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Introduction On Curriculum Planning

Education prepares students for the real problems. Curriculum is the design
that allows us to plan academic activities. It is also the way to improve our
teaching, of course always in benefit of the students. Curriculum design
refers to the way in which we arrange the curriculum components.
Regardless of the underpinning curriculum model, all curriculum designs
endeavor to address four curriculum components: Why do we initiate
instruction or aims? How can we communicate target learning experiences
(pedagogy, instruction)? What have we realized and what actions should
we take accordingly in relation to the instructional program, learners, and
teachers (evaluation)? Although most, if not all, curriculum designs include
these four components, they significantly differ in how they address these
elements, because of the curriculum philosophy and model on which a
design is based. For example, subject-matter-based designs, which
overemphasize the logical organization of content, and the learner-centered
ones, which focus on the learners and their needs, entail different
treatments of the four curriculum components. This will involve general
overviews of major related sources, curriculum conceptualization and
curriculum design stages, in addition to recent issues of classroom-level
teacher curriculum design and classroom-level teacher professional
I. Introduction On Curriculum Implementation
Throughout the history of schooling, the national curriculum has been
revised at fairly regular intervals. Consequently, schools are periodically
faced with having to accommodate to new curriculum. In between major
changes other specifically-focused changes may arise; for example, the
increased recent emphasis upon numeracy and literacy. Curriculum
implementation entails putting into practice the officially prescribed courses
of study, syllabuses and subjects. The process involves helping the learner
acquire knowledge or experience. Curriculum implementation cannot take
place without the learner. The learner is therefore the central figure in the
curriculum implementation process. Implementation takes place as the
learner acquires the planned or intended experiences, knowledge, skills,
ideas and attitudes that are aimed at enabling the same learner to function
effectively in a society. It focuses on how the planned or officially designed
course of study is translated by the teacher into syllabuses, schemes of
work and lessons to be delivered to the students.
Putting the curriculum into operation requires an implementing
agent. Teachers must be involved in curriculum planning and
developments so that they can implement and modify the curriculum
for the benefit of their learners.
I. Introduction On Curriculum/Program Evaluation
Why do we need curriculum/program evaluation? Curriculum evaluation
identifies the strengths and weaknesses of an existing curriculum that will
be the basis of the intended plan, design or implementation. Evaluation is
a key element in any endeavor especially within the curriculum development
(Worthen et al. 2003). This is for the improvement of student learning. To
develop a new curriculum. To review a curriculum under implementation.
To remove “dead wood” and update an existing curriculum. And to find out
the effectiveness of a curriculum. Curriculum evaluation can help teachers
and decision-makers take objective decisions on curriculum, and its
development and implementation. This indeed is the major purpose of any
curriculum evaluation exercise. The result of evaluation can be used to
improve future educational effort, otherwise there is little sense in carrying
out any curriculum evaluation activity.
It can be argued that program evaluation consisted of and was equal to
investigating the efficiency and working of language teaching methods and
materials. An educational curriculum should continually develop in response
to the needs of the students, staff, institution and society. Evaluation can
monitor the curriculum and should be viewed as a positive process that
enables the strategic develop, implementation and maintenance of a quality
academic course or program.

Education in an open society has the charge of promoting personal

transformations as one of its major aims. In specific terms, education must
adopt the end-in-view of helping individuals work towards acknowledging
and understanding the dynamics between their inner and outer worlds. For
the learner this means the expansion of consciousness and the working
toward a meaningful integrated life as evidenced in authentic relationships
with self and others. This view of education we have called transformative
education.The need to discuss the nature of transformative education in
both theory and practice is clearly recognized.

Robert D. Boyd and J. Gordon Myers
(2006) Transformative education,
International Journal of Lifelong
Education, 7:4, 261-284, DOI:
International Journal LifeLong Education. Vol. 7 No. 4(Oct-Dec 1988, 261-