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DPP - 3

 Introduction
 Excretory Products
 Mode of Excretion
 Main Excretory Structure in Animal
 Human Excretory System
 Kidney
 Nephron
 Pressure in Renal Circulation
 Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR), Filtration
Fraction, Urine Formation
 Osmoregulation by Kidney
 Regulation of Kidney Function
 Disorder of Excretory system

NEET SYLLABUS: Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion- Ammonotelism, ureotelism,
uricotelism; Human excretory system-structure and function; Urine formation, Osmoregulation; Regulation of
kidney function-Renin-angiotensin, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in
excretion; Disorders; Uraemia, Renal failure, Renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis and artificial kidney..

YEAR 2017 - 19



Part B: Check your GRASP

1. Excretion means:
(a) Removal of substances which have never been a part of body.
(b) Removal of substances not required in the body.
(c) Formation of useful substances in the body.
(d) all of the above.

2. Excretion involves process in which:

(a) Substances of no further use or those present in excessive quantities are thrown out of the body.
(b) Harmful substances are stored in cells before being eliminated.
(c) Expulsion of urine from the urinary bladder and sweat from the skin.
(d) Harmful substances in the bodx are chemically changed.

3. The phenomenon which helps in maintaining a constant internal environment in living organism is:
(a) Entropy (b) apoptosis (c) haemolysis (d) homeostasis

4. A condition in which body's internal environment remains relatively constant within limits is called:
(a) Hematoma (b) haemostasis ( c) homeostasis ( d) haemopoiesis

5. Human blood maintains homeostasis by:

(a) Replenishment of nutrients and oxygen and elimination of metabolic wastes from the extracellular fluid.
(b) Replenishment of oxygen and elimination of C02.
(c) Maintenance of blood sugar level and conversion of amino acids into urea and destruction ofwomout RBCs.
(d) Maintenance of concentration in the blood and body fluids by eliminating nitrogenous wastes.

6. Osmoconf ormers are the animal that:

(a) Actively control the osmotic condition of their body fluid.
(b) Do not actively control the osmotic condition of their body fluid.
(c) Maintain the condition of body fluid within a narrow osmotic range.
(d) Do not change the body fluid according to the osmolarity of ambient medium.

7. Which among the following is the only vertebrate osmoconformer?

(a) Bird (b) Hagfish (c) Rabbit (d) None of these

8. The most important function of the mammalian kidney is the:

(a) Control of reproduction (b) regulation of amount of blood sugar
(c) Control of amount of protein in the blood (d) regulation of osmotic concentration of body fluid

9. The kidneys not only remove the waste products from the blood but also play a very important role in
(a) Equilibrium of the body (b) temperature of the body
(c) Blood pressure constant
(d) Constant composition of the blood irrespective of the nature of the food or fluid intake

10. Which of these is not a general function of the kidney?

(a) Regulation of blood volume (b) Regulation of vitamin A synthesis
(c) Regulation of solute concentration in the blood
(d) Regulation of the pH of the extra-cellular fluid

11. Which statement is correct?

(a) Osmotic pressure of solution is lower than the pure water.
(b) Osmotic pressure of solution is greater than pure solvent.
(c) Osmotic pressure of solution is equal to the pure water.
(d) None of the statement is right.

12. Match the following:

Column I Column II
A Hypotonic 1 Water



B Hypertonic 2 Sucrose
C Solute 3 Lower tonicity
D Solvent 4 Higher tonicity
Answer codes:
(a) A = 1, B = 2, C = 3, D = 4 (b) A = 3, B = 4, C = 2, D = l
(c) A = 3, B = 2, C = 1, D = 3 (d) A = 3, B = 2, C = 4, D = 1
(e) A = 3, B = 1, C = 2, D = 4

13. A person has taken very high protein rich diet; his urine will eliminate more of
(a) Urea (b) creatinine (c) Glucose (d) glycogen

14. Vertebrates kidney and contractile vacuole of protozoans resemble as both excrete
(a) Minerals (b) water (c) Glucose (d) nitrogenous wastes

15. The passing out of almost solid excretory wastes in reptiles is an indication of
(a) Xeric habits (b) Excretion through skin
(c) Excretion through alimentary canal (d) Reutilizing water of urine

16. Most terrestrial insects get rid of bulk of their nitrogenous wastes as
(a) Amino acids (b) urea (c) Uric acid (d) ammonia

17. The flame cell system of helminthes work

(a) To remove ammonium ions and uric acids (b) To remove uric acid
(c) To regulate Ph (d) For osmoregulation
18. Renal gland is the excretory organ of
(a) Annelida (b) Echinodermata (c) Crustaceans (d) Mollusca

19. Deamination is first step in urea formation which means

(a) Reduction of ammonia
(b) Oxidation of ammonia
(c) Addition of amino group to organic molecule
(d) Removal of amino group from amino acid
20. Antennary glands are excretory organs of
(a) Spiders (b) crustaceans
(c) Mollusca (d) Echinodermata
21. Protonephridia are present in platyhelminthes and metanephridia in

(a) Nematodes (b) Arthropod

(c) Annelids
(d) Platyhelminthes only
22. Excretory organs of proto-chordate Amphioxus are
(a) Malpighian tubules (b) Protonephridia
(c) Kidney (d) none of these.

23. Major source of ammonia produced by kidney comes from

(a) Leucine (b) glycine

(c) Glutamine (d) alanine

24. Uric acid is the end product of metabolism of

(a) Proteins (b) glomerular acids

(c) Fats (d) lipids
25. Trimethylamine is excreted by

(a) Marine teleosts (b) Mollusca

(c) Fresh water fish
(d) Amphibians