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1.

DECISION

1. Term Decision
2. Definition Ajudgment reached after consideration.

2.1. Source Dictionary+


3. Example On 8 May 2007 the Chişinău Court of Appeal upheld the decision of 5 May
2007, essentially repeating the grounds given by the lower court without giving
any reasons for dismissing the arguments put forward by the applicant.
3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf
4. Origin From Middle French, from Latin decision, decisionis, from decido.
5. Synonym Conclusion, judgment, settlement, agreement, verdict, resolution, final result,
ruling.
6 Translation Decizie, hotarire, judecata, sentinta, concluzie.

2. APPLICATION

1. Term Application
2. Definition A formal, usually written request that is submitted to an authority, in our case
in front of the court.
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example The case originated in an application (no. 23755/07) against the Republic of
Moldova lodged with the Court under Article 34 of the Convention for the
Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (“the Convention”) by
a Moldovan national, Mr Petru Buzadji (“the applicant”), on 29 May 2007.
3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf
4. Origin Late Middle Ebglish applicacioun, from Old French aplicacion (French
application), from Latin applicationem, accusative singular of applicatio, from
applico.
5. Synonym Petition, postulation, request, claim, form, letter, demand, appeal.
6 Translation Cerere, petitie.

3. JUDGE
1. Term Judge
2. Definition A public official authorized to decide questions brought before a court of
justice.
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example Article 5 § 3 of the Convention. The Chamber was composed of Josep Casadevall,
President, Luis López Guerra, Ján Šikuta, Dragoljub Popović, Kristina Pardalos, Valeriu
Griţco and Iulia Antoanella Motoc, judges, and also Stephen Phillips, Section Registrar.
Four judges (Josep Casadevall, Luis López Guerra, Dragoljub Popović and
Iulia AntoanellaMotoc) expressed separate opinions. On 16 March 2015, under
Article 43 of the Convention, the Government requested the referral of the case to
the Grand Chamber. The panel of the Grand Chamber acceded to this request on 20
April 2015.

3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf


4. Origin From Middle English jugge, juge, juggen, jugen, from old French juge, juger,
ultimately from Latin indicenu, from index, from ins+dicus.
5. Synonym Jurist, justice,referee, court authority, peacemaker, the justice of the piece.
6 Translation Judecator.

4.REGISTER

1. Term Register
2. Definition A person employed to keep a record of court actions.

2.1. Source Dictionary+


3. Example Søren Prebensen, Deputy Grand Chamber Registrar,

3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf


4. Origin From ml.registrum, from ll.regesta, from Latin regerere, from re+gerere.
5. Synonym Court reporter.
6 Translation Grefier

5.APPLICANT

1. Term Applicant
2. Definition A person who request or seeks something such as assistance or employment or
admission.
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example The applicant was a minority shareholder in and the CEO of a liquefied gas supply
company from southern Moldova in which the State owned 82% of the shares.

3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf


4. Origin From Latin applicans, present participle of applicare.
5. Synonym Claimant, respondent.
6 Translation Reclamant, soliciitant,postulant.

6.LAWYER

1. Term Lawyer
2. Definition A professional person authorized to practice law, conducts lawsuits or gives
legal advice.
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example One of his lawyers asked the court to order a less severe measure such as, for
instance, house arrest, in place of the detention.
3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf
4. Origin Frpm Middle English lawyer,lawer, equivalent to law+yer.
5. Synonym Attorney, counselor, defender, jurist, jurisprudent, pleader, attorney-at-law,
legal adviser.
6 Translation Avocat, jurist, jurisconsult.

7.CASE

1. Term Case
2. Definition A comprehensive term for any proceedings in a court of law whereby an
individual seeks a legal remedy.

2.1. Source Dictionary+


3. Example The case originated in an application (no. 23755/07) against the Republic of Moldova
lodged with the Court under Article 34 of the Convention for the Protection of Human
Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (“the Convention”) by a Moldovan national, Mr
Petru Buzadji (“the applicant”), on 29 May 2007.

3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf


4. Origin Capitalization by Noam Chomsky.
5. Synonym Lawsuit, folder, chamber, suitcase, litigation, claim, trial, petition, proceedings.
6 Translation Cauza, proces.

8.PECUNIARY

1. Term Pecuniary
2. Definition Material harm that is relating to money.

2.1. Source Dictionary+


3. Example The Government did not submit any comment regarding the non-pecuniary damage
claimed by the applicant.

3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf


4. Origin From Latin pecuniarius, from pecunia.
5. Synonym Monetary
6 Translation Daune materiale

9.ENFORCEMENT

1. Term Enfoecement
2. Definition The act of enforcing, ensuring observance of or obedience to especiale before a
lawsuit.
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example
Article 176. Reasons for applying preventive measures

(1) Preventive measures may be applied by the prosecuting authority or by the


court only in those cases where there are sufficient reasonable grounds for
believing that an accused ... will abscond, obstruct the establishment of the
truth during the criminal proceedings or reoffend, or they can be applied by the
court in order to ensure the enforcement of a sentence.
3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf
4. Origin From Old French enforcement, see enforce+ment.
5. Synonym Application, prosecution, imposition, execution.
6 Translation Emitere, executare, sanctionare.

10.COMPENSATION

1. Term Compensation
2. Definition The act of compensanting given as payment or reparation for a service or
injury.
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example He had himself requested to be placed under house arrest, and the decision to
do so had constituted compensation for any possible violation of Article 5 § 3
which had taken place prior to the measure.
3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf
4. Origin From Old French compensacion, from Latin compensationem, accusative
singular of compensatio.
5. Synonym Reparation, settlement, restitution, reward.
6 Translation Despagubire, compensatie, recompensa.

11.APPEAL

1. Term Appeal
2. Definition A legal proceedings in which the appellant resorts to a higher court for the
purpose of obtaining a review of a lower court decision and a reversal of the
lower court’s judgment or the granting of a new trial.
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example It is essentially on the basis of the reasons given in these decisions and of the well-
documented facts stated by the applicant in his appeals that the Court is called upon
to decide whether or not there has been a violation of Article 5 § 3 (see, among other
authorities, Kudła, cited above, § 110, and Idalov, cited above, § 141).

3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf


4. Origin From Old French apeler, from Latin appello.
5. Synonym Legal proceedings, proceedings, lawsuit, retrial, fresh consideration, claim,
application, plea, petition, pray, plead.
6 Translation Recurs, apel, petitie.

12.JUDJMENT

1. Term Judgment
2. Definition The determination by a court of competent jurisdiction on matters submitted to
it.
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example Furthermore, it notes that the Court of Appeal failed to give an answer to this
objection raised by the applicant. There is no indication in the judgments that the
courts took into account such an important factor as the applicant’s behaviour,
between the beginning of the investigation in July 2006 and the moment when first
ordering his remand in custody.

3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf


4. Origin From Old French jugement, from ll.indicamentum.
5. Synonym Judicial decision, sentence, verdict, ruling, punishment.
6 Translation Hotarire judecatoreasca, judecata, sentinta.

13.COMPLAINT
1. Term Complaint
2. Definition (civil law) The first pleading of the plaintiff setting out the facts on which the
claim for relief is based. (criminal law) A pleading describing some wrong or
offense.
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example The Moldovan Government in their letter dated 16 June 2011 gave a detailed account
of the developments which had taken place after 29 June 2007. They also stated that
they would not address these developments “bearing in mind the applicant’s
complaints and the limits of the notification [given] by the Court”.

3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf


4. Origin From Middle English compleynte, from xno complaint, from compleindre.
5. Synonym Charge, pleading, accusation, plaint.
6 Translation Plingere, reclamatie.

14.CONVENTION
1. Term Convention
2. Definition An international agreement, the act of convening about something.
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example The case originated in an application (no. 23755/07) against the Republic of Moldova
lodged with the Court under Article 34 of the Convention for the Protection of Human
Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (“the Convention”) by a Moldovan national, Mr
Petru Buzadji (“the applicant”), on 29 May 2007.

3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf


4. Origin Recorded since c. 1440, a convention, from Latin convention, from convenio,
from con+venio.
5. Synonym Accord, treaty, protocol, rule, law, canon.
6 Translation Conventie, accord, contract, canon.

15.VIOLATION
1. Term Violation
2. Definition A crime less serious than a felony; an act that disregards an agreement or a
right, entry to another’s property without right or permission.
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example In a judgment delivered on 16 December 2014 a Chamber of that Section declared
the application admissible, and found by a majority that there had been a violation of
Article 5 § 3 of the Convention.

3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf


4. Origin -------------
5. Synonym Infraction, infringement, breach, misdemeanor, crime, criminal-offence, law-
breaking, offence, trespass, misbehaviour.
6 Translation Infractiune, incalcarea legii, atentat, crima.
16.REMEDY
1. Term Remedy
2. Definition A way of defence before a court.
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example The existence of the remedies in question must be sufficiently certain not only
in theory but in practice, failing which they will lack the requisite accessibility
and effectiveness (see Akdivar and Others, cited above, § 66; Vučković and
Others, cited above, § 71; and Gherghina, cited above, § 85). To be effective, a
remedy must be capable of directly redressing the impugned state of affairs and
must offer reasonable prospects of success (see Sejdovic v. Italy [GC], no.
56581/00, § 46, ECHR 2006-II, Vučković and Others, cited above, § 74 and
Gherghina, cited above, § 85).
3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf
4. Origin From Middle English remedie, from Old French *remedie, remede, from Latin
remedium, from re+mederi.
5. Synonym Aid
6 Translation Cale de atac, recurs.

17.ISSUE
1. Term Issue
2. Definition A phenomenon that follows and is caused by some previous phenomenon.
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example . However, the issue of non-exhaustion of domestic remedies was raised by the
Government for the first time in their written submissions before the Grand Chamber.

3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf


4. Origin From Middle English Issue.
5. Synonym Consequence, effect, result, question, matter, problem, concern.
6 Translation Litigiu, disputa, consecinta, problema.
18.PROCEEDINGS
1. Term Proceedings
2. Definition The institution of a sequence of steps by which legal judgments are invoked.
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example Consequently, the Government are estopped from raising their preliminary
objection of non-exhaustion of domestic remedies at this stage of the
proceedings, which objection must therefore be dismissed.
3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf
4. Origin --------------
5. Synonym Legal proceedings, appeal, hearing, judicial proceedings, lawsuit, legal action,
trial.
6 Translation Process, judecata.

19.AMENDMENT
1. Term Amendment
2. Definition The act of amending or correcting, a statement that is added to or revises or
improves a proposal or document (a bill or constitution etc.)
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example Moreover, Moldovan law was subjected to a thorough analysis when it
requested membership of the Council of Europe (see Opinion No. 188 (1995)
of the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly on the application by
Moldova for membership of the Council of Europe), with amendments
proposed to ensure compatibility with the Convention, which Moldova finally
ratified in 1997.
3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf
4. Origin From French amendement, from ll. Amendamentum.
5. Synonym Rectification, correction, remedy, reform, change, revision, improvement,
enhancement.
6 Translation Amendament, rectificare, imbunatatire, schimbare.

20.COURT
1. Term Court
2. Definition An assembly (including one or more judges) to conduct judicial business; a
room in which a lawsuit sits; a tribunal that is presided over by a magistrate or
by one or more judges who administer justice according to the laws.
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example In the event of the Court rejecting their above-mentioned objection of non-
exhaustion of domestic remedies, the Government argued by way of an alternative
submission that the applicant could not claim to be a “victim” in the sense of Article
34 of the Convention for the purposes of his complaint under Article 5 § 3 about his
house arrest.

3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf


4. Origin -------------------
5. Synonym Tribunal, courtroom, court of justice, court of law, lawcourt.
6 Translation Curte, tribunal, judecatorie.

21.ARTICLE
1. Term Article
2. Definition A separate section of a legal document (as a statute or contract or will).
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example The measure had been equivalent to granting him release from his initial detention.
That being so, it constituted a form of compensation for any possible breach of his
rights guaranteed by Article 5 § 3 of the Convention.

3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf


4. Origin From inhen, from Latin articulus.
5. Synonym Clause, section, part, unit.
6 Translation Articol, paragraph, clauza.

22.OFFENCE
1. Term Offence
2. Definition An act punishable by law; usually considered an evil act.
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example Since the applicant did not claim in the proceedings before the Court that there was
no reasonable suspicion that he had committed an offence, the Court does not
consider it necessary to examine this issue.
3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf
4. Origin From Old French offense, from Latin offense.
5. Synonym Criminal offence, crime, law-breaking.
6 Translation Delict, ofensa, crima, incalcare a legii.

23.CONVICTION
1. Term Conviction
2. Definition A final judgment of guilty in a criminal case and the punishment that is
imposed.
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example Until conviction, he or she must be presumed innocent, and the purpose of the
provision under consideration is essentially to require his or her provisional
release once his or her continuing detention ceases to be reasonable (see
McKay,cited above, § 41).
3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf
4. Origin -------------------
5. Synonym Condemnation, judgment of conviction, sentence.
6 Translation Condamnare.

24.UNLAWFUL
1. Term Unlawful
2. Definition Not conforming to legality, moral law, or social convention.
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example Accordingly, the applicant’s detention based on the orders of the “MRT courts”
was unlawful for the purposes of that provision.
3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf
4. Origin --------------
5. Synonym Improper, unconventional, illegitimate, unauthorized, illegal, lawless,
prohibited, wrongful, criminal.
6 Translation Ilegal, illicit, nelegiuit.
25.IMPRISONMENT
1. Term Imprisonment
2. Definition Putting someone in prison or in jail as lawful punishment.
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example
3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf
4. Origin From xno emprisonement, from old French emprisonnement.
5. Synonym Penality, punishment, jailing, incarceration.
6 Translation Detentiune, inchisoare, arrest, intemnitare.

26.CRIMINAL PROSECUTION
1. Term Criminal prosecution
2. Definition The institution and conduct of legal proceedings against a defendant for
criminal behaviour.
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example They also referred to the cases of Țopa v. Moldova ((dec.), no. 25451/08, 14
September 2010), Mătăsaru and Savițchi v. Moldova (no. 38281/08, §§ 60-76,
2 November 2010) and Bisir and Tulus v. Moldova (no. 42973/05, §§ 21 et
seq., 17 May 2011) in support of their assertion that compensation for wrongful
prosecution or conviction could be claimed under Law no. 1545.
3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf
4. Origin (Criminal) From Middle English, from xno criminal, from ll. Criminalis, from
Latin crimen. (Prosecution) From Middle French prosecution, from ll.
Prosecution, from Latin prosequor, from pro+sequor.
5. Synonym Prosecution.
6 Translation Urmarire penala.
27. CLAIM
1. Term Claim
2. Definition An assertion of a right, that something is true.
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example Since the applicant did not claim in the proceedings before the Court that there was
no reasonable suspicion that he had committed an offence, the Court does not
consider it necessary to examine this issue.

3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf


4. Origin From Middle English claimen, from old French claimer, clamer, from Latin
clamo, from ine+pro * kele-, which is imitative.
5. Synonym Demand, plea, suit, request, application, petition, reclamation.
6 Translation Cerere, revendicare, reclamatie, pretentie, cerinta.

28.JURISDICTION
1. Term Jurisdiction
2. Definition The right and power to interpret and apply the law.
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example The Court sees no need to examine whether the Government are estopped from
making the above objection since it finds in any event that it concerns a matter which
goes to the Court’s jurisdictionand which it is not prevented from examining of its
own motion (see, for instance, R.P. and Others v. the United Kingdom, no. 38245/08, §
47, 9 October 2012).

3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf


4. Origin ---------------------
5. Synonym Legal power.
6 Translation Jurisdictie, autoritate, competenta judiciara.

29. JUDICIAL DECISION


1. Term Judicial Decision
2. Definition The determination by a court of competent jurisdiction on matters submitted to
it.
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example Accordingly, it cannot automatically regard as unlawful, for the limited
purposes of the Convention, the decisions taken by the courts of an
unrecognised entity purely because of the latter’s unlawful nature and the fact
that it is not internationally recognised.
3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf
4. Origin (Jurisdiction) From Latin indicialis. (Decision) From Middle French, from
Latin decision, decisionis, from decido.
5. Synonym Judgment, Final decision, final judgment.
6 Translation Hotarire judecatoreasca.

30. PROVISION
1. Term Provision
2. Definition A stipulated condition.
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example Three strands of reasoning in particular may be identified as running through
the Court’s case-law: the exhaustive nature of the exceptions, which must be
interpreted strictly (see Ciulla v. Italy, 22 February 1989, § 41, Series A no.
148) and which do not allow for the broad range of justifications under other
provisions (Articles 8 to 11 of the Convention in particular); the repeated
emphasis on the lawfulness of the detention, both procedural and substantive,
requiring scrupulous adherence to the rule of law (see Winterwerp v. the
Netherlands, 24 October 1979, § 39, Series A no. 33); and the importance of
the promptness or speediness of the requisite judicial controls (under Article 5
§§ 3 and 4) (see McKay v. the United Kingdom [GC], no. 543/03, § 34, ECHR
2006-X).

3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf


4. Origin From Old French provision, from Latin provisio, from providere.
5. Synonym Proviso, arrangement.
6 Translation Prevedere, dispozitie.

31.TESTIMONY
1. Term Testimony
2. Definition A solemn statement made under oath.
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example In practice witnesses testifying in court are very often asked simply whether
they confirm the testimony they gave to the investigating judge.
3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf
4. Origin From Latin testimonium, from testis.
5. Synonym Evidence, declaration, statement.
6 Translation Marturie, declaratie.

32.DEFENCE
1. Term Defence
2. Definition A defendant’s answer or plea denying the truth of the charges against him.
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example In his defence the applicant argued that his company could not purchase gas directly
from the producers, because the minimum quantity which the producers agreed to
sell exceeded his company’s needs for a period of five years.

3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf


4. Origin From French defense, from Latin defensa.
5. Synonym Denial, demurrer, statement.
6 Translation Pledoarie, aparare.

33.WITNESS
1. Term Witness
2. Definition (law) A person who testifies under oath in a court of law.
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example In any event, the grounds relied upon by the prosecutor were stereotyped and the
prosecutor had failed to explain the reasons for his belief that the applicant would
attempt to influence witnesses and reoffend.

3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf


4. Origin From Middle English witnesse, from Old English witness, equivalent to
wit+ness.
5. Synonym Eyewitness, testimony, testifier,
6 Translation Martor.

34.ALLEGE
1. Term Allege

2. Definition Claim or assert that someone has done something illegal or wrong, typically
without proof.
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example The applicant alleged, in particular, that his detention pending trial had not
been based on relevant and sufficient reasons as required by Article 5 § 3 of the
Convention.
3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf
4. Origin c. 1300, The form is Anglo-French aleger, Old French eslegier "to clear at law" (from a
compound of Latin ex "out of;" see ex- + litigare "bring suit"

5. Synonym Claim, declare, state.

6 Translation A pretinde, declara.

35.RESPONDENT
1. Term Respondent
2. Definition A party against whom a petition is filed, especially one in an appeal or a
divorce case.
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example The Court reiterates that, according to Rule 55 of the Rules of Court, any plea
of inadmissibility must, in so far as its character and the circumstances permit,
be raised by the respondent Contracting Party in its written or oral observations
on the admissibility of the application (see Svinarenko and Slyadnevv. Russia
[GC], nos. 32541/08 and 43441/08, § 79, ECHR 2014 (extracts)).
3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf
4. Origin 1520s, "one who answers," from Latin respondentem (nominative respondens),
present participle of respondere

5. Synonym Litigator

6 Translation Acuzator
36.DEFENDANT
1. Term Defendant
2. Definition An individual, company, or institution sued or accused in a court of law.
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example Some were under investigation before trial. Others had been charged and were
defendants at court proceedings.
3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf
4. Origin c. 1400, in the legal sense, from French défendant, present participle of défendre (see
defend). Earliest use in English was as a present participle adjective meaning
"defending" (c. 1300).

5. Synonym Accused

6 Translation Acuzat

37.BRIEF
1. Term Brief
2. Definition A written statement submitted in a trial or appellate proceeding that explains
one side's legal and factual arguments.
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example I don't know whether there has been an order for briefs to be filed.

3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf


4. Origin from Latin breve (genitive brevis), noun derivative of adjective brevis (see brief (adj.))
which came to mean "letter, summary," specifically a letter of the pope (less ample
and solemn than a bull), and thus came to mean "letter of authority," which yielded
the modern, legal sense of "summary of the facts of a case" (1630s).

5. Synonym Argument
6 Translation Argument

38.CHAMBERS
1. Term Chambers
2. Definition The offices of a judge and his or her staff.
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example However, the issue of non-exhaustion of domestic remedies was raised by the
Government for the first time in their written submissions before the Grand Chamber.

3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf


4. Origin c. 1200, "room," usually a private one, from Old French chambre "room, chamber,
apartment," also used in combinations to form words for "latrine, privy" (11c.), from
Late Latin camera "a chamber, room" (see camera). In anatomy from late 14c.; of
machinery from 1769. Gunnery sense is from 1620s. Meaning "legislative body" is
from c. 1400. Chamber music (1789) was that meant to be performed in private
rooms instead of public halls.

5. Synonym Legislature

6 Translation Legislatura

39.FELONY
1. Term Felony
2. Definition A crime regarded in the US and many other judicial systems as more serious
than a misdemeanour.
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example If convicted on the felony charge, he could lose his right to work in the United States.

3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf


4. Origin c. 1300, "treachery, betrayal; deceit; villainy, wickedness, sin, crime; violent temper,
wrath; ruthlessness; evil intention," from Old French felonie (12c.) "wickedness, evil,
treachery, perfidy, crime, cruelty, sin," from Gallo-Roman *fellonia, from fellonem
"evil-doer" (see felon).

5. Synonym Crime

6 Translation Crima

40.JURY
1. Term Jury
2. Definition A body of people (typically twelve in number) sworn to give a verdict in a
legal case on the basis of evidence submitted to them in court.
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example The jury returned unanimous guilty verdicts.

3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf


4. Origin "set number of persons, selected according to law and sworn to determine the
facts and truth of a case or charge submitted to them and render a verdict,"
early 14c. (late 12c. in Anglo-Latin), from Anglo-French and Old French juree
(13c.), from Medieval Latin iurata "an oath, a judicial inquest, sworn body of
men," noun use of fem. past participle of Latin iurare "to swear," from ius
(genitive iuris) "law, an oath" (see jurist).
5. Synonym Board

6 Translation Consiliu

41.PETITION
1. Term Petition
2. Definition An application to a court for a writ, judicial action in a suit, etc.
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example The procedure is that of epistolary jurisdiction, where letters written by
ordinary citizens to courts get converted into writ petitions.
3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf
4. Origin early 14c., "a supplication or prayer, especially to a deity," from Old French
peticion "request, petition" (12c., Modern French pétition) and directly from
Latin petitionem (nominative petitio) "a blow, thrust, attack, aim; a seeking,
searching," in law "a claim, suit," noun of action from past participle stem of
petere "to make for, go to; attack, assail; seek, strive after; ask for, beg,
beseech, request; fetch; derive; demand, require," from PIE root *pet-, also
*pete- "to rush; to fly" (source also of Sanskrit pattram "wing, feather, leaf,"
patara- "flying, fleeting;" Hittite pittar "wing;" Greek piptein "to fall," potamos
"rushing water," pteryx "wing;" Old English feðer "feather;" Latin penna
"feather, wing;" Old Church Slavonic pero "feather;" Old Welsh eterin "bird").
5. Synonym Request

6 Translation Cerere

42.PLAINTIFF
1. Term Plaintiff
2. Definition A person who brings a case against another in a court of law.
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example The plaintiffs sued the defendant alleging that he had been negligent in a
number of ways.
3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf
4. Origin c. 1400, from Anglo-French pleintif (late 13c.), noun use of Old French plaintif
"complaining; wretched, miserable," from plainte (see plaint). Identical with plaintive
at first; the form that receded into legal usage retained the older -iff spelling.

5. Synonym Litigator

6 Translation Acuzator

43.PLEA
1. Term Plea
2. Definition A formal statement by or on behalf of a defendant or prisoner, stating guilt or
innocence in response to a charge, offering an allegation of fact, or claiming
that a point of law should apply.
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example The Court reiterates that, according to Rule 55 of the Rules of Court, any plea
of inadmissibility must, in so far as its character and the circumstances permit,
be raised by the respondent Contracting Party in its written or oral observations
on the admissibility of the application (see Svinarenko and Slyadnevv. Russia
[GC], nos. 32541/08 and 43441/08, § 79, ECHR 2014 (extracts)).
3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf
4. Origin early 13c., "lawsuit," from Anglo-French plai (late 12c.), Old French plait
"lawsuit, decision, decree" (9c.), from Medieval Latin placitum "lawsuit," in
classical Latin, "opinion, decree," literally "that which pleases, thing which is
agreed upon," properly neuter past participle of placere (see please). Sense
development seems to be from "something pleasant," to "something that
pleases both sides," to "something that has been decided." Meaning "a
pleading, an agreement in a suit" is attested from late 14c. Plea-bargaining is
first attested 1963. Common pleas (early 13c.) originally were legal
proceedings over which the Crown did not claim exclusive jurisdiction (as
distinct from pleas of the Crown); later "actions brought by one subject against
another."
5. Synonym Claim
6 Translation Cerere

44.SANCTION
1. Term Sanction
2. Definition A threatened penalty for disobeying a law or rule.
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example On 24 September 2008 the justice of the peace of Verkhovskiy District, Orel
Region, found the applicant guilty of infliction of bodily harm through
negligence, did not impose any sanction due to the expiry of the time-limit for
criminal prosecution and partly granted a civil suit against him.
3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf
4. Origin c. 1400, from Anglo-French pleintif (late 13c.), noun use of Old French plaintif
"complaining; wretched, miserable," from plainte (see plaint). Identical with
plaintive at first; the form that receded into legal usage retained the older -iff
spelling.
5. Synonym Penality
6 Translation Pedeapsa, sanctiune

45.DEMURRER
1. Term Demurrer
2. Definition An objection granting the factual basis of an opponent's point but dismissing it
as irrelevant or invalid.
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example The plaintiff issued a special demurrer to that plea, alleging it furnished no
legal justification or excuse for the defendant's action.
3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf
4. Origin legal pleading, 1530s, from Anglo-French demurrer, Old French demorer "to delay,
retard"

5. Synonym Objection

6 Translation Disident

46.IN FINE
1. Term In fine
2. Definition
Finally; in short; to sum up.
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example
Article 37 § 1 in fine includes the proviso that:
3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf
4. Origin Latin

5. Synonym Finally

6 Translation In concluzie
47.PROVISO
1. Term Proviso
2. Definition A condition or qualification attached to an agreement or statement.
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example
Article 37 § 1 in fine includes the proviso that:
3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf
4. Origin mid-15c., from Medieval Latin proviso (quod) "provided (that)," phrase at the
beginning of clauses in legal documents (mid-14c.), from Latin proviso "it
being provided," ablative neuter of provisus, past participle of providere (see
provide). Related: Provisory.
5. Synonym Stipulation

6 Translation Prevedere, condiție

48.ARSON
1. Term Arson
2. Definition The criminal act of deliberately setting fire to property.
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example No injuries were reported in the fire, which police say could have been caused
by arson.
3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf
4. Origin malicious burning of property," 1670s, from Anglo-French arsoun (late 13c.),
Old French arsion, from Late Latin arsionem (nominative arsio) "a burning,"
noun of action from past participle stem of Latin ardere "to burn," from PIE
root *as- "to burn, glow" (see ash (n.1)). The Old English term was bærnet,
literally "burning;" and Coke has indictment of burning (1640).
5. Synonym Incendiarism

6 Translation Incendiere

49.FILE
1. Term File
2. Definition Submit (a legal document, application, or charge) to be placed on record by the
appropriate authority.

2.1. Source Dictionary+


3. Example Moreover, while examining essentially the same case file, they had reached
opposite conclusions on various occasions (§§ 35-38 of the Chamber
judgment).
3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf
4. Origin 1520s, "string or wire on which documents are strung," from French file "a
row" (15c.), noun derived from Middle French filer "string documents; spin
thread" (see file (v.1)). The literal sense explains why from the beginning until
recently things were generally on file (or upon file). The meaning "collection
of papers systematically arranged for ready reference" is from 1620s; computer
sense is from 1954. The sense "row of persons or things one behind another"
(1590s) is originally military, from the French verb in the sense of "march in
file." Meaning "line of squares on a chessboard running directly from player to
player" is from 1610s.
5. Synonym Apply

6 Translation A solicita

50.INJUNCTION
1. Term Injunction
2. Definition A judicial order restraining a person from beginning or continuing an action
threatening or invading the legal right of another, or compelling a person to
carry out a certain act, e.g. to make restitution to an injured party.
2.1. Source Dictionary+
3. Example He said he was hopeful that the courts would grant injunctions ordering the
travellers off the land, but this could not be guaranteed.
3.1. Source http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Cases_list_2016_ENG.pdf
4. Origin early 15c., from Late Latin iniunctionem (nominative iniunctio) "a command,"
noun of action from past participle stem of Latin iniungere "impose, inflict,
bring upon," literally "attach to," from in- "on" (from PIE root *en "in") +
iungere "to join together," from nasalized form of PIE root *yeug- "to join."
5. Synonym Order

6 Translation Interdicție