over 22 km/h (Fig. 8b). The highest value of the parameter Sed, over 1.5 MPa, corresponds to the speed of 50
km/h. For the passenger1 the values of parameter Sed are lower than 0.5 MPa for all bus speeds considered, so the risk
of negative influence of shock vibrations to its health is low.

Passing over SCH with rounded profile h=0.05 m the value of the parameter Sed for the passenger2 overcomes the
criterion of 0.8 MPa at speed greater than 10 km/h (Fig. 8c). The parameter Sed for the passenger2 has the greatest
value of 3.1 MPa at the bus speed of 45 km/h. Such a great pressure in lumbar spine points to high risk for the
passenger2 health. The value of parameter Sed for the passenger1 overcomes 0.5 MPa at speed greater than 35 km/h.

a) Flat platform b) Rounded profile h=0.03m c) Rounded profile h=0.05m


Fig. 8.
Change Of Daily Equivalent Static Compression Dose Sed For Passengers As Function Of Bus Speed For 6 Passes
Over Per Day, For Three Profiles Of SCH

Fig. 9 shows the change of parameter Sed as a function of the number of passes over, for three types of SCH, both for
passenger1 and passenger2. The analysis is carried out for the bus speed of 30 km/h, for up to 10 passes over per day.
Parameter Sed for the passenger2 has the greatest value in all three cases considered. High risk for health damage of
passenger2 is present even at first pass over the flat platform and over rounded profile h=0.05 m (Fig. 9, a) and b)). The
highest value of parameter Sed for passenger2 reaches 2.7 MPa for 10 passes over rounded profile 0.05 m high. In all
three cases passenger1 is exposed to low risk of health damage due to effect of shock vibrations.

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a) Flat platform b) Rounded profile h=0.03m c) Rounded profile h=0.05m


Fig. 9.
Daily Equivalent Static Compression Dose Sed for The Passengers As Function Of Number Of SCH Passes Over, At
Bus Speed Of 30 Km/H

5.1 Estimation of maximum daily number of passes over SCH for bus occupants regarding evaluation criteria for
parameter Sed

Maximum daily number of passes over SCH where a risk for the health of occupants may occur can be defined, after
the ISO 2631-5 Standard, from the Eq. (15) and Eq. (16):

0.5 6 0.8 6
N 0.5  ( ) (15) , N 0.8  ( ) (16)
Se Se

where:
S e  is the equivalent static compressive stress for the acceleration dose Dk ( k  z ) .

Tables 7 and 8 present maximum daily number of passes over SCH for passenger1 and passenger2 to reach evaluation
criteria defined by ISO 2631-5 Standard. Maximum daily number of passes over for passenger2 is considerably lower
regarding passenger1. Maximum daily number of passes over for passenger1 decrease when the speed increases, for all
profiles of SCH. At the bus speed of 40 km/h two passes over rounded profile h=0.05 m are sufficient to produce
moderate negative influence to the health of passenger1. At the bus speed of 25 km/h and more, one pass over daily, for
all types of SCH, is sufficient to significantly jeopardize health of passenger2. Comparing to the passengers in the
middle area of the bus, passengers on the seats in the rear end of the bus when passing over SCH, are considerably
more exposed to harmful influence of shock vibrations.

Table 7
Maximum Daily Number of Passes Over SCH for Passenger1 Regarding Evaluation Criteria
Maximum daily number of passes over for passenger1
Bus speed [km/h] 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
Flat platform (Sed=0.8) 6881345 609092 93929 13555 7122 2674 942 305 253
Flat platform (Sed=0.5) 410160 36305 5599 808 424 159 56 18 15
Rounded profile h=0.03 [m] (Sed=0.8) 2500230 272201 55031 13978 9469 7926 8309 3876 749
Rounded profile h=0.03 [m] (Sed=0.5) 149025 16224 3280 833 564 472 495 231 45
Rounded profile h=0.05 [m] (Sed=0.8) 144057 7388 931 276 445 222 34 42 52
Rounded profile h=0.05 [m] (Sed=0.5) 8586 440 56 16 27 13 2 2 3

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Table 8
Maximum Daily Number of Passes Over SCH for Passenger2 Regarding Evaluation Criteria
Maximum daily number of passes over for passenger2
Bus speed [km/h] 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
Flat platform (Sed=0.8) 11582 931 24 1 1 1 1 1 1
Flat platform (Sed=0.5) 690 55 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Rounded profile h=0.03 [m] (Sed=0.8) 344 29 39 3 7 3 1 1 1
Rounded profile h=0.03 [m] (Sed=0.5) 20 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1
Rounded profile h=0.05 [m] (Sed=0.8) 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Rounded profile h=0.05 [m] (Sed=0.5) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

6. Conclusion

Speed control humps (SCH) are widely used to reduce vehicle speed and improve safety in some urban areas. The bus
passengers are generally exposed to shock vibrations, particularly intensive when passing over SCH. Repeated and/or
long-term exposure of human body to shock vibrations can produce musculoskeletal disorders and even injuries.

The simulation analysis of the effects of shock vibrations to the health of the passengers of a typical modern city bus is
performed in this paper through simulation, by means of an original oscillatory model with six degrees of freedom and
using evaluation method and criteria approved by ISO 2631-5 Standard.

The influence of shock vibrations due to SCH to bus occupants depends of the bus speed, geometry of SCH, number of
passes over and passenger position in the bus.

Generally, lower speeds help to reduce negative influence of vibrations to the health of passengers.

The results of simulation prove that shock vibrations due to SCH mostly endanger passengers seated on the rear end of
the bus. Negative influence of vibrations to the health is noted even at bus speed lower than 30 km/h. The pass over
rounded profile 0.05 m high is particularly significant. It follows that the passengers using city buses which have SCH
on their routes should avoid seats located in the rear end of the bus, i.e. they rather should use seats in front and middle
area. This is particularly valid for aged persons, for the reason of increased sensitivity of their spine and other bone
tissues.

Some preventive measures for the reduction of negative effects of shock vibrations due to pass over SCH can be
undertaken: (1) seats in the rear end of the bus should have improved elastic and dumping characteristics, (2) mounting
seats on the rear platform should be avoided and (3) a recommendation to the aged persons should be to avoid seats in
zone of bus rear overhang.

It should be noted that the risk of multiple passes over SCH for the passengers stays for the reason that on the same bus
route one can find multiple SCHs (for example, there are five only on the route of the line 26 in Belgrade), but it is
reduced for the reason of low probability that one will use the line from end to end and will take the same place in the
rear end of the bus in multiple trips during the day.

One of the problems that may occur considering the recommendation to use lower speeds when passing over SCHs for
the benefit of passengers is that this collides with the results of the investigation regarding drivers, which shows that
driver is less exposed to shock vibrations passing over rounded profile SCH 0.05 m high at higher (Sekulic, et al.,
2012).

References

Aslan, S., et al. 2005. Speed bump-induced spinal column injury, American Journal of Emergency Medicine 23(4):
563–564.

Bjarnason, S. 2004. Round top and flat top humps - The influence of design on the effects. Lund Institute of
Technology Department of Technology and Society Traffic Engineering, Lund. 144 p. Available from Internet:
<http://www.tft.lth.se/publ/5000/Thesis125SBscr.pdf>.

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Bovenzi, M.; Hulshof, C.T.J. 1999. An updated review of epidemiologic studies on the relationship between exposure
to whole body vibration and low back pain (1986-1997), International Archives of Occupational and Environmental
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Bowrey, D., et al. 1996. Road humps: accident prevention or hazard?, Accident & Emergency Medicine 13(4): 288-289.

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Granlund, J.; Lindstroms, F. 2003. Design of shock free speed hump, in Proceedings of the 10th International Congress
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GSP Beograd. 2005. Analysis of structure and operation of urban and suburban public passenger transport network in
Belgrade. GSP Beograd. 15 p.

ISO/DIS 2631-5: 2004. Mechanical vibration and shock - evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration - part
5: method for evaluation of vibration containing multiple shocks. 22 p.

ITE Technical Council Task Force on Speed Humps. 1993. Guidelines for the Design and Application of Speed Humps.
Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE), Washington, DC, USA. 5 p. Available from Internet: <
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