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THE
ELEMENTS
O F

HERALDRY.
THE AO
ELEMENT
O F

HERALDRY,
C O NT A I N I N G
A clear Definition, and concife The forts of Efcut-
feveral
hiftorical Account of that an- cheons, Tinctures, Charges,
cient, ufeful, and entertain- and Ornaments ufed for
ing Science. Coats-of-arms.
The Origin and divers kinds The Marks whereby Bearers
of Coats-of-arms, with their of the fame Coat-of-arms
eiTential and integral Parts are diftinguifhed from each
confidered feparately. other, &c. &c.

EMBELLISHED
With feveral fine Cuts, and twenty-four Copper-Plates,
containing abesre five hundred different Examples of Efcut-
cheons, Arms, ]kc. And interfperfed with the natural Hifto-
1

ry, and allegorical fignification of the feveral Species of Birds 9


Beafts, Fifties, Vegetables, &c. comprifed in this Treatife.

To which is annexed,

A DICTIONARY TERMS
of the Technical
made ufe of in HERALDR Y.
By Mr. PORN Y,
French - Master at Eton - Collece.

THE SECOND EDITION CORRECTED.

LONDON:
Printed for T. Car nan, and £. Neweery, Junior, at
No. 65. in St. Paul's Church-yard.
TO THE

NOBLEMEN
AND

GENTLEMEN
EDUCATED at ETON-SCHOOL.

THIS BOOK
IS RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED,

B Y

THEIR MOST OBE'DIENT,

AND MOST HUMBLE SERVANT,

M. A. PORN Y.
PREFACE,
ERALDRY is fo noble,
ufeful, and entertaining a
Science, that fcarce any of thofe
Studies which are confidered as po-
lite and ornamental, can lay a jufter

claim to the attention of Noblemen and


Gentlemen* For it prefents to their
view the Origin and Foundation of
thofe Titles and Dignities, which
diftinguiih. them from the reft of man-
kind; and ferves not only to tranfmit
to Posterity the Glory of the heroic
Addons, or meritorious Deeds of their

Anceftors, but alfo to illuftrate hiftori-


cal Fads, towards eftablilhing their

Rights and Prerogatives.


'

A 4 IT
viii PREFACE.
It is therefore a juft matter of
wonder 5
that in fo learned and polifhed
an Age as ours, this Science fhould
be fo little attended to, as not to be
confidered as a part of liberal Educa-
tion, fince there are fo few to be met
with, even among perfons of Quality,
that can fpeak pertinently of their
Coats-of-arms, and either know the
Origin of them, or can account for

the Quarterings and Charges they


contain,,

The mpft obvious reafon that can


be given for the prefent negleft of this

valuable knowledge is, that moft of


the Authors, who, for a Century paft,

have treat* d of Heraldry, either to

heighten this Science, or to make a


vain fliew of their own Erudition, have
fwelled their Treatifes with tedious
Explanations
PREFACE. he

Explanations of the pretended myftical


Senfe of the Colours and Charges of
Coats-of-arms, with prepofterous Re-
flections, and far fetched Gonje£hires,

and in a word, with numberlefs Trifles,

fufficient to difguPc not only young


Gentlemen ,
generally taken up either

with Exercifes or Pleafure, but even


Perfons of riper Years, and more ftudi-
oufly inclined.

,
Indeed R Blome^ S. Kent*, and two
or three anonymous Authors, have pub-
lifhed, at different times, Grammars,
ElTays, &c. on this Subject, or rather

Extracts from that copious and much


efteemed work, entitled A Difplay of
Heraldry, by J. Giiillim % with a

* Dr. Berk ham, Bean of Bock i rig, is laid to


have compofed this Treatife, and to have given to
J. Guillim, then Purfuivant at Arms, who pubiifh-

3 view,
x PREFACE.
view, as one of them declares in his!

Preface, cc
Of freeing .
Heraldry from

the charge of eonfufion under which
cc
it has laboured, and of engaging
" thereby the Gentry of this nation to
" the ftudy of it:" But their Abridge-
ments, for .want of containing a luffi-

cient Explanation of the Principles of


the Science, and proper Directions for

of making
1

learning it, have, inftead

this ftudy more delightful by fuch a


concifenefs, rendered it ahftrufe, dry,

and difcouraging.
In order to remedy thefe Befedts,

I have carefully collected all I could


find efiential in the moil celebrated and
moft approved Writers on this Subject,

and have endeavoured to digeft it into

ed it in his ov/n name-, fee Prine e's Worthies of


Devon, in the life of that Gentleman.
fo
PREFACE, xi

fo intelligible and eafy a Method, that


any Perfon of ordinary capacity may
thereby be enabled to blazon the in oft
intricate Coat-of-arms. This Epitome
will alfo, I hope 5
be found more en-
tertaining than moft Books on this Sub-
jedt generally are, as I have annexed to
the elucidation of the Arms of fuch
Noblemen and Gentlemen, as their

Ipecifick fuitabienefs would allow me


to introduce, a concife Genealogical ac-
count of their Families, with the hifto-
rical defcription of the Charges they
contain.

And as it is chiefly deflgned for the


inftrudtion of the Britifh Youth, care
has been taken to remove, as far as

poffible, every Obftacle that might


hinder fo neceflary a Science from be-
ing admitted among the other branches
of
xii' PREFACE.
of polite Learning ; for which purpofe,
befides the great variety of Cuts and
Copper-plates inferted to affift both the
Memory and Underftanding, there is

added at the end of the work, a Dic-


tionary for the Explanation of all the
Technical Terms, which is one of the
greateft difficulties attending the Study
of Heraldry.
Should I be fo happy, by the fol-

lowing attempt, as to contribute, in

fome meafure, to the improvement of


the Youth of this Great and Illuftrious

Nation, my principal end in the pub-


lication of it will thereby be fully an-
fwered, and the Benefit which will
accrue to them from it, will be a fuffi-

cient Recompence to me for the Pains

I have taken.

Eton, Sept 10th, 1771.


ALPHABETICAL LIST.

Of the Names of the Noblemen and Gentlemen


whofe Paternal Coats-of-Arms are inferted, as

Examples, in the following Treatife of Heraldry.

Plate. Figure.

The KING's, or Royal ATCHXEVEMENT, XXI 7

DUKES.
/i i nuii, tnc jvUKc or, Al V 9
BEAUFORT, the Duke of. III o
y
BOLTON, the Duke of, XVIII I

CHANDOS, the Duke of, X 5


CLEVELAND, the Duke of, vn 20
DORSET, the Duke of, VII 12
GORDON, the Duke of, XVI 7
GRAFTON, the Duke of, VII 20
HAMILTON, the Duke of, XIV 16
LEEDS, the Duke of, X i

LINSTER, the Duke of, XI


MALBOROUGH, the Duke of, Page n6
MONTAGU, Duke of,
the XXIII 7
MON ROSE, the Duke of,
-
V *3
NEWCASTLE, the Duke of, X 17
NORTHUMBERLAND, the Duke of, XV 1

PORTLAND the Duke of, X


QUEEN SB ERR Y, the Duke of, XIV 16
RICHMOND,
i

( xiv )

Plate, Figur

RICHMOND, the Duke of, III H


ROXBURGH, the Duke of, IX
RUTLAND, the Duke of, VIII 19
SOMERSET, the Duke of, XII 11
ST. ALBANS, the Duke of, VII 2.0'

M ARQ^UISSES.
ANN AND ALE, the Msrquis of, XVIII n
1

LOTHIAN, the Marquis of, XIII I

EARL S.

ABERCORM, the Earl of, XVIII O


AEINGTON the Earl of, XVIII 2

AILESFORD, the Earl of, IX 4


ALBEMARLE, the Earl of, XVil 1

ATHLON E, the Earl of VIII *S


BALCARAS; the Earl of, III J 3

BARRYMORE, the Earl of, mix I 0

BERKELEY, the Earl of, X Io

BRE A DA LBANE, the Earl of, XII 5

BRISTOL, the Earl of, VII *3


BROOKE, and WARWICK, the Eail of, X 8

CBOLMONDELEY, the Earl of, XVIII


CORK and ORRERY, the Earl of, VII 0

COVENTRY, the Earl of, -


VIII 9
DARTMOUTH, the Ear' of, XVI 16

DELAWARR, the Earl of, -


viii
DENBIGH, the Earl of, VI EI 6

P ROCKED A, the Earl of.


( xv )

Plate Figure.

DYSERT, the Ear! of, XII 3


EGMONT, the Earl of, V H
FINDLATER, the Earl of, XV 7
FITZ- WILLIAM, the Earl of, XII 6
GAINSBOROUGH the Earl of, XII .4
GOWER, the Earl of, XVII 18

GRANVILLE, the Earl of, XVIII 9


IfARBOROUGH, the Earl of, IX 1

HARCOURT, the Earl of, VIII


%
HARDWICKE, the Earl of, 5

HI LI SBOROUGH, the E*rl of, VIII f 2

HOP TON, the Earl of, IX l


3
HUNTINGTON, the Earl of, XVIII iO
HYNDFORD, the Earl of, VIII 2

ILCKESTER, the Earl of, IX 16'

JERSh.Y, the Earl of, '

XX 1
'

KERRY, the Earl of, XI 18


KINNOUL, the Earl of, XII 2
LONDONDERRY, the Farl of, VIII TO
LOUDON, the Earl of, Page 115 ,
,2'

MARCH, the Earl of, XIV j6


MASSAREENE, the Earl of, XVI 8
MORTON, the Earl of, XIV 16
ORFO.RD, the Earl of, IX 18
PAN MURE, the Earl of, III 17
PEMBROKE, the Earl of, XV 20
PLYMOUTH, the Earl of, XI 2
PORTSMOU fH, the Earl of, VII 1

ROSCOMMON, the Earl of, VIII 18


SALISBURY, the Earl of, VIII 20
SHAFTESBURY, the Earl of, XVI 10
SHREWSBURY,
(
xvl )

Plate, Figure,

5HREWbtURY, the Ea 1 of, III 3


STAIR, the Earl of, XI 9
oTRAi'rORD, the Earl of, IX 3
bu hbRLAND, the bar! of,
l XII 8
TANKERYILLj, theEailof, XV y
THANE T, the Earl of, III I

U ri Ji K w o O i\
- Y , tne Earl or, XI '9
WALDEGRAVE, the Eari of, VI 7
\VARWK.K, the Earl of, y g
WES MEA H, the Earl of,
I J
VIII T A

WESTMORELAND, the Earl of, XVIII 2


0

V 1 S C O U N T S.

iiKis U 1 rljiN Ulj V licount, VTir


Alii I I

iiorli-KUUiv, v licount, A V ILL i 2


UAKKliN G 1 UiN , V llCOUnt, IA 2Q
jjA 1 EM AIM , V licount, ~\T TIT
1 I

L.rlii I \v iiN jJ, V licount,


TV
IA O
C U JLJLJiJN , V licount, A VII 9.
o
JJUiN i^K/iljjE, V licount, V 9
DUDLEY and WAR:-', V licount, VII 2
rALMOUlrl, Vileount, AV1I n
GAGE, Vifcount, vr
AI 7
GRANDlbOIN, Vilcounteis V VT T
AXUI T
5
JQCELYN, Viicount, VI T T
AV11I
7 T
ii
KING SEAN D, Vifcount, III J
5
MIDDLETON, Vifcount, V 12
MOUN TGARREi , Vifcount, V I

POWERSCOUR f, Vifcount, VII «4


SAY and SELE, Vifcount, XV 17
STRANGEORD, Vifcount, IX 9
TAAFFE,
$Plate % Figure,

TAAFFE, Vifcount, X 3
TOWNSHEND, Vifcount, . IX 5

ARCHBISHOPS and BISHOPS.


ASAPH, the Bifhop of, - XVIII 15
BATH and WELLS, the Eifhop of, XI 14
BRISTOL, the Bifhop of, XVIII 18
CHESTER, the Bifhop of, -XVIII 17
;:
CHICHESTER, the Bifhop of, XIV 1

CLOGHER, th< Bifhop of, XIV .3

ELY, the Bilhop of, XVIII 20


EXETER, theBifhopof, XVIII 19
LITCHFIELD and COVENTRY, the Bp. of, X 12
LONDON, the Bifhop f, c XVIII ,14.

NORWICH, the Bilhop of, XXIII 6


RAPHOE, the Bilhop of, V 20
ROCHESTER, the Bifhop of, XI 6
SALISBURY, the Eiihop of, XiV 1

WATE R! ORD, the Bifhop of, XIV ,

4
WINCHESTER, the Bifhop of, XVIII 16
YORK, the Archbifhop of, XVIII 33

BARONS.
ABERGAVENNY, Lord, XI 8
ARCHER, Lord, XVIII 4
ATHENRY, Lord, VI 8
BALTIMORE, Lord, VII 5
BI^ANEY, Lord, XVI 5
BYRO NT, Lord, VII 7
CADOGAN, Lord, XV 3
C$RPENTj£R, Lord, |3 JX iz
fARY§-
1 , .

( xviii )

Piute, Figure*

C \PvYSFORT, Lord, VTTT


Vill o
CAVAN
VIA » X XX ^ J Lord.
A.J\yJ. VI £
YVTT
A V 11 20
CLIFFORD. Lord VI 11 5
CLIFTON Lord, Vtv
AiA 3:
V ill
7
n\r
IV .... i
IX i
£j ivvj^ u iviJD ii,
f i_jora ? VII
XIX f
FF VFP QFT A A'i I- or J •
IX 1

FO R TF ^ PT TF T nrrl »
VII 3
\j iv in. 1 , JLiOra, III
T~T A W ? FV T nrr\ -

XI
XVIII
1TT\T\T
Jvl AIR f) T nrrl
J.N IN xl 1 IX Uy LiQTQ. 9
,
XI it

IV IN A Jr I vJ In , i_.orG, X 6
ATvir^FiATF
T rx Pi \j 1J Lj£j, T nrA
i-iOruy .
IX r
T FT OH lord X 2
T7TT T
Vill if
MONSON. Lord. TV I 7
MONTFORT Lord VI 7
AVIV./ IX X^ X 1 ^1 v_s X \_/ J.\ j Xj VI u.3
V TT7"
XIV IO
NAPTFR Tord vr .c
ID
OLTPHANT Lord. Ail J IO
RAE, Lord, 1A J 5-

RANELAGH, Lord,. III 16


RAVENSWORTH Lord- V 19
SEMPLE, Lord, IX
SOMERVILLE, Lord 9 X 19
ST. JOHN, Lord, V 15-

TOR PI. CHEN, Lord, ; XIV 16


TYRAW-
( xix )

TYRAWLEY, Lord, 4«
WILLOUGHBY, Lord, X 2Q

GEN.TLEM E N,
Plate, Fig. PL Fig,
ADAMS, XVI ii DOWNES VI 6
ALDHAM, XII 14 DRAKES XIX io
ANDREWS XI 13 ELLIS, XIX 9
ANTESHED via 3 ELPHINSTON XVI 1
ARMSTRONG, XIV 10 EMME, XV 16
ASHLEY VI 13 ERSK1NE XVII 19
AVERY, VI 14 FITZ-GEFFREY XVI 2
AYDE, XIX 3 FiTZ-HAMMOMD, XV i
BAKER, XVI 18 FITZ-HUGH' IX i 9
'BARNARD, XXIII 1 FRENCH, VII 4
BEDDINGFIELD, XVII i FRENES VII 11
BENTON. XI 17 GAMES XV z
BETUNES, VI iS GAMIN, XIV 29
BJDGOOD V 10 GAWDY,- XVII ic
BOOTH XVI 6 GLEGG, XV 12
BROM FIELD XV 5 GRAHAM, V 13
BROMLEY VI Q GRANDMAIN, VI 1
BRYAN* XII 16 HACKWELL XVI 13
BUTLER, V 1 HAD DON, XIV 5
BYE, XVII 14 HAGGATT XXIII 2
CAMEL XVI 1 HARRINGTON, Page 117
CARNE, XVII 4 HARTING XIX 13
CARTER, XV 10 HAY, '

XII z
CHA LONER, XIX 2 HE N T I NG TON, IV 2
CHAMBER IX 10 HOB LET HORNE, Xli 7
CHEYNEY, X 16 HOLLES, XII 12
COLVILL, X 14 HOSY, XIV 1 1
CORBET, XVII 7 HUITSON, XIII 13
CORK, XVI 15 HULSE, XII 13
CROUCHBACK, XV 18 HUMFRAMVILLE, XII i
DALZIEL, Page 40 HUSSENHUL, XIII 15
DAMPIER, XXI if 2 JOHNSON, XII 17
DIGBY JV 5 JONES, XVI 19
DIXIN, V 18 IRE TON, VII 8
DIXON, VI 12 KADROD-HARD, XVI 9
DOGGET, XVI 12 .
KER, IX 14
DOUGLAS, XIV 16 KINGSMAN, XI 20
2 LANE,
I 1

( )

Plate* Fig, Plate, Fig*


XI 20 RIGDON, XII LO
£,AViDER, XII 20 ROGERS, IV 4
LKAK, XJ IO ROW, XVI ; 20
T F O IT Hf
LEIGH AM, f «
XVII 2 SAMWELL, XVI »7
JLEINt N A D, : VIII 6 SAVAGE, VI 1
3D XTTV
.LENNOX, 7 S~\ XT'
XI 12 SAUNDERS, VII 4
l/ESON, XIII 20 SCOTE, XI 1.-6

LEVESOM, XVII 18 STAR KEY, XVII 3


LI 0 DEL, V 19 STOWAY, X 4
.LORRAYNE, XXIII 3 SYMONDS, XVII 9
JjU'v. y, XI J 9 TADDINGTON, X 10
lYrTON, V 1.6 TANNER, XIV 18
MAC GILL,
-14
ft A /— v~i T T T
<

XIX 6 TREMA "N, XIV 12


MALM A INS, XIV 6 1REN CHARD, VI 1
A
'"ftT XT
MANLEY,3' "Kt T?
XIV l
5 TREWARTHEN. XVI , 3
M/iPLEoDEN, X *5 TRGUTBEL K, XVII 12
JviAbON, XV 9 TYNTE, XV 14
MAYNARD, XIV 7 ULMSTON,. XI 4
JVlERGiTt- 1
a XIV 17 USTOC, XIV 20
MER V SN, XV 13 VAUTORT, VI 19
'MONTAGU,. XXIII 4 V LLIERS, X 7
MOORE, V 15 WAKEMAN, XI 3
iM A I HILEY, XVII 16 WALKER XXIII 2
iMEWJJiGA 1 JCi, XVI i.4 WEELE,, XVII 6
iNOR I GiN, XII 15 WELSH, xni IS
OLIVER, V TTT
AH! J
9 WH ALLEY, XVII 10
PARIS, XIX •5 Wl RR AR AM
I Vli 9
PAWNE, XXII 5 WILLIAMS, XIX M-
PECKHAM, V 7 W NWOOD, X 9
PERCEVAL, V H WOLLASTON, X!U 14
PIERSON," '

xm 18 WORLEY, XV 4
PRYME, XIV 8 WR Y, V 17
KAYN.ON, XIX 16 WYCHE, £11 9

T HE
THE
ELEMENT £
O F

H E R A L D R Y.

CHAP. I.

Of the Definition, Origin, and Antiquity of


Heraldry and Arms.

ERALDRY is a Science which


teaches how to Blazon, or explain
in proper terms, all that belongs to

Coats-of-arms, and how to Marfa!, or


difpofe regularly, divers arms in a Shield *.

* This is the object I chiefly purpofe to treat of, although


this fcience may be faid, in a more enlarged feme, to com-
prehend whatever relates to the marlhalling and adjufting of
B folemn
a ELEMENTS
Arms, or Coats-of-arms, are marks of
honour, made up of fixed and determined
Colours, Figures, &c. either hereditary or
granted by Sovereign Princes, as a reward
for military valour, a fhining virtue, or a
fignal public fervice ; and which ferve to
denote the defcent of the bearer, or to dif~
tinguiih States, Cities, Families, and So-
cieties, civil, ecclefiaftical, and military.
Thus Heraldry is the Science, of which
Arms are the proper object ; but yet they
differ much both in their Origin and Anti-
quity . Arms,
. . according to Sir George
Mackenzie, a famous Scotch writer * took
their origin from the Example of the Pa-
triarch Jacob, who, bleffing his fons, gave

them marks of diftinction, which the twelve


Tribes bore on their Enligns. John Sir

Feme -f is of opinion that we did borrow


them from the Egyptians, meaning from

folemn Calvacades, Proceilions, and other Ceremonies at

Coronations, Inftallments, Creations of Peers, Nuptials,


Chriftening of Princes, Funerals, &c.
* See his treatife of Heraldry, p. z. Edingb. edit. 1680.

f In his Glory of GeneroJity y p. 148, Lond. edit. 1586.

their
of HERALDRY. 3

their Hieroglyphicks. Sir William Bug-


% mentions, that Arms, as marks
dale of

honour, were firft ufed by great command-


ers in war, neceffity requiring that their

perfons ftiould be notified to their friends


and followers. The learned Alexander Nif-

bet, in his excellent treatife of Heraldry,

fays, that Arms owe their rife and begin-


ning to the light of nature, and that figns
and marks of Honour, were made ufe of
in the firft ages of the world*, and by
all nations, however fimple and illiterate,

to diftinguifh the Noble from the Ignoble.


We find in Horner^ Virgil, and Ovid, that
their Heroes had divers Figures on their
Shields, whereby their perfons were dif-

tinftly known. Alexander the Great, de-


firous to honour thofe of his Captains and
Soldiers that had done any glorious action,

J In the Ancient Ufage of Bearing Arms, p. i . Oxf. edit,

1682.
* There feem to be evident traces of thefe honourable
marks, in the following paifages of Holy- Writ, viz. Exodus
xxviii. 11. xxxix. 14. 30. Numbers ii. 1, 2. Kings xxi. 8.
Nehemiah ix. 38. Efther iii. 12. viii. 8. Pfalm xx. 5. lx. 4.
Ifaiah xiii. 2. Jeremiah xxxii. 10. Daniel vi. 17.

B 2 and
4 ELEMENTS
and alio to excite an emulation among the
reft, did grant them certain Badges to be
born on their Armour, Pennons, and Ban-
ners, ordering, at the fame time, that no
perfon nor potentate, through his empire,
mould attempt or prefume, to give or to-
lerate, the bearing of thofe figns upon the
Armour of any man- but mould be a it

power referved to himfelf, which preroga-


tive has been claimed ever iince by all

other Kings and fovereign Princes within


their dominions.
After thefe, and many other different opi-
nions, all that can be faid with any cer-
tainty is, that in all ages, men have made
ufe of Figures of living creatures, or fym-
bolical figns, to denote the bravery and cou-
rage either of their Chief or Nation, to
render themfelves the more terrible * to
their enemies, and even to diflinguim them-

* Plutarch, in the life of Marhis, obferves, that it was


for that purpofe the Cimhri and Teutc?ies, the ancient inha-
bitants of the countries no'V7 called Jutland and Lower-
Saxony, bore the figures of fierce beafls on their Shields,
Helmets, Pennons, £sV,

lelves
of HERALDRY. 5

felves or families, as names do individuals.

The famous C. Agrippa, in his treatife of


the vanity of Sciences, chap. 81. has col-
lected many inftances of thefe marks of
diftindtion, viz.

The Egyptians an Ox 5

The Phrygians a Swine*


The Goths <d [a Bear,

The Romans f .E 1 an Eagle,


The Franks \
J
a

The Saxons J (,a Horfe,

The laft is ftill born in the Arms of his pre-


fent Britanick Majefty. As to hereditary
Arms of Families, William Gambden, Sir

Henry Spelman, and other judicious Heralds,


agree, that they began no fooner than to-
wards the latter end of the eleventh century,
According to Father Menejirier s opinion,
a French writer, whofe authority is of great
weight in this matter, at the regulating of
Tournaments, firft came up Coats-of-
arms, which were a .
fort of livery, made

up of feveral lifts, fillets, or narrow pieces


of fluff, of divers colours, from whence
I) 3 came
6 ELEMENTS
came the Fefs, the Bend, the Pale, &c.
which were the original charges of Family-
arms 5 for they who never had been at 'Tour-

naments, had not fuch marks of diftin&ion.


They who inlifted themfelves in the Cru-
sades * took up alfo armorial enfigns, par-
ticularly CrofTes, of different colours for dif-

tinclion fake. From may be concluded


this

that Heraldry, like moft human inventions,


was infenfibly introduced and eftablimedj
and that after having been rude and unfettled
for many ages, it was at Lift methodifed,
perfected, and fixed, by the Crufades and
Tournaments.
Thefe marks of honour are called Arms,
from their being principally and fir ft worn
by military men at war and Tournaments,
who had them engraved, emboffed, or de-

* The Crufades were expeditions, which, upon an in-

difcreet zeal, directed by the Roman Pontiffs, were firft

undertaken againft the Turks for the recovery of the Holy-


land. Thofe who lifted in thefe rafh and inhuman wars,
fanclified by Superftition, Ignorance, and Prieft-craft, took
upon themfelves the Crofs, which, for diftinction fake, the
feveral nations of Europe wore of different colours.

pidted
6? HERALDRY. 7
pi died on Shields, Targets, Banners, or
other martial inflruments. They are alio

called Coats- of- arms from the cuftom of the


Ancients, embroidering them on the Coats
they wore over their Arms, as Heralds do
to this day*

CHAP.
8 .ELEMENTS
CHAP. II.

Of the different Sorts of Arms.

A RMS ferving, as I have mentioned


X1L before, to denote States, Cities, Fa-
milies, &c. are for that reafcn diftinguifiied
by divers names, viz.

ARMS
Of Dominion, Of Patronage,
Of Pretenjion, Of Family,
Of Conceffion, Of Alliance,
Of Community, |
Of Succejjion.

Arms of Dominion or Sovereignty, are


thofe which Emperors, Kings, and fovereign
States do conftantly bear j being, as it were,
annexed to the Territories, Kingdoms, and
Provinces, they poifefs. Thus the three
Lions are the Arms of England, the Fleurs-
de-lis thofe of France, &c.
Arms of Pre tenjion, are thofe of fuch
Kingdoms, Provinces, or Territories, to which

a Prince or Lord has fome claim, and which


he
;

of HERALDRY. g
he adds to his own, although the faid king-

doms or territories be po-ffeiTed by a foreign


Prince or other Lord. Thus the Kings of
England have quartered * the Arms of France
with their own, ever fince Edward III. laid

claim to the kingdom of France, which


happened in the year 1330, on account of
his being fon to Ifabella, lifter to Charles the

Handfome, who died without iffue.

Arms of Concefficn or Augmentation of


honour, are either entire Arms, or elfe one
or more figures given by Princes, as a re-

ward for fome extraordinary fervice. We


read in hiftory that Robert Bruce, king of
Scotland, allowed the Eari of Wintoun to

* It is recorded by William Wyrley, that Jacques tVAri-


ivell, who had great intereft and autho-
a citizen of Gbant,
rity in Flanders, under K. Edward III. was the firft con-
triver of this Quartering. Others fay, that K. Edward was
put upon it by Robert, Earl of Artois ; but let it be as it

will, this occalioned the following verfes, which were made


<Dn Edward's fide.

Rex fum regnorum bind ratione duorwn,


Anglorum regni rex fum ego jure pater no,

Matrisjure quidem, Franc or um nuncupor idem


Mine ejl armorum variatio faBa meorum,

bear.
10 ELEMENTS
bear, in his Coat- armour, a falling crown
iupported by a fword, to fhew that he, and
the Clan of Seat on, of which he was the
head, fupported his tottering crown. The
late ®ueen Anne granted to Sir Cloudejly
Shovel, Rear Admiral of Great Britain, a
Chevron between two Fleurs-de-lis in Chief,

and a Crcfcent in Bafe, to denote three great

victories he had gained two over the French 9


and one over the 'Turks.

Arms of Community, are thofeof Bifhop-


ricks. Cities, Universities, Academies, Socie-
ties, Companies, and other bodies corporate.
Arms of Patronage, are fuch as Go-
vernors of Provinces, Lords of Manors, Pa-
trons of Benefices, &c. add to their Family-
arm s 3
as a token of their Superiority, Rights,
and Jurifdidtion. Thefe Arms have intro-
duced into Heraldry, Caftles, Ploughs, Rakes,
Harrows, &c.
Arms of Family, or PMemai-arms, are
tfaofe that belong to one particular family,
that diftinguiih it from others, and which
no perfon is furTered to affume without com-
mitting
of HERALDRY. if

fitting a crime, which Sovereigns have a


right to reflrain and punifh.
Arms of Alliance, are thofe which Fa-
milies, or private perfons, take up and join
to their own, to denote the Alliances they
have contracted by marriage. This fort of
Arms is either impaled or born in an Efcut-

cheon of Pretence, which laft is very common


among thofe that have married Heirelfes.
Arms of Succeffion, are fuch as are taken

up by them who inherit certain Eftates*

Manors, &c a either by will, entail, or dona-


tion, and which they either impale or quar-
ter with their own Arms $ which multi-
plies the Titles of fome Families out of
neceffity, and not through orientation, as

many imagine.
These being the eight ClalTes under
which the divers forts of Arms are general-

ly ranged, I mail only add, that fome


Blazoners call ajjumpthe Arms, fuch as are

taken up by the caprice or fancy of Upjlarts,


though of never fo mean extraction, who
being advanced to a degree of Fortune, af-
furne
;;-

ELEMENTS
fume them without having deferved them
by any glorious action This, indeed, is a

great abufe of Heraldry but yet fo com-


mon, and fo much tolerated, almoft every

where, that little or no notice is taken of


it, and in procefs 6f time become true marks
of Diflindioo. It were, therefore to be
wifhed, that this practice could be reform-
ed, as it is one of the chiefeft reafons that
will bring into difgrace fo honourable and
neceffary an order as the bearing of Coats- of

arms*

* Arms alluding to the names of the bearers may, gene«


rally fpeaking, be conlidered in the fame light ;
they are
called in French Armes parlantes, and in Englifti Canting

Arms : Thus among the French du Poirier bears Or, a ;

Pear-tree Argent -among the Germans Schilfted bears


Argent, a Sledge Sable among the Italians Cobna bears
Gules, a Column Argent. The Britilh iiland affords alfo many
examples of Canting- Arms in England for the name of
Arundel are fix
;

Swallows; for that of Corbet a "Raven — in


Scotland for the name of Camel is a Camel; fo" that of Pea-
cock a Peacock in Ireland the family of Butler bore three

covered cups to exprefs the office of Greet Butler, which a


family of that name was ibrmeriy honoured with.

CHAP,
of H E R A L P R Y.

CHAP. III.

Of the EJfential and Integral Farts of Arms*

TJTAVINC given the Definition of Arms,


A JL jfhewn their Antiquity; and enume-
rated their divers kinds ; it is time to pro-
ceed to the knowledge of their Effential and
Integral Parts, which are, viz.

The Escutcheon, The Charges,


The Tinctures, The Ornaments,

ARTICLE i.

Of the Escutcheon, or Shield.

^T^HE Escutcheon or Shield fignifles

* the Field or Ground whereon are re-

prefented the Charges or Figures that make


up a Coat-of-arms ; for thefe marks of dis-

tinction were put on Shields or Bucklers


before they were placed on Banners, Stand-
ards, Flags, and Coat-Armour : and where-
ever they may be fixed, they are ftill on a
Plane or Superficies whofe form refembles a
a Shield.
Shields,
14 ELEMENTS
Shields, in Heraldry called Efcutcheons9
or Scutcheons, from the Latin word Scutum,
have been, and full are of different forms,
according to different Times and Nations.
Amongft ancient Shields, I find, that fome
have been almoft like a Horfe-J1jce> fuch as
is reprefented by Fig. i, in the Plate of
Efcutcheons ; others triangular, fome what
rounded at the bottom, fee Fig. 2. The
people that inhabited Mefopotamia, now call-

ed Diarbeck, made ufe of this fort of fhield,


which, it is thought, they had of the Trojans.,
Sometimes the Shield was heptagonal, that
is, had feven fides, fee Fig. 3. The firft of
this fliape is faid to have been ufed by that
valiant Triumvir M. Antonius3 who is no
lefs famous for his courage than his amorous
intrigues with Cleopatra Queen of Egypt.
That of Knights Bannerets was fquare '%

* There are fome families in Europe, which Hill bear


their Arms in fliields of this form ; as that of Perez in Spain,
on account of one of the anceftors recalling the fcattered

army, by putting up his handkerchief as a ftandard ; and-


that of de Coney in France, for having reaffembled the army
by railing the Banner*

like
Pjuatje I. of Escutcheons*
i 3 4

^^^^ \J '^^^^
7 8

^^^^
9

16

o w 18
1
20
(

0 0 10
of HERALDRY. 15

like a Banner, fee Fig. 4. Thefe Knights


belonged formerly to an ancient Military
Order, an account of which is given in the
Dictionary annexed to this Treatife. There
have been fome other kinds of ancient
Shields, which, for brevity fake, I omit.

As to modern Efcutcheons, thofe of the

Italians, particularly of Ecclefiaftics, are ge-


nerally oval, fee Fig. 5. The Engiiftj,

French, Germans, and other nations, have


their Efcutcheons formed different ways,
according to the Carver's or Painter's fancy ;

fee the various Examples contained from


Fig. 6, to Fig. 16, inclufively. But the
Efcutcheon of Maids y Widows, and of fuch
as are born Ladies, and are married to pri-
vate Gentlemen, is, or ought to be, in the
form of a Lozenge*. See Fig. 17, 18, 19,
20 ; and Fig. 5. Plate XXIII. Sir G. Mac-
kenzie mentions one Muriel, Countefs of
Strathern, who carried her Arms in a Lo~

* This may have been originally a fujil, or fuffe, as it is

called in French; it is a figure longer than a lozenge, and


iignifies a fpindk* which is a woman's inftrument.

zenge,
1,6 E L E M E N T 8

zenge, Ann. 1284, which fhews how long


we have been verfant in Heraldry.
Arrnorifts diflinguifh feveral parts or
points in Efcutcheons, in order to determine

exactly the pofition of the Bearings they are


charged with ; they are here denoted by the
firft nine letters of the Alphabet, ranged in
the following manner :

THE SEVERAL POINTS OF THE ESCUTCHEON.


A— the dexter Chief.
B— the precife middle Chief

C— the fnijler Chief

D— the honour point.


E — thefefs point. .

F — the nomhril point.


G — the dexter Bafe.
H— - the precife middle Bafe.

I — the finijler Bafe*

The knowledge of thefe points * is of


great importance, and ought to be well ob-

* French Arrnorifts differ a little in this cafe from the

b; for in order to mark the divers, points of the


Shield, they range the fame nine Letters in the following
manner ;
of HERALDRY. iy

ferved ; for they are frequently occupied


with feveral things of different kinds ; and,
by-the-bye, take notice, that the Dexter fide
of the Efcutcheon anfvvers to the left-hand,
and the Sinifter-Jide to the right-hand of the
perfon that looks on it.

ARTICLE II.

Of the Tinctures.

\TEXT to the Shield we are to confider

the various Tinctures that are laid on


it, and on the Figures with which it is

charged.
By TinBures is meant that variable hue
of Arms which is common to both Shields
and their Bearings. It is diftributed into

Colours and Furs.

manner ; DBE in Chief, F AG in Fefs, and HCI in


Bafe ; and the letters* F and G are called the two Flanks,
which are points the Engliih do not obferve. But either
difeibution appears Hill deficient to fuch as are fond of ex-
actnefs and perfpicuity, for fix more diftincT: parts of the Ef-
cutcheon could admit of charges, <vlz. —The dexter Honour
— The dexter
and the Unifier Honour. Fefs and the iinifter

Fefs.>—The dexter Nombril and the finiiter Nombril.

c: SECT.
iS ELEMENTS
SECT. L
,

Of Colours.
np H E word Colour, tho' it fhould only
be faid of the external dye wherewith
any thing is coloured or ftained, is alfo ex-
preffed in Heraldry by the names of feveral
kinds of Met ah\ Precious Stones, and Planets?
which have either feme refemblance or affi-

nity to it *. The two laft have been intro-


duced by fome Armorifts, in order to make
a diftindtion in the blazpning of Coats of-

-arms, betwixt the different degrees of


Perfons.
Therefore Arms are now blazoned by
Metals and Colours, when they belong to
Gentlemen, Efquires, Knights, and Baronets.

* Beddes thefe two laft fantaflical ways of blazoning, there


have been, according to Sir J. Feme, page 167, twelve
other forts, nO lefs ridiculous, fuch as, Blazoning by the
Days of the Week, invented by Fawchon, principal Herald of
England in the reign of K. Edward III. Blazoning by
Flowers, invented by Malorques, a French Herald, in K.
Cha r
les VII's. reign. Blazoning by the Principal Parts of
the Body, invented by Almaine, a Dutch-man in K. Henry
V's time, and fo on of the others, which I omit for brevity
fake.

They
of HERALDRY. 19

They are blazoned by Precious Stones,


when they are thofe of Barons, Vifconnts,
Earls, MarquiJJ'es, and Dukes.
And by Planets, when they belong to
Sovereign Princes, Kings, and Emperors.

The Colours generally made ufe of in He-


raldry are nine viz,
Colours Names Stones Planets
Yellow Or Topaz, Sol

White Argent Pearl Luna


Red Gules Ruby Mars
Blue
K Azure Sapphire Jupiter

Green
Purple
mG

O
<u
Vert
Purpure
Emerald
Amethyfi
Venus-

Mercury
Black ra

^5
Sable Diamond Saturn
O
Orange* Tenne Hyacinth Dragon s Head
Murrey I Sanguine Sardonyx Dragon s Tail

Moft Armorifts of all Nations are very


prolix on the Nature, Properties, Allufions,

* Thefe two laft Tinctures are feldom to be met with in


Coats-of-arms, being considered by fome Heralds 2&Sta'mant,
that is, ufed for marks of difgrace in the Bearers ;
yet there
are examples of them to be found even in England. Gullllm
quotes two En glim families, which he calls Hounzaker and
Flners, that have born Tenne a long time in their Arms, and
the laft belonged formerly to the Prince of Wales, therefore
to rejedt them would be unreafonable,
C 2 and
ELEMENTS
and myftical Significations of Heraldick
Tinctures ; and others difpute about the
dignity and excellency of Colours, pretend-
ing that fome are nobler than the others,
allowing the pre-eminence to Black, be-
caufe darknefs was on the face of the Earth
in the Chaos ; and White the next, becaufe
God laid fiat lux ; but fuch enquiries and
reafonings being foreign to my defign, I

fliall take no notice of them, but proceed to


mew how, when Tinctures are not laid down
on Coats-of-arms, they are reprefented in

Cravings and Cuts *.

Or, which fignifies gold, and in colour


yellow, is exprefled by points, pricks, or
dots, as in Figure i. Plate II. of the
Tinctures. The Precious Stone to

which it is compared is Topaz, and the


Planet Sol.

* Silvefter Petra Sanfta, an Italian writer, whofe treatife

on Heraldry would be very profitable and infl motive, was


it not lb full of odd, uncouth, and cramp Latin terms, is

faid to have been the ingenious contriver of diftinguifhing


Tinc-tures in Gravings and Cuts.

Argent,
of HERALDRY zi

Argent, which fignifies Silver, and


in colour white, needs no mark, and there-
fore is left plain, as in Fig. 2. The pre-
cious Stone of this Tincture is Pearl, and
the Planet Luna.
Gules, which fignifies red, is expreffed
by perpendicular lines, drawn from the
Chief to the Bafe of the Shield, as in Fig. 3.

The Precious Stone is the Ruby, and its

Planet Mars,
*
Azure, fignifies blue, and Is marked by
horizontal lines, that is, lines parallel to
the Chief of the Shield, as in Fig. 4. Its

Precious Stone is Sapphire, and the Planet


Jupiter,
Vert, which fignifies green, is repre-

fented by diagonal lines, drawn defcending


from the Dexter to the Sinifler Side of the

Shield, as in Fig. 5. Its Precious Stone is

Emerald, and the Planet Venus.


Purpure denotes the purple colour, and
is expreffed by diagonal lines drawn contrary
to thofe for Vert, that Is, from the Sinifter

to the. Dexter Side of the Shield > as in


C 3
Fig.
22 ELEMENTS
Fig. 6. The Precious Stone is the Amethyji,
s and the Planet Mercury.
Sable, which fignifies black, is expreffed

by both horizontal and perpendicular lines


croffing each other, as in Fig. 7. The
Precious Stone is the Diamond, and the
Planet Saturn.
Tenne, which is the tawny or Orange
colour, is marked by diagonal lines drawn
from the Dexter to the Sinifter Side of the

Shield, traverfed by perpendicular lines from


the Chief, as in Fig. 8. The Precious
Stone is the Hyacinth, and in (lead of a Planet
the Dragons bead.
Sanguine, which is the darkly red or
Murrey colour, is reprefented by lines croffing

each other diagonally on both fides, from


Dexter to Sinifter, and from Sinifter to

Dexter, as in Fig. g. The Precious Stone


to this colour is the Sardonyx, and inftead of
a Planet, the Dragon s tail is appropriated
to it, which, in its workings and movings,
keeps a conftant courfe in the Zodiack as
Planets do,

Befides
of HERALDRY. 23

Befides thefe Tinctures, there are nine


Roundekts or Balls ufed in Armory, the

names of which are fuffkient in Blazoning,

to denote their colour, without expreffing


the fame. They are reprefented in Fig. 10.

and are named as follows * ;

Befants * Or
Plates 1 Argent
Tortcauxes \
Gules
Hurts 1 Azure
Pomeis
\l }
Vert
Golpes 1 Purpure
1

Pellets Sable

Oranges Tenne
Guzes » ,1 * {Sanguine

The firft inftance of colours being thus


reprefented that I have met with is in a print

of the bloody Warrant for the execution of


K. Charles I. in which the Tinctures of the
Arms in feveral of the feals are expreffed by
fuch different ftrokes of the graver, as are
now-a-days ufed to fignify the fame colours.
All the publications of Englifli Heralds and

* The French, and all nations, except the Englilh, do


not admit fuch a multiplicity of terms, but call them every
one Tourteaux de &c. mentioning the Tjn&ure they are of.

C 4 Anth

/
;

24 ELEMENTS
Antiquarians, before that period, having in
their Cuts, the tin&ures of the Arms de-
noted by initial letters only; as may be
feen in the works of Upton, Leigh, Cambden,
Dugdale, Mills, &c.

SECT. II.

Of Furs.
URS reprefent the hairy Skin of cer-
tain Beafts * prepared for the doublings

or linings of Robes and garments of State ;

* The two little Creatures, from which the different


kinds of Furs ufed in Heraldry take their names, are the
Ermine and the Vair. The firft is an amphibious beait
fomewhat like a Weefel, whofe Ikin being extremely white
and foft, makes a very rich Fur. Pliny fays, it is the ikin
of a fort of Armenian Rat, called in Latin Mus Ponticus,
that is, a Rat of Pontus, in Afia Minor, though I think
Mus Armenius a properer expreffion. The Furriers fpot its

Ikin with final! black tufts, taken either out of the tail of that
animal, or of a Cat's Ikin.
The Vair is a little creature called by the Latins Varus
fome fay it is a kind of a Pole-Cat, found in the Eait or in
Africa, whofe fein is white under the belly, and bluilh grey
on the back and when the head and feet of that Beait are
;

taken from its Ikin, it refembles much the figure of Vair


ufed in Heraldry : but Sir John Feme derives the name of
this Tincture from the French word *varie, on account of
the change which it confiits of.
of HERALDRY. 25

and therefore are ufed in Heraldry, not only

for the linings of the Mantles, and other


ornaments of the Shield, but alfo in the
Coat-armours themfelves. Their different

kinds are comprifed under the nine follow-


ing names, viz.

White, Pean, *

Ermine, Vair,

Ermines, '
Count er-v air, .

Erminois, ' and


JLrmynites, Potent -counter -potent.

White, the natural colour of a little

beaft called Ermine, or, according to fome


Authors, Lituit, or Luten, is only to be
termed fo, when it is ufed for the doubling
of Mantles ; for as to the Field, or in the

compolition of Arms, it mufc be named


Argent.
Ermine f, is a Field Argent, with final!

points or fpots Sable, in the form of little

* Sir G. Machnjle relates a lingular account of this Fur


being firft introduced into Armory, " The ftrit ufer of this
" Furr in Arms was Brutus, the fon of Sihius, who having
tf by accident killed his father, left that unhappie ground,
u and
\

\
26 ELEMENTS
Triangles, which in Heraldry are generally
called Powdering. See Fig. n.
Ermines, is a Field Sable, with the
Powdering Argent j as in Fig. 12.

Erminois, is when the Field is Or, and


the Powdering Sable ; as in Fig. 13.

Pean, when is the Field is Sable, and


the Powdering Or ; as in Fig. 14.

Frmynites, is the fame as Ermine, only


it has a red hair on each fide the black,,
"Fair , is of Argent and Azure, or elfe

Azure and Argent, but where the matter is

doubtful the metal is to have the pre-emin-


ence. It is reprefented in Heraldry by the
figures of little bells reverfed, ranged in a

line, in fuch a manner that the Bafe-arvent


is op polite to the Bafe-azure. See Fig. 15.
But it is to be obferved, that if your
Vair is of different Tinctures, and not
jointly of Argent and Azure, that variation

6 -
and travelling in Bretaigne in France, fell afleep, and
ss
when he awoke he found this little beaft upon his Ihield,
" and from that time wore a fiiield Ermine" See his Science
of Heraldry, chap. v.

muft
of HERALDRY, 27
mud be expreffed in Blazoning, and you
mull fay Vairy, Or and Gules, or what-
ever Tinclure it is of.

Counter-vair, is when Bells or Cups of


the fame Tincture are placed Bafe againft
Bafe, and Point again ft Point, as in Fig. 16.

Potent- counter -potent, anciently called


Vairy-cuppy, is when the Field is filled with
Crutches or Potents * counter placed. See
Fig. 17.
By the Definitions of thefe various Tinc-
tures, it plainly appears, how precife and
careful a perfon ought to be in the Blazon-
ing of them, when fo fmall a difference as

the colour of one hair (hall make a Coat an-


other thing.
It may not be improper to obferve, that
the ufe of thefe Tinctures took its rife from
the feveral colours ufed by warriors, whilft
they were in the army, which S. Petra

* Potent is a abfolete word, which fignines a Crutch, as


it appears in Chaucer s defcription of old "age.

So eld foe i\} as that foe ne went

A/bote, hut it «vxre hy potent.


28 ELEMENTS
Sancla proves by many citations. And be-
caule it was the cuftom to embroider gold
and filver on filk, or filk on cloath of gold
and filver, the Heralds did therefore ap-
point that in imitation of the clothes fo
embroidered ; colour mould never be ufed
upon colour, nor metal upon metal,

ARTICLE III.

Of the Lines iifed in the Parting of Fields*

ESCUTCHEONS are either of one


Tincture or more than one : thofe that
are of one only, that is, when fome Meta/ y

Colour, or Fur, is fpread all over the Sur-


face or Field, fuch a Tincture is faid to be
predominant. But in fuch as have on them
more than one, as moft have, the Field is

divided by Lines, which, according to their


divers forms, receive various names.
Lines may be either Straight or Crooked.
Straight Lines are carried evenly thro' the
Efcutcheorj, and are of four different kinds,
diftin-
:

of HERALDRY. 29

diftinguimed by the four following Names


and Figures, viz.

A Perpendicular Line
j

An Horizontal Line

A Diagonal Line dexter

A Diagonal Line finifter j/


Crooked Lines are thofe which are ear-

ned unevenly thro' the Efcutcheon with


rifing and falling. French Armorifts reckon
eleven different forts of them ; Guillim ad-
mits of feven only, but I find that there are

ten diftind: kinds *, the Figures and names


of which are as follows

* The other reckoned by French Heralds, is calledthc


Denticulated,which refembles very much the hnbattled. The
Grafted, of which there is an example in the Royal At-
chievement, Fig, 7. Plate XXI. containing a Horfe current
argent,and the Dove-tail, bor'n in Fig. 9. Plate vi. are
feldom to be met with in Arms. The fixth, the ninth,

and tenth are thofe which Guillim has not mentioned,

I. The
3o ELEMENT
1. The Engrailed UUUUUXUJ
2. The Invetted

3. The V/avy
4. The Lnbatlied

5. The Nebule
6. The Kaguly

7. The Indented

8. The Dancetts

9. The Dove- tail

10. The Grafted ; 2!

The Indented and Dancette feem to be


both one as to their form, but differ much in

quality, as the one is much wider and


deeper than the other, and its teeth never
exceed three, whereas the number of the
Indented is not limited.
The principal reafon why Lines are thus
ufed in Heraldry, is to difference Bearings
which would be otherwife the fame ; for

an Efcutcheon charged with a Chief i grailed


differs from one charged with a Chief'wavy,

as much as if the one bore a Crofs unc


other a Saltier. As
- ; '

of HERALDRY. 31

As the fore-mentioned lines ferve to divide


the Field, it muft be ohferved, that if the
divilion confifts of two equal parts made by
the Perpendicular-line, it is called farted per

pale-, by the Horizontal-line parted per fefs


by the Diagonal- dexter, parted per bend ;
by the Diagonal- linifter, parted per bend-
Jinjfter 5 examples of which I fliall give in
the fequel of this Treatife.
If a Field is divided into four equal parts
by any of thefe lines, it is faid to be Quar-
tered) which may be done two ways, viz.

Quartered * or parted per Crofs, which is

made by a perpendicular and 1

horizontal line, which crof-

fing each other at the center 1 2.

of the Field, divide it into


four equal parts called Quar- 3 4
ters 7 as in this ift Figure. I
* This term is oftenermade ufe of to denote a Field
parted per Crofs, than when it is parted per Saltier, which
expreifion I alfo think preferable to defcribe Fig. 2. but
feveral writers of repute having ufed them indifcriminately
is my reafon for admitting of both.

Quar-
32 ELEMENTS
Quartered- or parted per Saltier, which
is made by two diagonal lines, 2
Dexter and Sinifter, that
crofs one another in the
center of the Field, and
likewife divide it into four
equal parts, as Fig. 2.

The Efcutcheon is fometimes divided


into a greater number of parts, in order
to place in it the Arms of the
3
feveral Families to which one \
T~ ~~T
~
is allied ; and in this cafe it I

is called a Genealogical At- :

ebievement. Theie diviiions ~t—


may confift of 6,8, 1 2, and 16, Vr*^^4^
Quarters, as in Fig. 3. and even fometimes
of 20, 32, 64 and upwards ; there being ex-

amples of fuch diviiions frequently exhibited


at pompous Funerals*; Sir George Booth, the

* An extraordinary inflancc of this kind was lately exhi-


bited at the pompous Funeral of the late worthy Vifcountefs
Townjhend, whofe corps was brought from Dublin-caftle in
Ireland, to Rainham-Hatt in Norfolk, one of the principal
tenants on horie-back, carrying before the Hearfe a Genea-
logical Banner, containing the Quartering^ of his Lcrdfiiip's

and Ladyihip's family, to the amount of upwards of One


hundred andJixty Coats.
prefent
of H E R A L D P. Y. 33
J>refentRedtoro:fthe valuable Living ofAfhton
under-Line, bears fix diftincl: Coats-of-arms
in his Shield, viz. thofe For Booth, Barton^
Venables, Mountfort y
A/Jjton, Egerton ; and
has befides a right to thirty-feven other
Coats : but Sir William Dugdak * very juftly
objects to fo many Arms being cluftered
together in one Shield or Banner, on account
of the difficulty of difcerning and knowing
afbnder one Coat-of-arms from another.

Article if.

Of the Differences of 'Coats-of-arms.

A RMGRISTS have invented divers


il differences, or charadlerical marks,
whereby Bearers of the fame Coat-of-arms
are diftinguifhed each from others, and their
iiearnefs to the principle Bearer demonftratecL

According to J. Guillim thefe differences


are to be considered, either as Ancient or
Modern.

* See his ancient tifage of Bearing Arms, .page 1 2,

D SECT,
34 ,
ELEMENTS
SECT. I.

Of Ancient Differences.

THOSE he calls Ancient Differences


confift in Bordures *, which is a Bear-
ing that goes all round, and parallel to the
boundary of the Efcutcheon, in form of a
hem, and always contains a fifth part of the
Field in breadth. Bordures were ufed in?

ancient Times for the diftinguifhing not


only of one Nation or Tribe from another,
but alio to note a diverfity between particu-
lar petfonsv defcended of one Family, and
from the fame Parents. This diftinction,

however, was not exprefsly fignified by un-


tariable marks ; nor were Bordures always
appropriated' to denote the different degrees

of Confanguinity ; for, as Sir Henry Spelman


obfcrves in his Afpilogia, p* 140. ancient
Heralds being fond of perfpicuous dif-

* Bordures are ftill introduced into Englifh Coats -of-arms 9


hut for particular reafons, which Heralds can beil explain*
They are by the French frequently taken for a principal

figure, and numbered among, the


. reft of the Ordinaries.

ferences^
o
of HERALDRY. 35
ferences, often inverted the Paternal Tine
ture, or fometimes inferted another charge
in the Efcutcheon, fuch as Bends, Crojlet^

Cantons, or the like, which irregularity has,

I fuppofe, induced modern Armorifts to in-


vent and make ufe of others.

There are Bordures of different Forms


and Tindlures, as it appears by the follow-*
ing Examples*

EXAMPLES.
Of Bordures born with Arms*

' I M-iE fir/l is Diamond, a B ordure Pearit


JL born by the Pvt. Hon. Sackville Tuf-
ion, Earl of Thanst, Gft.— When a B or-
dure is plain, you are not to mention it, as
it is always understood fo in Heraldry, tho'
it be not expreficd ; but if it has any other
form, you are to fignify it.

The fecond is Ruby, a Bardure engrailed


Pearl,— horn by the Right Hon. Charles
Gray, Lord Gray.-— This is called engrail-
ed from the French word engrele, which fig-

D 2 nines
36 ELEMENTS
nifies a thing the hail has fallen upon ana
broken o£F the edges, leaving it with little
fern i~ circles firuck out of it.

The third is Ruby, a Bordure engrailed


Topaz ; hot n by the Rt. Hon. Gevrge Talbot,
Earl of Shrewsbury, &c. —You muft ob-
ferve, that in a Bordure or Ordinary formed
of thefe lines, the points are reprefen-ted on
all fides towards the Field, and the femi-
circles turned towards the Bordure or Ordin-
ary, which cannot be difcerned in page 23.
The fourth is Argent,, a Bordure invented
Azure—-This is quite contrary to the laft,

for as the other turns its points from the


Bordure into the Fields fa contrary.wife this

does, by the invernon of the points from


the Field into the Bordure. Such a charge,,
or any other formed of thefe lines, is feldom
to be met with in Englifh Coats-of-arms.

The fifth is Gules, a Bordure indented


Argent.— The word indented requires very
little explanation, the fignification being ob-
vious to all perfons, from its figure, which
is .compofed of tracls refembling teethe

called in Latin Denies,


Th^
;

of HERALDRY. 37
The lixth is Azure, a Bordure Ermine.
The feventh is Vert, a Bordure Vair.
The eighth is Ermine, a Bordure corn-

pony, or gobony x Or and Sable. —This is fo

termed from its being compofed of fmall


and equal pieces, jf. Guijlim calls this bor-
dure Gobonated, which implies the fame
meaning ; but the word being obiblete, is

not ufed by modern Heralds.


The ninth is Quarterly Sapphire and
Ruby, a Bordure compony Pearl and Sapphire
bor'n by his Grace Henry Somerfet, Duke
of Beaufort, &c.
The tenth is Azure, a Bordure counter-
compony Argent and Gules. — Obferve that the

Counter-company does always confift of


two tracts, and no more,..

The eleventh is Or, a Bordure cheeky Ar-


gent and Sable. — This has a great refem-
blance with the laft Bordure, having only
one trad more ; therefore vou mult" take

care before you blazon, to number tliem,

or elfe you may eafily err in taking the one


for the other.

D 3 The
38
ELEMENTS
The twelfth is Gules, a B ordure Argent
charged with Verdoy of 'Trefoils, or eight Tre-
foils flipped proper, that is, Vert. — All na-
tions life few terms in blazoning Bordures,
but Englifh armo rifts, in order, I fuppofe,

to raife the dignity of this fcience, have per-


plexed it, by introducing into it feveral

myftical names, among which may be reck-


oned the following ones, viz. they call a

Bordure, if charged with eight plants.

Fruits, Flowers, or Leaves, Verdoy of fuch

Vegetates ; or Enaluron of fuch Birds y

Mnurny of Beafls ; Perjlew of Furs; and


Entoyre of inanimate things of what kind
foever.

The thirteenth is Ruby, on a Bordure


Sapphire, eight Stars Topaz ; bor'n by the
Right Hon. James Lindfay, Earl of Bal~
car as, &c. in Scotland.
The fourteenth Pearl, a Bordure
is. com-,

pony Pearl and Ruby 7


the firfi charged with,
Verdoy of Rofes of the fecond, barbed andfeed-
ed proper,— This Bordure is born by his

Grace
of HERALDRY. 39
Grace Charles, Lenox, Duke of Rich-
mond, &c.
The fifteenth is Ermine, within a Bor-
dure engrailed Rithy ; the Coat-of-arms of
the Right Hon. Henry -Benedict Barne-
wall, Vifcount .Kings-land^ &c. of Ire-*

land. —This ancient and noble family is of


French extraction, and allied to the Dukes
of Little-Bret ague, where thq name con-
tinues fiill in great repute.

The fixteenth is Pearl, a B ordure Dia-


mond charged with eight Befants bor'n
—— ™
;

by the Right Hon. - f


C> e, Lord

Ranelagh, of Ireland.
The feventeenth is Party per pale Pearl
and Ruby, a Bordure charged with eight

Efcalops of the fame counterchanged ; the


Coat-of-arms of the Right Hon. William
Mdule, Earl of Panmure/ &c. of Ireland.
This very ancient family are originally

French, and derive their furname from the


town and lord/hip of Maule in Normandy *
where the fame Arms are ftill to be feen in
iheparifh church.
D 4. The

40 E % E M E N T &

The eighteenth ft Azure, a Bordure quar^


terly, the jirji and third Ermine, the fecona
and fourth counter - company Argent and
Azure.
The nineteenth is Purpure, a Bordure.
company Or and Gules, the laji charged with
Befants.
The twentieth is Quarterly Or and Gules,

within a Bordure Vert, charged with eight.

Ej'ca/ops Or.
I will conclude this Seclicn with obferv-
ing that a Bordure is never of Metal upon
Metal, and feldom of Colour upon Colour
but rather of the Tincture which the prin-
cipal Bearing or Charge Is of. Thus Sir

Dalziel of Glenay, whofe predeceflor was


a younger brother of the noble family of
Carnwath has, within a Bordure Argent,
the Paternal coat of the ancient name of
Dalziel, viz. Sable, a Hanged man with his

arms extended. Argent ; formerly they car-


ried him hanging on a gallows. This bear-
ing, though fo very Angular for a coat- of-
arms was given as a reward to one of the,

Anceftors
of HERALDRY. 41

Ancefto.rs of the late Robert Dalziel, Earl

of Carnwath to perpetuate the memory


of a brave and hazardous exploit performed
in taking down from a gallows the body of
a favourite and near relation of King Ken-
neth II. hung up by which ftory
the Picls,
is thus related by Alexander Nifhet, " The
" King being exceedingly grieved that the
*c body of his minion and kingfman Ihould
be fo difgracefully treated, he proferred
a great reward to any of his Fubje&s who
would adventure to refcue his corps from
ft
the difgrace his cruel enemies had unjuft-
lyput upon them, but when none would
undertake this hazardous enterprize, at

laft a valorous gentleman came and faid

to the King ; Dalziel, which fignifies I


dare, and he did actually perform that

* The Right Hon.. Robert Dalziel, Earl of Carnwath,


ing concerned in the rebellion of 1715, was, in January
following, brought prifoner to London from Pre/ion, inLan-
cafhireJ and was with fx other Lords condemned for high-
treafon, but had both life and eftate remitted to him, and
died in 1737. He left a fon named Robert, by his fecond
wife, daughter of Alexander Urquhart, Efq; who would have
iiieceeded were it not for the attainder.

" noble
42 ELEMENTS
*' noble exploit to the King's fatisfaSion and
" his own immortal honour, and in memo-
** ry of it, got the aforefaid remarkable bear-

f* ing, and afterwards his pofterity took the


«' word Dalziel for their furname, and the
" interpretation of it I dare, continues even
" to this day to be the motto of that noble
" family.'' We can have no better proof
of the truth of this tradition, than this,

that the heads of this ancient family have,


for many ages, carefully retained this bear-

ing without any alteration or addition*

SECT,
of HERALDR Y. 43
SECT. II.

Of Modern Differences.
THE modern differences,
not only for the diftinguifhing of
which ferve

fons iffued out of one family, but alfo to


denote the difference and fubordinate degrees
in each home, from the original anceftors,
are nine, viz.

For the heir


the Label.
or i ft fan,

2d fon 3 the Crescent

3d fon y the Mullet

4th fan, the Martlet

5 th fon, the Annulet

6th fon> the Flower-de-luce

7th fon, the Rose

8th fon> the Cross-moline

9th fofty the J^ouhk Quater-foil «p|


44 ELEMENTS
By thefe differences the fix fons of Tho-
mas Beauchampj the XVth Earl of War-
wick, who died in the 34th year of King
Edward III. are diftinguifhed in an old win-
dow of the church of St. Mary, at Warwick;
fo that, although they are called modern difU
ferences, their ufuage is ancient.

It muft be obferved, that of all the fore-


mentioned marks of diftin&ion, none but
the Label is affixed on the Coats-of-arms be-
longing to any of the Royal family *, which
the introducers of this peculiarity have, how-
ever, thought proper to difference by addi-
tional pendants and diftincl: charges on them.
As to the diftindion to be made in the
Anns of the Offsprings belonging to each of
the above-mentioned Brothers, it is clearly

* This is, I fincl, a very ancient pra&ice, for J, Torke % .

quotes feveral inltances of it, viz. in p. 100. that of Ed-

mund, furnamed Langley, he bore Quarterly France and Eng-


land\ on a Label of three points Argent , three Torteauxes ; and
in page 70. the Arms of Thomas, Duke of Clarence, the

fecond fon of K. Henry IV. are thus blazoned, France ami


England quartered, on a Label of three points Ermine, three
Ca?itons gules,

expreffed
:

of HERALDRY. 4S
exprefled by figures -on the top and margin
of the Table contained in PI. iv. for inftanee

The Heir or firft Son of the fecond houfe,


beareth a Crefcent charged with a Label
during his father's life only. The fecond
Son of the fecond houfe, a Crefcent charged-
with another Crefcent. The third Son of the
fecond houfe, a Crefcent charged with a
Mullet. The fourth Son of the fecond houfe*,
a Crefcent charged with a Martlet. The
fifth Son of the fecond houfe, a Crefcent
charged with an Annulet. The fixth Son
of the fecond houfe, a Crefcent charged
with a Flower-de-luce, and fo o.n of the otheF
fons y taking care to have thern of a different
Tindture.
In what part of the Efeutcheon thefe dif-
ferences fhould be bor'n is not certain, for
Guillim, Morgan, and others give us many
different examples of their pofition the
Honour-point would be, in my opinion, the
propereft place, if the Arms would admit
of it, but that is not always the cafe, as that
part may be charged with feme figure ia
the
46 ELEMENTS
the Paternal coat, which cannot, with pro-
priety, receive the difference. To avoid
this difficulty, it were to be wiflied, that

the Differences mould be appended to the


Bafe without the Efcutcheon, and by that
means neither would the fhield be encum-
bered, nor £hould we miftake the Charge for
the Difference, and viceverfa; for there are
inftances where thefe are bor'n as perfect
Coats-of-arais, as the examples fubjoined to
the Table of Houfes Efficiently {hew it*

which are to be blazoned thus :

The firft is Azure, a Label argent. —


When fuch a Label is bor'n, as a Difference,

the pendants, according to G. Leigh* figni-^

fy that he is but the third perfon. The


Dexcer pendant referring to his father ; the
Sinifter to his mother, and the middle one
to himfelf.
The fecond is Argent, a Label of five
points azure -
y bor'n by the name of Hen t-
ington. If a Label has more or lefs than
three pendants or points, they are to be ex-
prefled as in the foregoing example.
The
-

of H E K A L D R Y. 47
The third is Azure, a Crefcent argent s
bor'n by the name of Lucy. — The reafon
G. Leigh affigns, for the fecond fon's hav-
ing a Crefcent for a Difference, is to fbow
that he fhould increafe the family by adding
to it Riches and Reputation.
The fourth is Argent , a Mullet Sable, on

a Chief Azure, a Fleur-de-lis Or ; bor'n by


the name of Rogers, in Gloucejlerjlrire. —
A Mullet orfpur was appointed for the third
fon's Difference, as the laft mentioned au-
thor fays, to fhew that he fhould follow
Chivalry,

The fifth is Sapphire, a Fleur-de-lis Pearh


bor'n by the Right Hon. [Henry Digby>
Baron Digby, of Geafhil,. in King's coun-
ty, Ireland.

Sifters, except of the Blood Royal, have


110 other mark of Difference in their coats-
©f-arms, but the form of the Efcutcheon,
as Ihave obferved before, p. 15. therefore
are permitted to bear the Arms of their

Father, even as the eldeft Son does after


his Father's deceafe.- The reafon of which
is
48 ELEMENTS
is by Guillim faid to be, that when they are
married, they lofe their furname, and re-
ceive that of their huibands.

Next to thefe Diminutions G. Leigh, J.

Guillim, and after them Dr. Harris, in his

Lexicon Technician, fet forth at large divers


Figures, which they pretend were former-
ly added to the Coats of fuch as were to be
punifhed and branded for Cowardice, For-
nication, Slander, Adultery, Treafon, or
Murder, for which they give them the
name of Abatements of Honour ; but as they
produce but one inftance of fuch wdiimfical
bearings, I have not inferted them in this
treatife *. Befides, Arms being Marks of
Honour, they cannot admit of any note of
Infamy ; nor would any body now-a-days
bear them, if they were fo branded. 'Tis

true, a man may be degraded for divers

* However, Sbeldens Treatife, on titles of honour, affords


two inftances of Englifh degradations, taken from an ancient
author, which the curious may confult. In Favin's Theatre
de Vhonmur is particularly de'fcribed the ceremony of degra-
dation among the French, the folemnity of which fufficient-
ly denotes their high idea of nobility.

crimes.
of HERALDRY. 49
crimes, particularly High Treafon ; but in
fuch cafes, the Efcutcheon is referved, trod
upon, and torn in pieces, to denote a total
extinction and fuppreffion of the honour
and dignity of the perfon to whom it be-
longed.

E CHAP.
5° ELEMENTS
CHAP. IV.

Of the Charges.
A RMORTSTS call a Charge whatsoever
JL JL is contained in the Field, whether
it occupy the whole, or only a part thereof.
All Charges are diftinguiilied by the names
of Honourable ordinaries, Proper ordinaries*
and Common charges.
Honourable Ordinaries, the principal
Charges in Heraldry, are made of lines only,

which, according to their difpofition and


form, receive different names.
Proper Ordinaries are ancient heraldic

figures, frequently ufed in Coats-of-arms,


and which are diftiguiflied by terms appro-
priated to each of them.
Common Charges are compofed of natu-
ral, artificial, and even chymerical things,
fuch as Planets, Creatures, Vegetables, In-
ftruments, &c. And, as in the treating of
thefe, there will be required a great variety

of Examples, I mall beftow a whole Chap-


ter upon them in its proper place.
ARTICLE
of HERALDRY. 51

ARTICLE L

Of Honourable Ordinaries.
HE molt judicious A.rmorifts admit
only nine honourable Ordinaries *, viz.
The Chief The Bar
The Pale The Chevron
The Bend The Cross
The Bend finijier and
The Fess The Saltier
Of thefe* hut fix have Diminutives, which
are called as follows : that of the Chief
is a Fillet. The Pale has a Pallet and
Endorfe. The Bend a Bendlet, Cqft, and

* Several authors that have treated of Heraldry have made


long and tedious inquiries into the origin and refemblance
of Honourable Ordinaries. Thus the author of La Science

heraldique fays, that Honourable Ordinaries being laid all

together on the Coat-armour, which reprefents a man's


body, they would cover it entirely. That the Chief repre-
fents the Helmet which covers his head the Pale reprefents
;

his Launce or Spear the Bend his long Belt; the Fefs his
;

Scarf ; the Chevron his Boots and Spurs ; the Crofs and Sal-
tier his Sword. Others will have it, that from the varie-
gated habits of Jujiers all heraldic Figures were taken: but
thefe, and the like conjectures, are not to be depended
upon.
E 2 Riband,
52 E L E M E N T S

Riband. The Bend-sinister has the Scarpe


and Baton. The Bar the Clofet and Baru-
let. The Chevron a Chevronel and Ccw-
%
fle~clofe : all which flvall be treated of in
order.

SECT. I

Of the Chief.

fTT1 HE C&Vf is an ordinary determined


by an horizontal line, which, if it is

of any other form but ftraight, muft be ex- ,

preffed. It is placed in the upper part of


the Efcutcheon, and con tain eth in depth
the third fpace of the Field. Its Diminu-
tive is a Fillet, the content of which is not
to exceed one fourth of the Chief, and frand-
eth in the lav/eft part thereof. This Ordi-
nary is fubjedt to be charged with variety of
figures, and may be Indented, Wavy,
Nebule, &c. as is to be feen in the following
Examples.

EXAMPLES.
A
of HERALDRY. 53

EXAMPLES.
Of Chiefs bor ? n in Coats-ofarms.

itltS H E jSrft is Topaz, a Chief indented


Sapphire-, born by the Right Hon,
Edmund Butler, Vifcount Mount gar-
ret, &c„ of the kingdom of Ireland. This
great and illuftfious family of the Butlers, fo

renowned for the many '

valiant and loyal


perfons it has produced, is de fee nded from
the ancient Counts of Brian in Normandy \

but fince King Henry II. conferred the office


of Chief Butler of Ireland upon one of the
family, he and his fucceffors have affumed
the name of Butler.

The fecond is Azure? a Chief engrailed


Or.
The third is Argent a Chief invetJed Vert.
3

The fourth is Vert, a Chief undy Or.


The fifth is Azure a Chief nebule Argent.
,
'

The fixth is Or, a Chief cheeky Argent


and Azure.
The feventh is Ermine, a Chief quarterly
Or and Gules-, bor'n by the name of Peck-
ham.
E 3 Thf
54 ELEMENTS
The eighth Is Argent y a Chief Sable, in

the lower part thereof a Fillet Argent.


The ninth is Sapphire, fretty Pearl, a
Chief Topaz, bor'n by the Right Hon. Hayes
St. Leger, Vifcount Doner aile, &c. of
the County of Cork, in Ireland. This an-
cient and noble family is of French extrac-
tion, and is defcended from Sir Robert Sent
Legere, Knight, who, in 1066, accompa-
nied William Duke of Normandy in his ex-

pedition into England ; and the family have


a tradition, that he, with his own hand, fup-
ported the faid Duke when he quitted the
jfhip to land in Suffex.
The tenth is Argent, on a Chief engrailed
Azure, a Tortoife pajjant Or $ bor'n by the
name of Bidgood.
The eleventh is Pearl }
on a Chief Ruby,

two Mullets pierced Topaz •


bor'n by the Rt.
Hon. John St* John, Lord St. John of
Bletfhoe, &c. Of this ancient family, which
derive their furname from a place called St.

John, in Normandy, was John de St. John,


E% who having a principal employment
in
of HERALD -R Y 55
ill the army of the Norman Duke, attended
him In his expedition into England.
The twelfth is Pearl, on a Chief Emerald,
two Spears Heads erect oj the Held, the points

imbrued Ruby; bor'n by the Right Hon.


George Brodrick, Vifcount Middle'ton, &c.
of the kingdom of Ireland. This family is

lineally defcended from George de Brodrick,


who came into England in the reign of
William II.

The thirteenth is Topaz, on a Chief Dia-


mond, three Efcalops cf the firji ; for the
name of Graham, and bor'n quartered one
and four by his Grace William Graham,
Duke, Marquis, and Earl of Montrose,
&c. According to the Scots writers, this

great and noble family is defcended from the


renowned Greme or Grame, who, in the
year 404, was general of King Fergus lid's,
army, and in 420, forced his way thro* that
wall built by the Britons, between the rivers
Forth and Clyde, to keep out the Scots
from molefthig them in their, pofleffions,

and the faid breach has ever nnce been called


Grame' s Dyke.
E 4 ,
The
;

56 ELEMENTS
The fourteenth is Pear!, on a Chief in-
dented Ruby, three Crojjes pattee of the Field
bor'n by the Right Hon. John Perceval,
Earl of Eg mont ? &c. This very ancient
and noble family is fuppofed, from circum-
ftances little fliort of pofitive proofs, to have
fprung from a younger branch of the Sove-
reignDukes of Brefagne in France, of the
fame name, where now remain two noble
families from this province. They were
tranfplanted into Normandy before the con-
quer!:, poffeiTed of great e Mates and power,
and inverted with the office of Chief Butler.
Upon the Norman invafion, two of this fa-

mily came over into England with the Con-


queror, from one of which the defcent of
the prefent Earl of Egmont is deduced by
the cleareft and moft indifputable proofs of
hirtorians and records.
The fifteenth is Sapphire, on a Chief in-
dented Topaz, three Mullets pierced Ruby
born by the Right Hon. Charles Moore,
Earl of Drogheda, &c. of the kingdom
of Ireland. This noble family, which is

of
.of HERALD KYI 57
of French extraction, came into England
foon after the con quell, and made their, firft

refidence in the manor of Moore-court, in

the county of Kent.


The fifteenth is Ermine, on a Chief in-
dented Azure, three ducal coronets Or ; bor'n
by the name of Lytton.
The feventeenth is Azure, on a Chief Gr,
three Martlets Gules ; for the name of
Wray, and bor'n by Sir Cecil JVray, Bart,

of Lincolnfhire.
The eighteenth is 'Ermine, on a Chief
Gules ; five Lozenges of the firft ; bor'n by
the name of Dixin.
The nineteenth is Pearl, fretty Ruby,
on a Chief of the fecond, three Leopard's
Faces "Topaz-, bor'n by the Right Hon.
Henry Liddel, Lord Ravens worth.
This noble Lord is defcended from the an-
cient Lords of Liddle-caflle, in the county

of Durham, where they have been proprie-


tors of great coal-mines time out of mind.
The twentieth is Ermine, a Chief party,
'per pale Sapphire and Topaz ; on the firft the
Sun
58
ELEMENTS
Sun in its fplendor, on thefecond a Crofs pat-
tee Ruby. The Arms of the Bifhopric of
Rap hoe, in the kingdom of Ireland.

Allegorical Signification.
The Chief fignifies Dominion and Au-
thority; and is a reward for Prudence and
Wifdom.

SECT. II.

Of the Pale.

*"T^ HE Pale is an ordinary confifting of


two perpendicular lines drawn from
the top to the bafe of the Efcutcheon 3 and
contains the third middle part of the Field.
Its Diminutives are the Pallet % which is

the half of the Pale, and the Rndorfe, which

* The French do net admit this Diminutive, although,


they have amongft them a Figure like it, as in the Arms of
llarlay de Beaumont, to which they give the name of Pal,
i. e. Pale, faying D''Argent, deux Pals de Sable ; and thus in
the Arms of Arragon, they blazon it quatre Pals, i. e. four
Pales, &c. The Endorfe is likewife unknown to the French,
but as it comes pretty near to what they call Vergetic, i. e.

[matt red, the third part of a Pale, in expreffing a Pale either


accompanied
o f H E R A L D R Y. 59
is the fourth part of a Pale. This Ordina-
ry and the Pallet may receive any charge,

but the Endorfe is not to be charged with


any thing, either quick or dead. The En-
dorfe, be (ides, is never ufed, according to

jf. Leigh, but to accompany the Pale in


pairs, as Cotices do the Bend ; but Sir John
Feme is of a different opinion.

EXAMPLES.
Of Pales, &c. horn in Coats -of-arms,.

np H E firft is Gules, a Pale Or ; by the


*§ name of Grandmain.
The fecond is Party per Pale Argent and
Gules, a Pale counter changed.
The third is Argent, a Pale between two
Endorfes Gules.

accompanied or charged with this Englifti bearing they give


it the nanie of V~ergette\ as for example, the De Noyers's
Arms are thus blazoned : cF Azure, un Pal murallle de trois

pieces dFOr, charge d'une Vergctte de Sable; which, for the


fatisfa&ion of the reader, I have inferted in the collection
of Pales ; See Example 20.

The
;

6o ELEMENTS
The fourth is Party per Pale, paly offix
Argent and Sable, the other part Azure
born by the name of Trenchard.
/ The fifth is Paly offix Or and Azure,
The iixth is Argent, three Pallets undy
Sable; by the name of Down es.
The feventh is Party per Pale, Pearl and
Ruby, born by the Right Hon. John Wal-
/ degrave, Earl .Waldegrave, "&.c. This
noble Earl is defcended from John de Wal-
degrave y
who was Sheriff of London in the

year 12053 in the feventh year of King


John.
The eighth is Party per Pale indented,

Topaz and Ruby % bor'n by the Right Hon.


Thomas Bermingkarn, Baron of Athenry ?

in the kingdom of Ireland. Of this ancient


and noble family, which are of Englifh ex-
traftion, and took their name from the town
of Bermingham in the county of Warwick,
was William de Bermingham, .who was pof-
'

feffed of the town of that name in the


reign of Henry II. which continued in that

family till the reign of Henry VIII.


The
;

.of H E R A L D R Y. 61

The ninth is Quarterly per Pale dove-tail,


Ruby and Topaz j bor'n by the Right Hon..
Thomas Bromley, Lord Montfort, &e.
This noble Lord is maternally defcended
from Sir Walter Bromleghe, of Bromleghe,
in the county of Stafford, who flou rimed In

the reign of King John. Sir Thomas Brom-


ley, another of his Lordfhip's anceftors,

was conftituted Lord High-chancellor of


England, 21 Elizabeth, in which poft he
died 5 29 Elizabeth.
The tenth is Argent, a Pale fiory counter-
jiory Sable.

The eleventh is Argent, a Pale lozengy


Sable? bor'n by the name of Savage.
The twelfth is Argent, a Pale dancette
Vert ; bor'n by the name of Dixon.
The thirteenth is Argent, on a Pale en-
grailed Sable, three Crefcents Or ; bor'n by
the name of Ashley,
The' fourteenth is Ermine, on a Pale en-
grailed Azure, three Lions-heads couped Or
bor'n by the name of Avery.
The
6z E L E M E N T S

The fifteenth is Emerald, on a Pale ra-


diant Topaz, a Lion rampant Diamond;
bor'n by the Right Hon. James O y

IIara,

Lord Tyrawley, &c. in the kingdom of


Ireland. This noble Lord is defcended from

Milefius King of Spain, by his el deft foil

Hiberius, who, with his brother Heremon*


eftablifned a colony in Ireland. Sir Charles

O'Hara, father to the prefent Lord, was


created Baron of Tyrawley by Queen Anne,
Jan. 10, 1 806, being, at that time, a Lieu-
tenant-general, and Colonel of the royal

regiment of Fufileers : and the next year


was made General in Spain, where this

Son, Lord James, was wounded at the


battle of Almanza.
The fixteenth is Azure, a Pallet Argent
The feventeenth is Vert, an Endorfe Or.

The eighteenth is Argent, on t<wh 'Pallets


Sable, fix CrojJ'es-croJletf fit c by Or ; bor'n
by the name of Betunes, of the county of
Salop.

The
of HERALDRY. 63

The nineteenth is Argent, two Endorfes


Gules, in. Chief three Mullets Sable ; bor'n by
the name of Vautort.
The twentieth is Azure, on a Pale walled
with three pieces on each fide Or, an Endorfe
Sable ; bor'n by the name of Sublet de
Noyers, a family of diftinftion in France.

Allegorical Signification.

The Pale denotes Strength, and Firmnefs,


and has been beftowed for impaling Ci-

ties 5 &c.

SECT. III.

Of the Bend and Bend-sinister.

^TT^ HE Bend is an Ordinary formed by


A two diagonal lines, drawn from the
Dexter-chief to the Sinifcer-bafe, and con-
tains the fifth part of the field in breadth,

if uncharged ; but if charged, then the


third. Its Diminutives are the Garter,
which is the half of a Bend. The Coft or

Cotice, which is the fourth part of a Bend.


The
;

64 ELEMENTS
The Riband, the moiety of a Coft, or the
eighth part of the Field, and the Bendlet,
which is limited to the fixth part of the
Field.

There is alio the Bend-fmijler*, which is of


the fame breadth as the Bend, but drawn
quite contrary fides : this is fubdivided into

a Scarpe, which is the half of the Bend,


and into a Baton, "which is the fourth part
of the Bend, but does not extend itfelf quite
thwart the Field, there being fomething
wanted at both ends. See the following
Examples.

El AMPLE S.

O/'Bends, &c. bor'n in Coats-of-arms.

f 1HHE firft is Pearly a Bend wavy Diamond


born by the Right Hon. John Wallop,
Earl of Portsmouth, &c. This noble
Earl is defcended from the Wallops of

* Although this Ordinary is called Bend-fuvfter, which


is done for diftin&ion fake, the fore-mentioned is only to be
named Bend in blazoning any Arms, and not Bend-dcxter,

Hampfhire,
of HERALDRY %
Hampihire, a Saxon family, which were
policffed of lands, to a confiderablc value in
$hat county, at the time of the conqueft,
The fecond is Cheeky 'topaz and Sapphire,
<a Bend Ermine?, bor'n by the Right Hon*,
John Ward, Vifcount Dudley and Ward,
1

&c. The ancestors of this noble Lord were


anciently of the county of Norfolk, of which
was Simon Ward, who had large poffeffions in

the reign of Edward I. and was in France and


Scotland in the reigns of King Edward 1L
and IIL
The third is Sapphire, a Bend engrailed
Pearl, between two Cotices Topaz; bor'n by
the Right Hon. Matthew Forte/cue, Lord
Fortes cue, as alfo by the Right Hon.
Hugh Forte/cue- Aland, Baron Fortes cue,
in the kingdom of Ireland, this laft noble-
man bearing a Crefcent in his Arms for dif-

ference The family of Fortefcue is defend-


ed from Sir Richard le Forte, a perfon of
extraordinary ftrength and courage, who
accompanied William Duke of Normandy
in his conqueft of England, and bearing a
F ftrong
66 ELEMENTS
ftrong fhield before the Duke, at the baf>
tie of Haftings, had three horfes killed un-
der him, and from that lignal event the
name and motto of the family were affumed^
for the Latin word Scutum, or the old

French word Efcue (a Jlneld) being added to


Forte (ftrong) compofe their name, and the
motto is Forte jcutwn falus Ducum.
The fourth is Sable, a Bend Argent be-
tween two Cotices indented Or ; bor'n by the
name of French^
The fifth is Paly of fix 'Topaz and Dia-
mond, a Bend counter-changed bor'n by the
Right Hon. Frederick Calvert, Baron Bal-
timore. The original of this family is
from an ancient and noble houfe of that fur-
name in the Earldom of Flanders, whereof
Sir George Calvert, Knight, among ether
honourable employments, was Secretary of
State to King James I. by whom he was
created a Baron, Feb. 20, 1624, and from
whom he had a grant to him, and his heirs y
of the province of Maryland and Avalon in
America.

The
of HERALDRY. 67
The fixth is Party per Bend crenelle

Pearl and Ruby ; bor'n by the Right Hon.


Edmund Boyle, Earl of Cork and Orrery,
&c. in the kingdom of Ireland. This no-*

ble Lord is faid to be defcended from Sir

Philip Boyle, a Knight of Arragon, who,


in the reign of King Henry VI. tilted at a

tournament with Sir Jofepb AJlley, Knight


of the Garter. The machine called the
Orrery was invented by the late Rarl Charles,
grandfather to the prefent Lord, which will
perpetuate his memory to the lateft pofterity.

The feventh is Pearl, three Bendlets en-

hanced Ruby 5 bor'n by the Right Hon. Wil-


liam Byron, Lord Byron. From Doomf-
day-Book it appears, that this family were
pofTerTed of numerous manors and lands in
the reign of the Conqueror 5 and that Sir

John Byron, one of his Lordfhip's anceftors,


attended King Edward III. in his wars in
France.
The eighth is Ermine, a Bend voided
Gules ; bor'n by the name of Ireton.
F a The
6g ELEMENTS
The ninth is Argent, three Bendlets wavy
Azure ; bor'n by the name of Wilbraham;
The tenth is Bendy ofjix pieces Argent and
Azure. Obferve that when the Shield is

filled with fix Bendlets of metal and colour*


it is called Bendy, but if the number of
them is either more or lefs than fix, they are
to be blazoned by the name of Bendlets,
and their number fpecified.

The eleventh is Tarty per Be?id Azure


and Argent, two Bendlets engrailed counter-
changed* by the name of Frenes.
The twelfth is Quarterly, Topaz and
Ruby, a Bend over-all Vair ; bor'n by his
Grace Lionel Cranjield Duke of Sackville,

Dorset and Earl of Middlesex, &c: The


anceftors of this family were Lords of the

town and feigniory of Sackviile in Nor-


mandy, and came over with the Conqueror,
when he invaded England, in 1066.

The thirteenth is Ruby, on a Bend Pearl


three Trefoils fliped proper •
bor'n by the Rt,
Hon George William Hervey, Earl of Bris-
tol* &c. This noble Lord derives his pe-
digree
of HERALDRY. 69

digree from 'Robert Fitz-Hervey, a younger


fon of Hervey Duke of Orleans, who came
over from France with William the Con-
queror.

The fourteenth is Pearl, on a Bend Ruby


cot icedDiamond, three pair of Wings con-
joined of the firji-y bor'n by the Right Hon.
Richard Wingfeld, Vifcount Powers-
court, in the kingdom of Ireland. This
noble Lord is denominated from the manor
of Wingfield in Suffolk, where they had a
feat before the Norman conqueft, called

Wingfield-cafile.

The fifteenth is Ruby, on a Bend Ermine


cot iced Topaz, three Boars Heads couped Pearl,
bor'n by the Right Hon. George Edgcumbe,
Lord Edgcumbe, &c. The ancestors of this
noble Lord received their name from the
manor of Edgcumbe in Devon/hire. One
of this Lord's anceftors was Sir Richard
Edgcumbe, who came over to England with
the Earl of Richmond, having a great fhare
m the victory he obtained over King Richard
F 3. 114
;*

7o ELEMENTS
III. at Bofworth, by which the Earl made >

his way to the throne of England.


The fix tee nth is Argent , a Bend-fmifter
Gules —-You may fometimes find the Bend-*

Jinifter bor'n jointly with the Bendy in one


Efcutcheon, which form a figure much like
a Saltier ; and, in fiich a cafe, you are to

obferve carefully, which of them lies near


to the Field, as that muftbe firft named*
according to the Rules of Heraldry.
The feventeenth is Or, a Garter Gules. —
This bearing is never charged but with
flowers and leaves.
The eighteenth is Argent, a Riband Gules.
—The name of this bearing correfponds
well with its form, being both long and
narrow, which is the fhape of a Riband
beiides, it is always couped at each end, as

the figure expreffes it.

The nineteenth is Azure, a Scarpe Or.—


This bearing, as GuiUim obferves, is that
kind of ornament called, now-a-days, a Scarf ,
which is ufed by officers on duty, and
ufually worn after the fame manner.
The
of H E R A L D R Y. 71

The twentieth contains three Batons. The


firft is company Ermine and Sapphire ; fet

over the royal arms, for his Grace William


Fitzroy, Duke of Cleveland. The fecond is

company Pearl and Sapphire, fet over the

royal Arms, for his Grace Angujlus Henry


Fitzroy, Duke of Grafton. The third is

Ruby, charged with three Rofes Pearl, feeded


and barbed proper, fet over the royal Arms,
for his Grace George Beauclerk, Duke of
St. Albans. The Grand-fathers of thefe
noble Dukes being natural fons of King
Charles It. is what entitles them to the
royal Arms *,

'Allegorical Signification.

Bends are the fymbols of Defence and


Protection ; they alfo denote Belts of Ho-
nour.

* In Germany illegitimate children are not allowed to


"bear the Arms of their fuppofed father ; but it is otherwife
in Great-Britain, Heralds allowing them to bear the pater-
sial-coat with a Baton over it, which may, as fome pretend,
fete omitted after three generations,

SEC T.
t

j% £ L E M E N T S,

SECT. IV.

Of the Fess and Bar*

PT^ME Fefs is an ordinary which is prcn


duced by two parallel lines drawn?
horizontally a crofs the center of the Field ;

and contains in breadth the third part there-


of. It has no Diminutive, for; the Bar is a
diftinfi: Ordinary of itfelf.

The Bar is formed of two lines, and con-


tains but the fifth part of the field, which
is not the only thing wherein it differs from
the Fefs, for there may be more than on§
in an Efcutcheon-, placed in different parts,

thereof, whereas the Fefs is limited to the


Center-point. The Bar has two Diminu-
tives, the Chfet, which contains the half of
the Bar, and the Barrule > which is the half
of the Ciofet. When the Shield contains a

number of Bars of metal and colour alter-


nate, exceeding five, that is called Barry of
fo many pieces, expreffihg their number.
See the following Examples.

EXAMPLES.
n
0f HERALDRY. 73,

EXAMPLES.
Of Fesses and Bars born in Coats- of*
ARMS.

**T^ H£ firft is Pearly a Fefs dancette Dia-


raond 'y bor'n by the Right Hon.
Weft, Earl Delawarr, ©V. This noble
family is defcended from the Wefts, & great
family in the Weft of England ; but in the
reign of Edward IT. they appear to have been
feized of manors and lands in the county of
Warwick. Sir Thomas de Weft, Knight,
one of his Lordfhip's anceftors, being at the
battle of Creffy, a town in France, and there
taking John, the French King, prifoner,
had granted him, for that remarkable ac-
tion, an augmentation to his Atchievemenr,
viz. a Crampette Topaz, dinftingaijhed by the
Chape of a /word in the middle ; the Chape
"being given him by the faid King, as an
acknowledgment of his becoming his pri-

foner : his Cognifancewas a Rofe parted


per Pale, P^arl and Ruby, which two
Badges
74 ELEMENT'S
Badges are ftill bor'n in the Atchievement
of the prefent Lord De la Warr,
The fecond is Pearly a Fefs wreathy Sap-
phire and Ruby bor'n by the Right Hon.
John Carmichael, Earl of Hyndford. Of
this ancient family, which is' faid to aflame

their far name from the lands of Carmichael^


In the county of Lanerk, in Scotland, where
they ftill have their chief feat, was Sir John
Carmichael, who accompanied Archibald,
E. rl of Douglas, to the affi-ftance of Charles
VI. of France, againft the Englifh, and fig-

nalizing his valour at the battle of Baughey,


in April 14.21, and breaking his fpear, when
the French and Scots got the viclory, had
thereupon added to his paternal coat, a dex-
ter arm holding a broken fpear, which is

now the creft of the family.


The third is Party per Fefs Or and Ar~
gent, a Fefs nebule Gules-, bor'n by the name
of Anteshed.
The fourth is Party per Or
Fefs indented
and Azure-, bor'n by the name of Saun-
ders.
The
;

of HERALDRY. 75
The fifth is Cheeky Topaz and Sapphire,
on a Fefs Ruby a Crefcent for difference
bor'n by the Right Hon. Hugh Clifford,
Lord Clifford, of Chudley. This noble
Lord is defcended from Walter de Clifford,
of Cliffard-caftle, in the county of Here-
ford, who came over into England with the
Conqueror ; of which family was fair Rofa-
mond, miftrefs to King Henry II.

The lixth is Pearl, on a Fefs Azure three


Lozenges Topaz bor'n by the Right Hon.
Bafl Fielding, Earl of Denbigh and Des-
mond, &c. This noble Earl is defcended
from the Earls of Hap/burg, in Germany.
Geoffrey, Earl of Hapfburg, being oppreffed
by Rodolph, Emperor of Germany, came
over into England, and one of his fons ferved
King Henry III. in his wars, whofe ances-
tors 'laying claim to the territories of Lauf-
fenburg, and Rhin-Filding, in Germany,
he took the name of Fielding.
The feventh is Or, on a Fefs Gules, three
Fleur-de-lis of the firfi ; bor'n by the name
qf Lennard. This is the firft and fourth
quarters
76 ELEMENTS
quarters of the Right Hon. Thomas Barret*
Lennard, Lord Dacre.
The eighth is Ermine, on a Fefs Ruby, a
Lion pafj'ant Topaz ; born by the Right
Hon. John Proby, Baron Carysfqrt, &c,
in the kingdom of Ireland.
The ninth is Diamond, a Fefs Erminey
between three Crefcents Topaz bor'n by the
Right Hon. George-William Coventry, Earl
of Coventry, &c. This noble Earl is

defcended from John Coventry, a native of


the city of Coventry, and afterwards Mercer
and Lord-Mayor -of London, in the reign of
Henry V. from whom defcended Thomas
Coventry, one of the Juftices of the court of
Common-Pleas* in the reign of Queen Eli-
zabeth, whofe fon Thomas was Recorder of
London, and afterwards Lord-keeper of the
great feal in the reign of King Charles I.

The tenth is Diamond, a Fefs cheeky,


Topaz and Sapphire, between three Befants

born by Hon. Ridgeway Pitt,


the Right
Earl and Baron of Londonderry, &c.
Of this noble family, which were anciently
of
op HERALDRY. 77
of Bandfort, in the county of Dorfet, was
Thomas Pitt, Efq; who, in the reign of

Queen Anne, was made Governor of fort St.

George, in the Eaft Indies, where he refid-

ed many years, and purchafed a Diamond,


which he fold to the King of France for

135,000!. fterling, weighing 127 carats*

and commonly known at this day by the


name of Pitt's Diamond.
The eleventh is Topaz, on a Fefs Diamond?
between three Mufcovy Ducks proper , a Roji

of the Field ; born by the Right I Ion. John


Bateman, Vifcount Bat em an, &c. Of
this noble family, which was anciently feat-

ed at Halefbrook, near St. Omers in Flan-


ders, was Giles Bateman, Efq; whofe fon
was a merchant of London, and was father
to Sir James Bateman, Knight, who, in
1712, was chofen member of Parliament
for Ilchefter, in the county of Somerfet, and
re-chofen in 171 3.

The twelfth is Diamond, on a Fefs Pearl,


between three Leopards pafjant gardant
Topaz, three Efcalops Ruby ; bor'n by the
Right
;

78 ELEMENTS
Right Hon. Wills Hill, Earl of Hills-
borough, &c. Of this family, which, in
the reign of Queen Elizabeth, were of note
in the county of Downe, was Sir Mojes
Hill, who, during O'Neile's rebellion, was

one of thofe gentlemen who affociated under


the Earl of EJJex, to fupprefs it, and after-
wards ferved under Arthur, Lord Chichefter,
Lord Deputy, and by King James L was
appointed Provoft-marfhal of the whole
province of Uljier, in Ireland.

The thirteenth is Ruby, two Bars Topaz ;

bor'n by the Right Hon. Simon Harcourt,


Earl of Harcourt, &c. This noble Earl
is defcended from the Harcourts of Nor-
mandy, who took their name from a place

called Harcourt, in that province, where


the family ufually refided. Gervaife, Count
de Harcourt, With his two fons Jeffrey and
Arnold, came over with the Conqueror,
when he invaded England, in 1066.

The fourteenth is Ermine, two Bars Ruby


Hon. Thomas Nugent,
bor'n by the Right
Earl of Westmeath, and Baron Delvin.
By
of HERALDRY. y9
By this, and the two following Examples^
you may fee the Field divided into five equal
parts, according to the rule mentioned in the
definition of this Ordinary, p. 72.

The fifteenth is Pearl, two Bars dancette


Diamond % born by the Right Hon. Godart
Ginkle, Earl of Athlone. Godart, who
was the firfl Earl, was defcended of a very
ancient family in the united provinces of
Holland, where he was Baron de Reede and
Ginkle, &c. In 1 691 he was a Lieutenant-
general of King William's forces in Ireland*
where in June the fame year he took Bally-
more for the Englifh ; and in July following
-the Irifh town of Athlone, which lafl ex-
ploit is one of the greateft recorded in Hif-
tory„

The fixteenth is Pearl, three Bars gemels


Ruby; bor'n by the Right Hon. Richard
Barry, Earl of Barrymore, &c. This
noble family* who have been renowned for ,

their loyalty and valour, are faid to derive


their furname from the illand of Barry', in the
county of Glamorgan, in Wales ; aad from
their
>

8o ELEMENTS
their riches and eftates have been called hf
the people Barrymore, or the Great Barry.
The feventeenth is Topaz, a Fefs humetty
Ruby, between two Lions pqflant Diamond
born by the Right Hon. Samuel Mafia m,
Lord Mash am, &c» This noble Lord is
defcended from Sir John Mafijam, who
flouriflied in the reign of King Henry VI.
and was buried at Thorneham, in the coiin-*
ty of Suffolk, in 1455.
The eighteenth is Pear/, a Lion rampant
gardant Ruby, debruifed by a Fefs Sapphire,
between three Etoiles, ijjuing out of as many
Crefcents of the fecond ; bor'n by the Right
Hon. Robert Dillon, Earl of Roscom-
mon, ©V. in the kingdom of Ireland. This
noble family is derived from Logan, fur-
named Dilune or Delion, which fignifies

brave and valiant, to whom the Duke of


Aquitaine gave his daughter in marriage, in
whofe right, after her father's death, he be-
came Prince and Sovereign of Aquitaine,
which continued in his pofterity till King
IJenry II. married Alionora, daughter and
heir
of HERALDRY. Si

lieir to William V. Duke of Aquitaine,


and about 1
1
72 obtained that principality
by fuperior force ; and, to prevent any
disturbance, brought Sir Henry Delion or
Dillon, and his brother Thomas, then infants,

to England, their father being (lain.

The nineteenth is Topaz, two Bars Sap-


phire, a Chief quarterly of the Jecond and
Ruby, the j
ft and \th charged each with two
Fleur-de-lis of France the 2d and %d with a
Lion of England; born by his Grace 'John
Manners, Duke of Rutland, Marquis of
Granby, &c. This Chief was anciently
Gules, and the charge thereon is an honora-
ry augmentation, fhewing his Grace's de-
fcent, from the blood royal of King Ed-
ward IV.
The twentieth is Barry of ten pieces Pearl
and Sapphire, over-all fx Efcutcheons ; 3,
29 i, Diamond, each charged with a Lion
rampant of the frjl, armed, and langued
Ruby #, a Crefcent for difference, bor'n by

* It is recorded, by G. Leigh, page 90, that in the 7th year


of Ed-w. Illd's reign, there was a challenge fent by Sir John
Sitfih or Seejil, an Anceftor of the prefent Lord Cecil, to

G William
82 E L E M E N T S

the Right Hon. James Cecil, Earl of Salis-


bury, &e. This noble Earl is defcended
from William Cecil, a perfcn of great learn-
ing and lingular judgment, who became the
greateft ftatefman of the age in which he
lived. In the 5 th Edward VI. he was made
principal Secretary of State, and of the
Privy-council, in which office he was con-
tinued by Queen Elizabeth) and like wife
made Mafter of the Wards, Baron of Bur-
leigh, Lord High-treafurer, and Knight of
the Garter. This Lord, whofe wifdom*
piety,, integrity, indufhy, and juftice, had
no fuperior, died in 1598. He left two
fons Thomas and Robert, who were both
made Earls in one day, May 4, 1603. But
Robert the younger fon, anceftor of the pre-
fent noble Lord, was created Earl of Salif-

William Faknabam for the bearing of the fame Arms ; but


the King, who would have juftice done without fhedding of
blood, appointed two Judges to determine the fame matter,,
whofe names were Ediv. de Bea<ville y and John de Ma^vbrey^
before whom the difpute was tried, and thefe Arms being
adjudged to Sir John, the faid W. Faknabam was expremV
forbidden the bearing them, upon pain of forfeiting his

Sword and guilt Spurs.

bury
of HERALDRY. 83

bury in the morning, and 'Thomas, the eld'eft,

Earl of Exeter in the afternoon.

Allegorical Signification.

The Fefs or Bar may be taken for a mark


of Moderation, or the Scarf of a Warrior.

SECT. V.

Of the Chevron.
t~tiT\ HE Chevron, which reprefents two
* rafters of a houfe well jointed together,
or a pair of compaffes half open, takes up
the fifth part of the Field. Its Diminutives
are the Chevronel, which contains the half
of a Chevron, and the Couple -clofe, which is

the half of a Chevronel, that is, its breadth


is but the fourth part of a Chevron. Leigh
obferves, that this laft Diminutive is never
bor'n but in pairs, or with a Chevron be-
tween two of them. The French have but
one Diminution of this Ordinary called
Efaye, containing the third part of its-

breadth.
G 2 'EXAMPLES.
;

84 ELEMENTS
EXAMPLES.
Of Chevrons, &c. bor'n in Coats-of-arms %

Jee Plate the IX. wherein they are delineated.

/TP* HE firft is Pearl, a Chevron Ruby


between three Tourteaux ; bor'n by the
Right Hon. Bennet Sherrard, Earl of Har-
borough, &c. This noble Earl is lineally

defeended from Schirard, who was poffeffed

of manors and lands to a great value in the


counties of Chefhire and Lancafhire in the
reign of William the Conqueror. Geoffrey,
another of this Earl's anceftors, was three
times Sheriff of Rutlandfhire, in the reigns
of King Edward IV. and King Richard III.

The fecond is Diamond, a Chevron be-

tween three Etoiles Pearl ; bor'n by the Right


Hon. Marmaduke Lang dale, Lord Lang-
dale. This noble Lord is defeended from
the Langdales of Yorkfhire, who refided at

the town of Langdale, from whence they


took their name, in the reign of King John
but his anceftor, who makes the greateft
figure in hiftory, is Sir Marmaduke Lang-
dale }
of HERALDR Y. 85

dale, who raifed forces in the North of


England, in defence of King Charles L was
victorious in numberlefs battles and lieges,

and when his Majefty, by the united forces


of England and Scotland, was at length
overpowered ; he attended King Charles II.

in his exile, and returned to England with


his Majefty at the Reftoration.

The third is Diamond, a Chevron between


three Leopards Heads Topaz ; born by the
Right Hon. William Wentworth, Earl of
Strafford, &c. All Genealogifts agree,
that the name of Wentworth is of Saxon
original, and taken from the manor of Went-
worth in Yorkfhire, where, in the reign of
William the Conqueror, lived Reginald de
Wenteworde, as it is fpelt in Doomfdayr
Book.
The fourth is Pearl, a Chevron between
three Gryphons pafjani fegreant Diamond, a
Crefcent for difference -> horn by the Right
Hon. Heneage Finch, Earl of Ailesford,
&c. This family is descended from Her-
bert Fitz-Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, and
G 3 Cham-
86 E L E M E N T S

Chamberlain to King Henry L They took


the narne of Finch in the reign of King Ed-
ward I. One of the anceftors of the pre-
fent Earl was the Right Hon. Heneage
Finch, Earl of Nottingham, who was con-
flicted Lord High-Chancellor of England
in 16753 and Lord High-Steward on the
trials of Philip Earl of Pembroke, and- Wil-
liam Vifconnt Stafford, in 1680.
The fifth is Sapphire, a Chevron Ermine 9i

between three Efcalops Pearl bor'n by the


Right Hon. George TownJIiend, Vifcount
Towns h f nd, &c. This family are -of Nor-
man extraction, and came into England
about the time of the con que h i Charles?

Lord Vifcount Townfliend, grand-father of


the prefent Vifcount, was appointed princi-
pal Secretary of State in the reign of King
George I. in 1720, and continued fo to the
end of his Majefty's reign ; when, upon re«

figning the feals, they were returned to him


again by his late Mjjefty King George IL
who continued him in that honourable of-
fice to the year 1730*
1 The
of HERALDRY. 8
7

The lixth is Sapphire, a Chevron between


three Mullets Topaz ; bor'n by the Right
Hon. John Chetwind, Vifcount Chet-
wind, &c. of the kingdom of Ireland.
Of this family, which hath been of great
antiquity in the county of Salop, taking
their fur name from Chetwynd in that county,
was Adam de Chetwynd, who married Agnes
daughter of John Lord Love!, Baron of
Dockinges, and Lord of Minfter Lovel in
Oxfordshire ; and by her had John
iffue Sir

de Chetwynd, who, in the 37th of Henry


I1L had a charter of free-warren through ail

his demefne in the counties of Salop, Staf-


ford, and Warwick.
The feventh is Pearl, 4 Chevron Ruiy,
between threefquare Buckles Diamond ; bor'n
by the Right Hon. Matthew Ducie-Morton,
Lord Ducie, &c. This noble Lord is de-
fcended from the Ducies in Normandy.
After they came into England, King Edward
I. conferred on them the Lordihip of Mor-
ton, in Staffordshire, and fevera! other
Lordihips and Manors, which the family
enjoyed
88 ELEMENTS
enjoyed for many years. Sir Robert t)udie,
one of his Lordfhip's anceftors, was Lord-
mayor of London in the reign of King
Charles J. and though he lent his Majefty
8o,oool. which was loft by the King's be-
ing driven out of London, he died, how-
ever, worth 400,000!.
The eighth is Pearl, a Chevron Cheeky
Ruby and of the Field, between three Bugle-
Horns Jlrung diamond? garniped of the feeond;
bor'n by tj?e Right Hon. Lord Hugh Sem-
ple, LordiSEMPLE. The principal family
of this n%ne was Semple of Ellerfton in
Renfrew, where they had large poffeflions

and offices, as ftewards and bailiffs, under


the feveral families of Stewart, proprietors
of that county before they came to the
crown. The firffc Lord Semple was Sir Ro-
bert, who, being much in favour with King
James IV. was by him created Lord Sem-
ple in 1489.
The ninth is Pearl, a Chevron engrailed
between three Lions pafjant Diamond ; bor'n.

by the Right Honourable and the Reverend


Philip
of HERALDRY. 89

Philip Smithe, Vifcoimt Strangford.


One of this Lord's anceftors was John
Smithe, Efq; who acquired a confiderable
eftate whilfl he was farmer of the cuftoms,
in the reign of Henry VIII. He left two
fons, John and Sir Thomas, which laft was
fent Ambaffador by King James I. to the
Emprefs of Ruffia.

The tenth is Quarterly Argent and Azure,


a Chevron engrailed counter-changed ; bor'n
bv the name of Chamber.
The eleventh is Party per Chevron engrail-

ed Ruby and Pearl, three Talbot s Pleads erajed


counter-changed bor'n by the Right Hon.
Anthony Duncombe, Lord Fever sham, &c.
His Lordfhip is defcended from the Duo-
combes of Barley-end, in Buckingham mire.
Sir Charles Dun com be, uncle to the prefent
Lord, was Lord-mayor of London in 1709,
and this Nobleman was created Lord Fever-
mam and Baron of Dowton in Wiltmire,
June 23, 1744.
The twelfth is Pally offix, Pearl and Ruby,
Qn a Chevron Sapphire, three CroJJes crojlets

Topaz*,
9o ELEMENTS
Topaz ; bor'n by the Right Hon. George
Carpenter, Baron Carpenter, of Killaghy
in Ireland. This ancient and noble family
are of great antiquity in the county of Here-
ford, and have been Lords of the manor of the
Home in the parifh of Delwyn, near W eobly,
for above 300 years. George, the firft Lord
Carpenter, was created May 4, 17 19.

The thirteenth is Sapphire, on a Chevron


Topaz, between three Bejants, a Bay Leaf
Emerald ; bor'n by the Right Hon. James
Hope, Earl of Hopton, &c. This noble
family is defeended from Henry Hope, a na-
tive of Holland, who, about two centuries
ago, came over and fettled in Scot/and,

Charles Hope, Efq; father of the prefent

Earl, was created an Earl by Queen .Anne,


April 15, 1703.
The fourteenth is Emerald, on a Chevron
between three Unicorns Heads efafid Pearl,
horned and maned Topaz, three Mullets Dia-
mond-, bor'n by the name of Ker, being the
1 ft and 4th Quarters in theArms of his
Grace John Ker, Duke of Roxburgh, &c.
This
of HERALDRY. 91

This ancient family is faid to come from


Normandy. John Ker, Marquis of Beau-
mont and Cesford, the ftrft Duke of Rox-
burgh, was created jlpril 27, 1707,
'

The fifteenth is Sapphire, on a Chevron


fFopaZy between three Bears Heads couped
PearL and muzzled Rubv, a Roe-buck's Head
erafed of the loft, between two Hands holding
Daggers all proper \ hor'n by the Right Hon,
Donald Mackay, Lord Rae. This family
is faid to derive their defcent from Alexander,
a younger fon of Gchonacker, who, about
the end of the twelfth century, came from
Ireland; and the fourth in defcent from
Jiirn was Donald of Strathnavern, whofe fon
was named T More : and from him began
the furname of Mac T, Mackie, or Mackay.
Donald, the firft Lord of this family, was
created Baronet in 1625, and on June 20,
1628, was created Baron Rae, of the coun-
ty of Chaithnefs, by Charles I.

The lixteenth is Ermine, on a Chevron


Sapphire, three Foxes Heads erafed Topaz,

and in a Canton of the fecond a Fleur-de-lis


92 ELEMENTS
of tbelafi born by the Right Hon. Stephen
;

Fox, Earl of Ilchester, &c* Of the fa-


mily of Fox there have been many per fori s
of note living in the counties of Dorfet,
Somerfet, Wilts, and Hants, particularly
Richard Fox, Bifliop of Winchefter. His
Lcrdfhip was created Lord Ilchefter and
Baron Strangeways, May n, 1741, 14 Geo.
II. and Earl of Ilchefter in June 1756.
The feventeenth is Topaz, two Chevron eh
Ruby ; Hon. John Mon-
bor'n by the Right
jbn, Lord Monson. This noble Lord is
defcended from John Monfon, who flouriuV
ed in the reign of King Edward III. from
whom defcended another John, who attend-
ed King Henry V. in his wars in France.
Sir John Monfon, Bart, father of the pre-
fent Lord, was created Lcrd Monfon, May

28, 1728.

The eighteenth is Topaz, on a Fefs, be-


tween two Chevronels Diamond,, three Crojjes
ero/lets of the firfl ; bor'n by the Right Hon.
George JValpole, Earl of Orford, CsV. This
family took their name from Walbcle fij
Norfolk,
of HERALDRY. 93

Norfolk, where, they refided before the con-


queft. Sir Robert Walpole was, in King
George ITs reign, elected Knight of the
Garter in 1726, and created Earl of Orford,
February 9 , 1741-2.
The nineteenth is Azure, a Chief and
three Chevronels brazed on the bafe of the Ef
mtcheon Or born by the name of Fitz-
Hugh.
The twentieth is Pearl, three Chrevonels
Ruby, in Chief a Label Sapphire ; born by
the Right Hon. William Wildman Barring-
ton, Vifcount Barrington, &c. This fa-

mily is of Norman extraction, in which


Dutchy, whilft it continued annexed to the
Englifh. crown, there were to be feen the
remains of a caftle bearing the name of
Chute, or Shute, and formerly in the fami-
ly, with other monuments in feveral towns
of that Dutchy. John Shute, the late Vif-

count Barrington, was, in 1708, made a


Commimoner of the Cuftoms, and fucceed-
ed to the eftates of Francis Barrington, Efq;

and of John Wildman of the county of Berks,


who
94 ELEMENTS
who made him their heir ; and, in purfu-
ance of the will of the former, he took the
Name and Amis of Barrlngton, On June
ii, 1720, he was created Vifcount Barring-
ton, with a reverfionary grant of the office
ef Mailer of the Rolls in Ireland*

Allegorical Signification.

The Chevron may fignify Protection, and


Prefervation ; it has been granted for having
affifted a King, &e*

SECT, ft

Of the Cross,
r HE Crofs Is an Ordinary formed by
Jp
the meeting of two perpendicular^
with two horizontal lines, near about the
Fefs-point, where they make four right-

angles 5 the lines are not drawn throughout^


but difcontinued the breadth of the Ordina-
ry, which takes up only the fifth-part of
the Field, when not charged, but if charg-
ed,
of HERALDRY. 95
ed, then the third. It is bor'n as well en-
grailed, indented, &c. as plain.

There is fo great a variety of Croffes ufed


in Heraldry *, that it would be a very diffi-

cult talk to treat of them all. Guillim has


mentioned thirty-nine different forts, De la
Colombiere feventy-two, heigh forty-fix, and
Upton declares he dares not afcertain all the
various Croffes bor'n in Arms, for that they

are aim oft innumerable ; therefore, as it

cannot be expected that I Ihould compre-


hend fo many divers Croifes in a Book of
this kind, I will only take notice of fuch

as are moft commonly feen at prefent in

Coats-of-arms.

* That which made this Ordinary fo considerable, and fa


frequent in Heraldry, was the pilgrimage into the Holy-
Land, and the expeditions of the Holy war, for both the

Pilgrims and Warriors took the Crofs for their badges.

EXAMPLES.
96 E L E M E N T S

EXAMPLES.
Of Crosses born in Coats- of-arms •
fee Plate
the X. wherein they are delineated.

HE fir ft is Quarterly, Ermine and


*Jp
Sapphire > a Crofs Topaz ; bor'n by his
Grace Thomas OJborne, Duke of Leeds, &c.
This noble Duke is defcended from the
honourable family of the Ojbornes, of A fil-
ler d, in the county of Kent, Sir Thomas
OJborne, the grandfather to the prefent
Duke, was advanced to the Peerage by
King Charles l\.
The fecond is Ruby, a Crofs engrailed
Pearly a lozenge in the dexter chief of the

fecond bor'n by the Right Hon. Edward


Leigh, Lord Leigh. This family took
their furname from the town of High-Leigh,
In Cheftiire, where they refided before the
Norman Conqueft. Sir Thomas Leigh, the
firftLord of this family, was created Baron
Leigh of Stoneley, by King Charles X. on
Jidyi, 1643.
The
of HERALDRY. 97
The third is Ruby, a Crofs Pearl fretty
Sapphire ; bor'n by the Right Hon. Nicholas

Taaffe, Vifcount Taaffe, of Corran, &c.


in Ireland. Of this noble and ancient fa-
mily was Richard Taaffe who lived in

1282 ; as, in 1306, did John Taaffe, who was


Archbifhop of Armagh ; and, in 1479, tne

order of the Garter being eftabliihed in Ire-


land, Sir Nicholas Taaffe was one of the
firft members ; and John, his fon and heir,

was created a Baron and Vifcount by Charles


L Augujl i, 1628*
The fourth is Sable, a Crofs raguly Or 5

bor'n by the name of Stoway.


The fifth is Pearl, on a Crofs Diamond a
Head Topaz bor'n by his Grace
Leopard's ;

Henry Brydges, Duke of Chandos, &c>


The anceftors of this noble family took their
name from the city of Bruges, in Flanders;
and one of them came over with William the
Conqueror, and had a coniiderable mare in
the vidlory obtained near Haftings, in Suffex,
1066. James, the father of the prefent
Duke, was created Vifcount Wilton, and Earl
H of
93 ELEMENTS
of Carnarvon, Offober 19, 1714, and Mar-
quis of Carnarvon and Duke of Chandos,

3°> I 7i9-
The fixtfa is Topaz, on a Crofs Diamond,
a Patriarchal Crofs of the Field, bor'n by
the Right Hon. Thomas Vefey, Baron
of Knapton, in the kingdom of Ireland.
The truly noble family of Vefcey or Vefey 9
derives its origin from Charles the Great,
King of France, and Emperor of the Weft,
who died at Aix-la-Chapelle, in Germany,
Jan. 28, 814. His Lordfhip's father was
created a Peer April 10, 1750.
The feventh is Pearly on a Crofs of St.
George Ruby, five Efcalops Topaz ; bor'n by

the Right Hon. William Villiers9 Earl of

Jersey, &c. This noble Earl is defcend-

ed from the family of Villiers, in Norman-


dy, fome of whom came over to England

with the Conqueror; feveral manors and


Jands in England being foon after granted to
Pagan de Villiers, one of this Earl's ances-

tors. The firft Peer of this family was


created
of HERALDRY. 99
created a Baron and Vifcount, March 20,
1690, the 3d of William and Mary.
The eighth is Diamond, on a Crofs within
a bordure engrailed 'Topaz,, five Pellets ; bor'n
by the Right Hon. Francis Grevile, Earl
of Brooke and Warwick, &c. The an-
ceftors of this noble family are of Norman

extradlion, and came over with William the


Conqueror, who conferred manors and land
on them in England, of a confiderable value;
and at length they obtained the government
of the caflle of Warwick, the prefent feat
of the family. Sir Fulke, the firft Peer of
this family, was created Baron Brooke "by
King James I. January 9, 1620.
The ninth is Argent, a Crofs botonny
Sable ; bor'n by the name of W in wood.
The tenth is Or, a Crofs crofiet Gules 5

bor'n by the name of Taddington.


The eleventh is Azure, a Crofs potent
jifchy Or ; or according to the prefent way
of blazoning, Jupiter, a Crofs potent fitchy
Sol. This Enfign is faid to have been bor'n
by Etheldred, King of the Weft-Saxons ; and
H 2 Crofles
ioo ELEMENTS
Croffes of this fort are frequently met with
in Coats-of-arms.

The twelfth is Party per pale, Ruby and


Pearl ; a Crofs potent and quadrate in the
center, between four Croffes pat tee counter-
changed. The Arms of the Epifcopal See
of Litchfield and Coventry. This . .

See was originally fixed at Litchfield ; from


thence removed to Chefter, and from both
to Coventry. It contains the whole county
of Stafford, except two parifhes ; all Derby-*
ft ire ; the better part of Warwiekfixire, and
Bear half Shropshire ; divided into the four
Archdeaconries of Coventry, Stafford, Der-
by, and Salop. The Parifhes are 557 ia
number; but, including Chapels^ they
amount to 643.

The thirteenth is Sapphire, a Crofs mo-


line Pearl ; born by his Grace William
Henry Bentick, Duke of Portland, &c.
This noble Duke is defcended from a very
ancient and diflinguifhed family in the
United-Provinces of Holland, of which was
William Bentick, Efq; who, in his youths
was-
of HERALDRY. ioe

was Page of honour to William Prince of


Orange, afterwards William III. King of
Great-Britain, who, on the acceffion of Wil-
liam and his Confort, was made Groom of
the Stole, Privy- purfe to his Royal Majefty,
Lieutenant-General of his Majefty's army,
&c. and alfo created Baron of Cirencefter,
Vifcount Woodftock, and Earl of Portland,
April 19, 1689.
The fourteenth is Argent, a Crofs paionce
Sable bor'n by name of Colvill.
The fifteenth is Sable, a Crofs pattee Ar-
gent ; bor'n by the name of Maplesden.
The fixteenth is Azure, a Crofs flowery
Or bor'n by the name of Cheney. —This
;

is faid to have alfo been the Arms of Ed-

wine, the firft chrifliaii King of Northum-


berland.

The feventeenth is Pearl, fix Crofjes

crojlets fitchy 3, 2, 1, Diamond, on a Chief


Sapphire two Mullets pierced 'Topaz ; bor'n
by his Grace Henry Clinton, Duke of New-
castle, &c. This noble family is de-
scended from Jeffrey de Clint on ^ Lord
H 3 Cham-
ic2 ELEMENTS
Chamberlain and Treafurer to King Henry I.

grand-fon to William de ¥anker ville, Cham-


berlain of Normandy; from whom defcend-
ed William de Clint'on, Chief Juftice of
Che Peer, Governor of Dover- caftle, Lord
Warden of the King's forefts South of
Trent. Edward, Lord Clinton, another of
this noble Earl's anceftors, was conftituted
Lord High-Admiral of England for life.,

in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, who


created him Earl of Lincoln, May 4, 1572.
The eighteenth is Ruby, a Chevron be-
tween ten Crojfes pat tee, Jix above and four
below Pearl ; bor'n by the Right Hon.
Frederick- Auguflus Berkeley, Earl of Berke-
ley, &c. This noble family is defcended
from Robert Fit z- Harding, who obtained a
grant of Berkeley-cattle in Gloucefterfhire,
which the family ftill inherits, and from
whence they obtained the furname of
Berkeley, from Henry Duke of Normandy,
afterwards King of England; the faid Ro-
bert Fitz-Harding was defcended from the
royal line of the Kings of Denmark.
The
of HE R A L D R Y. 103

The nineteenth is Sapphire, three Mullets


*Topaz, accompanied with /even Crojfes crcjlets

Jitchy Pearl, three in Chief, one in Fefs, two


in Flanks, and the lajl in Bafe ; bor'n by the
Right Hon. James Somerville, Lord Somer-
ville. The firft of this name on record is

Sir Walter de Somerville, Lord of Wichnore,


in the county of Stafford, who came to

England with William the Conqueror. A-


bout the beginning of the reign of King
William, in 1170, the Somervilles were
poiTeffed of a fair eftate in the county of
Lanerk and elfe where.

The twentieth is Ruby, three Crojfes recer-

celee, voided Topaz, a Chief vairy ermine and


ermines ; bor'n by the Right Hon. John-
Peyto Verney, Baron Willoughby de
Broke. This noble Lord is defcended from
William de Ver?iai, who fiourimed in the
reign of King Henry I. 141 9.

Allegorical Signification.
The Crofs is the Symbol of Chriftianity*

grid was the reward for religious exploits.

SECT.
ELEMENTS
SECT. VII.

Of the Saltier.
HE Saltier, which is formed by the
JL Fend and Bend-finifter croffing each

other in right-angles, as the interceding of


the Pale and Fefs form the Crofs, contains
the fifth part of the field, but if charged
then the third. In Scotland this ordinary
is frequently called a St. Andrew's crofs.

It may, like the others, be bor'n engrailed,


wavy, &c. as alfo between Charges or charg-
ed with any thing. See the following Ex-
amples.

EXAMPLES.
Of Saltiers born in Coats- of-arms ; fee
'
Plate the XL wherein they are delineated*

rip HE firft is Pearl, a Saltier Ruby, bor'n


A by his Grace
fames Fitz - Gerald,
Duke of Linster, &c. This noble
Lord is defcended from Otho, or Other, a
rich and powerful Lord in the time of King
Alfred, defcended from the Dukes of Tuft
cany s
\

V
of HERALDRY. 105

cany ; who pairing from Florence into Nor-


mandy, and thence into England, there the

family flouriflied, until Richard Strong-


how, Earl of Pembroke, their kin^fman,
engaged them to partake in his expedition
to Ireland, in which Maurice Fitz-Gerald
embarked, as was one of the principal
conquerors of that kingdom, for which he
was rewarded with a great eftate in lands in

the province of Linfler, and particularly the


Barony of OJfaley, and the caftle of Wick-
low ; and died, covered with honours, in
the year 1
177, 24 Henry II.

The fecond is Ruby, a Saltier Pearl, be-

tween twelve CroJJes crojlets Topaz ; born by


the Right Hon. Other-Lewis Wind/or Hick-
man, Earl of Plymouth, &c. This noble
Earl is defcended from Robert Fitz-Hick-
man, Lord of the manor of Bloxham, Ox-
fordshire, in the 56 Hen. III. 1272; and
he is maternally defcended from the noble
family of the Windfors, who were Barons
of the realm at the time of the conqueft.
The
io6 ELEMENTS
The third is Vert, a Saltier zvavy Er-
mine; bor'n by the name of Wakeman of
Beckford, in Gloucefterfhire.

The fourth is Ermine, a Saltier counter-


company Or and Gules -
y bor'n by the name of
Ulmston.
The fifth is Pearl, a Saltier Sapphire with

a Befant in the center ; bor'n by the Right


Hon. Philip Torke, Ear J of Hardwicke, &c.
He was in October 1733 conftituted Lord-
Chief-Juftice of the King's Bench, and
November 23, in the fame year^ created
Baron Hardwicke of Hardwicke.
The fixth is Pearl, on a Saltier Ruby, an

Efcallop Topaz ; the Arms of the Bifhoprick


of Rochester . . . This Diocefe, the lean:

in England, comprehends only a fmall part


of Kent, in which there are 105 Churches
and Chapels : And the two parishes of Ifel-

ham. in Cambridgeshire, and Frekenham in


Suffolk. It has only one Archdeacon, that
of Rochefter. For many years, it was in
the immediate patronage of the Archbifhop
of Canterbury.
The
;

of HERALDRY 107

The feventh is Party per Saltier Sapphire

and Pear/, on a Saltier Ruby a Crejcent for


difference ; quartered by the Right Hon.
William-Hall Gage, Vifcount Gage, of
Caftle-Ifland in Ireland. This noble fami-
ly is of Norman extraction, and derives de-
fcent from de Gaga or Gage, who attended
William I. in his expedition to England; and,
after the conqueft thereof, was rewarded
with large grants of lands in the foreft of
Dean, and county of Gloucefter, near which
foreft he fixed his relidence, by building a
feat at Clerenwell, in the fame place where
the houfe of Gage now ftands: he alfo built

a great houfe at the town of Cirencefter, at


which place he died, and was buried in the

abbey there. Sir Thomas Gage, the eighth


Baronet, and father to the prefent Lord
Gage, was created Baron of Caftle-Bar, and
Vifcount Gage, 172 1.

The eighth is Ruby, on a Saltier Pearl,


a Rofe of the firft. barbed andfeeded proper
born by the Right Hon. George Neville,

Lord
?c§ ELEMENTS
Lord Abergavenny, premier Baron of
"England.
The ninth is Topaz, on a Saltier Sapphire,
nine Lozenges of the firft ; quartered in the
Coats-of-arms of the Right Hon. James
Dalrymple, Earl of Stair, &c. Of this

family, which took their fur name from the


Barony of Dalrymple, lying on the river Dun,
in Airihire, Scotland, was Adam de Dal-
rymple, who lived in the reign of Alex-
ander III.

The tenth is Argent, on a Saltier en-


grailed Sable, nine Annulets Or ; born by the
name of Leak.
The eleventh is Ruby, a Saltier between
four Crefcents Topaz ; bor'n as the 2d and
quarters in the Coat-of-arms of the
Pvight Hon. Charles Kinnaird, Lord Kin-
naird. George Kinnaird, Efq; one of the
prefent Lord's anceftors, being of great fer-

vice to King Charles II. during the ufurpa-


tion of Oliver Cromwell, he was by that
King, at his reftoration, made one of the
Privy-
.

of HERALDRY. 109

Privy-council ; and December 28, 1682,


created a Baron.

The twelfth is Pearl, a Saltier engrailed

between four Rofes Ruby, for Lennox; and


bor'n as ift and 4th quarters in the Coat-
of-arrns of the Right Hon. Francis Napier ,
Lord Napier. This family is faid to be
defcended from the ancient Thanes or Stew-
ards of Lennox, in Scotland, but took their
furname of Napier from the following event.
King David II. in his wars with the Eng.-
lifh, about the year 1344, convocating his
fubjects to battle, the Earl of Lennox fent
his fecond fon Donald, with fuch forces as
his duty obliged him, and coming to an en-

gagement, where the Scots gave ground,


this Donald taking his father's ftandard from
the bearer, and valiantly charging the ene-
my with the Lennox men, the fortune of
the battle changed, and they obtained the
victory ; whereupon every one advancing 5

and reporting their acts, as the cuftom was,


the King declared they had all behaved va-
liantly, but that there was one among them
who
no ELEMENTS
who had na pier, that is, no equal ; upon
which the faid Donald took the name of
Napier, and had, in reward for his good
Cervices, the lands of Gosfield, and other
eftates in the county of Fife.
The thirteenth is Gules, a Saltier Or*
furmounted of another Vert; for the name of
Andrews , and bor'n by Sir William An-
drews, Bart, of Denton in Northampton -
(hire, who is defcended from Sir Robert An-
drews, of Normandy, Knt. who came into
England with William the Conqueror. Sir

William Andrews, the firft Baronet of this


family, was .created.' December 11 , 1641.
The fourteenth is Sapphire, a Saltier quar-

terly quartered Topaz and Pearl The arms


of the epifcopal See of Bath and Wells.
The Diocefe of Bath and Wells contains
all Somerfetfhire, except a few Churches
in Briftol. And in it there are three Arch-
deaconries, viz. thofe of Wells, Bath, and
Taunton. The number of the Parifhes is

388, though, according to fome, the total


number of the Churches and Chapels
amounts to 503, The
;

of HERALDRY. in
The fifteenth is Tarty per Saltier Argent
and Gules, a Saltier counter-changed bor'n
by the name of—
The lixteenth is Party per Pale indented
Argent and Sable, a Saltier counter-changed

bor'n by the name of Scote.


The feventeenth is Argent, three Saltiers
couped and engrailed Sable ; bor'n by the name
of Benton.
The eighteenth is Pearl, a Saltier Ruby,
and a Chief Ermine ; bor'n by the Right
Hon. Francis Thomas Fitz- Maurice, Earl of
Kerry, &c. This very ancient and noble
family is a branch of the family of Kildare,
who are originally defcended from the great
Duke of Tufcany, and of which was Otho 9

a noble Baron of Italy, whofe fon Walter,


attending the Norman Conqueror into Eng-
land, was made Conftable of the caflle of
Windfor. Reymvnd; one of the prefent
Earl's anceftors, had a principal hand in the

reduction of Ireland to the fubje£tion of


Henry II. and Dermoid Mac-Car ty, King of
Cork, fought his aid againft his fon Cor mac
O'Lehanagh?
ii2 ELEMENTS
O'Lehanagh, which he undertook, and de-
livered the King from his rebellious fon^
for which that Prince rewarded him with a
large trad: of land in the county of Kerry,
where he fettled his fon, Maurice, who gave
his name to the county, which he called

Clan Maurice, and is enjoyed by the pre-


fent Earl of Kerry, who is Vifcount Clan
Maurice. Thomas the firft Earl, and father
of the laft, was the twenty-flrft Lord Kerry,
who w as T
created Earl, January 17, 1722.

The nineteenth is Diamond, a Saltier


Pearl, on a Chief Sapphire, three Fleurs-de-

lis Topaz ; born by Hon. John


the Right
Fitz-Patrick, Earl of Upper Offory, and
Baron of Gowran in Ireland. This moft
ancient and princely family is defcended
from Heremon, the firft Monarch of the
Milefian race in Ireland ; and after they had
a {Turned the furname of Fitz-Patrick, they
were for many ages Kings of Offory, in
the province of Leinfter. John, the firft

Earl of this family, fucceeded his father

Richard as Lord Gowran, June 9, 1727,


was
of HERALDRY. it*

was created an Earl, OBober 5, 1751, and


died 1758.
The twentieth is Tarty per Tale Argent
and Gules, three Saltier s counter- changed 1
bor'n by the name of Lane. Thefe Arms
are alfo bor'n, without the leaf! alteration,
by the name of Kingsman, for which fimili-*

tude I can no other wife account, than by


fuppofing there has been fome miftake made
through many tranfcriptions*

Allegorical Signification.

The Saltier may denote Refolution, and


was the reward for foaling walls of towns, &c y

I ARTICLE
174 ELEMENTS
ARTICLE II.

Of SUBORDINATE ORDINARIES.
gE SIDES the Honourable Ordinaries
and the Diminutions I have made men-
tion of, there are other heraldick figures,
called Subordinate Ordinaries, or Ordinaries

cnly, which, by reafon of their ancient ufe

in Arms, are of worthy bearing, viz.

THE
'on Flanches
Canton Flafques
Fret Voiders
Pile Lozenge
Orle Fufil

Inefcutcheon AND
Trejfiire Mafcle

The Gyron is a triangular i

figure formed by two lines,

one drawn diagonally from


one of the four angles to the
center of the Shield, and the
other is drawn either hori-

zontal or perpendicular, from one of the


fides
;

of H E R A L D R Y. 175

of Tournon in Picardy, who came over to


England with Jeffrey Plantagenet, Earl of
Anjou, third fon of King Henry II. and
among other lands had the Lordfhip of Pan-
let, in Somerfetfhire, conferred on him,
William Powlet, the fir ft Peer of this illuf-

trious and loyal family, was Treafurer of


the houfhold to King Henry VIII. and by
him created Baron St. John of Baling, in
the County of Southampton, March 9,
1538.
The fecond is Pearl, three Battering-
rams barways proper, headed Sapphire and
hooped Topaz, an Annulet for difference bor'n
by the Right Hon. Willoughby Bertie, Earl
of Abington, &c. The firft of the family
of Bertie, that bore the title of Earl of A-
bington, was James Lord Norris of
Bertie,
Rycote, being created Earl, November 30,
1682, by Charles II.

The' third is Sapphire, three left-hand


Gauntlets with their backs forward Topaz
born by the Right Hon. Thomas Fane, Earl
of Westmoreland, &c. This noble
Earl is defcended from the Fanes, an ancient
family,
176 E L E M E N T S

family, which rcfided at Badfal, in Kent,


from which defcended Francis Fane, fon
and heir of Sir Thomas Fane, Knight, by
Mary, his wife, fole daughter and heirefs

to Henry Nevil, Lord Abergavenny, after-

wards created Baronefs Defpenfer. The faid

Francis was a Knight of the Bath, and in


the reign of King James I. was created Baron
Burgherfh, and Earl of Weflmoreland, De-
cember 29, 1624.

The fourth is Sapphire, three Arrows


Topaz-, bor'n by the Right Hon. Thomas
Archer, Lord Archer, &c. This noble
Lord is defcended from John de Archer,
who came over from Normandy with Wil-
liam the Conqueror, and this family is one
of the mo ft ancient in Warwickshire, being
fettled at Umbenlade, in that county, ever
fince the reign of Henry II. His Lordfhip is
the firft Peer, and was created Lord Archer
and Baron of Umberflade by King George
II. July 14, 1747.

The fifth is Ruby, Two Helmets in Chief


proper , garnified Topaz, in a Bafe a Garbe of
the
of HERALDRY. 177
the third $ bor'n by the Right Hon. George
Cholmondeley, Earl of Cholmondeley, &c.
This noble Earl is defcended from the an-
cient family of Egerton, of Chefhire, which
flourifhed in the time of the conqueft, from
whom alfo the Duke of Bridgewater is de-
fcended. The firft Englifh Peer of this
brave and loyal branch was Hugh, Vifcount
Cholmondeley of Kells, in Ireland^ who 3
joining with thefe worthy Patriots, that
oppofed the arbitrary meafures of King
"James II. was on the acceffion of King Wil-
liam andQueen Mary, created Lord Chol-
mondeley of Namptwich, in the county of
Chefter.

The fixth is Pearl, a Ship with its fails

furled up Diamond ; quartered by the Right


Hon. James Hamilton, Earl of Abercorn,
&c. The defcent of this noble family is

from that of the Duke of Hamilton : for

fames, the fourth Earl of Hamilton, and


fecond Earl of Arran, marrying Lady Mar-
garet Douglas, daughter of fames, the third
Earl of Morton, by her had four fons,

N fames%
178 ELEMENT S

James, John, Claud, and David ; whereof


Claud was progenitor of the Lord we are
now fpeaking of ; and in confideration of
his merit and loyalty to Mary Queen of
Scots, James VI. created him Lord Pauley
1 59 1, as alfo Earl of Abercorn, Baron of
Hamilton, &c. July 10, 1606.
The feventh is Topaz, an Anchor in pale
'Ruby ; quartered by the Moft Noble George
Johnjlon, Marquis of Annandale, &c.
The Johnftones are an ancient and warlike
family, and derive their furname from the
Barony of Johnjlon, in Annandale.
The eighth is Diamond, three Spears
Heads ereffi Fear I, imbrued Ruby, on a Chief
Topaz, as many Vole - axes
bora Sapphire ;

by the Right Hon. William King, LonJ


King, &c. Peter King, Efq; the firft Lord
of this ancient family, was chofen Recorder
of the London, July 27, 1708, and
city of

on the 1 2th of September following had the


honour of knighthood conferred on him.
He was conftituted Lord-chief-juftice of the
Common-pleas in the firft year of King
2 George
oir HERALDRY. 179
George I. 17 14 3 on the 5th of April follow-
ing was fworn of his Majefty's Moft Hon.
Privy Council : and on May 19, 1723, was
kingdom by
created a Peer of this the title

of Lord King, Baron of Ockham.


The ninth is Ruby, three Clarions "Topaz \
quartered by the Right Hon. Robert Car*
ieret, Earl of Granville, &c. This an-
cient and worthy family derives its pedigree
from Off'erey de Carteret 9 who attended Wil-
liam the Conqueror In his defcent upon Eng-
land, and contributed to the viftory he ob-
tained over King Harold, at Haftings in
Suffex, 1066, he had manors and lands in.

England conferred on him by that Prince,

as a reward for his eminent fervices. George


Carteret, Grand-father to the prefent Earl,
was, in confideration of his own merit, and
the fervices of his anceftors, created a Peer
of Great-Britain, October the 19th, i68x.
The tenth is Pearly a Mannch Diamond j
bor'n by the Right Hon. Francis Hajiings,
Earl of Huntingdon, &c. This noble
Earl is defcended from Hugh de Hajlings^
N % a younger
i8o ELEMENTS
a younger fon of the ancient and noble fa-
mily of the Haftings, Earl of Pembroke,
of which family was William de Haftings,
Steward of the Houfhold to King Henry I.

William, the fipft Lord Haftings, was creat-

ed a Baron on July 6, 1461* by King Ed*


ward IV.
The eleventh is Sapphire, a circular-

Wreath Pearl and Diamond, with four


Hawk's Bells joined thereto in quadrature
Topaz; horn by the Right Hon. Robert
yocelyn^ Vifcount Jocelyn, &c. This no-
ble family is of great antiquity 3 for, after

the Romans had been matters of Britain five


hundred years, wearied with the wars, they
took their final farewel of it, and carried
away with them a great many of their brave
oid Britifli foldiers, who had ferved them in
their wars both at home and abroad, to
whom they gave Jrmorica, in France, fcfr

their former fervices, which country was


from them afterwards called Little Britain.

It is fuppofed that there were fome of this


family amongft them, and that they gave
the
of HERALDRY. jg s

the name 'of yocelyn to a town in this coun-

try <> which ftill preferves that name ; and


it is thought probable that they returned
with William the Conqueror ; for we find.,

in io66 3
mention made of Sir Giberi jf&ce-

lyn. This prefent nobleman, the Lord firft

of the family,, was created Baron Newport,


of Newport on November 29,
in Ireland\

3 743» m & Vifeoirat in November 1751.


The twelfth is Ruby 9 three ^Towers Pearl* %
quartered by the Right Hon. William Flower ,
Vifcount Ashbrook, &e. William Flower*
Efq; father' to this prefent Lord, was ad-
vanced to the Peerage by King George II.

and created Baron of Caftle-Durrow, in the


county of Kilkenny, October 27, 1733*
and his fon was created Vifcoimt Afhbrook,
of Afhbrook, in Ireland, on September 30,
17.5 1.' — now extin£L
* The difference between a Tower and a Caftte is this,
the Tower Hands in the middle of the Field, but a CaiUe
extends from lide to fide, fo that there can be but one Caftle
in an Efcutcheon, but there may be three Toweis, as in this

exaniple.

The
18a ELEMENTS
The thirteenth is Ruby, two Keys in Sal-
tier Pearl, in Chief a Royal Crown Topaz*
The Arms of the Archbiihopric of York,
This Archbiihopric c©mprehends only the
Bifbopric of Carlifle, Chefter, and Durham.
And the Diocefe contains about three parts
in four of Yorkfhire, all Nottinghamfhire,
and Hexham peculiar jurifdidtion, divided
into 903 Parifhes and Chapels; and into
four Archdeaconries of York, E aft-Riding,
Cleveland, and Nottingham.
The fourteenth is Ruby, two Swords in
Saltier Pearl, pomeled and hilted Topaz* The
Arms of the Bifhopric of London.
This Diocefe contains London, the Coun-
ties of Middlefex and Effex, and part of
Hertfordfhire, in which there are about 665
Churches and Chapels. In it are alfo five
Archdeaconries, viz. thofe of London, Mid-
dlefex, EiTex, Colchefter, and St. Albans,
The fifteenth is Diamond, a Key in Bend9
Jhrmounted by a Crojier in Bend Jinijler, both
Topaz. The Arms of the Bifhopric of St.
Asaph. * . . This Diocefe contains no one
whole
of HERALDRY. 183

whole county ; but part of Denbigh, Flint,


Montgomery, and Merioneth fhires, and
fome towns in Shropfhire, wherein are to
the number of 1 2 1 pari(hes ? but there are in
all 131 Churches and Chapels; moft of
which are in the immediate patronage of
the Bifhops. It hath but one Archdeaconry,
called of St. Afaph, which is united to the
Bifhopric, for the better fupport of it.

The fixteenth is Ruby, two Keys addorfed


in Bendy the uppermofl Pearl, the other To-
paz, a Sword interpofed between them in
Bend-Jinifter of the fecond, pomeled and hiked
The Arms of the Bifhopric of
of third.
Winchester. This Diocefe contains
. . .

the whole county of Southampton, with the


Jfle of Wight, and the Ifles of Jerfey, Guer-
jiefey, Serk, and AJderney. It alfo con-
tains one parifh in Wiltfhire, and all Surry,
except eleven peculiars, belonging to Can-
terbury, The number of Churches and
Chapels in it are 415. And it has two
Archdeacons, viz, of Winchefter and Surry.
The
L

i8 4 ELEMENTS
The feventeenth is Ruby, three Mitres
with their Pendants Topaz. The Arms of
the Bishopric of Chester. The Bi- . . .

fhopric of Chefter was anciently part of the


Diocefe of Litchfield, one of whofe Biftiops,
removing his See hither, in the year 1075,
occafioned his fucceflbrs being frequently
called Bifhops of Chefter. Bat it was not
credled into a diftind: Bifhopric, till the year

1 54 1, by King Henry VIII. It contains

the entire counties of Chefter and Lancafter;


part of Weftmoreland, Cumberland, and
Yorkfhire ; two Chapelries in Denbighshire;
and five Churches and Chapels in the coun-
ty of Flint : In 506 Churches and Cha-
all,

pels. It is divided into two Archdeaconries,


viz. Chefter and Richmond.
The eighteenth is Diamond, three Ducal
Coronets Pa/eways Topaz. The Arms of the
Bifhopric of Bristol. . . .The Biftiopric
Of Briftol was founded by King Henry VI I
and taken out of the Diocefes of Salilbury,
Wells, and Worcefter. It contains the city
of Briftol, and the county of Dorfet; in
which
of HERALDRY. 185

which there are 276 Churches and Chapels,


and one Archdeaconry, viz. that of Dorfet.

The nineteenth is Ruby, a Sword ereSl


in Tale Pearl, pomeled and hiked Topaz, fur-
mounted by two Keys in Saltier of the lajl.

The Arms of the Bifhopric of Exeter. . . .

When Chriftianity was firft planted in thefe


parts, Cornwal and Devonfhire were placed
under the jurifdiftion of the Bifhop of Dor-
chefter; but, that epifcopal Seat being re-
moved to Winchefter in the year 660, thefe
Weftern parts were made fubjeft to that
new See. When the Monaftery of Sher-
bourn was turned into a Cathedral, about
the year 705, thefe counties were included
in that Diocefe ; which continued about two
hundred years, aS(d then Plegmund, Arch-
bifhop of Canterbury, at the command of
King Edward the Elder, ere&ed three new
Bifhoprics, one at Wells, for Somerfetfhire,
another at Bodmin, for Cornwal, and the
laft at Tawton-Bifhops, for Devon, which
was after removed to Crediton, and at length
fettled at Exeter. That Diocefe contains
th©
1 86 ELEMENTS
the entire counties of Devon and Cornwall
in which there are 725 Churches and Cha-?
pels, and four Archdeaconries, viz. thofo
of Exeter, Bamilable, Totnefs, and Corn-?
wal.
The twentieth is Rubyy three Ducal Co-
ronets Topaz. The Arms of the Biihopric
of Ely. , • t
The Bifhcpric of Ely was taken,
from that of Lincoln, by King Henry I.

A. D. 1 1 09. It contains all Cambridge-?


fhire, and the Ifle of Ely, excepting Ifel-

ham, which belongs to the See of Rochef-


ter, and fifteen other Parifhes, that are in
the Diocefe of Norwich : But it has one

Parifh, viz. Emneth, in Norfolk. The


whole number of the Churches and Chapels
within the Diocefe of Ely, are 164. If

hath only one Archdeacon, viz. that of


Ely,

ARTICLE
of H E R A h D R Y. 187

ARTICLE III.

Of Chimerical Figures born in Coats


of-arms.

rj1 H E iafl, and the oddeft kind of Bear-


ings in Coats-of-arms, is compre-
hended under the name of Chimerical Fi-
gures, that is to fay, fuch as have no real

exiftence, but are mere fabulous and fan-


taftical inventions. Thefe Charges, Griffons,
Martelet$> and Unicorns excepted, are fo

uncommon in Englifh Coats, that I have


been obliged, in order to make up the fame
number of Examples hitherto contained in
each collection, to introduce in this laft fe-

deral foreign Bearings, which, however, as


they are, conform to the laws of Englifh
Heraldry, will alfo contribute both to en-
tertain and inftru(5t the Reader. Thefe mod
i:i ufe are of thefe forts following, viz.

Angels, Tritons,
Cherubim, Centaurs,
Martelets,
18S ELEMENTS
Martelets, Satyrs,

Griffons, Wivems,
Unicorns* Harpies,
Dragons? Cockatrices,

Mermaids* Phenixes.

Thefe, like the foregoing Charges, arc


fubjeil to various Pofitions and Difpofitions,
which, from the- Principles already laid

down, will be plainly tmderftood, See tha


following Examples,

EXAMPLES.
Of Chimerical Figures born in Coats-
of-arms fee Plate the XIX.

HE firft is Gules, an Angel jlanding


direct with his Hand conjoined and ele-

vated upon bis hreaft^ habited in a long robe


tlofe girt Argent, his Wings displayed Or;
born by the name of Brangor de Cerevifia,

a foreign Prelate, who affifted at the Coun-


cil of Conjlance, 1413- This Example is

quoted by Guillim, Sedt. 3, Chap* i.

a The
of HERALDRY. 189

The fecond is Sable, a Chevron between


three Cherubim Or ; bor'n by the name of
Chaloner, of Yorkfliire and Cheihire.
The third is Azure, a Fefs dancette be-
tween three Cherubim Argent, Thefe Arms
were granted to John Ayde, Efq; ofDod-
dington, in Kent, by Sir William Segar,
Garter.
The fourth is Gules, a Cherub having
three pair of Wings, the uppermojl and low*
ermojl counter-croffed Saltierways, and the
middlemojl difplayed Argent', bor'n by the
name of Buocafoco, a foreign Prelate,
This Example is copied from Menejlrier's
Methode du B la/on, p. 120, No. viii.
The fifth is Sapphire, a Gryphon fegreant
TCopaz, armed and langued Ruby, between three
Crefcents Pearl-, quartered by the Right
Hon. John Bligh, Lord Clifton, &c.
The 'Great-grand-father of this noble Lord,
who lived in London, going over to Ireland,
in the time of Oliver Cromwell, as an agent
to the adventurers there, acquired a good
eftate,
igo ELEMENTS
eftate, and laid the foundation for the gran-*

deur of this family.

The fixth is Gules* three Martlets Or j


horn by the name of Macgill. Various
are the opinions of NaturaMs concerning
this Bird, fome fuppofe it to be the Martin,
and afcertain its exiftence from this conjec-
ture | others pretend it is only an imagina-
ry Bird invented by Heralds, as they have
introduced into Armory many other things
that have no being, Guillim obferves, that
this Bird, which is reprefented without feet,
is given for a difference to younger Brothers,
to put them in mind that, in order to raife

themfelves, they are to truft to their wings


of Virtue and Merit, and not to their legs,

having but little land tofet their feet on.


The feventh is Sapphire^ three Mullets
within a double Trejjure counter-flowery Pearly
end in the center a Martelet Topaz * j bor'n
by the Right Hon. Patrick Murray, Lord
Elibank. Sir Gideon Murray, knighted

* This I take to have been introduced as a Difference ; for

the Original Arms, by the name of Murray, are A%ure y


Hhnt Mullets ArgtnU
by
qf HERALDRY. 191

by King James VI. by whom he was made


Treafurer-depute, was third fon of Sir John
Beton, of Creik. His fon Patrick, in re-

fpedt of his loyalty to Charles I. was, on


May 16, 1628, made a Baronet, and, in

1643, created Lord Elibank. The prefent


is the fifth Nobleman of this ancient family.
The eighth is Sable, a Cockatrice dif-

flayed Argent, crejled, membred, and jowllop~

f ed Gules 5 bor'n by the name of * * *.

This is only an imaginary creature, fuppofed


to rife from a Cock's egg. But Guillim,
Sedt. 3. Chap. xxvL calls it the King of
Serpents, not in refpedl of its bignefs, but

of the infedtion of its peftiferous and poi-


fonful afpeft.

The ninth is Argent, a Mermaid Gules,


crined Or, holding in her right- hand a Comb,
and in her left a Mirror -
9 bor'n by the name
<of Ellis. There may perhaps be fome
refembl^nce of this creature in the fea, but
as they are reprefented in Coats-of-arms,
&c. they $re the fancies of Painters, &c.
They
i
92 ELEMENTS
They have b-ren ufed sometimes for the fyn>
bol of Elooo a e.

The ten ili is Argentic Wivern, his Wings


elevated, and his Tail no wed Gules ; bor'n by
the name of Drakes. Some fuppofe this

creature to be a kind of a Serpent, the upper


part refembling a Dragon 3
and the lower -a
Snake; others make it a winged Ferret,
called Viverra in Latin ; others a winged
Viper; though, if I might give my opinion,
it owes its being to the Heralds, and can
boaft of no other creation.

The eleventh is Or, a Dragon pajfant


Vert ; bor'n by the name of.*-* Dragons
may be juflly fuppofed to be imaginary mon-
gers, notwithftanding all the feveral ftories
we have of them, I mean Dragons with
wings and legs, and not Serpents of an ex-
traordinary magnitude, as I make no doubt
but that there have been fuch.
The twelfth is Gules, a Centaur or Sagit-

tary regardant proper. This was the Coat-of-


arms
of HERALDRY. 193

arms of Stephen #, furnamed of Blots, fon


to Adela, daughter of William the Conque-
ror, and of Stephen, Earl of Blois ; and on
this defcent grounding his pretention to the
Crown of England. He was proclaimed
King in 1135, and reigned to the 25th of
Oc7oher 1 154*
The thirteenth is Argent, an Unicom fe-
jant Sable, unguled and horned Or bor'n by
the name of Harling. The Unicorn is,
by fome authors, fuppofed to be a very rare

and beautiful beaft like a horfe or afs, and


many pretend to defcribe him, as if they

were fure of his exiftence : but after the


moft diligent enquiry, made by the moft
judicious travellers in all parts of the world,

there is no fuch creature to be found. No


other quadrupede is known that has a fingle
horn but the Rhinoceros, and that is not in
the middle of the forehead, but on the nofe>,

* G. Leigh, in his Accid. of Armory p. 43. fays, that


the reafon which induced this King to change his Paternal
Coat-of-arms for this was, that on his entering the Realm,
the Sun was in Sagittarius, and that he obtained a great vic-
tory by the help of his Archers.
Q however.
194 ELEMENTS
however, this has, in all likelihood, given
rife to the fable of the Unicorn. There are
indeed many horns kept in the cabinets of
the curious, that have been faid to be Uni-
corn's horns ; but they do not belong to a
quadrupede, but to a fiih, that is now
known by the name of Sea-Unicorn.
The fourteenth is Argent, a Dragon's
Mead erafed Vert, holding in his Mouth a
Jinifter Hand couped at the JVriJt Gules j bor'n

by the name of Williams.


The fifteenth is Gules, three Unicorns
Meads couped Or bor'n by the name of
Paris.
The fixteenth is Argent, a Dragon volant
Bendways Sable-, bor'n by the name of
PvAYNON.
The feventeenth is Azure, a Lion fejant
gardant and winged Or, his head incircled
with a Glory, holding in his fore-paws an open
Book, wherein is written, Pax tibi, Marce,
Evangilifta meus over the Dexter Jide of
the Book a Sword eredt, all proper. Thefe
are the Arms of the Republic of Venice.
The
o* HERALDRY. 195

The eighteenth is Azure, a Bullfaillant


and winged Or ; bor'n by the name of Ca-
denet, a family of diftindtion in Pro-
vence.

The nineteenth is Argent, a Wyvern with


d human Face hooded, and winged Vert ;

bor'n by the name of Buseraghi, an an-


cient and noble family of Luques.
The twentieth is Azure, a Harpy difplay-

ed, armed, crined, and crowned Or. Thefe


are the Arms of the city of Noremberg,
in Germany.
To the fore-mentioned figures may b©
added the Montegre, an imaginary creature,
feppofed to have the body of a Tyger with
a Satyr's head and horns alfo thefe, which
have a real exiftence, but are faid to be en-
dowed with extravagant and imaginary qua-
lities, viz. the Salamander, Beaver, Came-
lion, &c.

0 2 CHAP.
196 ELEMENTS
CHAP. VII.

Of the EXTERNAL ORNAMENTS of


Escutcheons.

*
| * H E Ornaments that accompany or
JL furround Efcutcheons, were intro-
duced to denote the Birth, Dignity, or
Office * of the perfons to whom the Coat-
of-arms appertained! ) which is pradtifed

both among the Laity and Clergy. Thofc


moft in ufe are of ten forts, viz.

* The office of Earl Marjhaloi'England is ftill diitinguirh-


ed by two Troncheons, or Martha! Staves placed behind the
noble Duke of Norfolk! % Arms,- as being Earl Marjhal of Eng-
land. His Grace the Duke of Argjkh Arms are alio accom-
panied with two honourable Badges in Saltier, which his
Grace's anceflors have born a long time, as Great-matters of
the King's Houfhold, and Jufiiciaries of Scotland. The firft
is a Staff Topaz feme of Thirties proper and thereon the Creir.
of Scotland. The fecond is a Sword proper, the Pommel
and Hilt Topaz. — In France and Germany it is cuftomary to
decorate the Shields of General Omccrs, &c. with imple-
ments and trophies of war.

Crowns,
:

of HERALDRY. 197

Crowns, Chapeaux,
Coronets, Wreaths,
Mitres, C re/is,
Helmets, Scrolls,

Mantlings, Supporters.

SECT. I.

Of Crowns.

k
*Tp HE firft Crowns were only Diadems,
Bands, or Fillets, afterwards they were
compofed of branches of divers trees, and
then flowers were added to them.
Among the Greeks, the Crowns given to
thofe who carried the prize at the Ifthmian

Games, were of Pine; at the Olympick, of


Laurel; and at the Nemean, of Smallage,

which is a fort of Parlley.

The Romans had ten different Crowns


to reward Martial exploits, and extraordi-
nary fervices done to the Republic, fuch as

O 3 The
i 98 ELEMENTS
The Mural-Crown, i

which was a circle of


Gold with Battlements,
fee Fig. i, It was con-

ferred upon him, who


firft, at an affault, mounted the walls of a

befieged town, and there fet up a ftandard.

Examples of this Crown are frequently met


with in Achievements, viz. in that of Lord
Archer, as mentioned before. Likewife
in. that of Lord Montfort, which was con-
ferred on Sir John Bromley, one of his Lord-
fhip's anceftors, as an Augmentation to his
Arms, for his great courage at the battle

of Le Croby. And I find no lefs than ten


Englim Baronets, whofe Arms are orna-
mented with the fame Crown,
The Naval or Rof-
tral-Crown, which was
a circle of gold with the
Figures of Crabs or
Shrimps engraved on it,

and on the top of it were put the Beaks and


Sterns of £hips$ fee Fig. 2. This Crown
was
of HERALDRY. 199
was given to him who firft grappled, or en-
tered an Enemy's fliip,
The Castrense or 3
P.: dadoed-Crown was. a
;i

circle of Gold with Pales

or Pallifadoes on the top


o£k| feeF^g\ 3. It was
conferred by the General on
,
him who, firft

entered the Enemy's camp, or forced their


entrenchments. We have an ioftance of it

in the Coat-of-arms of Sir Reginald Graham?


whofe Creft it is,

The Civick - Crown 4


was made of Oak-boughs*
as Fig. 4* and beftowed
upon fuch a Roman Citi-
zen, as had faved the life
of one of his Fellow-citi-
zens, either in battle or at an a flank. This
crown was fo highly efteemed, that it was
conferred upon M. T. Cicero, for having
detected Catiline's confpiracy, and after-
wards upon Aitgujlus Ccsfar himfelf*

The-
2oo ELEMENTS
The Radiated or Antique-Crown was
made of Gold, but being formed very near
like the Pallifadoed-Crown, is not for that
reafon delineated ; it was beftowed on
Princes and Emperors when they were Apo-
theofed, or ranked among the Gods, either

before or after their death. The other


Crowns were all made of Grafs, Plants, ov
Branches of trees, after the fame manner as

the Civick-Crown.

But Modern Crowns are only ufed as an


Ornament, which Emperors, Kings, and
Independent Princes fet on their heads, in
great Solemnities, both to denote their fo-
vereign Authority, and to render themfelves
more awful to their fubjecis. Thefe are the

moft in ufe in Heraldry *, and are as fol-

lows :

The Imperial Crown is made of a Cir-

cle of gold, adorned with precious Stones


and Pearls, heightened with Fleurs-de-3is,

* F. Merteftrier allures us, that the practice of crowning


JSfcptcheons was firft ufed on Coins, and began in the reign.
fctXhqrJcs'Vil. who came to the throne in 1422.

bordered
of HERALDRY. 201

bordered and feeded with Pearls, raifed in


the form of a Cap voided at the top, like a

Crefcent. From the middle of this Cap


riles an arched Fillet enriched with Pearls,
and furmounted of a Mound, whereon is

a Crofs of Pearls. See Plate XX. of Crowns,


&c. Fig. i.

The Crown of the Kings of Great Bri-


tain is a Circle of gold, bordered with Er-
mine, enriched with Pearls and precious

Stones, and heightened up with four Crofles


pattee, and four large Fleurs-de-lis alternate-
ly -y from thefe rife four arched Diadems
adorned with Pearls, which clofe under a
Mound, furmounted of a Crofs like thofe at
bottom. See Fig. 2. Mr. Sandford, in his
Genealogical Hiftory, p. 381. remarks, that
Edward IV. is the firfl King of England,
that in his feal, or on his coin, is crowned
with an arched Diadem.

The Crown of the Kings in France is a


Circle enamelled, adorned with precious
Stones, and heightened up with eight arch-
ed Diadems, riling from as many Fleurs-de-
lis,
202 ELEMENTS
lis* that conjoin at the top under a double
Fleur-de-lis, all of gold. See Fig. 3.

The Crowns of Spain 3 Portugal, and Pq~


land% are all three of the fame form, and arc,
amonft others, thus defcribed by Co!. Par-
fon$> in his Genealogical Tables of Europe,
viz. A Ducal Coronet, heightened up with
eight arched Diadem^ thatfupport a Mound,
enfigned with a plain Crofs. Thofe of Den*
mark and Sweden are both of the fame form .

alfo, which confift of eight arched Diadems ;

rifing from a Marquis's coronet, that con-


join at the top under a Mound enligoed with
a Crofs-bottony.

The Crowns- of mofl: other Kings are


Circles of gold, adorned with precious
Stones, and heightened up with large Tre-
foils, and clofed by four, fix, or eight Dia-
dems, fupporting a Mound, furmounted of
a Crofs, *

The Great-Turk bears over his arms a


Turband, enriched with Pearls and Dia-
jrtonds, under two Coronets, the firft of
which is made of piramidical points height-
ened
of HERALDRY. 203

ened up with large Pearls* and the upper-


moft is furmounted with Crefcents. See
Fig. 4.
The Pope, or Bifhop of Rome, appropriates
to himfelf a Tiara, or long Cap of golden
cloth, from which hang two pendants em-
broidered and fringed at the ends, feme of
Croffes of gold. This Cap is enclofed by
three Marquifes Coronets, and has on its

top a Mound of gold, whereon is a Crofs of

the fame, which Crofs is fometimes repre-


fented by Engravers and Painters, pomctted,
recroffed, flowery, or plain. — It is a diffi-

cult matter to afcertain the time that thefe

haughty Prelates aflumed the three fore-

mentioned Coronets. A patched up fue*


ceffion of the Holy-Pontifs engraved and
publifhed a few years ago by order of Clement
XIII. the late Pope, for the edification of
his good fuhjeBs in Great Britain and Ire-

land, reprefents Marce/Ius, 'who was chofen


Biftiop of Rome Anno 310, and all his fuc-

ceffors, adorned with fuch a Cap j but it

appears*
204 ELEMENTS
appears, from very good authority*, that
Boniface VIII. who was elected inlo the See
of Rome Anno 1295, firft compafTed his
Cap with a Coronet \ Benedicl XII. in 1335,
added a fecond to it ; and John XXIIL in

141 1 a third., with a view to indicate by


them that the Pope is the fovereign Prieji^
the fupreme Judge?, and the [ok Lcgifafor
amongft Chriftians. See Fig. 5,

SECT. XL

Of Coronets.
r HE Coronet of the Prince of Wale?,
Jp or elded fon of the King of Great-
Britain, was anciently a Circle of gold fet

round with four CrofTes~patt.ee., and as many


Fleurs-de-lis alternately 1 hut fince the hap-

py Reftoration, it has been clofed with one

* Mr. Chambers, in his Dictionary of Arts and Sciences,


under the Article Tiara, has, I apprehend, copied or
committed a mi (lake, with refpecl to the chronology and
fucceffion of thefe three Popes, for he makes Boniface
VIII. fublequent to John XXIII. which is contrary to the
feveral catalogues of Popes I have hitherto perufed.

Arch

\
qf HERALDRY 205
Arch only* adorned with Pearls, and fur-
mounted of a Mound and Crofs, and bor-
dered with Ermine like the King's. See

7*

Befides the afcrefaid Coronet, his Royal


Highnefs the Prince of Wales has another
diftinguilhing mark of honour, peculiar to
himfelf, called, by the vulgar, the Prince's
Arms, viz. a Plume of three Oftrich Fea-
thers with an ancient Coronet of a Prince of
Wales. Under it, in a fcroll, is this motto,
ICH DIENy which, in the German or
old Saxon language, fignifies Iferve. This
device was at firft taken by Edward Prince
of Wales, commonly called the Black Prime,
after the famous battle of Grefly, 1346*
where having, with his own hand, killed
John King of Bohemia, he took from his

head fuch a Plume, and put it on his own.


See Fig. 6.

The Coronet of the prefent Dukes of


Gloucejier and Cumberland, and of all the
immediate fons and brothers of the Kings
of Great-Britain, is a Circle of gold, bor-
dered
*o6 ELEMENTS
dered with Ermine, heightened up with
four Fleurs-de-lis, and as many Croffes-pat-
tee alternate. See Fig. 8. —The particular
and diftinguifhing form of fuch Coronets as

are appropriated to Princes of the Blood


royal, is defcribed and fettled in a grant of
Charles II. the 13th of his reign.
The Coronet of the PrinceJJes of Great-
Britain, is a Circle of gold, bordered with
Ermine, and heightened up with Croffes
pattee, Fleurs-de-lis and Strawberry Leaves
alternate ; whereas a Prince's Coronet has
only Fleurs-de-lis and Croffes. See Fig, 9.
A Dukes Coronet is a Circle of gold,
bordered with Ermine, enriched with pre-
vious Stones and Pearls, and fet round with
eight large Strawberry or Parfley Leaves.
See Fig. 10,
A Marquis s Coronet * is a Circle of gold,
bordered with Ermine, fet round with four
* This is to be underftood of a real Marquis, whofe pro-
per title is Mojl noble ; which I purpofely mention, left any
one mould be led into a miftake by not diftinguifhing a real
Marquis, i. e. by creation, from a nomhial Marquis, i. e.

^the eldeft fon of a Duke ; the latter is only ftyled Mojl


Jlonottmbk,
Straw-*
1

o* HERALDRY. 207
Strawberry Leaves, and as many Pearls on
pyramidical Points of equal height alternate.
See Fig. 1 .

An Earl's Coronet * is a Circle of goldj,


bordered with Ermine, heightened up with
eight pyramidical Points or Raies, on the
tops of which are as many large Pearls, and
are placed alternately with as many Straw-
berry Leaves, but the Pearls much higher
than the Leaves. See Fig. 12.
A Vifcounfs Coronet differs from the pre*
ceding ones, as being only a Circle of gold
bordered with Ermine, with large Pearls
fet clofe together on the rim, without any
limited number, which is his prerogative

above the Baron, who is limited. See


Fig. 13.

* Mr. Sandford obferves, in his Genealogical Hiftory


of John of Elt ham Earl of Cornwall,
p. 153. that the figure ^

to whom King Edward I'll, gave the Manor of


his father,
Harborough, in the County of Leicefter, is adorned upon
his monument in Weltminiler Abby, with a Diadem com-
pofed of a circle of greater and leffer leaves or flowers, and
was the moft ancient inftance of an Earl, in his obfervation,
that has a Coronet on.

A Barons
2o$ ELEMENTS
A Barons Coronet, which was granted
by King Charles II. is formed with fix

Pearls fet at equal diflance on a gold Circle,


bordered with Ermine, four of which only
are feen on engravings, paintings, &c. to
fhew he is inferior to the Vifcount. See
Fig. 14.

You are to obferve, that the eldeft fcns


of Peers, above the degree of a Baron, bear
their Father's Arms and Supporters with
a Label, and ufe the Coronet appertaining
to their father's fecond title; and all the
younger fons bear their Arms with proper
Differences, but ufe no Coronets.

As the Crown of the King of Great-Bri-


tain is not quite like that of other Poten-
tates, fo do mod of the Coronets of foreign
Noblemen differ a little from thofe of the
Britifh Nobility : as for example, the Coro-
net of a French Earl is a Circle of gold with
eighteen Pearls fet on the brim of it. A
French Vifcount's Coronet is a Circle of gold
only enamelled, charged with four large
Pearls. And a French Barons Coronet is a
Circle
of HERALDRY. 209
Circle of gold enamelled and bound about
with a double Bracelet of Pearls ; and thefe
Coronets are only ufed on French Noble-
men's Coats-of-arms, and not worn on their
heads, as the Britifh Noblemen and their

Ladies do at the King's Coronation,

SECT.
Of Mitres.
*Tp HE Archbijhops and Bijhops of Eng-
land and Ireland place a Mitre over
their Coat-of-arms *. It is a round Cap
pointed and cleft at the top, from which
hang two Pendants fringed at both ends,
with this difference, that the Bifhop's Mitre

is only furrounded with a Fillet of gold,


fet with precious Stones, fee Plate XXIII.

* Before the diflblution of Monaiteries in England, many


of the Abbots wore alfo Mitres on their Arras, as it appears
by feveral ancient monuments ; but for diilinclion fake they
were placed in profile on the Dexter-fide, and a Crofier on
the Sinifier fide turned inwards, i. e. towards the Mitre, to
iignify they had no fpiritual Jurifdi&ion out of their refpeo
tiye Monaft cries.

P Fig.
2io ELEMENT S

Fig. 6. whereas the Archbifihop's iffues out


of a Ducal Coronet. See Plate XX. Fig. 15.
This Ornament, with other Mafquerade
^Garments, is ftill worn by all the Arch-
lifjops and BiJJjops of the Church of Rome,
whenever they officiate with folemnity 5

but it is never ufed in England, otherwife


than on Coats-of-arms, as before men-
tioned.

SECT. L
Of Helmets.
HE Helmet was formerly worn as a
^'Jp
defenfive weapon, to cover the Bearers
head, and is now placed over a Coat-of-
arms as its chief ornament, and the true
mark of gentility. There are feveral forts

diftiriguiftied, ift, by the Matter they are


made of ; 2dly, by their Form ; and, 3dly,

by their Pc/ition.

As to the Matter*, they are, or rather


1 ft,

were made of, the Helmets of Sovereigns


* This is feklom attended to by Herald-painters, &c. of
this country ; but the French, Spaniards, Italians, and other
^;itions oblerve it lin&ly.
were
;;

of HERALDRY. 211

were of burnifhed gold damajked •


thofe of
Princes and Lords offilver figured with gold y

thofe of Knights of jleel adorned with filver


and thofe of private Gentlemen of polilhed
Steel.

2d!y, As to their Form, thofe of the King,


the Royal Family, and Noblemen of Great
Britain are open-faced and grated, and the
number of Bars ferves to difti.nguifli the
Bearer's quality, that is, the Helmet appro-
priated to the Dukes and Marquiffes is dif-

ferent from the King's by having a bar.

exactly in the middle, and two on each fide

making but five bars in all, fee Fig. \ . where-


as the King's Helmet has fix bars, viz. three
on each fide, fee Fig, 7. The other grated
Helmet with four bars is common to all de-
grees of peerage under a Marquis. The
open-faced Helmet without Bars denotes
Baronets and Knights.* The chfe Helmet
is for, all Efquires and Gentlemen.
* In France, and other countries, the open Helmet {land-
ing direct and without Bars is appropriated to Emperors
and Kings, becaufe they are to fee and know all things, and
command all without contradiction; this pofition is in Eng~
land affigned \>y all Heralds, except Leigh, to Knights.

P 2 ^dlv, Their
212 ELEMENTS
3dly, Their Pojitidn is alfo looked upon a3
a mark of diftindion. The grated Helmet
in front belongs to Sovereign Princes and
Dukes and Marquiffes. The grated Helmet
in profile iscommon to all degrees of Peerage
under a Duke. The Helmet Jlanding direSt
without Bars, and the Beaver a little open,
denotes Baronets and Knights. Laftly, the

fuk-jlanding Helmet, with the Beaver clofe*


is the way of wearing it amongft Efquires
and Gentlemen. See Fig. i, 2, 3, 4^ and 7^
inferted in Plate xxi of the Ornaments*

SECT. V.

Of Mantlings.

-jyr ANTLINGS are pieces of cloth


jagged or cut into Flowers and Leaves
which now-a-days ferve as an ornament for
Efcutcheons. They were the ancient cover-
ing of Helmets to preferve them, or the
Bearer, from the injuries of the weather,
as alio to prevent the ill confequences of
their too much dazzling the eye in Action.

3 But
of H E R A L D R Y. 213
But Guillim very judicioufly obferves, that
their fhape muft have undergone a great al-

teration fince they have been out of ufe, and


therefore might more properly be termed
Flourijhings than Mantlings. See the Exam-
ples annexed to the Helmets reprefented ia
Plate xxi. of the Ornaments.
The French Heralds allure us, that thefe
Mantlings were originally no other than
£hort coverings which Commanders wore
over their Helmets, to defend their heads
from the weather ; and that going into bat-
tles with them, they often on their coming
away, brought them back in a ragged man-
ner, occafioned by the many cuts they had
received on their heads, and therefore the
more hacked they were the more honourable
they were accounted, as our colours in time
of war arc the more efteemed, for having
been fhot thro' in many places.
Sometimes Skins of Beafts, as Lions, Bears,

&c. were thus born, to make the bearer


look more terrible; and that gave occafion to
the doubling of Mantlings with Furs.

SEC T.
2i4 ELEMENTS
SECT. VI.

Of Chapeaux,

Chateau is an ancient Hat, or rather


Cap of dignity worn by Dukes, ge-
nerally fcarlet-coloured Velvet on the out*
fide, lined and turned up with Fur ; of late

frequently to be met with above an Helmet,


inftead of a Wreath, under Gentlemen's or
Noblemen's Crefts. Heretofore they were
feldom to be found, as of right appertaining

to private families ; but by the grants of


Robert Cooke, Clarencieux, and other fucceed-
ing Heralds, thefe, together with Ducal Co-
ronets, are now frequently to be met with
in families, who yet claim not above the de-
gree of Gentlemen. See the reprefentation of
the Chapeau, F/g\ 5. Plate xxi.

SECT.
©f HERALDRY. 215

SECT. VII.

Of Wreaths.
^T*HE Wreath is a kind of roll made of" two
{kains of filk of different colours twilled
together, which ancient Knights wore as a

head-dreis when equipped for Tournaments.


The colours of the Silk are rnoft ufually
taken from the principal Metal and Colour
contained in the Coat-of-arms of the Bearer.*
They are ftill accounted as one of the leffer

Ornaments of Efcutcheons, and are placed

between the Helmet and the Creft. See Fig.

6, Plate xxi. ... In the time of Henry I. and


long after, no man, who was under the de-
gree of a Knight, had his Creft fet on a
Wreath, but this, like other prerogatives,
has been infringed fo'far, that every body
now- a -Jays wears a Wreath,

* Yet feme Wreaths differ from this rule, but thefe may
poffibly have been at firft tfce Bearer's Miilrefs's colours.

SECT.
2i6 ELEMENTS
SECT. VIII.

Of Crests.

*~jp HE Crefi is the higheft part of the


*~
Ornaments of a Coat-of-arms. It is

called Crefi from the Latin word Crijla y

which fignifies Comb or Tuft, fuch as many


birds have upon their heads, as the Peacock,

Pheafant, &c. in allufion to the place on


which it is fixed.

Crefts were formerly greater marks of


Honour than Coats-of-arms, becaufe they
were only worn by heroes of great valour,
or by fuch as were advanced to fome fuperi-

or military command, in order that they


might be the better diflinguimed in an en-

gagement, and thereby rally their men, if

difperfed ; but they are at prefect considered


as a meer ornament. The Creft is frequent-
ly a part either of the Supporters or of the
charge bor n in the Efcutcheon, thus the
Crefi of the Royal Atchivement of Great
Britain is a Lion gardant crown d as may he-

fee n
\

1 ifi
m
of HERALDRY. 217
feen in F/g*. 7. Plate xxi. The Cr eft of
France is # double Flower-de-luce. Out of
the many Crefts borrow'd from Supporters,
I will only mention the following inftance,

viz. The Duke of Montagu's, A Gryphon s


head coup* 4 Or, bacKd and wingd fable ; The
Marquis of Rockingham's 5
A Gryphons head
argent, gorgd with a ducal coronet ; The Earl
of Weftmorelands, A Bull's head argent
pfd fable, ann d Or ; And Lord Archer's,
which Out of a mural crown Or, aWyverris
is,

head argent. There are alfo feveral in dan-


ces of Crefls that are relative to Alliances,
Employments, or Names 3 and which on,

fhat account have been changed.

SECT.
2i8 ELEMENTS
SECT IX.

Of the Scroll.
^jpHE Scroll is the ornament placed under
the Efcutcheon* containing a motto,
or fhort fentence, alluding fometimes to the
bearings, or the Bearer's name, as in the
two following inftances. The motto of the
noble Earl of Cholmondeley is Caffis tu-

tifjima virtus -> i. e. Virtue is the fafefi Hel-

met ; on account of Helmets in the Coat-of-

arms. The motto of the Right Hon. Lord


Fortes cue is Forte fcutum falus ducum ;
i. e. a Jlrong ffneld is the fafety of the Com-
manders ; alluding to the name of that anci-
ent family. Sometimes it has a reference
to neither, but exprefles fomething divine
or heroic, as that of the Earl of Scarbo-
rough, which is Murus &reus confientia fa-

* It is frequently placed by the French and the Scotch


above the Achievement, which, according to Sir J. Mac-
'kenfie is right, provided the Motto relates to the Creft, other-

wife it mould be annexed to the Efcutcheon : as for thofe of


the Orders of Knighthood, they are mod: commonly placed
round Shields ; as may be feen in Plate xxiii. Fig* 7.
na-,
;;

of HERALDRY. 219
na ; i. e. a good Confcience is a wall of brafs.
Others are /Enigmatical, as that of the Royal
Achievement, which is Dieu et mon droit

i. e. God and my right, introduced by Ed-


ward III. 1340, when he affumed the arms
and title of King of France, and began to
profecute his claim, which occafioned long
and bloody wars, fatal, by turns, to both
kingdoms : or that of the Prince of Wales,
which is Ich Dien ; i.e. I Jerve, the origin
of which I have mentioned p. 205. Mottos,
tho' hereditary in the families that firft took
them up, have been changed on fome parti-

cular eccafions, and others appropriated in


their Stead, inftances of which are fome-

times met with in Hiftory,

SECT. X.

Of Supporters,
^Upporters are Figures flandingon the Scroll,
and placed at the fide of the Efcutcheon
they are fo called, becaufe they feem to fup-
port or hold up the Shield. The rife of Sup-
porters
:

22o ELEMENTS
porters F. by Menejirier, traced up to
is,

ancient Tournaments, wherein the Knights


caufed their Shields to be carried by Servants
or Pages under the difguife of Lions, Bears,
Griffons, Blackamoors, &c. who alfo held
and guarded the Efcutcheons, which the
Knights were obliged to expofe to public
view f©r fome time, before the Lifts were
opened. Sir G. Mackenfie, who diflents from
this opinion, fays, in his treatife on the Sch
ence of Heraldry, Chap. xxxi. p. 93.
u that
sc
the firft origin and ufe of them was from
" the cuftom which ever was, and is, of
" leading fuch as are invefted with any great
ce
honour, to the Prince who confers it

u thus when any man is created a Duke,


Cs
Marquis, or Knight of the Garter, or any
€C fupported by, and led
other order, he is

" to the Prince, betwixt two of the quality,


" and fo receives from him the fymbols of
66
that Honour, and in remembrance of that
<c
Solemnity, his arms are thereafter fupport-
u ed by any two creatures he choofes." Sup-*

porters have formerly been taken from fuch


animals
of HERALDRY 221

animals or birds as are bor'n in the Shields*


and fometimes they have been chofen, as

bearing fome allufion to the names of thofe


whofe arms they are made to fupport. The
Supporters of the Arms of Great Britain,
finceKing James the firfl's acceflion to the
throne, are a Lion Crowned Or, on the Dex-
ter-fide, and an Unicorn Argent, gorged with
a Coronet Or, on the Sinifter, as it appears
by Fig. 7. Plate xxi.
This laft figure reprefents the Coat-of-
arms of the King of Great Britain, or the

Royal Atchievement, as it has been marfli ai-


led fince the happy accefiion of King George
I. in 17 1 4, and is blazoned as follows, viz.-

Arms.
Quarterly, in the jirjl grand quarter Mars,
three Lions * pajfant gardant in pale Sol, the
imperial enfigns of England ; impaled with
Sol, a Lion rampant, within a double trejfure
flowery and counter -flowery Mars, the Royal
Arms of Scotland. The fecond grand quarter
* Several learned men, of this and other nations, are of
opinion that thefe fhou'd be blazon'd thre e Leopards ; the
reafon they a Hedge for it is the fame as is contained in the
note annexed to p. 1^7 and 14$,
is
222 ELEMENTS
is Jupiter, three Fleurs-de-lis Sol, the Arms
of France. The Third grand quarter is Ju-
piter, a Harp Sol,
f ringed Luna, the Enfign
of Ireland. The fourth grand quarter is

Mars, two Lions paf'ant gardant in pale Sol,

for Brunfvvick ; impaled with fol feme of


Hearts proper, a Lion rampant Jupiter, for
Lunenburgh ; with grafted in bafe Mars, a
Horfe current Luna, for ancient Saxony ;

and in a Shield fur-tout Mars, the Crown of


Charlemaign Sol, as Arch-treafurer of the
Empire ; the whole within a Garter, infer ibed
with this motto, Koni soit qui mal y
pense, as Sovereign of that noble Order,
given by the Founder King Edward III.

Crest.
On a Helmet full-faced, grated and fur-,
mounted of a Crown, a Lion gardant,
crowned Sol ; the mantlings and lining proper

to a King of Great Britain.

Supporters.
On Dexter fde, a Lion gardant Sol
the
crowned as the Creji. On the Sinifer fide, an
Unicorn
d

of HERALDRY. 223
Unicorn Luna, armed, maned and unguis
Sol, and gorged with a collar of CroJJes pattee

and Fleurs-de-lis, with a chain affixed thereto

refleBing over the back and p offing over the


hind legs of the lafi, both ftan ding on a Scroll
infcribed with this motto, Dieu et mom
droit, from which iffue the two Royal
Badges of his Majejlys chief Dominions, viz.
on the Dexter fde a Rofe party per pale Ar-
gent and Gules, ji allied and leaved proper, for
England ; and on the Sinijler a Thifile proper,

for Scotland ; being fo adorned by King


fames I. upon his fucceeding to the Crown
of England. As King of Scotland he bore
two Unicorns for his Supporters ; but upon
the union of that kingdom with England,
1603, he introduced one of the above Sup-
porters on the Siniiter fide of the Royal
Atchievement, and which continues to this

day.

You are to obferve, that bearing Coats-

of-arms fupported is, according to the he-


rald rical Laws of Great Britain ,the preroga-

tive j firft, of thofe called Mobiles majores,


viz,
224 ELEMENTS
viz, Dukes Marquijjes,
y Earls, Vifcounts, and
Barons ; fecondly, of all Knights of the Gar-
ter, tho' they fhould be under the degree of
Barons : thirdly, of Knights of the Bath,
who both receive on their creation* a grant
of Supporters. And, laftly, of fuch Knights
as the King chufes to beftow this honour
upon, as in the inftan'ce of Sir Andrew
Fountain, who was knighted by Philip,
Earl of Pembroke, when Lord Lieutenant
of Ireland, Fountain being then his Secre-
tary, and on his return to England King
William granted him Supporters to his Arms,
viz. two Griffons Gules and Or. Supporters
are not hereditary, except to the eldeft
fons of Peers, as mentioned page 208 ; and
it is not fit the extrinfick parts of Atchieve-
ments fhould be fo, that men may have
fome thing to affurae or alter, whenever any
particular cafe requires it.

* Thefe Knights, and thofe of the Garter, have not en-


joyed fuch privileges from the firft inftitution of their Order,

as feveral Coats-of-arms of the firft Knights Companions


are reprefented without Supporters.

CHAP.
of HERALDRY. 225

CHAP. VII.

Vfthe Rules or Laws ^Heraldry,

TH E
Charges,
feveral Efcutcheons» Tinctures*

Ornaments of Coats-of-
arms, and their various properties being now
explained it may not be improper to pre-
fent the reader with fuch rules for blazon-
ing the fame, as the ancient ufage and laws
of Heraldry have eftablifhed amongft us.

Thefirjl, and mod general rule is, to ex-

prefs one's felf in proper terms, fo as not to

omit any thing that ought to be fpecified,


and at the fame time to be clear and concife
without Tautology ; as in Examp. xiv. Page
56. and alfo in Examp. ix. Page 10S. where-
in thefe expreffions of the Field, or of the
Firjl, prevent the repetition of the fore-men-
tioned Tincture.
II. Onemuft begin with the Tincture of
ihe Field, and then proceed to the principal

Q Charges


226 ELEMENTS
Charges * which poffefs the moft honourable
place in the Shield ; fuch as Fefs, Chevron,
&c. always naming that Charge flrft, which
lies next and immediately upon the Field £

as in Examp. Page 91.


xv.

III. After naming the Tincture of the


Field, the honourable Ordinaries, or other
principal Figures, you muft fpecify their
Attributes, and afterwards their Metal, or
Colour, as in Examp. xvi. Page 149.
IV. When an honourable Ordinary, or fome
one Figure is placed upon another, whether
it be a Fefs, Chevron, Crofs, &c. it is al-

ways to be named after the Ordinary or


Figure over which it is placed, with one of
thefe expreflions, Sur~tout> or Over- ally as
in Examp. xx. Page-i&i.-

V. In the blazoning of fuch Ordinaries,


as are plain , the bare mention of them is fuf-

iicient; but if an Ordinary fhould be made


of any of the crooked lines contained in

* This Rule is obferved in Great-Britain and France j

But the and fometimes the Germans,


Italians, Spaniards,

Begin blazoning with the principal Bearings, and afterwards


* rmethe Tincture of the Field.

3 p<m.
of HERALDRY, 227

Page 30, its form muft be fpecided, that is,

whether it be engrailed, wavy, &c. as in


Examp. i. ii. iii. &c. Page 53,
VI. When a principal Figure poflelles the
centre of the Field, its pcfition is not to be
expreffed or which amounts to the fame
thing, when a Bearing is named, without
fpecifying the point where it is placed,
then it is underftood to poffefs the middle
of the Shield; as in Examp. xv. Page 169.
VII. The number of the points of Mul-
lets, and the raies of Stars, muft be fpecified
when more than five ; and alfo if a Mullet,
or any other Charge, be pierced, it muft be
mentioned as fuch, to diftinguiili it from
what is plain; as in Examp. xiii. and xiv\

Page 137.
VIII. When a ray of the Sun, or other

fingle Figure, is bor'n in any other part of


the Efcutcheon than the Center, the point

* This muft not be underftood of Bearings placed in the


manner of a Pale, Bend, Fefs, &c. for the Figure muft be
faid to be in Pale, in Bend, in Fefs, ox PalHvays, Bendways,
&c, as in Example Xv.i. jpage 194.

0^2 it
m8 ELEMENTS
it iffaes from mud be named, as in Examp.
iii. Page 134.
IX. The natural colour of Trees, Plants,
Fruits, Birds, &c. is no otherwife to be
expreffed in blazoning, but by the word
proper, as in Examp. ii. vii. Page 163. Page
165; but if difcoloured, that is, if they dif-

fer from their natural colour, it muft be


particularizes! ; as in Examp. i. ii. &e.
Page J 45.
X. When there are many Figures of the
fame Species bor'n in a Coat-of-arms, their
number muft be obferved as they ftand, and
diftinctly expreffed, as in Examp. i. Page 174.

But for the better underftanding of this


laft rule, I have inferred examples of the diffe-

rent Difpofitions of Figures, wherein they


are properly repreferrted' ; viz.

T wo, may be ranged in Pale, in Fefs, &c.


See Plate the xxii. Fig. 1 and 2.

Three, may be 2 and I, as alfo in Bend, &c.


See Fig. 3 and 4.
Four, are placed 2 and 2, or cantoned,,
as in Fig. 5.
Fiwi
of HERALDRY. 229
Five, 1, 3, 1, in Crofs, or 2, 1, 2, in

Saltier. See Fig. 6 and 7.


Six, 3, 2, 1, in Pile, or 2, 2, 2, Pale-

ways. See Fig. 8 and 9.


Fight, in Orle, or on a Bordure. See
Fig. 10.

iV7/z<?,
3, 3, 3, Barways, or 3, 3, 2, 1, in

Pile. See Fig. 11 and 12.


7V#, 4, 3, 2, 1, Pile; or elfe 4, 2, 4,
Barways. See Fig. 13 and 14.
Twelve, are placed 4, 4, 4, Barways. See
Fig. 15.
There are other portions called Irregular-,

as for Example, when three Figures, which


are naturally placed 2 and i s are difpofed

j and 2, &c. It muft alfo be ©bferved, that


when the Field is ftrewed with the fame
Figures, this is expreffed by the word feme $
but, according to a Frenck Armorift's opi-
nion, if the Figures ftrewed on the Field
are whole ones, it muft be denoted by thefe
words Jans nombre; whereas, if part of thena
is cut off at the extremities of the Efcut-
Q 3 cheo%
23o ELEMENTS
cheon* the word feme ^ or femi is then to
be ufed.

* This word, like mo ft others in Heraldry, is borrowed


from the French, and fignifies feeded, Jirewed, or fcattered ;
but fame Englifh Heralds, either through want of ftnder-
flanding the language it is derived from, or in order to find
a Conformity between the name of the Figure it is appro-
priated to, fuppofe itsEtymology to be from the Latin word
Semis, the half ol a thing, though there is often but part of
one Figure or two cut off3 and not the half of all the Figures,
as the word imports,

CHAP,
:

! wk»
of HERALDRY. ^JT

CHAP. mil.

Of Marshalling Coats-qf-arms*

TF) Y marflialling Coats-of-arms, is to be


JL3 underftood the art of difpofing divers
of them in one Efcutcheon, and of diftri-

fouting their contingent Ornaments in pro-


per places.
Various caufes may occafion Arms to be
thus conjoined, which J. Guillim comprifes
under the two following heads, viz.

Manifest and Obscure.

What this learned and judicious Herald


means by manifeft Caufes in the marib ailing
of Coats-of-arms,. are fuch as betoken Mar-
riages, or a Sovereign's Gift, granted either

through the fpecial favour' of the Prince, or


for fome eminent fervices. Concerning
Marriages you are to make the following
obfervations
I, Whm
232 ELEMENTS.-
I. When the Coats-of-arms of a married
couple, defeended of diftincl: families, are

to be put together in one Efcutcheorr, the


Field of their refpedtive Arms is conjoined
Paleways, and blazoned partedper Pate> Ba-
ron and Femme *, two Coats ; frfl, &c. in
which cafe the Baron's arms are always to

be placed on the Dexter- fide, and the


Femme s arms on the Sinifter-fide, as in Fig, i

and 2y Plate xxiii. of Arms marfialled ;


which are viz.

Figure The Chat -of-arms of the Rev.


i ft,

Edward Barnard, D. D. Chaplain in


ord inary to his Majefty, Provoft of Eton-
College, Canon of Windfor, &c impaled a

it h that of S . Hag gat t, his late Spoufe.

Figure 2d, "J he Coat-ofarms of the Rev.


Thomas Dampjer, D. D. Chaplain in or-

dinary to his Majefty, Perbendary of Dur-


ham, Canon of Windlbr, &c. impaled with
thai/of F. Walker, his Spoufe.

y~
'

Bar 07) Ggnifies a Man, and Femme is the only French


word for a. Woman, cither married or not; fo that Baron
andFcmim is an obfeure expreitibn in Englifn 5
that or Huf-

Imd ariiWiSc, if it was aliovve. 1


, wo.ad be better unSevftood.
if
of HERALDRY. 233
If a Widower marry again, his late and

prefent Wife's arms are, according to G.


Leigh, " to be both placed on the Sinifter-
" fide, in the Efcutcheon with his own,
" and parted per Pale. The firft Wife's
" Coat fhall ftand on the Chief, and the
" fecond on the Bafe ; err he may fet them
" both in Pale with his own, the . firft

" Wife's Coat next to himfelf, and his


u fecond uttermoft. If he fhould marry
f? three Wives, then the two firft matches
ee
(hall ftand on the Chief, and the third
" (hall have the whole Bafe. And if he
" take a fourth Wife, (he muft participate
<c
one half of the Bafe with the third Wife,
/' and fo will they feem to be fo many Coats
" quartered." But you muft obferve, that
thefe forms of impaling are meant of he-
reditary Coats, whereby the hu(band ftands
in expectation of haying the hereditary pof-
fpflions of his Wife united to his patrimony,
II. In the Arms of Femmes joined to the
paternal Coat of the Baron, the proper Dif-

ferences
234 ELEMENTS
ferences by which they were bor'n by the
fathers of fuxh women, muft be inferted.

III. If a Coat-of-arms that has a Bor-


dure be impaled with another, as by mar-
riage, then the Bordure muft be wholly
omitted in the Dexter-fide of the Shield
parted per Pale, which contains the Wife's
Arms.
IV. The perfon that marries an Heirefs,
inftead of impaling his Arms with thofe of
his Wife, is to bear them in an Efcutcheon
placed in the Center of his Shield, after the
fame manner as the Baronet's badge is mar-
{hailed in Fig. 3. Plate xxiii. and which,
on account of its {hewing forth his preten-
fion'to her Eftate, is called an Efcutcheon of

Pretence, and is blazoned fur-tout 9 i. e. over-


all, as the Inefcutcheon bor'n in the fourth
Quarter of the Royal Atchievement, fee

Page 222. But the children are to bear the

hereditary Coat-of-arms of their Father and


Mother quarterly, which denotes a fixed in-

heritance, and fo tranfmit them toPollerity.


The firft and fourth quarters generally con-
tain
of HERALDRY. 235

tain the Father's Arms, and the fecond and


third the Mother's, except the heirs fliould
derive not only their Eftate, but alfo their
Title and Dignity from their Mother.
V. If a maiden or dowager Lady of Qua-
lity marry a Commoner, or a Nobleman
inferior to her rank, their Coats-of-arms
muft be fet afide of one another in two fe pa-

rate Efcutcheons, upon one Mantle or dra-


pery *, and the Lady's Arms ornamented
according to her Title, fee Fig. 4 and 5,
which reprefent the Coats-of-arms of Ge-
neral Ch. Montagu, and Lady Elizabeth
Villiersy Vifcountefs Grandison.

VI. Archbifhops and Biflbops impale their


Arms differently from the fore- mentioned

Coats, in giving the place of honour, that


is, the Dexter-fide, to the Arms of their dig-
nity, as it is expreffed in Fig. 6, which re-

* As the Lady does


,
{till retain, not only her title and
rank, but even her maiden or widow appellation ; fhe muft
therefore continue her Arms in a maiden or widow's Efcut-
cheon, which is a Lozenge, placed on the fmifter-iide of
her hufband's,

prefents
;

23 6 ELEMENTS
prefents the Coat-of-arms of Dr. Philip
Fonge, Lord Bifhop of Norwich.
It may be obferved of thefe above Prelates,
that they thus bear their Arms parted per
Pale to denote their being joined to their Ca-
thedral Church, in a fort of fpiritual mar-
riage f.
With refpect to fuch armorial enfigns as

the Sovereign thinks fit to augment a Coat-


of-arms with, they may be marfhalled va-
rious ways, as may be feen by the Arms of
his Grace the Duke of Rutland, inferted
in Plate the viii. Fig. 19. and the Example
contained in Plate the xii. Fig. n.
To thofe augmentations may be added
Firft, the Baronet's mark of di ft motion,

or the Arms of the province of Uljler, in


Ireland, granted and made hereditary in the
male line by King James h who eredted

'*
The Canon Law calls a Bifhop, or other beneficed
Church-man Maritus Ecclejice ; but it may be alked why the
Bifhop's paternal Arms are not impaled on the Dexter-fide,
as thofe of Bc.ro i end Femrne are ; to which the proper an-
fwer is, that the Anns of the Church more
are confidered as

noble, and the Bifhop is a Hufband in a figurative fenfe

only.
thii
of HERALDRY. 237
this dignity on the 2 2d Day of May, 161 r,

in the ninth year of his reign ?


in order to
propagate a plantation in the fore-mentioned
province. This mark is Argent, a Jinifter
Hand eouped at the Wrijl Gules, which may
be bor'n either in a Canton, or in an Efcut-
cheon, as the Bearer pleafes. See Fig. 3.
Plate xxiii. which reprefents the Coat-of-
arms of Sir William Lorrayne, of
Kirk-Harle, Northumberland ; and are thus
blazoned : Quarterly, Sable and Argent, a
plain Crofs counter-quartered of the Field.
The Creft. A Laurel - tree eouped, two
Branches fprouting out proper, and fixed to

the lower part thereof with a Belt Gules,


edged and buckled Or. This, according to
tradition in the family, was granted for
fome worthy action in the field.

2dly, The ancient and refpeclable Badge


of the moft noble Order of the Garter, in-
ftituted by King Edward III. 1 349, in the
twenty-feventh year of his reign, and which,
ever fince its inftitution, has been looked
upon
;

238 ELEMENTS
upon as a great honour beftowed on the
nobleft perfons of this nation and other
countries. This honourable augmentation
is made to furround, as with a Garter, the
Arms of fuch Knights ; and is infcribed with
this MottO, Ho NI SOIT QUI MAL Y PENSE 2

See Fig. 7. which reprefents the Coat-of-


arms of his Grace the Duke of Montagu,
Earl of Cardigan, Baron Brudenel of Stan-
ton-Wivil, Conftable and Lieutenant of
Windfor-Cajile, Knight of the mo ft noble
order of the Garter, and Baronet, Prefident
of St. Luke's Hofpital, and F. R. S.

This Nobleman, whofe arms were Pearl,


a Chevron Ruby between three Morions proper
has, fmce the deceafe of John Duke of
Montagu, taken the name and Arms of
Montagu, on account of his being married
to Lady Mary Montagu, youngeft daughter,

and one of the coheireffes of his Grace.

So far the caufes for marflialling divers


Arms in one Shield, &c. are manifeft : As
to fuch as are called obja/re, that is, when
Coats-
of HERALDRY. 239
Coats-of-arms are marfhalled in fuch a
manner, that no probable reafon can be given
why they are fo conjoined, they muft be
left to Heralds to explain, as being the pro-
pereft perfons to unfold thefe, and other
myfteries of this Science,

CHAP*
2 4o ELEMENTS
C HA P. IX.

Of Funeral Atchievements.

AFTER having treated of the effe fi-

lial parts of the Coats-of-arms, of


the various Charges and Ornaments ufually
bor'n therewith, of their Attributes and
Difpofitions, and of the Rules for blazoning
and marfhalling of them, I fhall next def-
cribe the feveral Funeral Efcutcheons, ufual-
ly called Hatchments, whereby may be
known, after any perfon's deceafe, what
rank either he or £he held when living, and
if it be a Gentleman's Hatchment, whether
he was a Batchelor, Married-man, or Wi-
dower, with the like diftinclions for Gen-
tlewomen.
The great Hatchment under the title of
Plate the xxiv. reprefents fuch as are affixed
to the front of houfes, when any of the
Nobility and Gentry dies the Arms therein
being thofe of a private Gentleman and his
wife
of HERALDRY. 241

wife parted per Pale ; the Dexter-fide,


which is Gules, three Bars Or, for the Huf-
band 5 having the ground without the Ef-
cutcheon black, denotes the man to be dead

and the ground on the Sinifter-fide being

white, fignifies that the wife is living*

which is alfo demon ftrated by the fmall


Hatchment marked Fig. 1. which is here
depicted without Mantling, Helmet, and
Creft, for perfpicuity fake only.

When a married Gentlewoman dies firft,

the Hatchment is diftinguifhed by a contra-


ry colour from the former, that is, the
Arms on the Sinifter-fide have the ground

without the Efcutcheon black, whereas,


thofe on the Dexter-fide, for her furviving
hufband, are upon a white ground ; the
Hatchment of aGentlewoman is, moreover,
differenced by a Cherub over the Arms in-
ftead of a Creft ; fee Fig. 2.

When a Batchelor dies, his Arms may be


depicted fingle or quartered, with a Creft
over them, but never impalled as the two
R firft
242 ELEMENTS
iirft are, and all the ground without th@
Efcutcheon is black ; fee Fig. 3.

When a Maid dies, her Arms, which


are placed in a Lozenge, may be fmgle or
quartered, as thofe of a Batchelor ; but, in<-

ftead of a Creft, have a Cherub over them,


and all the ground without the Efcutcheon
is alfo black ; fee Fig, 4*

When a Widower dies, his Arms are re-

prefented impaled, with thofe of his de-


ceafed wife, having a Helmet, Mantling,
and Creft over them, and all the ground
without the Efcutcheon black ; fee Fig. 5.

When a Widow dies, her Arms are alfo

reprefented impaled with thofe of her de-


ceafed hufband, but inclofed in a Lozenge,
and, inftead of a Creft, a Cherub is placed
over them, all the ground, without the Ef-
cutcheon, is alfo black 5 fee Fig. 6,

If a Widower cr Batchelor fhould hap-


pen to be the laft of his family, the Hatch-
ment is depicted as in Fig. 5. and that of a
Maid or Widow, whofe family is extinct
by her death, is depicled as in Fig. 6 . with
3 this
of HERALDRY. 243
this difference only, that a Death-head is

generally annexed to each Hatchment, to


denote, that Death has conquered all.

By the fore-mentioned rules, which are


fometimes neglefted through the ignorance
of illiterate people, may be known, upon
the fight of any Hatchment, what branch
of the family is dead ; and by the Helmet
or Coronet, what Tide and degree the de-
ceafed perfon was of.
The fame rules are obferved with refpedt
to the Efcutcheons placed on the hearfe and
horfes ufed in pompous Funerals, except
they are not furmounted with any Creft, as
in the fore-going Examples of Hatchments,
but are always plain. Herald-painters how-
ever, do generally enfign thofe of Peers with
Coronets, and that of a Maiden Lady with
a knot of Ribands.

CHAP,
244 ELEMENTS
CHAP. X.

Of Precedency.

TH E order of Precedency, which


obferved in general, is thus, that per-
is

sons of every degree of honour or dignity,


take place according to the feniority of their
creation, and not of years, unlefs they are
defcended of the Blood-Royal, in which cafe
they have place of all others of the fame
degree.
The younger fons of the preceding rank
take place from the eldeft fon of the next
mediate, viz. the younger fons of Dukes,
from the eldeft fons of Earls; the younger
fons of Earls, from the eldeft fons of Barons.

All the chain of Precedency is founded upon


this gradation, and thus fettled by Aft of
Parliament, 31 Henry VIII, cap. 10*
Anno 1539.
But there have been fince, fome altera-

tions made to this Acl by feveral decrees

and eftablifhments in the fucceeding reigns,


whereby
op HERALDRY. 245

whereby all the fons of Vifcounts and Barons


are allowed to precede Baronets. And the
eldeft fons and daughters of Baronets, have
place given them before the elder! fons and
daughters of any Knights, of what degree
or order foever, though fuperior to that of
a Baronet ; thefe being but temporary dig-

nities, whereas that of Baronets is heredi-*

tary : and the younger fons of Baronets are


to have place next after the eldeft fons of
Knights.

Obferve alfo, that as there are fome great


officers of ftate, who take place, although
they are not noblemen, above the nobility
of higher degree ; fo there are fome perfons,
who, for their dignities in the church, de-
grees in the universities, and inns of court,
officers in the ftate, or army, although they
are neither Knights, nor Gentlemen born,
yet take place amongft them. Thus, all

Colonels and Field-officers, who are ho-


nourable, as alfo the Mafter of the Ordi-
nance, Qua rter-m after general, Doctors of
divinity, law, phyfic, and $iufic ; Deans,
R 3 Chan-.
;

246 ELEMENTS
Chancellors , Prebendaries, Heads of Col-
leges in univerfities, and Serjeants at law*
are, by courtefy, allowed place before or-
dinary Efquires. And all Batchelors of di-
vinity, law, phyfic, and mufic; Mafters of
arts, Barrifters in the inns of courts ; Lieu-
tenant colonels, Majors, Captains, and other
commiffioned military officers j and divers
patent officers in the King's houlhold, may
equal, if not precede, any gentleman that
has none of thefe qualifications.

In towns corporate, the inhabitants of


cities are preferred to thofe of boroughs
and thofe who have bor'n magiftracy, to all

others. And herein a younger Alderman


takes not precedency from his fenior, by
being knighted, or as being the elder

Knight, as v/as the cafe of Alderman Cra-


ven, who, though no Knight, had place as

fenior Alderman, before all the reft who


were Knights at the coronation of King
James. This is to be underflood as to
public meetings relating to the town ; for

it is doubted whether it will hold good in

any
:

of HERALDRY. 247
any neutral place. It has been alfo deter-
mined in the Earl Mar/hal's court of ho-
nour, that all who have been Lord Mayors
of London, fliall every where take place of
all Knights-Batchelors, becaufe they have-
been the King's Lieutenants.
It is alfo quoted by Sir George Mackenzie,
in his obfervations on Precedency, that in

the cafe of Sir John Crook, Serjeant at law,


it was adjudged by the judges in court, that
fuch ferjeants as were his feniors, though
not knighted, fhould have preference not-
withftanding his knighthood. — The Pre-
cedency among men is as follows

The King, and Prince of Wales.


Princes of the Blood, viz. Sons, Grand-
fons, Brothers, Uncles, &c. of the King.
'The fallowing precede ail Dukes, by autho~
rity of the fore-mentioned AB of Parliament 1
p. 244.
Archbifhop of Canterbury.
Lord-Chancellor, or Lord-Keeper,
Archbiftiop of York.
&ord Treafurer of England.
R4 Lord
\

248 ELEMENTS
Lord Prefident of the Privy-council.
Lord Privy- Seal.
Tbefe alfo precede all of their own Degree,
Lord Great-Chamberlain *.

Lord High-Conftable.
Lord Earl-Marfhal.
Lord High-Admiral.
.
Lord Steward of the Houlhold.
Lord Chamberlain of the Houfhold.
Secretaries of State.

Then, according to their refpeElive Creations?

Dukes.
Marquifes.
Dukes eldeft forts.

Earls.

Marquifes eldeft fons a

Dukes younger Jons,


Vifcounts.
Earls eldejl fons.

Marquifes younger fons.


Bifliops.

* A private A£t patted in 1 of Geo. I chap. iii. for fet-


tling the precedency of Robert, Marquis of Lindfey, Great-
chamberlain of England, when created a Duke of Great?
Britain, and of fuch who fhall fucceed to fuch Honoyir.

Barons,
of H E R A L D R Y 249
Barons.
Speaker of the Houfe of Commons.
Vifcounts eldefl Jons.

Earls younger Jons.


Barons eldefl fons.

Knights of the Garter.


Privy-counfellors.
Chancellor and Under-treafurer of the Bxch,
Chancellor of the dutchy of Lancafter.
Lord Chief-juftice of the King's-bench.
Matter of the Rolls.
Lord Chief-juftice of the Common-pleas.
Lord Chief- baron of the Exchequer.
Juftices and Barons in the Courts of Law,.

Vifcounts younger fons.


Barons younger fons.
Baronets of England.
Baronets of Nova-Scotia. *?

Baronets of Ireland *.

Knights of the Bath;


Field and Flag-officers.

* Baronets, Englifh and Irifh, when in Ireland, take


their place and precedency amongft themfelves, according
to the dates of their refpective letters-patents, under the
Iflgjifh or Irifh feal.

3 Knights-
250 ELEMENTS
Knights-batchelors. '

Matters in Chancery.
Doctors, Deans, See.
Serjeants at Law.
Baronets eideft Jons.

Knights of the Garter s eideft Jons*


Knights of the Bath's eideft Jons.
Knights- bat chelors eideft Jons.

Baronets younger Jons.


Efquires by creation.
Efquires by office
Gentlemen.
Citizens.
Burgeffes, See.

The Precedency among men being


known, that which is due to women, ac-
cording to their feveral degrees, will be
eafily demonfirated, but you are to oblerve
firft, that women, before marriage, have
precedency by their father, with this dif-

* The Efquires attending on Knights of the Bath, take


place alfo from thefe Gentlemen, who are reputed Efquires
only, during the time they are in office, and no longer;
fuch as High Sheriffs, Juftices of the Peace, &c.

ference
of HERALDRY. 251

ference between them and the male chil-


dren, that the fame precedency is due to
all the daughters that belongs to the eldeft;
which is not fo among the fons ; and the
reafon of this difparity feems to be, that
daughters all fucceed equally, whereas the
eldeft fon excludes all the reft.

By marriage, a woman participates of


her hufband's dignities $ but none of the
wife's dignities can come, by marriage, to
her hufband, but are to defcend to her next
heir.

If a woman have precedency by creation,


or birth, fhe retains the fame, though (he
marry an inferior : but if a woman nobly
born marry any Nobleman, as a Baron, fhe
fiiall take place according to the degree of
her hufband only, though fhe be a Duke's
daughter.
A woman, privileged by marriage with
pne of noble degree, fhall retain the privi-

lege due to her by her hufband, though he


Ihould be degraded by forfeiture, &c. for
crimes

252 ELEMENTS
crimes are perfonal.— Sir G. Mackenzie, of
Precedency, chap. ix.
The wife of the eldeft fon of any degree,
takes place of the daughters of the fame de-
gree, who always have place immediately
after the wives of fuch eldeft fons, and
both of them take place of tho- younger fons
of the preceding degree. Thus, the Lady
of the eldeft fon of an Earl, takes place of
an Earl's daughter, and both of them pre-
cede the wife of the younger fon of a Mar-
quis ; alfo the wife of any degree, precedes
the wife of the eldeft fon of the preceding
degree. Thus, the wife of a Marquis, pre--

cedes the w ife


r
of the eldeft fon of a Duke.
This holds, not only in comparing de-
grees, but alfo families of the fame degree
amongft themfelves ; for inftance, the daugh-
ter of a fenior Earl yields place to the wife
of a junior Earl's eldeft fon. Though if

fuch daughter be an heirefs, fhe will then


be allowed place before the wives of the el-

deft fons of all younger Earls. W. Segar,


of
) :

of HERALDRY, 253

©f Honourable Places, chap. xxii. Tqe pre-


cedency among women is as follows
The Queen, and Princefs of Wales,
Princesses, and Duchesses of the Blood,,
Duchesses.
Wives of the eldeft'
of Dukes of the Blood*
fons; Daughters,
Marchionesses.
Wives of the eldeft
of Dukes*
fons ; Daughters,
Countesses. }

Wives of the eldeft 9


fons; Daughters
Jof Marquifcs.
?
Wives of the younger fons of Dukes*
Viscountesses.
Wives of the
fons ;
eldeft 1

Daughters*
^ ^

Wives of the younger fons of Marquifes,


Baronesses.
Wives of the eldeft
Vifcounts
fons Daughters, 5
;

Wives of the younger fons of Earls.


Wives of the eldeft*) rT>
< or Barons.
fons ; Daughters, 5
Wives of the younger fons of Vifcounts.
Wives
254 ELEMENTS
Wives of the younger fons of Barons*
Wives of Baronets.
Wives of Knights of the Garten
Wives of Knights of the Bath.
Wives of Knights Batchelors 0
Wives of the eldeft
of Baronets.
fons , Daughters?
Wives of the eldeft O

fons; Daughters,
^nights of the Garter.
Wives of the eldeft
of Knights of the Bath,
fons y Daughters,
Wives of the eldeft O
of Knights-Batchelors.
fons Daughters, 5
Wives of the younger fons of Baronets.
Wives of Esquires, by creation.
Wives of Esquires, by office.

Wives of Gentlemen.
Daughters of Efquires.
Daughters of Gentlemen.
Wives of Citizens.

Wives of BurgelTes, &c.


The Wives of Privy-counfellors, Judges,,
&c. are to take the fame place as their huf-

bands do; fee the former lift, Page 249.


A

DICTIONARY
OF THE

TECHNICAL TERMS.
EXPLANATION
Of the Abbreviations ufed in this Dictionary;

(fubjlantive.

a. adjeclive.

v. verb.

particle.

p- page,

Fig. glands for^ Figure.

PL Plate.

Bp. Bifhop.

Archp. Archbifhop.

i. e. id eft, or that is to fay^

V. ^Vide, or fee for.


DICTIONARY:
CONTAINING
A clear and concife Explanation of all the Technical
Terms made ufe of in the foregoing Treatife
of Heraldry, with References to the Arms*
Charges, and other purpofes they are applied to*

A L A N
ABATEMENT, / An and other Figures, that an-
accidental figure fup~ iwer one another by turns.
pofed to have been See p. 206.
added to Coats-of-arms, in Amethyst, / The
order to denote feme dis- name of a precious Stone,
honourable demeanor or ufed inftead of Purpure, in
ftain, whereby the dignity blazoning the Arms of the
of the Coat-Armour was Englijh Nobility only. See
rendered of lefs efteem. See p. 19 and 22. —
It is a tranf-
p. 48. parent Stone, of a violet
Achieve, V. Atchieve. colour, arifmg from a mix-
Addorsed, a. The cor- ture of red and blue.
ruption of the French word Annulet,/. A little cir-
adofe, and Signifies bor'n or cle, bor'n as a Charge in
fet back to back; fee Plate Coats-of-arms, as alfo add-
xv. Fig. 11. and alfo Plate ed to them as a Difference.
xviii. Fig. 16. See p. 43. and Plate iv. Fig.
Alternate, a. Word 5 ; as alfo Plate xi. Fig 10.
ufed to denote the pofition .... Among the Romans it
of Quarterings, Partitions, reprefented Liberty and No-
A R A T
bility. It alfo denotes pofed to confift. See Plate
Strength and Eternity by ii. Fig. 2. Argent of it-
. . .

reafo of its circular form ;



ielf is ufed in Heraldry to
V. Ring. fignify Purity, Innocence,
*** When this figure is Beauty, and Gentlenefs ;
added as a difference^ fome and, according to G. Leigh^
authors affert, that it ferves if it is compounded with
to remind the Bearer to at- Gur. f Boldnefs.
chieve great actions. Azu. Courtcfy.
Archbishop, f. The Ver. V i t tue.
name of a church dignitary Pur. Favour.
of the fir ft clafs. There are Sab. Religion.
but two now in England, Armed, a. This word
viz. thofe of Canterbury and ufed to exprefs the Horns,
is

York. The Archbifliop of Hoofs* Beak, or Talons of


Canterbury is conGc-ered as any Beaft or Bird of prey,
the firft Peer of En aland, when bor'n of a different
next to the Royal family : Tfn&ure from thofe of their
He writes himfelf, by Di- bodies. See p. 189, Ex-
vine Providence i and has the ample 5.
Title of Grace given him, Arm oris t, ft A perfon
as to Dukes; and like wife fkilled in the knowledge of
Moft Reverend Father in God. Armory.
He is ftiled Primate of all Armory, / One branch
England, and Metropolitan. of Heraldry, confining in
—The Archbifhop of York the knowledge of Coats-of-
has Precedence of Dukes arms, as to their Blazons
and great officers of State, and various purpofes.
except the Lord Chancellor
;'
Armour, V. Coat.
his Title is Grace and Moft Arms,/ Word derived
Reverend Father in God, and from the Latin arma y and
writes himfelf as ether Bi- ufed to denote a badge or
fhops do, by Divine Per- mark of Honour, ferving to
mijjion. He is filled Primate diftinguiih States, Cities, Fa-
of England and Metropoli- milies, &c. See p. 2 and 6.
tan. Atchieve, V. This
Argent, /. The com- term is derived from the
mon French word for Silver, French achever, i. e. to finifh

of which metal all white or make an end of, but fig-

fields or charges are fup- nifies in Heraldry to perform


great actions or exploits.
At-
A Z B A
Atchievement, / The Or *\ r Chearfulnefs.
Coat-of-arms of a perfon, or Arg.y £'\ Vigilance.
family, with all the exterior GulA c£T yReadinefs.

Ornaments of the Shield, Ver.f |;\Enterprize.


together with all the Quar- Pur.V ? yGoodnefs.
ter! ngs which the faid per- Sab. l) v Mournfulnefs.
fon, or family, may have ac- French Heralds, N. Upton^
quired by alliances, &c. fo and his followers, rank this
marfhalled in their order as colour before Gules.
the Science directs. See
Plate xxi. Fig. 7. As to B.
funeral Achievements, V.
Hatchment. "D Anded, a. This is faid
Attired, a. is of any thing tied round
faid of
the Horns of Stags or Bucks with a Band, and is applied,
when of a different Tincture in the foregoing Treat ife, to
from their Bodies or Heads, heads bound round. See
Seep. 162, Example 19. Plate xiv. Fig. 18 and 20.
Augmentation,/ This Banner, f. A Flag or
word fignifies in Heraldry a Streamer bor'n at the end of
particular mark of Honour, a Lance*
granted by the Sovereign, Banneret, f. An an-
in confideration of fome cient military order, faid to
noble action, or out of fa- have been firft ufed in Eng-
vour, either quartered with land, in the time of King
the family arms, or bor'n Edward I. their Ihield was
on an Efcutcheon, a Can- fquare, and they bore their
ton, &c. See Plate ix. Arms in a banner of the
Fig. 16. fame form 5 This
fee p. 15.
Azure, /. A French was a very honourable order,
word ufed to exprefs blue. as it was never conferred
In engraving, this colour is but upon fome heroic action
denoted by lines drawn from performed in the field,
the dexter to the finifter whereas other Orders have
fide, and parallel to the frequently been beftowed
Chief. See Plate ii. Fig 4. for favour, or other meaner
. . . This colour may figni- motives. Sir William Segar,
fy Juftice, Perfeverance, and in the fecond book of his
Vigilance ; but according to treatife on honour, both mi-
G. Leigh, if it is compound- litary and civil, chap. 10,
ed with gives a full account of the
S % creation
B A B A
creation of a Knight of this interchangeably difpofed.
order. See Plate viii. Fig. 20.
Bar, f. One of the ho- Base, /. The bottom or
nourable Ordinaries defined, lower part of the Shield. See
p. 72, and reprefented in p. 16, Letters G. H. I.
Plate viii. Fig. 13, 14, he. Baton, f \ This is a
Barbed, a. Though this B aston, >Frenc.word,
term alludes to fomething Batune, J fignifying a
that is bearded, or
either Cudgel, which fhould
Staff* or
has the appearance of a beard,be fpelt Batons but is, by
yet it is applied to Rofes, asmofl Englifh writers, cor-
in p. 107, Example 8 ; and ruptly fpelt as above. It is
p. 171, Example 17. only bor'n in Englifh Coats*
Baron, f. The lo weft- of- arms, as a badge of ille-
title of Peerage in Great- gitimacy ; but French He-
Britain and Ireland. A
ralds introduce it in Arms
Baron is fometimes made as a Difference, or mark of
by Writ, being thereby confanguinity. I have in-
called up to fit in the Houfe ferted examples of it in this
of Lords ; but ufualiy by treatife. See p. 71. and PL
Patent. His title is Right yii. Fig. 20.
Honourable , his Mantle has Battering - rams,
two doublings, and his Co- Engines much in ufe among
ronet has fix Pearls upon the Ancients, before Gun-
the Circle, four of which powder was invented, for
are ufualiy reprefented in beating down the walls of
Paintings or Engravings. the places they befieged.
See Plate xx. Fig. 14. See Plate xviii. Fig. 2.
Baron and Femme, *
% % The following des-
Terms ufed in blazoning cription taken from Baron
the Arms of a Man and his Von Lcwhen's analyfis of No-
Wife marihallcd together. bility, will inform more par-
See p. 232. ticularly the reader what a
Barrulet,/! One of the Ram was. — The Ram, fays
Diminutives of the Bar. he, was long beam
a vaft
See p. 72. like the maft of a (hip,
Barry, a. This word is ftrengthened at one end with
ufed to denote a Field di- a head of iron, fomething
vided tranfverfe into feveral refembling that of a Ram,
equal parts, and confiding whence it took its name.
ot two different Tinctures This is hung by the middle
;;;

B A B E
with ropes to another beam, Beaked, a. is faid of
which lies acrofs a couple of any Bird whofe Bill is of a
pofts ; and, hanging thus different Tincture from the
equally balanced, is, by a Body. See Plate xxiii.
great number of men, vio- Fig. 7.
lently thruft forward, and Bearing, V. Charge.
drawn backward, and fo Beaver, /. This term
lhakes the wall with its iron is ufed in Heraldry to fignify
head. Nor is there any tow- that part of the Helmet
er or wall fo thick and ftrong, which defends the fight
as to refift the repeated affaults fee p. 212, and Plate xxi.
of this forcible machine.— Example 3 and 4.
But this Engine did moft Belled, a. Having Bells
execution when it was mount- affixed to fome part } fee p. -

ed on wheels, which is faid 165, Example 6.


to have been firft done at the Bend, / One of the
liege of Byzantium^ under honourable Ordinaries de-
Philip of Macedon. Plu- fined, p. 63, and reprefent-
tarch tells us, that Matk ed in Plate ii. Fig. 1, 2, &c.
Antony, in the Parthian Bend-Jinifter^ is that which
war, ufed a Ram eighty foot comes from the fmifter to
long ; and Vitruvius allures the dexter fide of the Shield
us, they were fometimes a fee Plate vii. Fig. 16.
hundred and fix, fometimes In Bendy is when things
a hundred and twenty foot bor'n in Arms are placed
in length; to which, per- obliquely, from the dexter
haps, the force of the En- Chief to the finifter Bafe,
gine was in a great meafure as the Bend lies. See Plate
owing. The Ram was man- xxii. Fig. 4.
aged by a century of foldiers Bendlet, f. One of the
at a time, who were relieved Diminutives of the Bend
when weary by another cen- fee p. 64, and Plate viii.
tury ; fo that it played with- Fig. 7.
out any intermiffion. Bendy, a. This word
Battle-axe, f. A fort ferves to denote a Field, di-
of weapon formerly ufed in vided diagonally into feve-
war. See Plate xviii. Fig 8. ral parts, and varying in
Battlements, / The Metal and Colour fee
mterftices on Caftle-walls Plate vii. Fig. 10.
or Towers, See Plate xviii. Besants, or 7 Thefe,
Fig, l% % Bezants, f. 3 were
S 3 thq
;

B L B U
the current Coin of old By- Tournaments, when they
zantium, now called Conftan- explained and recorded the
tinople, and fuppofed to have Atchie?ements of theKnights
been introduced into Coats- fporters.
of-arms by thofe who were To Blazon, v. To ex-
at the Holy -war, but fince plain, in proper terms, all
that, they have been bor'n that belongs to Coats-of-
by fuch as have acquired arms.
riches by being Treafurers, Blazonry, / The Art
Bankers, or in the Cuftom- of defcribing properly Coats-
houfe. Seep. 23, and Plate of-arms.
ii e Fig. 10. Border, or } The firft
Bishops, f.
Church Dig- Bordure,/ \ theEngliJh,
nitaries ; they are Barons of the latter the French name,
the realm, and have Prece- defined p. 34, and repre-
dence next to the Vifcounts fented in Plate iii.
they have the title of Lords Bot@nny, a. This is
and Right Reverend Fathers faid of a Crofs which ter-
in God. There are twenty- minates at each end in three
four Bifhops in England, be- Buds or Buttons; fee PI. x.
fides that of Sodor and Man, Fig. 9.
who has no feat in the Braced, a. This word
Houfe of Peers. . . . The is applied to two Figures of
Bifhops of London, Durham, the fame fort, interlacing
and Winchefter, take place one another. See Plate xiv.
from the other Bifhops who &g- 13-
are to rank after them, ac- Brased, or"| This term,
cording to their feniority. Brazed, a. J which is
Blazon, f„
This word derived from the French
is ufed, either to denote the word Bras, i. e. arm, is ufed
Drawing of Coats-of-arms, in Heraldry to defcribe three
or to expound them. It Chevronels, interlaced in
is derived, as Mr. Nijbet the Bafe of the Field. See
obferves, from the German p. 93, Example 19, and
word which fignifies
Blafen, Plate ix. Fig. 19.
the blowing of a Horn, and Buckler, V. Shield.
introduced, as a term in He- Buckle, f. The Buckle
raldry, from an ancient cuf- was fo much efteemed in for-
tom the Heralds, who were mer times, that few perfons
Judges, had of blowing or of Repute and Honour wore
winding a Horn at Juris and their girdle without it, and
C A C H
It in Coats- needs no more to be faid
may beconfidered
of-arms, as a token of the about it.
furety of the Faith and Ser- Cercelee, V. Recer-
vice of the Bearer. celee.
Budget, V. Water- Chape, f. The iron,
Budget. brafs, metal, or put
filver,
Bugle-horns, f.
An in- at the end of the fcabbard of
ftrument of wind - mufick Cutlaffes, Swords, &c. as
made of Horn. See PL ix. mentioned in p. 73.
Fig. 8. Chape, or 1 Is faid of a
C. Chappe, a. J Field, that
has a fort of a cope of ano-
/^Aeoched, or Carosh- ther tincture, fpreading from
^ ed, a. Term derived a point in the middle of the
from Cabocbe, a French word, Chief, to be two bafe angles
fignifying a Head ; it is faid of the Shield ; fee Plate xii.
of Beafts heads, bor'n with- Fig. 19.
out any part of the neck, and Chapeau, f. The com-
full-faced. See Plate xvi. mon French word for a Hat;
Fig. 1 6. but it is taken in Heraldry
Canton, / The French for an ancient Cap of Dig-
word for corner ; it is a fquare nity, formerly worn by
figure, lefs than a Quarter, Dukes, being fcarlet co-
and placed at one of the loured Velvet in the outfide,
upper Angles of the Shield ; and lined with Fur, as re-
fee Plate ix. Fig. 16. prefented in Plate xxi.
Carbuncle, f. One of Fig. 5.
the precious Stones, repre- Chaplet, f. An ancient
fented in Coats-of-arms, by Ornament for the Head,
a Rofe in the center, with like a Garland or Wreath ;
eight rays or ftaves round it, but this word is frequently
in the form of Scepters. . ufed to fignify the Circle of
. .

It is of a very deep red, and a Crown.


has been thought to lhine in Chappe, V. Chape.
the dark like a lighted coal, Charge, /. The Figures
but this is known to be or Bearings contained in an
otherwife. It is faid to be Efcutcheon. See p. 50.
as hard as a Sapphire, and It is faid, that many Charges
to be found naturally of an in one Field are not ac-
angular figure; however, as it counted fo honourable as
is very uncommon, there fewer.
S 4 Charged,
;

C I c o
Charged, a. Shields or Clarencieux,V. King.
Ordinaries carrying fome Clarions, /. Thefe are
Figure, are fometimes faid thought to have been a fort
to be charged therewith. of Trumpet fometimes
:

Checky, or Cheque, a. they are taken for the Rud-


Is faid of fmall Squares of ders of Ships, and fome-
two colours, fpread alter- times for the refts of Lances,
nately over a Field or Or- by which laft name they are
dinary. See PL vii. Fig. 2 ; moft generally known ; fee
as alfo PL ix. Fig. 8. This Plate xviii. Fig, 9.
is always compofed of Me- Clinched, a. This term
tal and Colour and, ac-
: is ufed to denote the Fift be-
cording to La Colombiere, is ing fhut in fuch a manner,
the m©ft noble and molt an- as to mew the Fingers dou-
cient Figure bor'n in Ar- bly bent ; fee Plate xiv.
mory, and ought to be Fig. 12.
given to none but valiant Close, a. This word is

warriors. ufed to exprefs the clofe


Chevron, or 1 One of bearings of fuch Birds wings,
Cheveron,/. the ho- j as are addicted to flight
nourable Ordinaries, defin- fee Plate xviii. Fig. 2.
ed p. 83, and represented in Clofe-girt, is faid of Fi-
PL ix. Fig. 1, 2, 3, &c gures habited, whofe cloaths
Chevronel, /. The Di- are tied about the middle;
minutive of Chevron ; fee fee Plate xix. Fig. 1.
Plate ix. Fig. 17. Closet, f.
The Dimi-
Chief, /. One of the nutive of the Bar; fee p. 72.
1

honourable Ordinaries, de- Coat-Armour, f.


The
fined p. 52, and defcribed military garment which the
in Plate v- Fig. 1,2, 3, he. of old wore over
Knights
Chimerical, a. Epithet their Armour, and which is
given to Figures that have jftill continued in ufe among
no other exiftence but in the Heralds at their ceremonies.
imagination ; fuch as are Thefe Coats were
contained in Plate xix. hung lofe, and frequently-
Civic-crowns, f. Thefe variegated by feveral Lifts
were made of oak-boughs, of difFerent colours alter-
and were beftowed on fuch nate, placed various ways,
as had faved the life of a Ro- either Quarterly,Wavy, &c,
man citizen; fee Fig. iv. Coat-of-arms, f. This
Page 199. expreffion has the fame ety-
mology
5 :

c o c o
mology as Coat-Armour, Conjoined, a. Joined
and is frequently ufed in- together; fee Plate xiv. Fig,
ftead of the word Arms ; 9 and 12.
fee p. 7. Constable, f. Some
Cognizance, or Cogni- writers derive this title from
sance,/ Moft Heralds con- the Greek Xonrra, Bcohui, which,
found word with that of
this fignifies a company of men

Creft, fuppofing that this ef war, for the High-con-


laft has been fubftituted in {table, an officer long dif-
lieu of the firft, as being a ufed in England, did com-
more modern expreffion, and mand the King's armies
therefore make them fyno- others fuppofe that it comes
nimous terms ; but this is from Comes Stabuli, which
an error, were
for Crefts was an office under the Ro-
only worn formerly, by He- man Empire, much ©f the
roes of great valour, and by fame nature as this is ; as
fuch as had a fuperior mili- to his function and preroga-
tary command, in order that tives, fee Johnfons Did:.
they might be the better dif- C©ny, or A young rab- "1

tinguimed in an engagement, CoNEY,/Jbit, bor'n by


and thereby rally their men, the name of Coningfby ; fee
if difperfed : but Cognifances p. 131.
were badges which fub or- Coronet, /. An infe-
dinate officers, and even fol- rior Crown worn by Princes,
diers did bare on their Shields, Dukes, MarquifTes, Earls,
for difl:incl:ion fake, being Vifcouflts, and Barons ; fee
not entitled to a Creft. Plate xx. Fig. 7, 8, 9, Sec.
Collared, a. Having a Cost, or 1 One of the
Collar fee PL xv. Fig. 12.
; Cotice,^ [Diminutives
Combatant, a. A of the Bend ; fee p. 63, it is
French word, fignifying feldom bor'n but in couple,
fighting ; fee Plate xv. Fig. with a Bend between them ;
10. fee Plate vii. Fig. 15. whence
Complement, / is faid I fuppofe it may derive its
of the Moon, when at her name from the French word
full ; fee Platex'iu. Fig. 5. Cofte or Cote 9 which figni-
Com ton y, a. Word ap- fies a fide, they being, as it
plied Bordure, Pale,
to a were placed, upon the fides
Bend, or other Ordinary, of the Bend.
made up of Squares, of al- Coticed, or "1
This term
ternate Metals and Colours Cotised, a. ufed by
J is
fee Plate iii. Fig. %. Englifh
c o C R
Englifh Heralds, to exprefs pafling the contrary way to
any thing that is accofted, each other; fee Plate xv.
fided, or accompanied by Fig. 12.
another Counter - saliant, a %
fee Plate vii. Fig,
This expreffion denotes two
Couchant, a. Term Animals leaping different
borrowed from the French, ways to each other ; fee PL
expreffing the pofture of any xvi. Fig. 9.
Animal that is lying on his Coupes, a. From the
belly, but with his head French coupe, i e. cut ; it is
lifted up ; fee Plate xv. faid of the Head, or any
Fig 14. Limb cut off from the body
Count, / A
title of fo- quite fmooth 3 as in Plate
-

reign nobility, which an- xiv. Fig. 5, 6, 18, and 20.


fwers to that of Earl in Eng- It is alfo ufed to denote fuch
land. . Counts Pa latin
. . CrorTes, Bars, &c. as do
were formerly fuch as had not touch the fides of the
an office in the King's pa- Efcutcheon.
lace, as appears by their ti Couple-close, /. One
ties ; but Counts Palatin in of the Diminutives of the
England, were f ich as had Chevron :fee p. 83, and
Regal power within their Plate ix. Fig. 19 and 20.
own jurisdiction. Courant, a. This is
Counter, p. This Par- faid of any animal running.
ticle is generally ufed in Coward, f.
This is faid
compofition, and fignifies of a Lion, <kc. either paf-
either contraryways or in ap- fant, rampant, or in any
portion of any metal with other pofition, with his tail
a colour. between his legs. -

Counter-changed, a. Crampette, /. A fmall


This word denotes the in- piece of iron, commonly
termixture, or oppofition of called cramp-iron, bent at
any Metal with a Colour ; each end, by which two
fee Plate xii. Fig. 17, 18, &c. bodies are held together.
Counter - flory, a. Crenelle, a. Word bor-
This is faid of a Treffure, rowed from the French, and
whofe Flower-de-luce are ufed by fome Heralds, in-
oppofite to others fee PI. flead of imbattled, to exprefs
xix. Fig. j. the out-lines of any Ordi-
Counter - passant, a. nary or other Charge, drawn
This is faid of two Beafts like the battlements of an-
cient
C R D E
Cross, / One of the
1

dent walls and towers ; fee

p. 30, and Plate vii. Honourable Ordinaries de-


Fig. 6.
%* This attribute be- fined p. 94, and reprefented.
longs to the Arms of fuch as in Plate x. Fig. 1, 2, 3, &c.
have defended Caftles for * * Although this was
#
their Prince or Country, or an inflrument of execution
of fuch as are {killed in Ar- among the old Romans, yet
chitecture. it is a very ancient and ho-

Crescent, / The Half- nourable bearing, and is fre-


moon with its Horns turned quently to be met with in
upwards ; fee Plate xiii. the Coats-of-arms of thofe
Fig. 9, 10, &c. whofe anceftors attended the
The fimbolical fenfe warlike expeditions againft
afcribed to this figure, when the Turks.
bor'n as a Difference, is, Cross - patriarchal, V.
according to fome Heralds, Patriarchal.
to put the Bearer in mind of Crown, An Ornament /
increafing his family in For- of the Head, which denotes
tune and Honour. imperial and regal dignity ;
Crest, f. The Figure fee Plate xx. Fig. 1, 2, &c.
placed above the Helmet in Cr. mural, V. Mural,
an Atchievement ; fee p. Cr. naval, V, Naval.
2 1 6, and Plate xxi. Fig. 7. Crusades, f. Wars a-
Crested, a. Is faid of a gainft the Infidels ; fee p. 6.
Cock, or other Bird whofe
Creft is of a different Tinc- D.
ture ; fee Plate xix. Fig. 8.
Crined, a. This is faid T^Ancette, a. A large
of an Animal whofe hair is of indenting, be-
fort
of a different Tincture from ing wider and deeper than
his body j fee p. 191, Ex- that called Indented, and
ample 9. whofe teeth or points never
Crosier, / The pafio- exceed three in number;
ral Staff of a Bifhop ; fee fee p. 30, and Plate vii.
Plate xviii. Fig. 15. Fig. i.
Croslet, / A Crofs Debruised, a. Term
croffed again at fmall
a ufed to denote the reftraint
diftance from each of the of any Animal, who is de-
ends ; fee Plate x. Fig. 10 barred of its natural free-
and ii. dom, by any of the Ordi-
naries
d r D O
naries being laid over it of the prefent Turkifi Tur-
fee Plate viii. Fig. 18. bans or elfe a Circle of
:

Decrescent, or 1 This gold with points rifing from


Decressant, a. J is faid them, like thofe of fome
of a Moon in its wane, Coronets at this time, wore
whofe horns are turned to by ancient Kings as the
the Unifier fide of the Efcut- token of Royalty. It is
cheon \ fee Plate xiii. Fig. 6. now frequently ufed to fig-
Demi, or 1 This word is nify the Circles, which
Demy, p. J always joined clofeonthetop of the Crowns
to aSubftantive, and its of Sovereigns, and fupport
fignification is half as a the Mound.
Demi -lion, i. e. half a Diamond,^ The harder!
Lion 3 fee PZctf* xv. Fig. and moft valuable of all the
precious atones, which is
Detriment / The ufed by Englifh Heialds to
Moon is faid to be in her denote the Colour Black or
Detriment when eclipfed; Sable, in blazoning the
fee Plate xiii. Fig. 8. Arms of the Nobility \ fee
Device, / Emblem or p. 19 and 22.
Hieroglyphic, exprefilng Difference, f. Term
fome hidden myfiery. Thefe given to a certain Figure
were much in ufe among the added to Coats - of - arms,
j

Egyptians, and ferved in- ferving to diftinguifh one


ftead of writing; of latter family from another, and
times they are more ufed to mew how diitant young-
with the addition of a Motto er Branches are from the i

to explain their fignification, elder or principal Branch 5


which otherwife would of- fee from p. 33 to p. 46.
ten be unintelligible. Diminution, f.
Word
Devouring, V. Vo- fometimes ufed in (lead of
KANT. Difference ; fee p. 48.
Dexter, a. Word ufed Displayed, a. This
in Heraldry to fignify the word is faid of a Bird, &c.
Right fide of any thing ; as whofe wings are fpread or
the Dexter Chief is the right expanded ; as in Plate xvii.
Angle of the Chief, repre- Fig. 1. and Plate xix. Fig, 7.
iented by Letter A. p. 16. Doctor, f. This was a
Diadem, f. This was title of which the moft dif-
cither a Wreath of white or tinguifhed nobility was not
purple cloth, in the nature afhamed of. The books of
Heraldry
D O D U
Heraldry afford long lifts of within the other ; fee Plate
eminent perfonages, among xii. Fig. 8.
whofe titles ftands that of a Doublings, The \U /
Doctor, and the Lords of nings of Robes of State ; as
Great-Britain ftill accept of alfo the rows of Fur fet on.
it as a compliment from the the Mantles of Noblemen.
Univerfities. Dove-tail,/. Term ufed
Doomsday-book, / It is in Heraldry to denote a kind
that wherein a general fur- of Partition,wherein the
vey of the whole kingdom |
two Tinctures are
different
of England, with a lift of fet within one another, in
all its inhabitants, their fuch a manner, as to re-
yearly income, and the prefent the form of the tails
value of all the lands there- of Doves or Wedges reverf-
in, was firft took down, by ed ; fee Plate vi» Fig. 9.
order of William the Con- Dragon, f. An imagi-
queror, Anno 1080, which nary Monfter, fuppofed by
was finifhed in fix years ; it fome Hiftorians to be a ter-
was for many years kept in reftrial Animal with two
the King's Exchequer, but fore-feet, two wings, and
is now depofited in the Chap- a Serpent's tail; fee PL xix.
ter-houfe of the Abbey of Fig. 11, 16, and 19.
Weftminfter^ where I have Dragon's-head,/. Part
lately infpecled it. It con- of a celeftial conftellation,
fifts of two Volumes, one is affigned by Englijh Heralds,
a large Folio, the other fmall. to exprefs the Colour Tenne 9
The larger volume contains in blazoning the Arms of
the furvey of thirty-one Sovereigns; fee p. 19 and
counties, the fmaller volume 22.
but three, viz. Eftex, Suf- Dragon's-tail, /. Part
folk, and Norfolk. of the laft-mentioned con-
Dormant, a. TheFrench ftellation, alfo appointed by
word for Jleeping^ ufed to de- the fame Heralds to ftand
note the pofture of a Lion, for the Colour Sanguine >
or any other beaft afleep ; fee p. 19 and 22.
fee Plate xv. Fig. 15. Ducal, a. Pertaining to
Double - headed, a. a Duke, as a Ducal-coro-
Having two heads ; fee PL net, &c.
xv. Fig. 9. Duke, The higheft
/
Double - tressure, degree of Britijh Peerage,
f.
Two Treffures or Orles one next to the Prince of Wales.
This
;

E A E A
This title is derived from an Eagle with two necks,
the Latin word Dux ; No- which feems againft nature,
blemen bring anciently ei- is this, on the union of the
ther Generals and Leaders kingdom of Romania, now
of Ar- ies in time of War, a Province of Turky in Eu-
or Governors of Provinces rope, its Arms, which were
in time of Peace. In pro- an Eagle difplayed Sable, be-
cefs of time great Eftates ing the fame as thofe of the
being annexed to it, then Emperor, were united into
it was held by lands and one body, leaving it two
fees, and at length made necks as they are now.
hereditary and titular. It Eaglet, /. A young
was fo in foreign countries Eagle.
fooner than in England; for Earl, /. The third de-
the flrft Duke created here gree of Britijh Peerage, an-
was Edward, commonly call- ciently the moll eminent of
ed the Black Prince, eldeft this nation. This term
fon to King Edward III. comes from the Saxon word
who created him Duke of Ear-ethel, which was abridg-
Cornwall, which title has ed to Ear -el, and afterwards
ever fince belonged to the by contraction Earl. It was
firft born fons of the Kings formerly the cuilom, upon
of England, without any o creating an Earl, to affign
ther creation, as is requifite him for the fupport of his
to give them the title of State, the third penny out
Prince of JVales. A
Duke is of the Sheriff's court, iffu-
at this day created by Patent ing out of the Pleas of the
bis Mantle has four Doub- Shire, whereof they had their
lings ; his title is Grace, title ; as heretofore there
and his Coronet has only were no Counts or Earls,
Leaves raifed above the Cir- but had a county or (hire for
cle without Pearls 5 fee PL his Earldom afterwards the:

xx. Fig. io. number of Earls increafing,


they took their title from
E. fome eminent town, or even
a village, their own feat or
Tp Agle, / A park ; and fome from illuf-
royal Bird
;

fee p. 163, and Plate trious families. He is creat-


xvii. Fig, 1. ed by Patent, his Mantle
The reafon why the has three Doublings of Er-
Emperor of Germany bears mine ; his title is Right Ho-
nourable ;
. ;;

E N E N
nourabk 5 his Coronet has Endorse, One of the
1

/
the Pearls raifed upon pyra- Diminutives of the Pale
midical Points, and Leaves fee Plate vi. Fig. 17 and 19.
low between j fee Plate xx. V. Ad- Endorsed,
Fig. 12. dorsed.
Emblematic, a. This Engrailed, a. This
word is faid of any thing word is derived from the
comprising an Emblem. French word engrele, and
Embowed, a. Is fa id of fignifies a thing the hail has
any thing that is bent, or fallen upon, and broken off
crooked like a Bow; fee the edges, like the leaves of
Plate xvii. Fig. 9. a tree notched by hail-ilones,
Emerald, / The name it is faid of Partitions, Bor-
of a precious Stone fubfti- dures, or Ordinaries, hav-
tuted inftead of Vert by ing little Arches, or Semi-
Englifh Heralds in blazon- circles ftruck out of them,
ing the Arms of the Nobi- which is the reverfe of in-
lity; fee p. 19 and 21. . vented ; fee p. 30, and Place
. .

It is a green fhining tranf- ix. Fig. to and 1 1


parent gem, and has a very Enhanced, a. Term ap-
agreeable appearance. plied to Bearings placed a-
Enaluron, / Word bove their ufual fituation
ufed by Guillim to exprefs a fee p. 67, Example 7.
Eordure charged with eight Ensigned, a. This term
Birds, as charged with fignifies ornamented^ and is
:

Enaluron of Martlets ; but ufed in the foregoing trea-


juftly condemned by Sir tife, p. 143, Example 16.
George Mackenzie^ faying it Entoyre, a. Term de-
proceeded from an igno- rived either from the French
rance of the French tongue, eniour, round about, or
and thereby corrupting their from entier^ entire 5 but be
en orle 9 i. e. in form of a that as it will, it is very
Bordure ; therefore it is bet- feldom met with in books
ter to omit it at all times 3 of Heral4ry, efpecially mo-
fee p. 38, Example 12. dern ones ; Guillim ufes it
En-Arriere, p. Ex- to exprefs a Bordure charged
preffion borrowed from the with eight inanimate things j
French, to fignify any crea- fee p 38, Example 12.
ture bor'n with its back to EnurnY, a. Word pro-
view ; fee Plate xvii. Fig. bably derived from the
14. French erne, ufed by fome
Heralds^
E R E S

Heralds, to exprefs a 13 or- Ermines, /. The re-


dure charged with eight verfe of Ermine, i. e. white
living Creatures of any kind ; fpots on a black Field ; fee
fee p. 38, Example 12. Plate ii. Fig. 12.
Eradicated, a. This Erminois, / The Field
word denotes a tree or plant Or, and the fpots black ;
torn or rooted up, much in fee Platen. Fig, 13.
the fame manner as the heads Esc alop, /. Sea-fhell A
and limbs of animals are fifh regularly indented 3 fee
faid to be arazed. Plate xvii. Fig. 11.
Erazed, or] This word Escarbuncle, V. Car-
Erased, a. J fignifies in buncle.
Heraldry, a thing torn or Escrol, V. Scrol.
plucked off from the part Escutcheon, f. This
'to which nature fixed it, word isfometimes ufed to
but chiefly of the head and exprefs the reprefentation of
limbs of a man or beaft ; fee the whole Coat-of-arms, or
Plate ix. Fig- 11. and Plate only to fignify the Field
xiv. Fig. 8 and 17. that contains the Charges ;
Erect, or } Is faid of fee p 13, 14, &c. and PL i.
Erected,*?. 3 any thing Efcutcheon of Pretence, a
upright, or perpendicularly fmall Efcutcheon, on which
elevated ; Plate xiv. Fig. 6 a man carries the Coat-of-
and 7. and Plate xvi. Fig. 6. Arms of his wife, being an
Ermine^ fm This word heirefs ; fee p. 118, Fig. 8.
alone fignifies black fpots Esquire, / Title of ho-
on a white Field ; fee Plate nour, above a Gentleman,
W. Fig. 11. and p. 25. but and below a Knight.
ifthe [word plain mould be *4* Thofe to whom this
ufed with it, it denotes no- Title is now of right due,
thing but white. —
This is are, viz. all the younger
the (kin of a little white fons of Noblemen, and their
Beaft lefs than a Squirrel, heirs male
ever; the
for
found in the woods of Arme- four Efquires of the King's
nia, a large country in Afia, body; the eldeft'fons of all
from which it takes its name. Baronets, of Knights of the
Its tail is between two and Garter, and of the Bath,
three inches long, of a dark and their heirs male in a di-
brown colour, and is, by rect line. Thofe who bear
Furriers, fet pendant in every any fuperior office, as, High
(kin. Sheriffs, Juftices of the
Peace.,
F E F I

Peace, Barrifters at Law, part which his Scarf cover-


Lieutenant Colonels,Maj ors, ed, which remained ftill of
Captains, &c. have it dur- its proper colour. This
ing the time they are in mews, that this Ordinary
commiflion, and no longer. reprefenta the Scarf, and
Estoile, V. Etoile. may have been given by He-
Etaye, f The only ralds in allufion to it.
Diminutive of the Chevron, Fes. ? point, 1

The ex-
among the French, which act center of the Efcutcheon,
contains, in breadth, the fee p. 1 6, Letter E ; it is fo
third part of it ; fee p. 83. called becaufe it is the point
Etoile, f. The French thro' which the Fefs line is

wore? for a Star, and is by drawn, when the Field is

many confounded for a parted per Fefs,


Mullet, but fome diftinguifh Field, / Thefurfaceof
it by depicting the raies of the Shield or Efcutcheon,
the Star waved, and thofe which contains the charge $
of the Mullet plain. V. fee p. 13, Art. I.
Mullet. Figured, a. Is faid of
thofe Bearings which are de-
F. picted with a human face j
tezPlate xiv. Fig. 19.
T^Emme, / The French File, V. Label.
* word for a Woman, ge- Fillet, f. The only
nerally ufed blazoning Diminutive belonging to the
in
the Coat-of-arms of a Man Chief ; fee p. 52, and PL v.
and his Wife marfhalled to- Fig. 8.
gether ; fee p. 232. Fimbriated, a. By this
Fess, f. One of the ho- termwe underftand an Or-
nourable Ordinaries defined ; dinary, &c. having a nar-
p. 72, and reprefented in row border hem of anor
or
Plate viii. Fig. 1, 2, 3, &c. ther Tincture, for which
%* The Houfe of Auf- reafon it might be applied to
tria carries Gules, a Fefs the charge contained in PL
Argent, becaufe Leopold, fe- xi.i%. 13.
cond Duke of Auftria, in Fitchy, a. From the
the firft battle of the holy- French: Fijhe, i. e. fixed ;
war, had his coat, which this is faid of Croffes when
was of filver-cloth, fo co- the lower branch ends in a
vered with blood, that it ap- {harp point ; and the reafon
peared all red ? except that of it Mackenzie fuppofes to
<
T fee&
F L F U
be, that the primitive Chris- reprefents the Gar den-lily t
tians wont to carry
were others the top of a Scepter ;
CrofFes with them where- fome the head of the French
foever they went, and when Battle-ax, called Franc/Jca,
they ftopt ort their journey and others the iron of a Ja-
at any place, they fixed velin, ufed by the ancient
thofe portable Croffes in the French, which I'aft is the
ground for Devotion fake ; moft probable conjecture. *

fee Plate x. Fig. 1 1. F l o r y, or 1 This


Flank, That part of
f.
Flowery, a. 3 word
the fide of an Efcutcheon fignifiesfwwered, of adorned
which is between the Chief with the French Lily ; fee
and the Bafe ; fee p. 103, p. 119. Fig. 9. and Plate
Example 19. xii. Fig. 7 a n d 8.
Flanches, /. Heraldic FORMEE ] JT r>
Figures; fee p. 119, Fig.
10. Fret, A Figure re-
Flasques, f. Heraldic fembling two little Sticks
Figures; fee p. 120, Fig. lying Saltier- ways^ and in-
11. terlaced within a Mafcle ;
f #* A Herald
learned fee Plate xii. Fig. 3. . . .

fays, that this Bearing is to Some have termed this Fi-


be given by the King only gure the Herald's True-
for Virtue and Learning, Lover's Knot ; fee p. 116.
efpecially for fervices done Fretty, a. This word
on an AmbaiTy. 1
<
is ufed to denote a Field or
Flexed, a. Bent ; fee Ordinary covered with
Plate xiv. Fig. 9 and 12. Sticks interlacing one ano-
Fleur-de-lis, or! ther; fee Plate xii. Fig. 4.
Flower-de-luce, /. J and Plate x. Fig. 3.
The name of a Charge fre- Fructed, a. -i* is faid of

quently to be met with in trees have their fruit


that
Coats - of - arms ; fee Plate on them, but of a different
Vlii. Fig. 7. <,-,;, , u ; tfitii colour -from the tree.
* % * The inquiry into FuxERAL-Atchievemeiit,
the Origin and Nature of V. Hatchment.
this Charge has produced Fur, f. Term ufed in -

many Volumes, and em- Heraldry to denote the Lin-


ployed the Lucrabrations of ings and Doublings of Man-
divers Criticks and Anti- tlings in Atchievements,
quaries , fome pretending it tS ... ••• which . .
;

G A G A
which zre Ermine, Valr\ &c. 14.— The legs of a Lion
j

fee p. 24. may very properly ferve to


Furled, a. drawn up exprefs ftrength.
fee Plate xviiL Fig. 6. Garee, f. This term
Fusil, f. Term derived is a corruption of the French
from the French word Fu- word Gerbe y which fignifies
fee, i.e. a Spindle } it is a Sheaf of any kind of corn ;
Monger, and more acute fee Plate xvii. Fig. 19.
than the Lozenge fee p. ;Gardant, a. This word
121, Fig. 13. ... It may denotes a Bead: full-faced,
ferve to denote the execu- looking right forward ; fee
tion of a great undertaking Plate xv. Fig, 2 and 7.
by Patience and affiduity. . Tho'thisbea French
. .

Some authors ac- word, it is not made ufe of

count Fufih marks of dif- among their Heralds, who


grace to the families that fay a Lion
never to be fo
is

bear them, and pretend, re pre fen tedbut a Leopard


;

that when Crufades were always, which they fignify


proclaimed, in order to go by this expreffion au nature)^
and wage war againfi the i. e. proper.
Infidels, fuch Gentlemen as Garland, f.
A wreath
did not take up the Crofs of Branches or Flowers.
were ordered, by their re- Garnished, a. This
fpe£tive Kings, to change term is ufed in Heraldry to
their Arms, and put Fufih exprefs the Ornament fet on
in their Efcutcheons, as a any Charge whatfoever fee ;

token of their effeminacy Plate ix. Fig. 8. and Plate


:

but no authority being pro- xiv. Fig. 9.


duced to countenance fuch Garter, f. The moft
a conjecture, no ftrefs ought noble order of the Garter,
to be laid upon it. inftituted by King Edward
III. fee p. 237, and Plate
G. xxiii. Fig. 7. fee Knights.
Garter, f.
The- title
pAMB, or "I An obfo- of the principal King of
^* Gambe,/! J lete French Arms in England 3 fee
word, fignifying a Leg^ and King.
u fed as fuch by Heralds, for Garter, / It is ac-
the leg of a Lion, or other cording to Englim Heralds,
Creature bor'n in Coats-of- one of the Diminutives of
arms -> fee Plate xvi. Fig. the Bend 5 fee p. 63.
T 2 Gav NT?
G O G U
Gauntlet, / Armour ing to the Knglifh way of
for the hand ; fee Plate blazoning, for the French,
xviii. Fig. 3. call all Roundlets Tourteaux^
Gaze, Indent look;
f. and then add their peculiar
this of Bucks and
is faid colour ; fee p. 23, and PL
Stags ftanding ftill, with all ii. Fig. 10,
their four feet on the ground, Gorged, a. This term,
and generally with a full which is derived from the
face ; fee Plate xvi. Fig. 19. French word Gorge, i. e.
Gem els, or 1 A cor Neck, is faid of an Animal
Gem ells, a. j ruption that has a collar about its
of the f rench word jumelles % neck ; fee Plate xxi. Fig. 7.
which fignifles double, and Grafted, a. This is
is therefore ufed to denote faid of that part of the Ef~
3, Double- Bar ; fee Plate cutcheon which is jointed^
viii. 16. or into the other,
inferted
Gentlema s r
, /. The as in the fourth Quarter of
loweft of honour in
title the royal Achievement, PL
England, below a Squire ; xxi. Fig. 7. which may be
hut which is, now-a-days, thus blazoned. The fourth
given indifcriminately to all Quarter is Mars, Brunfwick 9
thofe who live on their and Lunenburgh impaled, zvith
means. C. F. Mensjlrier ancient Saxony grafted in point.
very juftly obferves, that a This way is more concife
Gentleman, is he whofe than that inferted in p. 222«
name and arms are regiftered Guardant, V. Gar*
by Heralds. DANT.
Gentry, f.
Under this Guard, f. Term ufed
denominacion are compre- by fome Heralds to fignify
hended Baronets, Knights, the Doubling of the Man-
£fq aires, and Gentlemen. tles of the Nobility.
Giron, V. Gyron. Gules, f. A corruption
Girt, V. Close-qirt. of the French word Gueules'^
Glory,/! Circle of raies which in this" Science fig-
which furrounds the head of nifies red, and is reprefent-
any Figure; fee Plate xiv. ed in Engraving by perpen-
'

Fig. 2. dicular lines ; fee Plate ii a

Gcbony, or 1 V. Com- Fig. 3. ... It may ferve


Gobonated, j pony. of itfelf to denote martial
Golpes, /. Roundlets of Prowefs, Boldnefs, and
the purple colour, accord- Hardinefs 5 for the Ancients
J
ufed
G U H A
tifed this colour to make called by none but Engli/b
themfelves terrible to their Heralds ; all others calling
enemies, to ftir up Magna- them Tourteaux, as they do
nimity, and prevent feeing other Roundlets. They are
of blood, by the likenefs of by fome fuppofed to repre-
the Colours ; for which rea- fent wounds, as being of a
fon, perhaps, it is ufed by bloody hue.
the Englifh but according
: Gyron, f. A
heraldic
to G, Leigh) if this Tinc- Figure, of a triangular form;
ture is compounded with fee p. 114, Fig. 1
Or /"•Defire. This word is the
Arg. J s-'V Envy. French for bofom, and thefe
Azu.V ^/Ardour. figures are called gyrons, be-*
Yer. ( %\ Strength* caufe they meet in the cen-^
Pur. ^Juftice. ter or bofom of the Shield.

P
Sab.
,
J
vWearinefs. Gyronny, a* Is faid of
t his colour is, by the ge- a Field divided into fix,
nerality of Englifh Heralds, eight, or ten triangular
ranked before Azure ; but parts of two different Tinc-
French Heralds, N. Upton, tures, the points of which
and his followers prefer A- unite in the center of the
zure to it. Field fee Plate xii. Fig. 5.3-

Gutty, a. Term derived


from the Latin word gutta, H.
i. e.drop, and ufed to de-
note a Field or Bearing full tJtABiTED, a. This word
of drops but as thefe drops
: isufed to denote a Fi-
may be of different Tinc- gure cloathed 5 fee Plate xiv.
tures, they muft be diftin- Fig. 3 and 4.
guiflied accordingly in bla- Hatchment, /. The
zoning them, viz. Coat-of-arms of a perfon

Or Gutty d'Or, dead, ufually placed on the
Arg.— Gutty d'Eau, front of a houfe, whereby

Qui Gutty de Sang: may be known what rank

A%u Gutty de Larmes* the deceafed perfon was of
Ver. —
Gutty de Vert. when living 5 the whole dif-
Sab. —
Gutty de Poix. tinguifhed in fuch a manner
Guzes, / Roundlets of as to enable the beholder to
the Sanguine or Murrey co- know, whether he s a w
lour ; fee p. 239 and Plate ii. batchelor, married man, or
Fig. 10. . . , Thefe are fo widower, with the like dif-
T 3 Unctions
.

H E H I

tin£lions for women ; fee Fl. Tnftallations, Creations, &e


xxiv. fig. 1,2, 3, &c. To make public both De-
Hauriant, a. Term clarations of war and Pro-
peculiar to Fifties, and fig- clamations of Peace To :

nifies their (landing upright, record and blazon the arms


as if they were refrefhing of the Nobility and Gentry,
themfelves by fucking in the and to regulate any abufes
air. therein, under the autho-
Helmet, f.
A de fen five Earl Marmal.
rity of the
weapon cover the head Richard 111. formed them
to
and neck. In Atchieve- into a College, and after-
ments it is placed above the wards great privileges were
Efcutcheon for the princi- granted them by Edward IV „
pal ornament ; and is the and Philip and Mary.
true mark of Chivalry and The ofHce and dig-*
Nobility ; Helmets vary ac- nity of 31 Herald was firft m-
cording to the different de- ftituted by Ancus Martius^
grees of thofe who bear them j fourth King of the Romans,
lee p. 210: they are alio as Livy declares; but fome
tifed as a bearing in Coats- writers afcribe its origin to
©f-arms 5 fee Plate xxi. and Numa Pompilius, and that
Plate xviii. Fig. 5. he ordained a college of He-
Herald, f, This name, ralds for a further account :

derived of them, the curious may


'

fays Verjlegan, is
from the Saxon word Here- read a treatife on Heraldry
haulty and by abbreviation publifiied by J. le Freron y a
Her-alt , which, in that lan- French author.
guage, figniiies the Cham- Heraldry, / A Science,
pion of an army, and grow- confifting in the knowledge
ing to be a name of office, of marfhalling royal Cere-
it was given to him that, in monies, regulating Coats-
the army, had the fpeciai of-arms, and, in fhort, all
charge to denounce war, to that is treated of in this
challenge- to battle and book ; fee p. 1

combat ; proclaim peace,


to Hiacinth, V. Hya-
2nd to execute martial mef- cinth.
fages :But the bufinefs of Hieroglyph, or 1 A Fi-
Heralds with us is as fol- HlEROGLYPHlC,/! J gurc
lows, viz. To marmal and by which fomethmg is im-
order all Royal Cavalcades, plied.
Ceremonies at Coronations, Hie-
H U I M
Hieroglyphic*:, a. Ex- Flefh, which often turn to
of fome meaning
preffive that colour.
beyond what immediately Hyacinth,/ The name
appears. of a precious Stone intro-
Hilted, a. Is faid of the duced by J. Bofswell into
handle of a Sword, in order this Science, and ufed bv
to denote what Tincture it Englifh Heralds to exprels
is of; fee PL xviii. Fig. i. Tennem blazoning the Arms
Honour-point, f.
It is of The Nobility ; fee p. 19.
that which next above the
is and 22. ... It is a Stone of
exact center of the Efcut- a yellowifh red hue ; Natu-
cheon, and is reprefented ralifts fay there are four dif-
by Letter D, p. 16. ferent kinds.
Hooded, of
a. Is faid
any Creature whofe head- I.
drefs refembles a Hood s fee -

Plate xix. Fig. 19, tMbattled, a. The


Horned, a. This term fame as Crenelle, and is
is ufed to denote that the faid of Towers, Walls, and
Horn of a Unicorn is of a Ordinaries, when their out-
different Tin£ture from his ward lines are drawn like
body 5 fee p. 90, Example Battlements ; fee p. 30.
14. lMBO WED, V. EMBO WID.
Humetty, a. Term Imbrued, a. Is faid of
made ufe of to denote an Spears heads fpotted with
Ordinary which is couped, blood ; fee Plate v. Fig. 12.
or cut off, and no where To Impale, v. To con-
reaches to the edges of the join two Coats-of-arms Pale-
Efcutcheon fee Plate viii. ways ; women impale their
Fig. 17. Coats-of-arms with thofe of
Hurts, or 1 Roundlets their hufhands ; fee Plate
Huerts, /. J of the A- xxiii. Fig. i, 2, &c.
%ure colour, fo termed by To Impale cities, camps,
none but Englifh Heralds, fortifications, &c. was to in-
all others calling them Tour- clofe them with palifades.
teauxj and mentioning the Imperial, a. Belonging
Tincture they are of ; fee to an Emperor. This word
p» 23, and Plate ii. Fig. 10. is ufed, in the foregoing
Thefe being blue, fome Treatife, to denote his
will have them to fignify Crown, which is reprefent-
JBruifes or Contufions in the ed in Plate xx. Fig. 1.
T4 V s
By
; :

I N 1 s
By this term is alfo Invected, or 1 This is
meant, an independant Invecked, a. j the re-
crown, that is, a crown not verfe of engrailed^ for it has

held of any other, as the the points towards the Bor-


Princes of Germany hold dure or Ordinary, and the
theirs of the Emperor; that fmall Arches or Semi-circles
of Great-Britain, being in- towards the Field ; fee p. 30,
dependant, is, accordingly, and Plate iii. Fig. 4. GuiU
in Acls of Parliament, ftyl- lim and jf. Gibbons ufe in-
ed an Imperial Grown^ the vecked, which they fay is de-
form of which is depicted in rived from the Latin word
Plate xx. Fig. 2. invecko) to carry in ; but
Increment, f.
This is the term invecled from the
faid of aMoon increfcent Latin inveclus, is ufed by y.
for a Moon in her Increment CcatSi and feveral Heraldick
implies the fame meaning. authors.
%* It fignifies the riling Interlaced, a. This
of Families, and even of term is applied in blazoning
States, for which reafon it to Annulets, Ringt, Cre-
is bor'n fo by the Turks. fcents, &c. that arc linked
Increscent, or | This is together in the fame man-
Incressant, a. J faid of ner as are the links of a
a new Moon, whofe horns chain.
are turned towards the dex- Inverted, a. This word
ter-fide of the Efcutcheon is applied to any Bearing
fee Plate xiii. Fig. 7. turned the wrong way
Indented, This is Wings are faid to be in-
a.
faid of fuch Figures or Or- verted when the points of
dinaries as have their out- them are down.
ward Lines drawn like Issuant, or 1 This term
Teeth, and much fmaller Issuing, a. \ fignifies
than the Dancette ; fee p. proceeding from, and is faid
23. of Raies, or other Charges,
Indorsed, V. Ad- coming out of any part of
dorsed. the Efcutcheon ; fee p. 134,
Inescutcheon, f. The Example 3, and alfo p. 137.
name given to fmall Efcut- Example 12. Guillim has
cheons bor'n within the made ufe of ijfuant to denote
Shield ; fee Plate xii. Fig. 2. a Lion naijjant-, whence, with
Xngrailed, V. En- refpeft to Blazonry, feveral
grailed. Heralds
;

J u j t?

Heralds difpute their figntfl- The time and place were


cations, appointed, and challenges
fent abroad for all that de-
fired to fignalize themfelves.
J.
Places were provided for the
JEssant, This word Spectators, and the Lifts,
fignifies Jhooting forth, as i. e. Ground, raifed about,
vegetables do ; it is alfo in which the Adventurers
ufed to exprefs the bearing were to {hew their dexterity.
of Fleurs-de-lis coming out Rewards were afiigned to
of a Leopard's Face. the victorious, and great
Jessed, This is faid of Honours paid them. ... As
a.
a Hawk, or any other Bird, to the Contenders, two only,
whofe JefTes, i. e. Straps of were let in at once, thro'
leather, are of a Tincture different barriers, being in
different from the reft $ fee complete armour from head
Plate xvii. Fig* 6, to foot, and mounted on
Jowllopped, a. Term excellent horfes. After per-
ufed to fignify the gills of a forming the ufual ceremo-
Cock, when bor'n of a dif- nies, and paying their re-
ferent Tincture from his fpedts to the Sovereign or
Head ; fee Plate xvii. Fig. 8. Judges, and to the Ladies,
Jupiter, /. The name they took their feveral fta-
of one of the Planets, ufed tions, and being
thus in
in the Place of Azure, by readinefs, when
the trum-
fuch Heralds as think fit to pets founded, they both at
blazon thus the Arms of So- the fame time couched their
vereigns and Princes, in- lances, i. e. fet the But-end
ftead of Metals and Colours againjl their breajl, the point
fee p. 19 and 21. bearing towards their Anta-
Justs, /. Thefe, like gonifl^ and fpurring their
Tournaments, were public Horfes, ran fiercely towards
exercifes formerly ufed by one another, in fuch man-
all perfons of any note, that ner, that their Spears points
deftred to gain reputation in darting againft each other's
feats of Arms, from the armour gave a terrible ftiock,
King to the private Gen- and generally broke in
tleman. pieces. If neither party re-
'*
#* The manner thefe ceived any damage, they
martial diverfions were con- both turned round, took
ducted was as follows .... frefli fpears, and attacked
one
K N
one another a fecond time, cient Teutonic word Cyningi
tfien a third, and if neither and did fignify, as Verjlegan
fuifered any damage in thefe fays, brave or valorous, be-
three encounters, they both caufe Monarchs were fup-
ciiiie off with reputation. pofed, or ought to be fuch.
But if a man was thrown King of arms, } One
off his Horfe, he v/as quite King at arms, vof the
difgr.aced, or if he was maken principal Heralds, of which
In the Saddle, or let fall his fort there are three at pre-
Lance, or loft any piece of fentin England, whofe titles
his Armour, or hurt his are Garter, Claren-
Adverfcry's Horfe, all thefe, cieux, and Norroy. The
and other particulars, were fir ft Garter, Princi-
is ft i led

looked upon as difreputable. pal King at Arms , which are


I have quoted two instances two diliiiift offices united in
of Englifh Jufts and Tour- one perfon ;
for, as Garter,
naments, which may be feen hisduty to attend on the
is

under the Article of Tour- Knights of the Garter at


naments. There were alfo their Solemnities, in refer-
Rules for diftrihuting the ence to which he is allow-
Prizes to thofe that beii be- ed a Mantle and Badge, a
haved themfelves, which the Houfe in Wind for - caftle,
intended concifenefs of this and a Penfton from the So-
Dictionary prevents my in- vereign. As King at Arms,
ferring, as other Writers, he is to perform fervices re-
iiich as A. Nijbct, M. Cham- lating to the office of Arms,
bers^ &c. have given a full on which account he is al-
account of thefe, and all o- lowed a rich Coat and Crown,
ther circumitances. Of thefe Lodpinvs within the Col-
Juris, however, it was not lege, and a Pen/ion out of
laid amifs byaTurkifh en- the Exchequer King
voy, " that they were too Clarencieux's jurifdi&ion ex-
4t rough, if only for fport -
tends thro' the realm of the
y
tc and if in earner:, boy's South fide of Trent as> that
;

46 play. of King Norroy does on the


Justers, f. Name given North fide of the fame river,
to the Adventurers at Jufts. from which the latter de^
rives his name.
K. Knight, f. Title of ho-?
nour derived from the Sax-
T/ING,/ This term is on word Cnicht7 i. e. Ser-
•**- derived from the an-
-

K N K N
t;#/zr, or one bound to attend \
stituted by Richard II. but
on his Sovereign in his wars. others think of greater
it

The following par- antiquity. Sir William Dug-


ticulars were formerly requi- dale^ in his Antiquities of
fite making of a Knight, Warwickfhire, p. 531. gives
f« ir

m, That he was no Trader, an account at large of this


and efpecially of no fervile Order, and of the ceremo-
condition. That he fhould nies obferved from the re-
fwear, that he would not time on this occa-
moter!:
refufe to die fo£ the Gofpel, fion, to which I refer the
©r his Country. It was alfo curious, being very little
required, that Knights fhould different from the form at-
be brave, expert, and well tended to at prefent.
behaved. Knight of the Garter.
Knight-Banneret, An The higher!: degree of
ancient military order, but Knighthood in England,
€xtincl; in England. The inftituted by King Edward
manner of their being made III. in 1349, in the 23d
is related by TV.
Segar, in year of his reign.
his Treatife of military and Hiftorians are divided
civil Honour, chap. iop. 69. with motive
refpe£t to the
•See Banneret. induced King Edward
that
Knight - Batchelor. to found this Order, fome
The moik ancient, but the affirming that it was an a-
loweft order of Knights in maurous contrivance, in
England known by the honour to a Lady's Garter,
;

name of Knights only. They from whence it had the


are (riled Knip-hts-Batche- name ; and others ftrenu-
lors, becaufe this Title does oufly contending to deduce
not defcend to their Pofte- it from a more noble origin,
rity. viz. The improvement of
Knight and Baronet. military honour, and the
This is a modern degreeo of reward of Virtue but be :

honour, inllituted by King that as it will, it is certain,


James I. on the 2 2d of May, that it has ever fince been
161 1, and the 9th year of looked upon as a great ho-
his reign, who made it he- nour bellowed on the no-
reditary in the male line. ble!!: Perfons of this, and o
Knight of the Bath. ther nations. Knights of
This dignity was, accord- the Garter furround their
ing to fomc Hiftorians, in- Efcutcheons with the En»
;

L A
fign of this Order, which made ufe of it on the arm#
isreprefented in Plate xxi. of el deft fons, whilft the fa-
Fig 7. as alfo in Plate xxiii. ther is a live. It is alfo em-
For a circumftantial account ployed to fignify the ri-
of the institution of this Or- bands that hang down front
der, the Statutes, and all a Mitre.
the ceremonies thereunto be- .
Langued, d. Term de-
longing, you may read Elias from the French langue,
rived
AJhrnoWs work, Herald at i. e. Tongue ; and ferves to:

Arms or John Anjlis's Gar- fignify the tongue of a Bird:


7

ter, King at Arms wherein or Beaft when it differs m


they are fully and largely Tincture from the body.
treated of. Laws of Heraldry ; fee
P- 225.
±: Leopard, f. A fierce
be ingendered
rjeaft, faid to

J ABEL, / The riofcleft between a Lion and a {he-


-M of Rebatements, ferv- Panther, or between a Li-
ing to difference the Arms onefs and a he-Panther, PlinJ
of the eld eft fon from the Hijl. lib. 18. cap. 15. The
younger 5 fee p. 43,. and Leopard's head is always re-
Plate iv. Fig, 1. prefented with a full face,
* * This term is derived as in the Arms of the Earl
#
from the French word Lam- of Strafford, Plate ix. Fig. 3,
beau, and reprefents, accord- with both eyes, which is ne-
ing to Selden, & piece of filk, ver the cafe of a Lion's head 2
wherewith Princes formerly it being only reprefented fide-
furrounded their heads ; but ways, and with one eye
French Heralds will have it only.
denote a kind of fcarf or Lion, f. The King of
riband, which young men Quadrupeds, or four-footed
wore anciently aboufe the Animals ; fee Plate xv.
neck of their Helmets, as Lioncel, f. A young
we do cravats, with points Lion this term is to be
:

hanging down, when they ufed in blazoning Arms,


went to wars or to any mili- when there are more thart
tary exercife, with their fa- one Lion in the fame Field y
thers., by which they were as mentioned in the fore-
diftinguifhed from them going Treatife, p. 147 > fe^
from whence Heralds have Plate xv. Fig. 12.
borrowed this figure, and
.

L U M A
Lozenge, f.
A four- Arms of Sovereigns ; fee
cornered Figure refembling p. 19 and 21
a pane of glafs in old cafe- Lure, f. Term ufed in
ments ; fee p. X20 Fig. 12, Heraldry to fignify two
and Plate viii. feg-. 6. and wings conjoined, and inferc-
Plate vi. F/f. II. Though ed with the tips downwards,
allHeralds agree, that fingle as in Plate vii. Fig. 14.
Ladies are to place their Lyon, V. Lion.
Arms on Lozenges, yet they
differ with refpec"t to the M.
caufe that gave rife to it.
Plutarch fays, in the life of VJ'Anche, / The French
Thefeus, that inMegara^ an word for a Sleeve* and
ancient town of Greece, the ufed by Englifh Heralds to
tomb-Rones, under which
1

fignify an old fafhioned


the bodies of the Amazons Sleeve, with long hangers
lay, were fhaped after that to it y fee Plate xviii. Fig.
form ; which fome conjec- 10.
ture to be the caufe why Maned, a. Ts laid of
Ladies have their Arms oh the Hair which hangs d©wn
Lozenges." S. Petra Sancla the neck of Horfes, Uni-
will have this fhield to repre- corns, Tygers, or other
fent a Cufieon^ whereupon Animals 5 fee p. 90, Ex-
women ufed to fit and fpin, ample 14.
"

or do other houfe-wifery. Mantle, f. This is fo>

Sir y. Feme thinks from the French


it is form- named
;<

ed from the fhield called ManteaUy and fignifies a


*TeJfera y which the Romans long Robe, or Cloak of
c
finding unfit for war, did State. *

allow to women to place Mantlings, / An or-


their Enfigns upon, with namental foliage-work re-
One of its angles always up- prefenting cut pieces of
ij
jnoft. cloth, ufed now-a-days for
'
Lozengy, a. Covered the adorning of Helmets ;
with Lozenges ; fee Plate xii fee Plate xxi. Fig. 1, 2, 3,
Tig. 6. &c.
;

Luna,f. This
is a Latin Marquis, f. The fecond
word, which fignifies the order of Nobility in Eng-
Moon, and is ufed by Eng- land, next to a Duke. This
lifh Heralds only, inftead of title was not known in this
'Argent^ in blazoning the country till King Richard
I
il
;
; 1

M A M E
II. in the year 1337, created To Marshal, v, Term
his great favourite, Robert which ilp-nifies to rano-e and
Vere, who was then Earl of difpofe regularly diverfe
Oxfo rd, M
arqu s of ubl'in
i D
Coats-of-arms in one Shield,,
fince which time there have with their contingent Orna-
been other creations. A ments and Appurtenances ;
Marquis is created by patent, fee p. 231.
bis Mantle is double Ermine, Martlet, f. An ima-
'.three Doublings and a half ginary Bird, reprefented
his title is "Moft Noble, and without feet ; fee what is
his .Coronet has Pearls and faid of it p. 190, Examp. 6.
Strawberry Leaves intermix- This charge, being
ed round, of equal Height; given for a difference to the
fee Plate xx. Fig. 11. fourth fon, denotes, as. an-
Mars, The name of cient Heralds fay, that as he
f
one of the Planets ufed by has no patrimony or land to
fome Englifh Heralds, in- fet his feet on, he mould,
flead of Gules, in blazoning in order to raife himfelf,
the Arms of Sovereigns ; truft to the wings of Virtue
'

fee p. 19 and 21. and Merit.


Marshal, / This term, Mascle, / A figure
2s inoft others ufed in He- which is faid by fome to re-
raldry,is derived from the prefent Spots in certain
French word Marecbal, the Flints about Rofes, and by
name of a great military others the Math cjf a net j
Officer. The Marflial com- fee p, j2 5
Fig, 1 5.
manded formerly the Horfe, Maunch, V. Manche.
as Tillet proves, whereas the Mem br ed, a. Term
Conftable commanded both ;
ferving to exprefs the Beak
old orders in military cafes and Legs of a Bird, when
run thus To our Conftable they are of a different Tinc-
:

and Marfljal, kc it is ftill ture from the Body } fee PL -

ufed in England as the name xv; i. Fig. 3. :

of feveral military and civil Mercury, J. The name


Officers among the latter, of one of the Planets ufed
;

the principal is the Lord inftead of Purple, by Eng-


Marflial, a poft of great lifh Heralds, in blazoning
honour, and hereditary in the Arms of Sovereigns fee ;

the family of the Duke of p. 19 and 22. B ofswell, as


Norfolk, as mentioned p. I have obferved before, firft
196. introduced this different me-
thod
M 0 M U
thod of blazoning, but the der, and fometimes over
1

reafon that could induce Coats-of-arms fee PI. xxi.


him to affign fuch colour to Fig. 7.
Mercury is beyond my com- Mound, f. A corruption
prehenfion. of the French word Monde y
Metal,/ There are only i. e. W orld which it re-
;

two Metals ufed in Heral- prefents, being a Globe en-


dry, viz. Gold and Silver, circled, furmounted of a
but called Or and' Argent, Crofs,
r
as on the imperial
being the French names for Crown ; fee PL xx. Fig. 1
E
them. ;
and 2. ;

* Mullet, f. This term


% % It is againfr. the Rules
:

of Blazoning, to put Metal is derived from the French


upon Metal, or Colour up- word Molette, which fig- 5

on Colour, unlefs' for fpe- nifles the'Rowel of a Spur,


cial reafohs therefore, if and mould confift of five
:

the Field be of any colour, points only ; fee Plate xiiL


the bearing mull be of one Fig. it and 14, whereas
of the Metals; and, on the Stars confift of fix or above ;
contrary, if the Field be of fee Fig. 12 and 13. And
one of the two Metals, then yet, the French, from whom
the Bearing mult be of fome this Science is taken, have
'

colour. *Etoiles of five 'points, as well


1 1 k

Moiety,/. A corruption as Molettes of fix.


of the French word 'Mottle, This charge is ap-
which fignifies Half. pointed by Heralds to be
Moline, f.
From the added to Coats-of-arms, ais

French word Moulin^' i. Difference,


e. the third fon's
Mill, is ufed in Heraldry which indicates, as Leigh
to denote a Crofs which fays, that he fhould follow
turns round both ways at all Chevalry. l
the extremities ; fee PL x. Muraille, a. Word
Fk- J 3-
*
ufed by French Heralds to
Morion, / A Steel Cap, exprefs an Ordinary that is
or ancient Armour for" the walled, as is' mentioned iti
head, which refembles very p. 63, and reprefented Plate
much the Chapeau reprefent- vi. Fig. 20. 1

ed in Plate xxi. Fig. 5. MuRAL-crown. It was a


Motto, /
The word or circle of Gold with battle-
fhort fentence inferted in a ments j fee p. 198.
Scroll, which is placed un-
I
; ;

N E O G
Murrey, V. Sanguine. Noble, a. This word,
Muzzled, a. Is faid of in Latin nobilis, deriving
a Bean; whofe Muzzle-band from novi9 at firfr. fignified
is of a different Tincture known, as iis minimuum no-
from his head ; fee Plate ix. bilis fui, Plaut. or noted, as
Fig. 15. nob ile fcortuniy Li v. vitiis no-
Cic.
bilis, But what is bet-
N, ter worth obferving, the
word noble is of a narrower
I^TAiant, a. Term deriv- import in England, than in
"r^ ed from the French word other countries; belonging
nageant? i. e. fwimming, and to none but perfons above
is laid of a Fiih in a fwim- tim degree of Knights
ming pwilure ; fee PL xvih whereas, abroad, it compre-
Fig- 9- hends not only Knights but
Naissant, a. This word Gentlemen.
"
fignifies coming out, and is Nobility, / Under this
faid of aLion, or other Jiving denomination are compre-
creature, that feems to be hended, L>ukei, MarquiJJes, *

liiing out of the middle of Earls Vifcounis, and Barons


?
an Ordinary ; fee Plate xv. only, as before-mentioned.
Fig. 16. Nombril-point,/ The
Naval, or Rostral next below the Fefs-point,
crown, was a circle of Gold, being tiie oppoftte place to
with the figure of a Crab the Honour-point; fee letter
or Shrimp engraved on it F. p. 16. ' 1

fee p. 198. NoRroy, V. King.


Nebule, or I This term Nowep, a. This word
Nebuly, a. J fignifies fignifies tied or knotted, and
cloudy, or reprefenting is faid of a Serpent, Wi-
clouds, and is ufed when vern, or the like, whofe
the out-lines of any Ordi- bodies or tails are t wilted
nary run arched, in and out, and infolded like a knot
as in Plate viii. Fig. 3. fee Plate xvii. Fig. 16, and
This attribute may Plate xix. Fig. 10..
belong to the Arms of fuch
as have been eminent for o.
their (kill in Navigation, for
that employment obliges OGresses, f.
Term ufed
them to underftand clouds, by Engliffi Heralds on-
ilorms, and winds* ly, to exprefs the bhxk
Round-
1
,

o ft P A
koundlets ; feeN Plate ii. than a Border within the
Fig. 10. Shield, at fome diftance
Or,/ The French word from the edges thereof ; fee
for Gold^ by which this Me- p. 118, and Plate xii. Fig. i.
tal is exprelTed in Heraldry. In-Orle, is faid of fe-
In engraving it is denoted veral things bor'n within the
by fmall points all Efcutcheon, in the form of
over the
Field or Bearing ; fee Plate an Orle ; fee Plate xxii.
ii Fig. i. ... It may be Fig. 10.
fuppofed to fignify of itfelf Over-all. This expref-
Generofity, Splendor, or So- fion is faid of any Figure
lidity, and according to G. bor^n over another, and ob-
Leigh, if it is compounded fcuring part thereof j fee
with Plate vii. Fig, 12.
Gul. r ^ourarre.
Azu. Trull.
Ver. Joy.
Pur. Charity. PAlatin, V. Count.
Sab. Conflancy. * Pale, /. One of the
Oranges, / Englifh honourable Ordinaries denn«
Heralds give this name to all ed p. 5$, and reprefented in
Roundlets that are tenne or Plate vl. Fig. 1.
tawney, fuppofmg them to .^V It is called Pal in
be Oranges ; fee p, 23, and French, and Pale in Eng-
Plate ii. Fig. 10. lifh, becaufe is like the
it

Ordinary, f. Term about fortifi-


pa! Ii fades ufed
ufed to denote feveral He- cations, and formerly ufed
raldic Figures bor'n in for the enclofmg of camps y -

Coats-of-arms , fee p. 50, for which reafon every foU


and 51. dier was obliged to carry one
Orle,/". This term is, ac- and to fix it according; as the
cording to Sir G. Mackenzie lines were drawn for the fe-
derived from the Latin word curity of the camp.
'Qtula, i. e. a Bordure, or Pall, f. A
figure like a
according to others, from Greek T, about the breadth
the French word our let , i. e. of a Pallet j it is, by fome
a Hem or Selvage ; Guillim Heralds, called a Croft-Pal!*,
would have it from oreillsr a on account of its being-
Pillow, which it no ways looked upon as an Archi-
refembles ; but be this as it epifcopal bearing.
will, the Orle is no other
\

P A P E
Pallet, /. One of the Passant, a. is faid of i
I

Diminutives of the Pale 5 Lion, or any other creature,


fee Plate vi. Fig. 16. represented pafling of walk-
Paly, a. This word is ing along ; fee Plate xv.
lifed to denote a Field divided Fig. 6 and 7.
by perpendicular lines into Passant-gardant, is
feveral equal parts, confirm- when an Animal is in the
ing of two different Tinc- fame pofturc as pajfant^ but
tures interchangeably dif- with his face turned, fo that
pofed ; fee Plate vi. Fig. 5. his eyes are both diftinclly
Parted, or 1 This term feen fe Plate xv. Fig. 7.
;

Party, a. J fignifies Patee, or) This is faid


divided, and is applied to all Pattee,*?. (of a Crofs
Divifions of the Field, in which is fmall in the center,
which cafe En glim Heralds and fo goes on widening to
differ from the French ; fof ,the ends 3 fee Plate x. Fig,
the latter life this term only
to denote a partition per Paternal, a* Term
Pale, other partitions being ufed to denote the original
exprefled by different names ; Arms of a family ; fee p. 10.
fee the following Examples* Patonce, a. This i*
Party per Pale, is parti* proper to a Crofs that is
Party per Chevron? is flowry at its extremities \
chappe. fee Plate x. Fig. 14.
Party per fiefs, is coupe Patriarchal,^. A Crofs
Party per Bend, is tranche* is fo called when the mid-
Party per Bend-fmifler 9 is dle piece is twice crofled,
iailU\ the lower arms being longer,
All thefe Partitions, ac- and the upper (horter ; fee
cording to La Colombiere^ Plate x. Fig. 6. Such a Crofs
have their Origin from the belongs to Patriarchs, as
Cuts and Bruifes that ap- the triple Crofs is ufed by
peared on Shields after en- the Pope,
gagements; and being proofs Pearl, /
This word is
of the danger the Bearers ufed for Argent, by thofe
had been expofed to, they who blazon the Arms of
gained them efteem, for Peers by precious Stones,
which reafon they were inftead of Metals and Co-
tranfmitted to Pofferity, and lours ; fee p. 19 and 21.
became Arms and Marks of Pean,/. The name of a
Honour to their future fa- Tincture, which is Sable
and
; ;

P E V L
and Or; fee p. 25, and Perforated, a. Is faid
Place Hi Fig. 14. of fuch Charges as appear
Peer, /. Name given to to be bored or pierced thro'
every Nobleman of this fee p. 121. Fig. 15.
kingdom, becaufe they are Perflew, V. Purflew.
all Pares regni, that is, nobt- Pheon, f, A kind of
litate pares ± though gradu millile Inftrument or Dart,
impares : there are five de- with a barbed head, which
grees of Peerage in Great- head is in England frequently
Britain, viz. Dukes^ Mar- bor'n in Coats-of-arms, and
quiflTes, Earls, Vifcounts, termed a Pheon's head.
and Barons. Pierced, a. bored thro' $
Pellets, f. The name fee Plate xiii. Fig, 14 and
jgiven to the Black Round- 16.
iets, by Englifh Heralds Pile j /
Art heraldic
alone ; for the French and gure reprefenting thofe
bther Nations call all Round- Piles on which Bridges are
Jets Tourteaux, and fpecify built, or other Edifices
the Tincture they are of raifed from the ground ; fee
fee Plate ii. Fig\ 10. p. 117, and Plate xii. Fig, 9,
Pendent, This term 10, &c. Some Charges are
a.
ii^nifies banging , whence it faid to be bor'n in Pile ; fee
is faid of Efcutcheorts which p. 174, Example 1.
were worn by ancient %* Thefe have beeii
Knights and Warriors; fee granted to fuch as have beeh
Plate n Fig, 1, 2$ 3* ^ nc 4» very ufeful in founding Com-
*

Penon, or) A lm all flag mon-wealths, Colonies, &c.


Pennon,/ 3 or ftandar'd, Planets, f. Thefe have
of an oblong form, ending been introduced in Heral-
in a fharp point or twb> dry by BoJfwelU but are ufed
which ufed to be Carried on only by Englifh Heralds^ in-
the tops of fpears and upon
; ftead of Metals and Colours^
it was only painted a part of in blazoning the Arms of
the owner's Coat-of-arms, Sovereigns ; fee p* 19.
fuch as his Cognizance, 1 cannot help obferv-
CrePr, or Motto. ing, that this fantaftical way
Per, p. This particle is of blazoning is very unfit
generally ufed in Heraldry for the Art in which it is
before an Ordinary, to de- employed ; for it perplexes,
note a Partition of the Field 5 the reader, makes this fcience
fee Party. j
unpleafant, and deters na-
|
U2 lives
? o P E
tives from fhidying it, and Portcullis,/! ftrong A
foreigners from underftand- gate grated, ufed to defend
ing what Englifh Heraldry the entrance of Catties, &c.
is for it cannot, with pro-
; Potent, a. This is faid
priety, be ufed in Latin, of a Crofs terminating like
French, or any other lan- a T at its extremities ; fee
guage. Plate x. Fig. 12.
Plates, f. Name which Powdering, f. Small
Englifh Heralds afcribe to Figures, as Ermine, irre-
the white or iilver Round- gularly ftrewed on a Field ;
lets ; fee p. 23, and Plate fee Plate ii. Fig. 11, 12, &c.
ii. Fig. 10. Predominant, a. This
Point, /. This word is term is fometimes ufed in
ufed to denote the aiffereijit Heraldry to fignify that the
parts of the infide of the Field is but of one Tincture ;
Efcutcheon, in order to as- fee p. 28, Art. 3.
certain the local pofition of Premier, a. This French
any Bearing; fee p. 16. word, which fignifies firji,
The Points of a Star; is ufed by Englifh Heralds

this fignines its Raies ; fee to fignify the moil ancient


Plate xiii. Fig. 13, Peer of any Degree by
Pomelled, a. is faid of Creation ; fee p. 108, Ex-
the round ball or knob affix- ample 8.
ed to the handle of a fword ; Pride, f.
Peacocks are
fee Plate xviii. Fig. be in their pride when
1. faid to
Pome is, /.' 1 Green they extend their tails into
Pommes, or J. Roundlets a circle, and drop their
ufed in Coats-of-arms, fo wings, fee PL xvii. Fig
called only by Englifh He- Pretence, V. Escut-
ralds, who exprefs the co- cheon,
lours of the Roundlets by Prince, f. Title of ho-
the feveral names given nour, in Latin Princeps, a
them ; fee p. 23, and Plate compound word of primus
ii. Fig 10. and caput, properly belong-
Pome ted, 0/ iThis is ing to a Sovereign or his
Pommetty, a. faid of a foils. Before King Edward
J"

crofs, whofe extremities ter- I. created his fon Prince of


minate with a button or Wales, the eldefl fon of
knob at each end, like an England was called Lord
apple ; if there be more than Prince, though whilft Nor-
one, the number is to be mandy was connected with
snemioncd. England,
;

P u
England, he was always
called Duke of Normandy
and fince the union his pro- aUadrat, or 1 This
per title is Magna Britan- Quadrate, a. J term
nia princeps. fquare, or having
fignifi.es

Proper, a. Term ufed four equal and parallel fidej


to denote any Creature, Ve- it is applied, in the fore-
getable, &c. bor'n in Coats- going Treatife, to a Crofs
of-arms of its natural Hue reprefented in Plate x. Plate
or Tincture ; fee Plate xvii. 12.
Fig. 2, 5, and 7. Quater-foil, f. A
Purfle, or 1 Term ufed four-leaved Flower, refem-
Pur flew, j by fome bling a Primrofe. The dou-
Englifh Heralds to exprefs ble.Quater-foil is mention-
the imbroidery of a Bordure ed in the foregoing Treatife
of Fur j fee p. 38, Example as a Difference for the 9th.
12. fon ; fee p. 43.
PurpuRE, f. The colour %* Thefe have, as well
fo called, which fignifies as Trefoils, obtained no
Purple, is in engraving re- fin all place in -Coat-of-arms,

prefented by diagonal lines being bor'n by many Fami-


from the left to the right lies, and particularly by Sir
fee Plate ii. Fig. 6. Francis Vincent, Bart, one
It may ferve to de- of the prefent Members
note an Adminiflrator of juf- of the Houfe of Commons
tice, a Law-giver, or a Go- for Surry.
vernor equal to a Soveriegn, Quarter,/ The fourth
and according to G. Leigh, part of the Field, or one of
if it is compounded with its Divifions.
Or ~* r Riches. *** The Paternal Arms
Arg. J p;\ Quietnefs. are always placed in the firft

Gul.^JJ ^Politics. and fourth Quarters of a


Az.
f SjNFidelity.
V S /Cruelty.
quartered Coat - of - arms ;
and thofe of Alliance in the
Yer.
Sab. J s Sadnefs. fecond and third but where
:

Pursuivant, f. The Coats are too numerous, it


lowed: order of officers of is fufficient to ufe the Pa-
Arms, who attend upon ternal Arms but once, placing
Heralds in public ceremo- them in the firft Quarter or
nies. Divifion of the Field. .

U 3 QlJAR-
II A R E
Quartered, a. Is faid ftanding, as it were, in a
of a Field divided into four perpendicularline and climb-
equal parts j fee p. 31, Fig. ing up ; fee Plate xv. Fig.
\ and 2. I, 2, 3, &C.
Quarterings, This *^*. We
feldom fee in
fignities the Partitions or Coats - of - arms any other
feparate Areas of one Shield animal but the Lion bor'n
cpntaining divers Coats-of- in this pofition.
arms. Rams, V. Battering-
Quarterly, a. Con- ram.
taining a fourth part. . . . Ray,/ A ftream of light
Quarterly quartered is faid of proceeding from any lumi-
a baltier quartered jn its Cen- nous body, as the Sun or
ter, and the four branches Stars ; fee Plate xiii. Fig. 2S
of which are each parted 3, and 20,
b,y two different Tinctures Rebatement. V. Dif-
alternately depicted ; fee PI. ference.
xi. Fig. 14. Regercelee, a. This is
Queue, / The tail of an faid of Crofs that circles,
3,

animal, which is fometimes or curls at the ends, very


bor'n double, and fourche r much refembling a Ram's
i. e. forked. fyorn ; fee Plate x. Fig. 20.
Regardant, a. This
R. Jrerich word, which figni-
fies lookingonly, is ufed by
TJ Adiant, a. This term Engltfh Heralds to fignify
A\ is ufed in blazoning, to an Animal looking behind,
denote any Charge repre- /.. e. having his face turned

iented with Raies, or Beams towards his tail \ fee Piatt


about it \ fee Plate vi. fig. xv. Fig. 3.
Resarcelee, iV. Re-
Raguly, or 1 This is Ressercelee, 5 CERCE-
Raguled, a.J faid
of a LEE.
Bearing whjch is uneven or Respecting, v. This is

ragged lil^e t^e trunk or faidof any Beaft or Fife,


lirnb of a tree lppt of its whether rampant, faliant,
branches, pf which the &c. when reprelented face
ftumps only are feen • fee to fa,ce; fee Plate xvi. Fig,
Pla$e x. Fig. 4. 12.
Rampant, a. A French Rest, a. A
figure ufe4
\yord ufed to denote a Lion in Coats - of - arms, which
fome
; ;

R U S A
fome take to be a reft for a ly found in the fame mines
Horfeman's Lance, and o- with Sapphires, and fome
thers for a mufical inftru- of them are pretty large;
ment called Clarion or Cla- for the Emperor Rodolpbus
ricord j fee PI. xviit. i^. 9. had one that was as large as
Riband, / One of the a fmall Pullet's egg, and
Diminutives of the Bend this was thought to be the
fee p. 64, P/. vii. Fig. 18. larger! that was ever feen in
Ring, / The privilege Europe.
of wearing ^/^/ rings was fo Rules of Heraldry; fee
far a mark of nobility, a- p. 225.
mong the Romans, that they
were at firft allowed only to S.
Senators that had been in
fome fplendid office. The CAble, f. This word in
people wore filver rings, and :
Heraldry fignifies black y
the flaves iron ones ; but and is borrowed from the
luxury increafing, gold rings French, as are moft terms
were common, even to fol- in this Science ; in en-
diers. It was a cuftom an- graving it is expreffed by
ciently, efpecially in France, both horizontal and perpen-
to ufc only a rufh ring at dicular lines croffing each
the ceremony of marriage, other; fee Plate ii. Fig. j.
when there had been too in- Sable of itfelf fignifies Con-
timate an acquaintance be- ftancy, Learning, and Grief
fore. and ancient Heralds will
Rcstral, V, Naval. have it, that if it is com-
Roundle, or ) Any pounded with
Roundlet,/ i round Or - r Honour,
.

figure, fuch as are contain- Arg. *vFame,


f
ed in Plate ii. Fig. 10. GulA *jRefpca.
Ruby, a. The name of Azu.^ ^^Application.
a precious Stone ufed in-* Ver. \
% / Comfort.
Head of Gules in blazoning Pur. J^ Aufterity.
the Arms of the Englifh The occafion that introduc-
Nobility only; fee p. 19 ed this colour into Heraldry
and 21. . . i It is a tranfpa- is thus related by Alexander

rent Gem of a redd ifh colour, Nisbet p. 8. The Duke of


with a fmall portion of blue, Anjou, King of Sicily, after
and cannot be touched with the lofs, of that kingdom,
% file, Rubies are general- appeared at a Tournament
U 4 m
;

S A S A
in Germany all in black, with to the Siniiter-fide, and from
his (hield of that Tincture, the Sinifter to the Dexter
feme de larmes, i. e. befprink- fee Plate ii. Fig. 9
led with drops of water, to Some Heralds will not al-
reprefent tears, indicating by low this colour to have a
that both, his grief and lofs. place among the other Tinc-
S a li ant, or ? This tures, though it is certain it

Salliant, a. S term is has been ufed 5 fee the note


ufed to exprefs the pofture of in p. 19.
an animal that is fpringing Sans - nombre, Epref-
forward or leaping in Bend ; fion ufed by French Heralds
fee Plate xv. Fig. 4. to fignify feveral Figures
Saltier, /. One of the ftrewed on the Field j fee
honourable Ordinaries de- p. 229.
fined p. 104, and represent- Saphire, or 7 The name
ed in Phte xi. Sapphire, f. ) of a pre-
This, fays G. Leigh cious Stone ufed by Englifh
in his Acc. of Arm. p, 70, Heralds only, to exprefs the
was anciently made of the colour Azure,, in blazoning
height of a man, and driven the Arms of the Nobility ; fee
full of pins, the ufe of which p. 19 and 21. ... It is a
was co fcale wails, he. Nich. hard gem of a blue or fky
Vision fays it was an instru- colour, very tranfparent, and
ment to catch wild BeuTs, it fparkles much,
whence he derives this word Sardonyx,/ The name
from Saliu, i. e. a Foreft. of a precious Stone ufed in-
The French call this Ordi- flead of Sanguine, in blazon-
nary Sautair, from Sauter to ing the Arms of theEnglilh
leap- becaufe it; may have Nobility ; fee p. 19 and 22,
been ufed by foldiers to leap . This Stone is faid to be
. .

over walls of towns, which of a middle nature, between


in former times were but the Cornelian and the Onyx,
low: but fome modern au- which its name feems to
thors think it is bor'n in imi- imply. It is generally tinged
tation of St. Andrew* s crofs. with white, black, and blood
Sanguine, a. This word, colour, which are di.(h"fi*

in Heraldry, fignifies the guifhed from each other by


Murrey colour, and is ex~ circles or rows, lb plain,
preffed in engraving, by that they appear to be the
lines c rolling each other di- effect of art.

agonally, from the Dexter Saturn,


; ;

S E s o
Saturn, / The name difplaying his wings, as if
of one of the Planets, ufed he was going to fly ; fee PL
for the colour Sable by fuch xix. Fig. 5.
Heralds as think fit to Seiant, or This is faid "1

blazon thus the Arms of Sejant, a. J of a Lion or


Sovereigns and Princes, in- other Animal reprefented
ftead of Metals and Colours fitting ; fee Plate xv. Fig. 8.
fee p. 19 and 22. Seme, or 1 Word bor-
Scallop, V. Escallop. Semi, a. J rowed from
Scepter ? or 1 A royal the French, and which fig-
Sceptre^ f. J Staff, an nifies flrewed or feeded\ fee
eniign of Sovereignty bor'n p. 222 and 230.
in the hand, more ancient Shield, /. An ancient
than the Crown ttfelf. defenfive piece of Armour,
It was originally a on which Arms or Devices
Javelin without a head. were depleted. . To de- . .

Tarquin the old fir ft ufed it fer i be the feveral forts of


among the Romans, which them, and mention their
he adorned on the top with names, would be not only
an Eagle. too tedious, but alfo foreign
Scarpe, f Term deriv- to our purpofe. It gave the
ed from the French word original to that which is now
Efoarpe, that is, a fcarf in called the Efcutcheon in Ar-
Englim, and one of the Di- mory, and that being treat-
minutives ©f the Bend-finif- ed of in its proper place, it
ter ; fee p. 64. is needlefs to repeat the
Scrol, or 1 One of the fame here j fee p. 13.
Scroll,/ j outward or- Sinister, a. Word ufed
naments of an Efcutcheon, in Heraldry to fignify the
wherein the Motto is in- left fide or part of any thing
fer bed
i fee p. 218,
; and as the Sinijier Bafe is the
Plate xx i. Fig. 7, left part of the Bafe, repre-
Seeded, a. This is faid fented by the Letter I, p. 16.
of Rofes and other Flowers, Slipped, a. Torn from a
to exprefs the tincture of Stock or Branch 3 fee Plate
their feed ; fee p. 171, Ex- xyii. Fig, 18.
ample 17. Sol,/. This word ngnifles
Scutcheon, V. Escut- the Sun 9 and is by Englifh
cheon. Heralds ufed to exprefs Geld
Segreant, a. This epi- in blazoning the Arms of
thet is applied to a Griffin Sovereigns j fee p. 9 and 20. 1

4 Splen-
S T s u
Splendor, / The Sun *% This way of blazon-
is faid to Splendor
be in its ing is condemned by all Fo-
when it is reprefented with reigners, and rejected by
the lineaments of a human feveral Heralds of this na-
face, and environed with tion, and that very juflly ;
raies ; fee Plate v. Fig. 20. for can the dignity of a Peer
Standard, f.
A mar-
be lelTened for being told
tialEnfign, carried by the his robe
that is Purple,
Horfe, diftinguifhed by the Velvet, Black, or Scarlet,
Dame of Colours for the Foot- as tho' it really ceafed to be
foldiers. There is alfo the that, or the like, by being
Royal Standard which is upon him. But fince many
difplayed at Sea. Englifli Heralds have adopt*
Star, /. This Charge is ed this whimfical and fanci-
by many confounded with a ful method, it has been
Mullet, which is the rowel thought fit to infert it in
of a Spur, as mentioned be- the foregoing Treatife, the
fore; fee Plate xiii. Fig 12. Reader being at liberty to
and 13. do as he pleafes in this cafe.
Statant, a. Termufed Sun, The name of the
to exprefs an Animal ftand- Luminary that makes the
ing on his feet, both the Day, which, when ufed in
fore and hind legs being in a Heraldry with the linear
direct line; fee Plate xv. ments of a human face, en-*
F ;
S- 5- vironed with raies, is called
# ** I do not find that any a Sun in its Glory or in its
Englifli Herald has taken Splendor; fee p. 134, Exam.
notice of this pofition, al- 1 5 and p. 58, Exam. 2Q.
though it be as diftincl, and Super-charge, f. This,
at ieaft as honourable as the is faid of a Figure bor'n oil
Rampant, Salliant, Paflant, another Bearing.
Szc. there are befides many Supporters,/. Animals,
examples of it in Coats-of- Birds, or other Figures,
arms. which ftand on each fide of
Stones, f.
The names the Shield, and feem to fup-
of precious Stones have been port it; fee p. 219, and
introduced in Heraldry by Plate xxi. Fig. 7.-
Bofswely but now are only Surmounted, a. This is

ufed by Englijh Heralds, in- faid of a Figure or Bearing


ilead of Metals and Colours, that has another over it ; feQ
in blazoning the Arms of p. 182. Plate xviii. Fig. 15,
{he Nobility 5 fee p, 1^. and 19. Sur«
s w T E
Sur-tout, Expreffion the dignity of a Governor,
borrowed from the French, than the Coronet fet on his

which fignifies over-all, and Coat-of-arms.


is faid of a fmall Efcutcheon Symbol, f. Is
that which
containing any Coat of comprehends in its figure a
Augmentation ; fee p. 222, representation of fomething
Plate xx i. Fig. 7. elfe.
Sword, f.
The ufual
weapon of hand to
fights T,
hand, ufed either in cutting
or thrufting ; it may be taken T^Albot, /. A
fort of
for an emblem of Courage, * Hunting-do;* between
Juftice, or Authority. a Hound and a Beagle, with
** # The following obfer- a large fnout, long, round,
vation, though unconnected and thick ears ; fee Plate ix.
with the Elements of He- Fig. 11 This is a
raldry, will not, I hope, be frequent bearing in Coats-
thought entirely foreign to of- arms.

the fubjecV The fword of Target, f. A round
flate that bor'n before the
is Buckler that was ufed by
Governor of Counties, Ci- the ancient Romans, Spani-
ties, or Burroughs, is not ards, and Africans.
to be carried after the fame Tasselled, a. Adorned
manner by the Sword-bear- with TalTels ; fee p. 140,
ers, ; for that which is bor'n and Plate xiv. Fig. 3
for or before the King, ought A TaiTel is an ornamental
to be carried upright, the Bunch of filk, or glittering
hilt as low as his waift, the fubftances.
blade up between his eyes. Tawney, or 1 One of
For or berore a Duke, the Tenne, a. J the ten
blade muft decline from the different hues made ufe of
head, and be carried between in Blazonry; it fignifies the
the neck and the right- Orange colour, and is re-
fhoulder. For or before an prefented in engraving by
Marl, the blade is to be car- diagonal lines drawn from
ried between the point of the the Dexter t© the Sinifter-
fhoulder and the elbow ; and fide of the Shield, traverfcd
for or before a Baron, the by perpendicular lines from
blade is to be bor'n in the the Chief; fee PL ii. Fig. 8.
^end of the arm. This ce- .... This is not admitted
*em>mial form nolefs denotes as a cqlour b.v all Heralds^
*

for
T O T O
for feveral not even
have fee p. 23. Plate ii. Fig. 10.
mentioned yet G. Leigh
it, Some have thefe
will
fays it is a colour of worfhip ; Roundiets to be Cakes, o-
fee the note inferted in p. 19. thers Bowls, which cannot
Tiara, f. An ancient be, becaufe they are flat;
ornament among the Per- and others Wounds, which
fians and Parthians, where- laft may be proper enough,
with their Kings and Priefts as they are always Red.
were crowned ; the Pope's The French, and
triple crown is now fo call- other nations, except the
ed ; fee p. 203. Plate xx. Englifh, give the name of
&g- 5- Tourteaux to fuch Roundiets
Tincture,/. This term as are of any other colour,
Hue or Colour expreffing the fame, which
fignifies the
of any thing belonging to is allowed to be a better me-
Coats-of-arms fee p. 17. thod, then
; giving every
Titles, f. Few words Roundlet a particular name
are more deflected from their on account of its Colour,
primary meaning than Ti- for it is rather making the
tles this appears from the
; Science unintelligible than
etymology of a King, Duke, explaining it.
Marquis, &ct which were Tournaments,/. Thefe
formerly no more than of- were honourable exercifes
fices, and names of tempo- formerly ufed by all perfons
rary dignities, as Conful, of note, that defired to fig-
Senator, Prefers, &c. Thefe nalize themfelves by their
titles came afterwards here- Dexterity, &c. They hrft
ditary through force, favour, began in Germany, in the
or fome particular compacts. tenth Century, Anno 938,
Topaz, f. The name of and became afterwards a ge-
a precious Stone ufed in- they derived
neral practice ;

ftead of Or, in blazoning the French


their name from
the Arms of the Englifh word Tourner^ i. e. to turn
Nobility only fee p. 19 rounds becaufe to be expert

and 20. ... It is a tranfpa- in thefe Exercifes, much


rent Stone of afhiningGold Agility both of Horfe and
colour without any mixture. Man was requiiite, they rid-
Tokt faux, or 1 The ing round a Ring, in imita-
Tourteaux, f. J name tion of the
ancient Circi,
given to the red Roundiets they were the principal di-
only, by Englifh Heralds; verfion of the thirteenth and
four-
T O T O
fourteenth Century. Their f by the anguifh where-
horfe,
manner of aflembling, &c. he reared himfelf with
of,
was like that described in that violence, that he {tum-
the article of Jujis. bled backwards, whereby
The following account his rider was unfortunately
of Englifti Tournaments, unhorfed, which occafioned
extracted from Maitland's him to cry out, that he could
Hiftory of London, will not, not hold by the cloudi ; and
it is hoped, be difagreeable that though his horfe had

to the reader, In the reign failed him, he would not fail
of Edward IV. Roch, who to meet his adverfary the
was better known by the ap- next day ; which being ac-
pellation of the baftard of cordingly performed, they
Burgundy, being greatly ce- fought on foot with pole-
lebrated for his aits of chi- axes, when Scales foon pene-
valry, came over and chal- trating the baftard's helmet,
lenged the Lord Scales, bro- the King threw down his
ther to the Queen, to fight warder, whereupon they
with him, which Scales rea- were immediately parted by
dily accepting, the King the Marihal. But the baf-
commanded lifts to be pre- tard infilling upon fighting
pared in Smithfield (where- oif* that weapon, a council
in to perform combat) of the was held to deliberate there-
length of three hundred and on | the refult whereof was,
feventy feet, and breadth of that if he perfifted in renew-
two hundred and fixty, with ing the combat, he mull,
magnificent galleries for the according to the law of
reception of the illuftrious arms, be delivered to his ad-
fpe&ators ; where afiembled verfary in the fame condition
the King, the Nobility, and he was in at his horfe's mis-
principal gentry of both fexes. fortune. But rather than
The ,firft tlay they fought fubmit to thofe terms he
with fpears, without a vifi- waved his pretenfion.
o on either fide.
ble advantage King Richard II. d eloign-
The fecond they tournayed ing to hold a tournament at
on horfe-back, when the London on the Sunday after
Lord Scales, having -a long Michael m s, fent divers he-
fpike fixed on his chafFron ralds to make proclamations
(
pommel of his faddle) which of it in all the principal
as they enclofed, ran into courts of Europe, and ac-
7
the noftrils of the baftard s cordingly not a few princes,
f
and
;

T O t a
and great numbers of the j
Towerfd, a. This is fail
prime nobility reforted hi- I
of Walls and Caftles having
ther from France, Ger- Towers or Turrets on the:
many, the Netherlands, &c. top.
This folemnity began on Transposed, a. Ternt
Sunday afternoon, from the applied to Bearings put in a
Tower of London, with a place different from their
pompous calvacade of fixty ufual fituation j fee Piatt
Ladies, each leading an arm- xii. Fig. 13.
ed Knight by alilver chain, Trefoil, f. The three-*
being attended by their leaved Grafs j fee Plate viii
Squires of honour* and pa/T- Fig. 13 It is a very
ing through Cheapfide, rode common Bearing, but how;
to Smithfield, where the it came to be fo much ufed
Jufis and Tournaments con- in Armoury does not appear
tinued feveral days with to me, being a thing in ir>
magnificent variety of en- felf fo infignificant, and re-
tertainments ; on which oc- mote from Arms.
cafion the King kept open Tresstjre, f. The name*
houfe at the Bifhop of Lon- of an Ordinary, fuppofed to
don's palace, for all perfons be only the half of the
of diftinction, and eviry breadth of an Orle ; it is
night concluded with a ball. bor'n Elowery and Counter-
Not long after this, three flowery,and veryoften double
Scotch champions challenged and fometimes treble ; fee
three Englifh to fight, which p. 119. Fig, 9.
*
-was performed in Smithfield* # # This term is a cor-
with the greateft folemnity, ruption of the French word
the Earl of Mar againft the TreJJe y i. e* a thing twifted^
Lord Nottingham ; Sir Wil- and may have been introduc-
liam Dorrel/y the King of ed into Heraldry to reprefent
Scotland's banner - bearer, the Silver and Gold laces
againft Sir Pierce Courtney with which cloaths are ufual-
!

the King of England's flan- ly adorned A. Nisbet fays,-


dard-bearer, Cockburne^ Efq; the double TreflTure was an-
againft Sir Nicholas Haiv- ciently given to none but
kir'h* Mar 4 and Cockburne. fuch as had matched with,
were unhorfed, but the two or were defcended from«i
;

ftandard-bearers were jfo well fome of the Daughters of


I

matched, that betwixt them the Royal Family,


it was a drawn battle.
U N V A
TricorpoR ated, a. of wavy, and applied to an
This is of a Bearing of Ordinary formed of a waved
faid
the bddies of thsee Lions line ; fee p. 30, Plate Yin
rampant, conjoined under Fig. 1.
one head gardant,in the Fefs- UNGULED,tf.Term which
point ; fee Plate xv. Fig. 1 8. and is faid
fignifles hoofed,
Trippant, or ") Term
of the horny fubftance on
Tripping, a. J ufed the feet of Unicorns and
io fignify the quick motion graminivorous Animals ; fee
of a Buck, Doe, Fawn, &c. Plate xvi. Fig. 10.
reprefented with one foot Unicorn, f. An imagi-
up, as if it were on a trot ; nary Animal; fee p. 193,
fee Plate xvi. Fig. 17. Example 13.
Trunked, a. This word Upright, a. Straight up
Isapplied to Trees, &c. that or perpendicularly ereft.
are couped or cut off fmooth.
Turbant, or 1 This V.
Turband, /. 1 word
ferves to fignify the cover TTAir, or j A kind
worn by the Turks on their * Vaire, / J of Fur,
heads but as to that which formerly ufed for lining the
;

the GrandSignior bears over garments of Great-men, and


his Arms,fee the defcription Knights of renown. It is
given of it p. 202. reprefented in engraving by
Turret, /. A
fmall the Figures of little Bells
Tower. reverfed, ranged in a line ^
Turreted, a. Having fee Plate ii. Fig. 15, and PL
Turrets on the top. iii. Fig. 7. Of this Fur is
Tusk, /. The long tooth fometimes formed a Crofs,
of an Elephant, or other a Bend, &c.
Animal ; fee PL xvi. Fig. 2. *** La Colombiere ob-
Tusked, a. This is faid ferves, that when Furriers
of an Animal whofe Tufks firft made this Lining, they
are of a different Tincture ufed fmall pieces, moft fre-
from his body; fee p. 153, quently of an Azure colour,
Example 2. which they fitted to white
Furs; and he infers from
U. that, that thofe who have
fettled the Rules of Heral-
T TNdy, a. This is ufed by dry decreed, in relation to
*^ feme blazoners inftea'd Fair that this Fur in its
§
natural
V E V o
natural Blazon (hould be reprefented in engraving hy
always Argent and Jxure ; diagonal lines drawn from
fo that if it be faid, fuch a the Dexter fide to the Si-
family bears Fair, it is fup- nifter , fee Plate ii. Fig. 5,
pofed to be Argent and yf- .... This colour may ferve
jz#r* ; but if there be any to denote Hope, Love, Joy^
other Tincture, the fame and Plenty, and according
muft be expreffed, faying, to ancient Heralds, if it is
fuch a family bears Fairy Or conjoined with
and Gules j or other wife. Or ~\ /-Pleafure.
Vairy, a. This is faid Arg. J Safety.
of a Field or Bearing charged Gul.Xjg ^Freedom.
with Fairs of a different Azu.j — xGladnefs,
Tincture from the proper } -
Pur. \s ^Change.
fee Plate x. Fig. 20. Sab. vGaiety.
Vambraced, a. Term Viscount, /. This was
ufed to fignify three Arms anciently a name of office
habited in Armour ; fee PI. under an Earl, who being
xvl. Fig. io. oftentimes required at the
Venus, f.
The name
of Court, was his Deputy to
one of the Planets, ufed for look after the affairs of the
the colour Vert, by fuch county ; but in Henry the
Heralds as think fit to blazon VPs time, it became a de-
thus the Arms of Sovereigns gree of Honour. Vif- A
and Princes, inftead of Me- count is created by Patent,
• tals and Colours fee p. 19, as an Earl is ; his Title is
;

and 21. . . This colour Right Honourable ; his Man-


.

was doubtlefs appropriated tle is two Doublings and a


to her, on account of the half, of plain Fur$ and his
Fable of her coming out of Coronet has only a row of
the Sea. Pearls clofe to the "circle ;
Verdoy, f. Word ap- fee Plate xx. Fig. 13.
propriated toBordures charg- Voided, a. This term is
ed with eight Leaves, Flow- applied to an Ordinary fo
ers, Fruits, and other Ve- evacuated, as that nothing
getables ; fee p. 38, Ex- but the edge of it remains to
ample 12, and Plate iii. Fig. {hew its form ; fee Plate vii.
12. Fig. 8.
Vert, a. Term derived Voiders, f.
The name
from the French word verd of a Figure confidered by
or verie y i. e. green. It is Guillim as an Ordinary, it
is
W A W H
is much like the Flafques 5
of a Cock whofe
Wattles or
fee p. 120. Fig. ii. Gills of aare different
Volant, a. The French Tincture, but ydiowpped is
word for flying ; it is u fed in better.

the foregoing Treat ife to Wavy, or 1 This Is

denote the Pofition of three Waved, of ar£ J faid


Bees, reprefented in Plate Ordinary formed of lines
xvii. Fig. 14. bent or crooked, after the
Vorant, a. This term manner of Waves rolling ;
fignifies/wallowing up, and fee p. 30, and Plate xii. F'g*
is ufed in Blazonry to ex- 14. This attribute may %- —
prefs the action of any Ani- nify, that the fir ft Bearer got
mal, Fifh, Bird, or Reptile, his Arms for fervice done at
devouring or fwallowing up fea.
another creature ; fee p. 170. White, a. The ufe of
Vulned, a. Word that this word in Heraldry is to
fignifies wounded^ in which fignify a plain Fur, the word
fenfe it is ufed in blazoning Argent being never ufed but
the Arms depicted in Fig. 4. to exprefs that Tincture y
Plate xvii, fee p. 25.
Winged, a. Is faid of
W. flying Creatures in de-
fcribing the Colour their
XITTAlled, a. This term wings are of ; fee p. 1949
* * is made ufe of in the Example 17 and 18,
foregoing Treatife, in bla- Wreath, / The leaft
zoning a Coat-of-arms, in- of the Ornaments, fet over
ferted as a fingular cafe , fee the Helmet ; it is a fort of
p. 63, Example 20. roll made by the intexture
Water-Budget, / or convolution of two dif-
This is a bearing very fel- ferent colours, and on which
dom to be met with in fo- Crefts are frequently placed ;
reign Arms, though frequent fee p. 215, and Plate xxL
and very ancient in Englim Fig. 6.
armory ; it reprefents a lea- Wreathy, tf.This word
thern bucket or budget an- is ufed to denote a Charge
ciently ufed by foldiers to confifting of two different
fetch water to the camp. Tinctures, united by con-
Wattled, a. Word tortion ; fee Plate viii. and
fometimes ufed in fpeaking Fig. 2.

F I N I S.
DIRECTIONS to the BINDER
Plate Page Plate Page
I 14. XIII. 134.
II. 20. XIV 138.
III. 35- XV. j 45*

IV. 45- XVI. 153.


V. 53- XVII. 163.
VI. 59- XVIII. 174.
V3I. 64. XIX. 188.
VIII. 73- XX. 201.
IX. 84. XXL 210.
X. 96. XXII. 228.
XI. IO4, XXIII. 231.
XII. I24. XXIV. 240.

*#* The Binder is defired to beat the Book


before he places any of the Plates therein*
BOOKS published by the fame

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-

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