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Dar es Salaam institute of Technology (DIT)

ET 7308

Introduction to Communication System

Ally, J


Course Outline
„ Principle of Communication System, Types of signal
characteristics and reason for modulation

„ Analogue Modulation

„ Angle Modulation

„ Digital Coding

„ Digital Modulation

„ Errors

Digital Coding

Pulse Modulation

Analog Pulse Modulation Digital Pulse Modulation

Pulse Amplitude (PAM) Pulse Code (PCM)

Pulse Width (PWM) Delta (DM)

Pulse Position (PPM)

Pulse Code Modulation (PCM):

Is the one a message signal is represented by a sequence
of coded pulses, which is accomplished by representing the
signal in discrete form in both time and amplitude.

Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)
* Analog signal is converted into digital signal by using a digital
* Analog to digital converter employs two techniques:
1. Sampling: The process of generating pulses of zero width
and of amplitude equal to the instantaneous amplitude of the
analog signal. The no. of pulses per second is called
“sampling rate”.
2. Quantization: The process of dividing the maximum value
of the analog signal into a fixed no. of levels in order to
convert the PAM into a Binary Code.
The levels obtained are called “quanization levels”.

* A digital signal is described by its ‘bit rate’ whereas analog

signal is described by its ‘frequency range’.

* Bit rate = sampling rate x no. of bits / sample

Explanation of PCM
„ Pulse Code Modulation is the one of the basic form of digital pulse
„ The basic operations performed in the transmitter of a PCM system
are sampling, quantizing, and encoding
„ The low-pass filter prior to sampling is included to prevent aliasing of
the message signal.
„ The quantizing and encoding operations are usually performed in
the same circuit, which is called an analog-to-digital converter.
„ The basic operations in the receiver are regeneration of impaired
signals, decoding, and reconstruction of the train of quantized
„ Regeneration also occurs at intermediate points along the
transmission path as necessary.
„ When time-division multiplexing is used, it becomes necessary to
synchronize the receiver to the transmitter for the overall system to
operate satisfactorily.

Components of PCM Encoder

„ Analog signal is sampled every TS secs.
„ Ts is referred to as the sampling interval.
„ fs = 1/Ts is called the sampling rate or sampling
„ There are 3 sampling methods:
‰ Ideal - an impulse at each sampling instant
‰ Natural - a pulse of short width with varying amplitude
‰ Flattop - sample and hold, like natural but with single
amplitude value
„ The process is referred to as pulse amplitude
modulation PAM and the outcome is a signal with
analog (non integer) values

Three different sampling methods for PCM

Nyquist sampling rate for low-pass and
bandpass signals
„ According to the Nyquist theorem, the sampling rate must be at
least 2 times the highest frequency contained in the signal.

Example 1
A complex low-pass signal has a bandwidth of 200 kHz.
What is the minimum sampling rate for this signal?

The bandwidth of a low-pass signal is between 0 and f,
where f is the maximum frequency in the signal. Therefore,
we can sample this signal at 2 times the highest frequency
(200 kHz). The sampling rate is therefore 400,000 samples
per second.

V Sampling,
l Quantization
t and Coding
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L 6 110 B
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s 1 001 s
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DIT Time
Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) Example
‰ The signal is assumed to be band-limited with bandwidth B
‰ The PAM samples are taken at a rate of 2B, or once every Ts=1/(2B)
‰ Each PAM sample
is quantized into
one of 16 levels
‰ Each sample is
then represented
by 4 bits.
‰ 8 bits→256 level
→better quality
‰ 4000Hz voice→

DIT 5/21
Bit rate and bandwidth requirements of
„ The bit rate of a PCM signal can be calculated form the
number of bits per sample x the sampling rate
Bit rate = nb x fs

„ The bandwidth required to transmit this signal depends on

the type of line encoding used. Refer to previous section for
discussion and formulas.

„ A digitized signal will always need more bandwidth than the

original analog signal. Price we pay for robustness and other
features of digital transmission.

Example 2
We want to digitize the human voice. What is the bit rate,
assuming 8 bits per sample?

The human voice normally contains frequencies from 0 to
4000 Hz. So the sampling rate and bit rate are calculated
as follows:

PCM Decoder
„ To recover an analog signal from a
digitized signal we follow the following
‰ We use a hold circuit that holds the amplitude
value of a pulse till the next pulse arrives.
‰ We pass this signal through a low pass filter
with a cutoff frequency that is equal to the
highest frequency in the pre-sampled signal.
„ The higher the value of L, the less
distorted a signal is recovered.

Components of a PCM decoder

Important advantages of PCM
„ Robustness to channel noise and interference.
„ Efficient regeneration of the coded signal along the
transmission path.
„ Efficient exchange of increased channel bandwidth for
improved signal-to-noise ratio, obeying an exponential
„ A uniform format for the transmission of different kinds of
baseband signals, hence their integration with other
forms of digital data in a common network.
„ Comparative ease with which message sources may be
dropped or reinserted in a time-division multiplex system.
„ Secure communication through the use of special
modulation schemes or encryption

Limitations and modifications of PCM
„ PCM advantages, however, are attained at the cost of
increased system complexity and increased channel
„ Although the use of PCM involves many complex
operations, today they can all be implemented in a cost-
effective fashion using commercially available and/or
custom-made very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) chips.
„ The requisite device technology for the implementation
of a PCM system is already in place. So improvements
in VLSI technology, we are likely to see an ever-
expanding use of PCM for the digital transmission of
analog signals.
„ If, however, the simplicity of implementation is a
necessary requirement, then may use Delta Modulation
(DM) as an alternative to pulse-code modulation.

Delta Modulation (DM)
In DM, an incoming message signal is oversampled to purposely increase
the correlation between adjacent samples of the signal.
‰ An analog input is approximated by a staircase function that moves up
or down by one quantization level (δ) at each sampling interval (Ts).
‰ A 1 is generated if the staircase function is to go up during the next
interval; a 0 is generated otherwise.
‰ The staircase function tracks the original waveforms

Delta Modulation Operation
‰ For transmission:
¾ the analog input is compared to the most recent value of
the approximating staircase function.
¾ If the value of the analog input exceeds that of the
function, a 1 is generated; otherwise, a 0 is generated.
¾ Thus, the staircase is always changed in the direction of
the input signal.

‰ For reception:
¾ The output of the DM process is therefore a binary
sequence that can be used at the receiver to reconstruct
the staircase

Delta modulation and demodulation components

Delta PCM (DPCM)
„ Instead of using one bit to indicate positive and
negative differences, we can use more bits ->
quantization of the difference.

„ Each bit code is used to represent the value of the


„ The more bits the more levels -> the higher the
Digital Encoding
„ In a digital communication system, the first step is to convert the
information into a bit stream of ones and zeros. Then the bit stream
has to be represented as an electrical signal.
„ The electrical signal representation has to be chosen carefully for
the following reasons:
™ The electrical representation decides the bandwidth requirement.
™ The electrical representation helps in clocking— the beginning and
ending of each bit.
™ Error detection can be built into the signal representation.
™ Noise immunity can be increased by a good electrical representation.
™ The complexity of the decoder can be decreased.

„ The encoding scheme should be chosen keeping in view the

bandwidth requirement, clocking, error detection capability, noise
immunity, and complexity of the decoder.

Categories of Encoding Schemes
Encoding schemes can be divided into the following categories:

™ Unipolar nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) encoding

In the unipolar encoding scheme, only one voltage level is used. Binary 1 is
represented by positive voltage and binary 0 by an idle line. Because the signal will
have a DC component, this scheme cannot be used if the transmission medium is
radio. This encoding scheme does not work well in noisy conditions.

™ Polar nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) encoding

In polar encoding, symbols 1 and 0 are represented by transmitting pulses of
amplitudes +A and -A, respectively. This line code is relatively easy to generate but its
disadvantage is that the power spectrum of the signal is large near zero frequency.

™ Bipolar return-to-zero (RZ) encoding

In bipolar encoding, three levels are used: a positive voltage, a negative voltage, and 0
voltage. This encoding scheme is also called alternate mark inversion (AMI) signaling.

™ Manchester Encoding
In Manchester encoding, 1 is represented by low-to-high voltage transition and 0 is
represented by high-to-low voltage transition. This scheme is useful for deriving the
clock, and errors can be detected. However, bandwidth requirement for this scheme is
higher as compared to other schemes.

Baseband Transmission


Merits of Digital Communication:
1. Digital signals are very easy to receive. The receiver has to just detect
whether the pulse is low or high.
2. AM FM signals become corrupted over much short distances as compared
to digital signals. In digital signals, the original signal can be reproduced
3. The signals lose power as they travel, which is called attenuation. When
AM and FM signals are amplified, the noise also get amplified. But the
digital signals can be cleaned up to restore the quality and amplified by
the regenerators.
4. The noise may change the shape of the pulses but not the pattern of the
5. AM and FM signals can be received by any one by suitable receiver. But
digital signals can be coded so that only the person, who is intended for,
can receive them.
6. AM and FM transmitters are ‘real time systems’. I.e. they can be received
only at the time of transmission. But digital signals can be stored at the
receiving end.
7. The digital signals can be stored, or used to produce a display on a
computer monitor or converted back into analog signal to drive a loud
speaker. END