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OPERATION

AND
MAINTENANCE MANUAL

FOR

WATER TREATMENT PLANT

CLIENT
M/s. MAADURGA THERMAL POWER COMPANY LIMITED
2 x 30 MW INDEPENDENT POWER PLANT

EPC CONTRACTOR
M/s. CETHAR LIMITED

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INDEX

S. NO DESCRIPTION PAGE NO.

1 INTRODUCTION 3

2 DESIGNED RAW WATER PARAMETERS 5

3 SYSTEM CAPACITY 6

4 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION – BOILER MAKEUP 7

5 SYSTEM OPERATION – BOILER MAKEUP 22

6 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION – COOLING TOWER MAKEUP 42

7 SYSTEM OPERATION – COOLING TOWER MAKEUP 44

8 PERFORMANCE GUARANTEED WATER PARAMETERS 50

9 TOPUP RESIN REQUIREMENT FOR SAC, SBA & MDB 50

10 CHEMICAL ANALYSIS PROCEDURE 51

11 P&ID DIAGRAM FOR WATER TREATMENT PLANT 60

12 POWER CONSUMPTION DETAILS 60

13 TENTATIVE CHEMICAL REQUIREMENTS 60

14 VENDOR'S MANUALS 60

15 TECHNICAL SUPPORT 61

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1) INTRODUCTION
This document delineates the Operation & Maintenance of the Water Treatment Plant for M/s. Maa
durga Thermal Power Company Limited – 2 x 30 MW Independent power plant located at Bainchua, Tangi,
cuttack, in the state of Orissa.

Water treatment, today has become a very integral part of almost every industry. Treatment of
water is required for various purposes, right from potable use to industrial applications such as for food &
beverages, leather, textile, heavy chemicals, power plants & for hotel industries. Also treatment of
wastewater especially effluents from toxic disposals attracts attention due to increased global awareness
of ecological & environmental protection.

Treatment of water implicitly means changing its physical & mainly, its chemical properties by
removing undesirable suspended & dissolved impurities of organic & inorganic as well as biological
impurities. The level of chemical dosing involved & methods adopted for treatment are according to the
end consumers requirements as well as the nature of composition of raw water sources; which are mainly
from surface wells, lakes, rivers, or from underground sources such as deep wells & in some cases from
sea.

The specific method adopted for conventional treatment such as flocculation/coagulation, filtration
and disinfect ion, lime soda softening process, electro dialysis, demineralization, reverse osmosis and
others are depends upon the product quality requirements.

Stages of Treatment :
In general water treatment practice three steps are involved for purification of water.

a) Pretreatments:
This treatment is involved to remove the presence of the impurities of Suspended and colloidal
matters, BOD, COD, oil grease any heavy metals.

Equipments Involved in Pretreatments:


In pretreatment the following equipments are used depending upon the requirement of treatment
method based on the impurities presence in the raw water.
a) Aeration system
b) Solid Contact Reactive clarifier
c) Various types of filters
d) Ultra filtration
e) Micro filtration
f) Membrane Bio Reactor
g) Micron cartridge filter

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b) Desalination (or) Demineralization:
This method is employed to remove the total dissolved salts present in the raw water. Almost more
than 95% dissolved minerals will be removed from this method.

Equipments / Process involved in Desalination


a) Nano Filtration
b) Reverse osmosis system
c) Ion Exchange Process
d) Electro De ionization

c) Post Treatment:
This treatment is involved to add or remove some minerals from the desalinated water to meet the
end quality requirement.

Equipments/Process involved in Post Treatment:


a) pH doing system
b) Ultra filtration System
c) De mineralization Process
d) Ozonator
e) Ultraviolet Rays

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2. DESIGNED RAW WATER PARAMETERS
The raw water analysis considered for the Water treatment plant system design is as follows:-

S. No DESCRIPTION UNIT DESIGN VALUE

1 Source - Bore well

2 pH @ 25 Deg. C - 7.1

3 Turbidity NTU 0.8

4 Total Dissolved Solids ppm 535.5

5 Suspended Solids ppm 26.6

6 M – Alkalinity as CaCo3 ppm 240

7 Total Silica ppm 5.5

8 Sulphate ppm 11.3

9 Calcium Hardness as CaCo3 ppm 242.2

10 Chloride as Cl- ppm 140.5

11 Fluoride as Fl- ppm BDL

12 Total Hardness as CaCo3 ppm 304

13 Nitrate ppm 1

14 Sodium as Na+ ppm 8.4

15 Potassium as K+ ppm 2

16 Magnesium Hardness as CaCo3 ppm 61.8

Note :
All other parameters not mentioned above should be “Nil” to achieve the designed outlet quality.

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3. SYSTEM CAPACITY
Boiler Make-Up Water Stream :

Total Boiler capacity 2 x 135 TPH

Actual Conditions Design conditions

Boiler Losses (Blow down, Vent etc.) 3.00% 5.00%

Boiler Losses Water Quantity 8.1m3/Hr 13.5 m3/Hr

Operating Hours of Boiler Make-up Stream 20 Hrs / day

13.5 x 24 / 20 = 16.2 m3/hr

Designed Boiler make-up Capacity 20.0 m3/hr

Designed OBR of each SAC 400 m3

Designed OBR of each SBA 400 m3

Designed OBR of each MB 6000 m3

Aux. Cooling Tower Make-Up Water Stream :

Aux. Cooling Tower capacity 2 x 350 m3/hr

Cooling range 10°c

Cycle of concentration 5

Actual Conditions Design conditions

Evaporation loss 10.63 m3/hr 11.45 m3/hr

Blow down loss 2.33 m3/hr 2.51 m3/hr

Drift loss 0.33 m3/hr 0.35 m3/hr


Actual Cooling tower make up water
13.29 m3/hr 14.31 m3/hr
requirement
Operating Hours of Aux. CT Make-up
20 Hrs / day
Stream
14.31 x 24 / 20 = 17.17 m3/hr
Considering Margin,
20.2 m3/hr
Designed Aux. CT make-up capacity
Designed OBR of Softner 404 m3

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4. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION – BOILER MAKEUP
FILTER FEED PUMP FOR BOILER MAKEUP : WPP-13001A/B
To feed the raw water from Raw Water Storage Tank to filtration system, Two numbers (1W+1S) of
Filter feed pumps are provided. The capacity of pumps are 40.5 m3/hr @ 3.5 kg/Cm2. The same
pumps shall be used for multi grade filter backwash. Suitable valves are provided for suction and
Delivery line for flow controlling.

CHLORINE DOSING SYSTEM : DOT-53001


Chlorine kills bacteria present in water. It also oxidizes the organic substances and for that reason,
it is a good reagent for preventing reproduction of micro organism in the water. Bacteria and other
living organisms, which result in algae formation on the surface of pipes, tanks and bio organic
fouling in membrane, can be destroyed by the addition of an oxidizing agent such as sodium hypo
chlorite into the water as a source of chlorine. Chlorination is required to make water suitable for
portable purposes and as a sterilizing agent to prevent algae growth

NaOCl + H2O HOCl + Na OH

HOCl H+ + Ocl-

Optimization of chlorine dosing :

The chlorine dosing has to be optimized for proper utilization and to avoid excess dosing or
insufficient dosing. Break point chlorination is the best method to optimize the chlorine dosing.

Break Point Chlorination :

Gradual increase of chlorine dosing will increase the residual chlorine but not in proportion to the
excess added and then decreased or there will be no increase in residual chlorine. On further
increases of chlorine dosage, a point is reached beyond which residual chlorine again increase,
such increases then being practically in proportion to the excess added.

This point is known as break point chlorination.

Facilities provided for Chlorine Dosing System :


The system consists of 100 liters MSEL tank (DOT53001) with over flow drain arrangement,
magnetic level switch is provided for low-level alarm, and level indicator also provided for visible
level observation.
2 Nos of electronic operated Diaphragm pump (DOP53001A/B) of capacity 4 LPH @ 4kg/cm2 is
provided for chemical dosing in to the pipeline.

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MULTI GRADE FILTER : MGF-13001
After the dosing Multi Grade Filter is installed for primary filtration of raw water. It is Dead end
Filtration and there is no rejection. Some residual iron, manganese, clay, inert solids, bacteria, and
other constituents are still present in the water.
Filtration is the process of passing properly treated water through a bed of some type of media for
the purpose of reducing the particle concentration present in the water.
Multi Grade filter of size 1600mm dia and 2300 mm vertical height with both top and bottom dished
end construction provided for primary filtration of raw water. Raw water is passed through a Multi
Grade Filter (MGF) unit in order to remove suspended matters & turbidity present in raw water. It is
an MSRL vertical pressure vessel. Internally it is fitted with inlet top distributor and bottom
collecting system. Externally this unit is fitted MSRL frontal piping with butterfly valve for operation.
Inlet outlet pressure gauges and sampling valves also provided for performance observation of
filter.
This unit is charged with various sizes of pebbles, quartz sands of various sizes as per standard
bed height. Size of the media will be arranged such that the bottom contains larges size of pebbles
and top layer will be fine sand. Suspended matters & turbidity gets removed when raw water is
passed in downward direction through this filter bed under pressure. The Multi Grade Filter is
capable to filter up to particles size of 10 micron to 1 mm.

ULTRA FILTRATION FAST FLUSH TANK : UFT-13001


5 m3 MSRL tank (Ø1500 x 3300 Ht) has been provided to store the Filtered water. This tank size
has been arrived based on the continuous supply of water to UF Fast flush system, One level
switch is provided to control the level and avoid dry run of Fast flush pump. Float and Board level
indicator is provided for visible level monitoring.

ULTRA FILTRATION FAST FLUSH PUMP : WPP-13003A/B


Two (1W+1S) of UF Fast Flush Pump is provided to Fast Flush the UF Module once in 60 minutes
for one-minute duration. Suitable flow of 52 m3/hr.

BASKET FILTER : BKF-13001


52 m3/Hr capacity Basket Filter is provided in the pretreatment section as a polishing filtration step
for removal of fine particulate matters up to 100-micron size. This will help to reduce fouling
potential of ultra filtration. The construction of housing is SS304 and filter mesh is made up of
SS316.

ULTRA FILTRATION MODULE : UFM-13001


Membrane technology is advancing more rapidly than any other separation methods and the latest
developments and its versatile nature offers the greatest potential in separation problems since
conventional methods are becoming more & more expensive in all respects. The physical

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membrane separation technique called, as ULTRA FILTRATION (UF) SYSTEM is the most reliable
and economical solution for removal of impurities such as pyrogen, virus, bacteria, colloidal silica
and suspended solids. UF completely replaces the pre-treatment stages such as clarifier, sand
filter and Micron Cartridge filters in certain cases. Hence UF system is a viable solution for the
replacement of conventional pre-treatment. UF system is considered as a clean operation
technique because of its continuous years long operation without any replacement of modules.
The maintenance of conventional pretreatment system is very laborious and also results in
frequent system shutdowns. The porosity of UF modules is uniform which enables uniform
rejection of the impurities. This membrane is also back washable, sterilized and chemically cleaned
thus ensure consistent product water quality throughout the operation time.

The membrane surface in UF system will be constantly under flushing due to reject flow, thereby
reducing the membrane choke-up due to deposition of any impurities if present and delivers
sparkling crystal clear treated water under hygienic conditions. UF system also increases the life of
Reverse Osmosis system because of better-feed water quality and also best for high recovery in
RO system.

ULTRA FILTRATION PRODUCT WATER STORAGE TANK : UST-13001


30 m3 RCC Tank (3.5mx3.5mx2.5mHt) has been provided to store the Ultra filtration permeate
water. This tank size has been arrived based on the continuous supply of water to RO system and
UF backwash system. One level switch is provided to control low level, High level and avoid dry
run of RO feed pump and back wash pump. Level Gauges are provided for Visible level
observation.

ULTRA FILTRATION BACK WASH PUMP : WPP-13004A/B


Two (1W+1S) of UF Back Wash Pump is provided to Back Wash the UF Module once in 60
minutes for one-minute duration. Suitable flow of 52 m3/hr.

RO FEED PUMP : (WPP-13005 A/B)

To feed the water from UF Product Water Storage Tank to RO system, Two Nos (1W+1S) of RO
Feed Pumps are provided. Capacity of the RO feed pump is 32.5 m3/hr @ 2.5 kg/Cm2.Suitable
valves are provided for suction and Delivery line for flow controlling.

HCL DOSING SYSTEM : DOT-53002


Most of natural surface and ground waters are almost saturated with CaCO3. The solubility of
CaCO3 depends on the pH, as can be seen from the following equation:
Ca2+ + HCO3– ↔ H+ + CaCO3
By adding H+ as acid, the equilibrium can be shifted to the left side to keep calcium carbonate

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dissolved. Use food-grade quality acid.
CaCO3 tends to dissolve in the concentrate stream rather than precipitate. The Langelier
Saturation Index (LSI) for brackish waters and the Stiff & Davis Stability Index (S&DSI) for
seawaters can express this tendency. At the pH of saturation (pHs), the water is in equilibrium with
CaCO3.
The definitions of LSI and S&DSI are:
LSI = pH – pHs (TDS < 10,000 mg/L)
S&DSI = pH – pHs (TDS > 10,000 mg/L)
Where the methods predicting pHs are different for LSI and S&DSI.
To control calcium carbonate scaling by acid addition alone, the LSI or S&DSI in the concentrate
stream must be negative. Acid addition is useful to control carbonate scale only.

Facilities provided for Acid Dosing System:


The system consists of 200 liters MSRL tank (DOT-53002) with over flow drain arrangement,
magnetic level switch provided for low-level alarm, and level indicator also provided for visible level
observation.
2 Nos of electronic operated Diaphragm pump (DOP-53002) of capacity 0-6 LPH is provided for
chemical dosing in to the pipeline.

SMBS DOSING SYSTEM : DOT-53003


Filtered water may contain free residual chlorine depending upon the utilization of chlorine dosed.
Since free residual chlorine is strong oxidizing agent hence it has to be decomposed before
entering in to the RO membrane made by polyamide highly oxidizing material. Being a strong
oxidizing agent causes damage to the polyamide thin film composite membranes. Hence
necessary to remove the free chlorine prior to feeding in to the RO system.

Na2 S2O5 + H2O 2 NaHSO3

2NaHSO3 + 2HOCl H2SO4 + 2HCl + Na2SO4

FACILITIES PROVIDED FOR ANTI SCALENT DOSING SYSTEM :


Sodium Meta Bi Sulphite dosing system consists of 100 liters MSRL tank (DOT-53003) with over
flow drain arrangement, One magnetic level switch is provided for low-level alarm, and level
indicator for visible level observation. One Agitator is provided at the top of the tank for proper
chemical mixing with water.

2 Nos of electronic operated Diaphragm pump (DOP-53003A/B) of capacity 0-2 LPH is provided
for chemical dosing in to the pipeline.

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SPECIAL ANTI-SCALANT DOSING SYSTEM : DOT-53004
Scale inhibitors (Antiscalant) can be used to control carbonate scaling, sulfate scaling and calcium
fluoride scaling. There are generally three different types of scale inhibitors like Sodium hexa Meta
phosphate (SHMP), organophosphonates and polyacrylates. SHMP is inexpensive but unstable
compared to polymeric organic scale inhibitors. Minor amounts adsorb to the surface of micro
crystals, preventing further growth and precipitation of the crystals. Food-grade quality SHMP
should be used. Care must be taken to avoid hydrolysis of SHMP in the dosing feed tank.
Hydrolysis will not only decrease the scale inhibition efficiency, but also create a calcium
phosphate scaling risk. Therefore, SHMP is generally not recommended. Organophosphonates
are more effective and stable than SHMP. They act as antifoulants for Insoluble aluminum and iron,
keeping them in solution. Polyacrylates (high molecular weight) are generally known for reducing
silica scale formation via a dispersion mechanism.

Polymeric organic scale inhibitors are also more effective than SHMP. Precipitation reactions may
occur, however, with negatively charged scale inhibitors and cationic Polyelectrolyte or multivalent
cat ions (e.g., aluminum or iron). The resulting gum-like products are very difficult to remove from
the membrane elements. For dosage rates on all antiscalants, contact the antiscalant
manufacturers. Overdosing should be avoided. Make certain that no significant amounts of cationic
polymers are present when adding an anionic scale inhibitor.

In RO plants operating on seawater with TDS in the range of 35,000 mg/L, scaling is not as much
of a problem as in brackish water plants because the recovery of seawater plants is limited by the
osmotic pressure of the concentrate stream to 30-45%. For safety reasons, however, a scale
inhibitor is recommended when operating above a recovery of 35%.

FACILITIES PROVIDED FOR SPECIAL ANTI SCALENT DOSING SYSTEM :


The system consists of 100 liters MSRL tank (DT-53004) with over flow drain arrangement, One
magnetic level switch is provided for low-level alarm, and level indicator provided for visible level
observation.

2 Nos of electronic operated Diaphragm pump (DOP-53004A/B) of capacity 0-2 LPH is provided
for chemical dosing in to the pipeline.

MICRON CARTRIDGE FILTER : MCF–13001


The Pre-treatment stream shall have one Primary Cartridge Filter. It consists of a MSRL vessel
installed with Poly Propylene disposable Cartridge. This helps to reduce the Silt Density Index to
acceptable level and hence safe guard the R.O. Membranes. The MCF shall be equipped with

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necessary pressure gauges for monitoring the pressure drop across the cartridges. Capacity of the
cartridge 29.4m3/Hr.

HIGH PRESSURE PUMP : WPP13006 A/B


The RO Feed Water from the Outlet of MCF is feed to the High-pressure pump suction, which
increases the pressure in feed water and then the water can be feed into the Membrane with
design pressure. The Feed Pressure must be greater than the osmotic pressure of the feed water,
and then only the reverse osmosis will take place. By adjusting the brine control valve the required
system pressure is achieved and the recovery is set. Two numbers of high-pressure pump
provided one is working and another will standby.

REVERSE OSMOSIS TREATMENT SYSTEM.


Reverse osmosis is the finest level of filtration available. The RO membrane acts as a barrier to all
dissolved salts and inorganic molecules, as well as organic molecules with a molecular weight
greater than approximately 100 in the water, on the other hand, pass freely through the membrane
creating a purified product stream. Rejection of dissolved salts is typically 95 -99%.

The applications for RO are numerous and varied and include desalination of seawater or brackish
water for drinking purposes, wastewater recovery, food and beverage processing, biomedical
separations, purification of home drinking water and industrial process water.

Also, RO is often used in the production of ultra pure water for use in the semiconductor industry,
power industry (boiler feed water), and medical/laboratory applications. Utilizing RO prior to ion
exchange (IX) dramatically reduces operating costs and regeneration frequency of the IX system.
The membrane feed pressure can be varied with respect model usage of water source. Normally
brackish water membrane maximum feed pressure will be 10 kg/cm2 and seawater membrane
pressure will be 84 kg/cm2.

Basic principles of reverse osmosis:


The phenomenon of osmosis occurs when pure water flows from a dilute saline solution through a
membrane into a higher concentrated saline solution. A semi-permeable membrane is placed
between two compartments. Assume that this membrane is permeable to water, but not to salt.
Then, place a salt solution in one compartment and pure water in the other compartment. The
membrane will allow water to permeate through it to either side. But salt cannot pass through the
membrane.

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As a fundamental rule of nature, this system will try to reach equilibrium. That is, it will try to reach
the same concentration on both sides of the membrane. The only possible way to reach equilibrium
is for water to pass from the pure water compartment to the salt-containing compartment, to dilute
the salt solution.

Figure shows that osmosis can cause a rise in the height of the salt solution. This height will
increase until the pressure of the column of water (salt solution) is so high that the force of this
water column stops the water flow. The equilibrium point of this water column height in terms of
water pressure against the membrane is called osmotic pressure.

If a force is applied to this column of water, the direction of water flow through the membrane can
be reversed. This is the basis of the term reverse osmosis. Note that this reversed flow produces
pure water from the salt solution, since the membrane is not permeable to salt.

REVERSE OSMOSIS PROCESS

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In practice, reverse osmosis and nanofiltration are applied as a cross flow filtration process. The
simplified process is shown in Figure

With a high-pressure pump, feed water is continuously pumped at elevated pressure to the
membrane system. Within the membrane system, the feed water will be split into low saline and
purified products. The product water is called permeate and high saline or concentrated brine is
called concentrate or reject. Water feed to the RO system and back pressure to be created by flow
control valve it is called brine control valve.

The key terms used in the reverse osmosis process are defined as follows.
RECOVERY - the percentage of membrane system feed water that emerges from the system as
product water or “permeate”. Membrane system design is based on expected feed water quality
and recovery is defined through initial adjustment of valves on the concentrate stream. Recovery is
often fixed at the highest level that maximizes permeate flow while preventing precipitation of
super-saturated salts within the membrane system.

REJECTION - the percentage of solute concentration removed from system feed water by the
membrane. In reverse osmosis, a high rejection of total dissolved solids (TDS) is important, while
in nanofiltrations the solutes of interest are specific, e.g. low rejection for hardness and high
rejection for organic matter.

PASSAGE - the opposite of “rejection”, passage is the percentage of dissolved constituents


(contaminants) in the feed water allowed to pass through the membrane.

PERMEATE - the purified product water produced by a membrane system.

FLOW - Feed flow is the rate of feed water introduced to the membrane element or membrane
system, usually measured in gallons per minute (gpm) or cubic meters per hour (m3/h).
Concentrate flow is the rate of flow of non-permeated feed water that exits the membrane element
or membrane system. This concentrate contains most of the dissolved constituents originally
carried into the element or into the system from the feed source. It is usually measured in gallons
per minute (gpm) or cubic meters per hour (m3/h).

FLUX - the rate of permeate transported per unit of membrane area, usually measured in gallons
per square foot per day (gfd) or liters per square meter and hour (l/m2h).

FACTORS AFFECTING REVERSE OSMOSIS PERFORMANCE


Permeate flux and salt rejections are the key performance parameters of a reverse osmosis or a
nanofiltration process. Under specific reference conditions, flux and rejection are intrinsic

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properties of membrane performance. The flux and rejection of a membrane system are mainly
influenced by variable parameters including

• Pressure
• Temperature
• Recovery
• Feed water salt concentration

Pressure: With increasing effective feed pressure, the permeate TDS will decrease while the
permeate flux will increase as shown in Figure 1.1.

Temperature: If the temperature increases and all other parameters are kept constant, the
permeate flux and the salt passage will increase (see Figure 1.2)

Recovery: Recovery is the ratio of permeates flow to feed flow. In the case of increasing recovery,
the permeate flux will decrease and stop if the salt concentration reaches a value where the
osmotic pressure of the concentrate is as high as the applied feed pressure. The salt rejection will
drop with increasing recovery (see Figure 1.3)

Feed water Salt Concentration Figure 1.4 shows the impact of the feed water salt concentration
on the permeate flux and the salt rejection.

`Figure 1.1 Performance vs. Pressure Figure 1.2 Performance vs. temperature

Figure 1.3 Performance vs. recovery Figure 1.4 Performance vs. feed water
salt concentration

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RO CHEMICAL CLEANING SYSTEM :

CHEMICAL CLEANING TANK : CCT53001


1000 Ltr MSRL tank (Ø1000 x 1500 Ht) has been provided to store the Chemicals solution. This
tank size has been arrived based on the requirement of stage wise cleaning of RO Membranes,
level indicator has been provided for visible level monitoring. Low level switch also provided to
avoid the dry run of the pump. Recirculation line has been provided for proper mixing of chemical
with water.

CHEMICAL CLEANING PUMP : WPP53003


Two (1W+1S) numbers of Chemical cleaning Pumps are provided to clean the RO Membranes.
Suitable flow of pump 22.5m3/hr @ 3.5kg/cm2. Suitable valves are provided suction and delivery
piping for flow controlling.

MICRON CARTRIDGE FILTER : MCF53002


The system shall have one Primary Cartridge Filter. It consists of a MSRL vessel installed with
Poly Propylene disposable Cartridge. This helps to reduce the Solid partials to acceptable level
and hence safe guard the R.O. Membranes. The MCF shall be equipped with necessary pressure
gauges for monitoring the pressure drop across the cartridges. Capacity of the cartridge 22.5 m3/
Hr.

SODIUM BI CARBONATE DOSING SYSTEM : DOT- 53005


The RO Permeate water from the output is little acidic in nature. Hence a pH correction dosing
system is incorporated in the system to boost up the water pH to a desired acceptable level
especially for Potable application.

Facilities provided for Sodium Bi Carbonate Dosing System:


The system consists of 100 liters MSRL tank (DOT-53005) with over flow drain arrangement,
magnetic level switch provided for low-level alarm, and level indicator provided for visible level
observation.
Two nos of electronic operated Diaphragm pump (DOP-53005A/B) of capacity 0-2 LPH is provided

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for chemical dosing in to the pipeline. One Agitator is provided for proper chemical mixing with
water.

DE-GASIFICATION SYSTEM : DGT-13001


RO treated water is allowed to pass through a de gasification tower (DGT-13001) & the free carbon
dioxide is removed from the water. It is fitted internally with a top distributor & bottom collector.
Degasser tower is a forced draft type of atmospheric tower Polypropylene pall rings are charged in
the tower to increase the contact area of air & water for efficient stripping of Co2 from the incoming
water. The size of the DG tower is 700 mm in diameter and 3300 mm height and its capacity is 20
m3/Hr has been provided with MSRL construction.

DG BLOWER : DGB-83001 A/B


Two numbers Centrifugal type air blowers in M.S. construction one working and one stand by has
been provided for blowing high flow of 7.7 m3//min @, low pressure of 55 mm water column for de
gasification. Forced air by degasser blower is passed in counter current direction while the RO
product water is sprayed from the top, thus removing the free carbon dioxide produced during
splitting of alkaline salts.

DG WATER STORAGE TANK : DGS-13001


20 m3 MSRL tank (Ø2700 x 3800 Los) has been provided to store the RO permeate water.
Degasser tower is placed over the tank by fasteners. RO permeate from RO system will be
collected in DGWST after passing through DG tower. Level switch is provided to monitor low level
and high level of tank and also to avoid dry run of pump (WPP-13007A/B). level indicator has been
provided for visual observation of the tank level.

DG WATER TRANSFER PUMP : WPP-13007 A/B


This pump is used to transfer the water from degasser tank to DM Plant. 2 nos of pumps, one is
working and another is standby. The pump provided to suit service and back wash of DM Plant.
Necessary valves, pressure gauges and flow indicator has been provided in inter connecting pipe
lines to monitor the safe operation.

STRONG ACID CATION : SAC-13001& 13002


The Strong Acid Cation unit embodies a single column of AMBERJET 1000H resin. When water
comes in contact with these resins, the positive ions are taken up by the resins and H+ is released
thus producing low hardness water.
Strong Acid Cation vessels (20 m3 Capacity ) is made up of MSRL and the size of 1000 mm dia
and 2000 mm Height has been arrived based on the input cation load to the Strong Acid Cation.

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ACID MEASURING TANK FOR SAC: AMT-53001& 53003
Strong Acid Cation resins shall be regenerated by Hydro Choleric Acid (HCL).
The system consists of 200 liters MSRL tank with over flow drain arrangement. Level gauge is
provided for visible level observation. Level switch has been provided for low level alarm.

Service Cycle Reaction

Ca CL/SO4 Ca H2SO4
Mg (Hco3) + 2HR Mg R2 + 2H2CO3
Na2 CL/SO4 Na2 HCL

Regeneration Cycle Reaction


Ca Ca
Mg R2 + 2Hcl 2HR + Mg Cl2
Na2 Na2

STRONG BASE ANION : SBA- 53001& 53002


The Strong Base Anion unit embodies a single column of AMBERJET 4200CL (Strong Base Anion
Exchange) resin. When water comes in contact with these resins, the negative ions are taken up
by the resins OH- are released thus producing Less Conductivity water.
Before regenerating the resins, the resins have to be backwashed. The resins are regenerated with
caustic. After the regeneration the resins are rinsed thoroughly with service water.
Strong Base Anion vessel is made-up of MSRL ,Capacity of 20 m3/Hr Size of vessel 1000 mm dia
and 2000 mm height has been arrived based on the input Anion load to SBA.

CAUSTIC DLUTION TANK FOR SBA: CDT-53001& 53003


Anion exchange resins shall be regenerated by Sodium Hydroxide.
The system consists of 200 liters tank with over flow drain arrangement, and Level gauge is
provided for visible level observation. Level switch has been provided for low level alarm. Agitator
is provided for each tank for proper mixing chemicals with service water.

Service Cycle Reaction


H2SO4 + 2ROH R2So4 + 2H2O
HCL + ROH RCL + H2O
CO2 + ROH RHCO3
SiO2 + ROH RHSIO3

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Regeneration Cycle Reaction
RSO4 + 2NaOH 2ROH + Na2SO4
RCl + NaOH ROH + NaCl
RHCO3 + NaOH ROH + NaHCO3
RHSiO3 + NaOH ROH + NaHSiO3

MIXED BED : MDB-53001 & 53002


The Mixed Bed unit embodies a single column of AMBERJET 1000H (Strong Acid Cation) and
AMBERJET 4200CL (Strong Base Anion Exchange) resin mixed intimately together. When water
comes in contact with these resins, the resins take up the positive and negative ions and H+ and
OH- are released thus producing high purity water. Before regenerating the resins, the resins have
to be separated by carrying out the backwash. During backwash, the lighter anion resin is carried
to the top and the heavier cat ion resin settles at the bottom. After the resin separation, the resins
are regenerated with caustic and hydrochloric acid.
Mixed Bed vessels are made up of MSRL and the size of 1000 Dia X 2800 Ht capacity of vessel
20m3/Hr has been arrived based on ionic load.

ACID MEASURING TANK FOR MDB: AMT- 53002 & 53004


Cation resins shall be regenerated by Hydrochloric Acid (HCL).
The system consists of 100 liters capacity MSRL tank size of 400mm Dia x 1000mm Height with
over flow drain arrangement. Level gauge is provided for visible level observation. Level switch has
been provided for low level alarm.

Service Cycle Reaction


Ca CL/SO4 Ca H2SO4
Mg (Hco3) +2HR Mg R2 + 2H2CO3
Na2 CL/SO4 Na2 HCL

Regeneration Cycle Reaction


Ca Ca
Mg R2 +2Hcl 2HR + Mg Cl2

Na2 Na2

CAUSTIC DLUTION TANK : CDT-53002 & 53004


Anion resins shall be regenerated by Sodium Hydroxide. The system consists of 200 liters capacity
MSRL tank size of 600mm Dia x 1000mm height with over flow drain arrangement, and Level
gauge is provided for visible level observation. Level switch has been provided for low level alarm.

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Agitator is provided for each tank for proper mixing chemicals with service water.

The Reaction during service cycle of anion Resin

H2SO4 +2ROH R2So4 + 2H2O


Hcl + ROH RCl + H2O
CO2 + ROH RHCO3
SiO2 + ROH RHSIO3

The Reaction during Regeneration of Anion Resin

RSO4 + 2NaOH 2ROH + Na2SO4


RCl + NaOH ROH + NaCl
RHCO3 + NaOH ROH + NaHCO3
RHSiO3 + NaOH ROH + NaHSiO3

MIXED BED AIR BLOWER : MBB-83001


The twin lobe air blower is provided for thorough mixing of cation and anion resins in mixed bed.
The system is provided with 1 nos of blower. The capacity of the blower is 2.0m3/min @ 4.5 meter
water column.

PH CORRECTION DOSING SYSTEM : DOT- 53006


The well polished dematerialized water from the MB output is little acidic in nature. Hence a pH
correction dosing system is incorporated in the system to boost up the water pH to a desired
acceptable level especially for boiler feed.

Facilities provided for pH Dosing System:


The system consists of 100 liters capacity SS304 tank size of 400mm Dia x 1000mm Height with
over flow drain arrangement. Level gauge is provided for visible level observation. One level switch
has been provided for low level alarm.
Two nos of Stainless steel electronic operated Diaphragm Auto dosing pump (DOP53006A/B) of
capacity 0-2 LPH is provided for chemical dosing in to the pipeline. One Agitator is provided for
proper chemical mixing with service water.

BULK ACID STORAGE SYSTEM : BAT-53001


Facilities provided for safe and easy chemical filling of Acid dosing tank & Acid measuring
tanks.15m3 capacity MSRL tank has been provided for bulk HCL chemical storage for continuous
plant operation. Over flow and drain line is provided. One set of level indicator is provided for visible
level observation.

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Two nos. of PP Acid unloading pump (WPP-53010A/B) is provided for chemical unloading from
chemical carrying trucks (capacity 14m3/hr@1.5kg/cm2) One pump is working another pump will be
standby.

BULK CAUSTIC STORAGE SYSTEM : BCT-53001


Facilities provided for safe and easy chemical filling of Caustic dilution tanks.15m3 capacity MS tank
has been provided for bulk NaOH chemical storage for continuous plant operation. Over flow and
drain line is provided. One set of level indicator is provided for visible level observation.
Two nos. of SS316 caustic unloading pump (WPP-53011A/B) is provided for chemical unloading from
chemical carrying trucks (capacity 14m3/hr@1.5kg/cm2) One pump is working another pump will be
standby.

NEUTRALIZATION PIT : NEP-63001


Effluent collection system consists of a collection pit, which has been provided to collect the water
from rejects of Water Treatment System. The closed pit is made up of Reinforced cement concrete
85m3 Volume has been arrived based on the effluent collection and transfer rate.
Two numbers of pump (WPP63009A/B) is provided MOC of the pump is SS316 And capacity
56.0m3/hr@ 3.5kg/cm2 has been provided. One pump is working and other pump will be standby.
The pump will transfer the neutralized water to Guard pond.

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5. SYSTEM OPERATION – BOILER MAKEUP
FILTER FEED PUMP
Before starting the pump make sure the RWST has sufficient water. Close the delivery valve and
Start the Raw Water transfer Pump. Open the delivery valve gradually and adjust up to the required
flow and pressure to the Multi Grade Filter Inlet.

CHLORINE DOSING SYSTEM


Before starting the pump ensure the level of Sodium hypo chlorite solution, and fill the solution if
the level is insufficient. Start the dosing pump and adjust the sodium hypo chlorite doing as per the
free residual chlorine requirement at before dechlorination dosing point.
Sodium hypochlorite dosage has to be optimized depending upon the chlorine demand generally
the range of dosing will be 2.0 – 3.0 ppm. It forms hypochlorous acid which liberates free chlorine
which kills micro organisms and breaks long chain polymers of organics. Thus water is disinfected.
Caution : Never run the pump with air lock to avoid the damage of diaphragm.

MULTI GRADE FILTER


• Before starting the pump open the service inlet valve and air vent valve ensure the complete air
release through air vent pipe.
• Open Service inlet valve and the Rinse outlet Valve and drain the water for few minutes.
• Check the quality of rinse out let if water quality found OK.
• Close the rinse outlet valve and open the Service outlet Valve.
• If the Pressure drop across the filter exceeds 0.8 kg/cm2 Isolate the filter and proceed for
Backwash.

V13024 : SERVICE INLET VALVE


V13025 : BACK WASH OUTLET VALVE
V13026 : BACK WASH INLET VALVE
V13027 : SERVICE OUTLET VALVE
V13028 : RINSE OUTLET VALVE
V63029 : AIR RELEASE VALVE

Ensure the Multi Grade Filter is backwashed daily, irrespective of the no. of hours of service or
pressure drop across the filter bed.

Open backwash has to be done once in 6 months.

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Procedure for Open Backwash
Open the top manhole of body flange as per the MGF design and drain the water from the filter and
maintain water level of 100 mm above the top layer of the filter media. Observe the media
condition. if the media condition is worst add HCL acid and maintain 5% concentration in the filter
and continue for soaking of 6-8 hrs. Start the filter feed pump and open backwash inlet valve and
maintain backwash flow velocity of 24-30 meter/hr. Continue this open backwash for 15-20 minutes
still the clear water from the backwash overflow. Now check the media condition if necessary
continue the above process for till getting satisfactory result. From the above treatment if the media
is not cleaned perfectly remove the media and replace the worst portion of the media.

Washing The Media


• Open the backwash outlet valve fully, and open the backwash inlet valve ensuring that sand is not
carried over to drain. Continue backwashing until the effluent is completely clear, and then close
both the valves.
• Open the rinse outlet valve and drain the water level in the vessel to just below the surface of the
filter bed. Scrape the top surface and remove any fines and dust collected on the surface.
• Close the vessel manhole.
• Connect the air release pipe.

Charging The Media


• Unpack the under bed material comprising of four grades of pebbles and Silex, fine sand by
opening side man hole if provided. Wash each separate grade thoroughly with Water to make it
free from dust, dirt and other impurities.
• Open the backwash inlet valve to fill up water in the vessel. And clean the vessel inside surface
area then charge the First (coarser) layer of pebbles into the vessel with extreme care, so as to
avoid damaging the laterals or nozzles/strainers, and arrange the pebbles properly around the
laterals. Level the layer and note its depth.
• Charge the remaining layers of pebbles and gravels successively in a Similar manner, first
increasing the water level stepwise to cover each successive layer (by opening backwash inlet
valve), then charging and leveling each layer, and noting the bed depth at each stage. Check and
note the total depth of the under bed.
• Open the service inlet valve and fill up about half the vessel with water. Charge the mixed sand
media and level the top surface uniformly. Check the bed depth. Carry out open backwash for 10
minutes or until the clear water from backwash overflow.
• Fit the inverted bell mouth distributor.
• Close the manhole then fill the water by opening the service inlet valve ensure the complete air
release. Then carry out the backwash and rinsing before service cycle.

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Do's and Don't s of Filtration

Do:

• Perform thorough filter inspections and correct problems as needed.


• Monitor peak turbidities, particle counts, backwash water turbidity, media % expansions, run times,
head loss, filtration rates, surface wash pressure and flow rates, etc.
• Adjust backwash rates & times as needed to properly clean the filters. - observe backwash for
signs of air and other problems. - continue to optimize backwash procedures by implementing step
backwash procedures or backwash water treatment (polymer or coagulant).
• Record keeping is very important for monitoring filter performance. If numbers are out of range,
they should trigger a maintenance work order or corrective action. Be specific on work order
requests since problems may occur on off-hours.

Don't:
• exceed filtration rate maximum for the filters (~ 3.0 MGD)
• make sudden and significant filtration rate changes. At my plant, no more than 0.1 MGD per filter in
30 minutes.
• re-start "dirty or off-line filters without backwashing first.
• keep poor performing filters, based on high effluent turbidity or particle counts, in service. Take bad
filters out of service.

ULTRA FILTRATION
UF –AUTO CYCLE
SR. NO PROCESS VALVE OPEN IN UF PUMP IN OPERATION TIME IN MIN
PSV13002,
a UF - SERVICE WPP13001A/B -Run 58
PSV13005
PSV13006,
b UF- BACK WASH WPP13004A/B -Run 1
PSV13004
PSV13003,
c UF- FAST FLUSH WPP13003A/B -Run 1
PSV13004

PSV13001 – UF FAST FLUSH TANK INLET VALVE.


PSV13002 – SERVICE INLET VALVE.
PSV13003 – FAST FLUSH INLET VALVE.
PSV13004 – REJECT OUTLET VALVE.
PSV13005 – PRODUCT OUTLET VALVE.
PSV13006 – BACK WASH INLET VALVE.

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A) SERVICE CYCLE:
• Select the UF system in auto mode then the sequence of operation will be as follows.
• If the RWST level is not low Ensure the MGF service cycle valve open then automatically the MGF
feed pump will start, and also UF Feed valve and Permeate valve will open (Before Start the pump
UF feed valve should be open condition).
• Operator has to make sure the Service inlet and outlet valve of MGF has to be opened after air
release from the MGF to feed the water in to the UF system.
• Now the operator has to adjust the MGF feed valve and UF reject valve (Manual) to maintain the
feed flow of 33.7 cum/hr in the UF feed and 30.3 cum/hr in the UF permeate and 3.4 cum/hr in the
UF reject.
• Maintain the FRC of 0.5 ppm in the UF feed to avoid biological growth in the UF membrane.
• This service cycle continues for 58 min.

B) UF BACK WASH CYCLE:


• After completion of Service cycle for 58 min the back wash cycle will continue for 1 min.
• Filter feed pump will get shutdown automatically and also UF Feed & Product valve will get closed
automatically.
• UF fast flush inlet valve should be in closed condition.
• UF back wash inlet valve and UF reject outlet valve will get open automatically, then UF back wash
pump will get start automatically.
• This cycle will continue continuously, subjected to the satisfaction of the following interlocks.
No low level in UST-13001
No High pressure at UF Back wash Inlet.

C) UF FAST FLUSH CYCLE:


• After completion of back wash cycle for 1 min the fast flush cycle will continue for 1 min.
• UF service inlet valve should close automatically.
• UF Fast flush inlet valve and UF reject valve will get open automatically, and then UF fast flush
pump will get start automatically.
• This cycle will continued 1 minutes after that fast flush inlet valve get close automatically. And also
fast flush pump will get stop automatically.
• This cycle will continue continuously, subjected to the satisfaction of the following interlocks.
No low level in UFT-13001
No High pressure at UF feed Inlet.
• Now service cycle will start automatically.

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D) NORMAL SHUT DOWN
• Stop the UF auto mode switch and Open the MGF air release valve and close the MGF service
inlet and service outlet valves.

UF CHEMICAL CLEANING

CAUSTIC / CHLORINE WASH


• Take 5000 liter of Filter water in UF fast flush tank. Add caustic slowly to achieve 10-12 pH (0.5 wt
% sodium hydroxide addition).
• Add liquid sodium hypo chlorite (NaOCl) to achieve the total chlorine concentration of 200 mg/lit
max.
• Circulate the caustic and chlorine solution for 20 – 30 minutes.
• Check and chlorine solution and NaOCl as required to maintain the chlorine concentration
• Drain and completely flush with UF permeate water to get normal pH and chlorine concentration.

NOTE : Always add caustic before chlorine never adds chlorine to the neutral or acid solution. process line
must be completely flushed between each caustic chlorine wash and acid wash.

ACID WASH
• Take 5000 liter of Filter water in UF fast flush tank, add citric acid (solid) Slowly to achieve the pH
2.5 (0.5 wt. % of citric acid addition)
• Circulate the citric acid solution for 20 – 30 minutes.
• Drain and completely flush with UF permeate water to get normal pH.

Ultra Filtration system Maintenance:


Operational safety measure:
• Maintain minimum 0.5 ppm residual chlorine in the UF feed water.
• Extended back wash and fast flush once in a week with 2-3 ppm chlorine.
• Maintain the recovery as per design.

Scheduled Maintenance:
• Check the tightness of electrical connection of solenoid valves.
• Check the tightness of support U clamps to avoid vibration.
• Chemical cleaning has to be done once in 3 months
• Check the condition of compressor air hose and replace if necessary.

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Preventive maintenance
• Chemical cleaning has to be done if the differential pressure increases more than 0.8-1 bar.
• Chemical cleaning has to be done once the feed pressure increased to 2kg/cm2.

Events for break down maintenance.


• Failure of solenoid coil.
• Increase feed pressure or differential pressure.
• Failure of UF module.
• Failure of pipelines.

Do's and Don't s of UF System.

Do

• Daily monitor the feed pressure and differential pressure.


• Maintain minimum 0.5 ppm FRC in UF feed.
• Maintain recovery as per design
• Run the system only in auto mode.

Don't s

• Don’t run the system in manual mode.


• Not to run the system with out FRC.
• Never run the system with more than 2.5 Kg/cm2 feed pressure.
• Never run the system with with differential pressure more than 0.8 kg/cm2.

RO SYSTEM
RO FEED PUMP

Before start the RO feed pump SMBS & Antiscalant dosing should be ON condition. Close the
delivery valve of RO feed pump and ensure the sufficient level in UST-13001 then start the RO
feed pump and gradually open the Discharge valve and maintain the flow & suction pressure at
High pressure pump suction.

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ACID DOSING SYSTEM
Check the level of Hydrochloric acid solution, and fill the solution if the level is insufficient. Start the
dosing pump. The dosing pump will adjust the stroke to maintain the RO feed pH of 6.5 – 6.8
based on pH transmitter signal.
CAUTION : Never run the pump with air lock to avoid the damage of diaphragm.

SMBS DOSING SYSTEM


Check the level of Sodium meta bi-sulphite solution, and fill the solution if the level is insufficient.
Start the dosing pump and adjust the sodium meta bi-sulphite dosing as per quantity required to
decompose the free residual chlorine available in the RO feed water.
Sodium meta bi-sulphite dosage has to be optimized depending upon the FRC load and also
maintain the ORP value between +200mV to +350mV to avoid excess Sodium meta bi-sulphite
dosing.
Caution: Never run the pump with air lock to avoid the damage of diaphragm.
Note: Use Agitator for chemical preparation for proper mixing of chemical with water.

SPECIAL ANTISCALANT DOSING SYSTEM

Check the level of Antiscalant solution, and fill the solution if the level is insufficient. Start the
dosing pump and adjust the antiscalant dosing rate to desired value by means of the stroke-
frequency knobs provided in the pump.
The antiscalant dosing rate has to be arrived based on the membrane manufacturer scaling
calculation and antiscalant manufacturer dosing calculation.
Caution: Never run the pump with air lock to avoid the damage of diaphragm.

MICRON CARTRIDGE FILTER


Open the Air Release Valve to escape all the air. While the filter is in service, the product water
quality and the pressure drop across the filter should be regularly monitored and recorded with inlet
and outlet pressure gauges. When the pressure drop across the unit reaches 0.8 -1.0 kg/cm2 or
when the unit outlet water quality deteriorates, the cartridges have to be replaced.

REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM


SDI TESTING

Before feed the water to RO Module SDI Value To be Checked. SDI testing provision provided at
MCF Outlet. During SDI testing 2 Kg/Cm2 pressure will be maintained. SDI Value maintain as
follows.
For Bore Well Water SDI value : < 3, For Surface Water SDI Value : < 4

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SDI is a test normally carried out on water to assess the extend of particulate (suspended)
contamination in it. It yield a non-dimensional figure, so called SILT DENSITY INDEX (SDI), also
referred to at times as Fouling Index. High index water is dirty and contaminated, low index water
is clean and indicates suitability for the process.

The index is influenced by the presence of colloidal/fine particulate (undissolved or suspended). It


is not affected by the large sticks and stoned (unlike the total suspended) solids figure which is
reported in mg/liters, and is influenced by the large or heaver particles. This makes the test very
useful to users to the process like reverse osmosis, where the membrane is more dangers in
fouling from the smaller contaminant species.

The test takes around fifteen minutes to carryout and the test sample volume is around 15-20 lts.
Thus SDI is fairly representative of the actual conditions and comparatively less affected by
sampling error.

Real utility the test should be carried out once a day. This yield the user valuable information about
the quality of his process water. This will also help in diagnostics and protect downstream
equipment from particulate fouling.

TEST PROCEDURE
Before starting clear the SDI Kit of any debris by opening the lower part of the filter and running
water drain.
Assemble the filter holder without any filter paper. Then connect it to the sampling point, where the
water would be drawn from for testing. In case of pressurized lines care should be taken to avoid
injury or losses due to drenching of near by equipment.
Set the pressure and flow conditions by adjusting the sapling valve and regulator. Turn the back
knob on the regulator to adjust the pressure. The flow should be adjusted to approximately 100 ml
in 5 second.
Shut the valve, open the filter holder and place a new filter paper into the filter assembly. Place the
O-Ring on top of the filter and loosely screw the lower filter holder into position. Remove all the air
from the filter holder by slowly. Opening the valve, and allowing a small amount of water to flow out
from around the filter holder threads.
When all the air has been expelled quickly shut the valve and tightens the filter holder. It is
important that the filter holder is not over tightened, as this may crack the top threaded portion.
Hold the top of the assembly whenever tightening or lessening the unit.
Open the valve, and if necessary adjust the test pressure once again to maintain 30 psi and using
the stopwatch time the collection of 1200 ml. This should be carried out quickly and accurately as
this time interval measure is recorded as to. The stop watch is to be started at the time of
beginning of this operation. SDI Kit should be held in such a way so as to ensure that the filter

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holder always horizontal. Holding the stop watch next to the measuring cylinder enables both the
collection and timing to be observed at the same time. Use the lap time feature of the stop watch to
monitor both to and the total test time T.
The water is kept flowing the unit and at regular intervals of one or two minutes, the time taken to
measure a 100 ml sample is measured. When this time is five times the initial value or 15 minute of
test time has been reached the test is stopped.
Unscrew the filter holder and remove the filter membrane. Examining the membrane under a light
microscope will give you a visual idea of the kind of contaminants present in your water.
Record the data in an SDI record sheet and calculate the SDI of the water.

CALCULATING SDI

The Slit Density Index Is Calculated Using the Following Formula

SDI = (1-To/Tf) T/f x 100

Where,

To = time (in seconds) for the collection of initial 100ml

Tf = time (in seconds) for the collection of the final 100mlsample, at time Tf

T/f = the time (in minutes) at which the final 100ml samples collected (usually 15 minutes)

REVERSE OSMOSIS :
IMPORTANT INSTRUCTIONS TO OPERATE THE R.O PLANT
Please check the following before you start the R.O. Plant.
• Check the high pressure pump suction pressure it has to be minimum 2 Kg/cm2.
• Check the High pressure pump suction valve is fully open and discharge valve 30% open.
• 5-10 minutes flush the membrane with raw water. This has to be done every startup and shut down
of the plant.
• Ensure RO Product water tank is not full.
• Ensure Brine control valve is full open.
• Open the drain valve of RO permeates.

R.O. NORMAL START UP


• Select the pump which is going to start then start the pump and monitor the flow and pressure
slowly open the HPP discharge valve and make sure the HPP suction pressure should not be less
than 0.5 kg/cm2 to avoid low suction tripping of HPP.
• Continue for 2-3 minutes without controlling the brine valve.
• Throttle brine control valve and maintain brine flow and product flow as per the design. Monitor
R.O. system pressure and control it.

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• Initially drain the product water for 5 minutes then start closing the brine control valve very slowly.

SHUT DOWN
• Open the brine control valve fully and continue for 3 - 5 minutes and also make sure the minimum
suction pressure of 0.5 kg/cm2 to avoid tripping of HPP due to low suction.
• Stop High Pressure Pump.
• Continue for 5-10 minutes with RO feed pump flow & then shut down the following.
RO feed pump
Dechlorination dosing pump(SMBS)
Antiscalant dosing pump
• This flushing cycle is to ensure that any scaling formation taken place during desalination of water
because of high concentration and precipitation, which settle on the membrane surface, should get
dissolved in low salinity water and get away in reject. This precipitation may cause Scaling of
membranes which reduce the life of membrane and increase the pressure drop across the system.
The flushing should be followed daily and by passing of that may void the guarantee of
performance.

GENERAL RO CHEMICAL CLEANING TIPS :


During chemical cleaning of RO system the following procedure to be carried out, Biological fouling
in the RO system to be removed first. Hence we have preferred high pH, Chemical cleaning then
low pH cleaning. It will give better results.

• Normalized Permeate flow drops 10%


• Normalized Salt Passage increases 5 -10 %
• Normalized Pressure Drop (feed - reject increased to 5 -10%
• Chemical solution water temperature to be maintained < 25 deg c.
• Chemical cleaning solution temperature to be maintained with respect to the pH.
• For BW membrane 1-12 pH @35 Deg c and 1 -10.5 pH @45 deg c.
• For SW membrane 1-12 pH @35 Deg c and 1 -10.5 pH @45 Deg c.
• Pressure (20 - 60 PSI) and flow 6 - 9.1 m3/Hr/Pressure tube, to be maintained during chemical
cleaning.
• Membrane supplier strongly recommended stage wise cleaning tube done separately. This will give
effective results.
• Fist cleaning to be done with alkaline pH then proceed acetic pH.

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RO MEMBRANE CLEANING PROCEDURE, CHEMICAL REQUIREMENT & SPECIFICATIONS
RO CHEMICAL CLEANING
• During chemical cleaning of RO system the following procedure to be carried out.
• Biological fouling in the RO system to be removed first. Hence we have preferred high pH chemical
cleaning then low pH cleaning. It will give better results.

CAUSTIC SODA + DSS CLEANING (INCASE OF BIOLOGICAL FOULING) :

• Chemical cleaning tank should be cleaned with water.

• Take 900 liter of RO permeate water in chemical cleaning tank and should be free of oxidizing
agent.

• Start the chemical cleaning pump & open the recirculation valve and add DSS (Dodecyl Sodium
Sulfate) slowly with RO permeate water for 900 Liter of solution 2.16kg DSS are used.

• Monitor the pH value and should be maintained within the limit of 7 -10. If not maintained add
NaoH (Max of 0.87kg) for maintaining the pH.

• Before chemical circulation ensure pump flow/chemical cleaning inlet line connection/return line /
permeate return connection to be made.

• When starting the chemical circulation first 10-15 % of solution should be drained out. That means
high concentration of contaminants should not be re – used.

• Circulate the solution 30 minutes check Feed flow, pH and temperature of solution and record the
same.

• Soak the chemical 30 minutes in the RO and both side (inlet /out let) should be closed during
soaking.

• Repeat the procedure if required.

• Drain out the chemical solution and flush the RO with RO permeate water up to the pH reaches
neutral.

CAUTION

• Temperature should not increase to more than 35 deg.

• pH should be maintained 7 -10.

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CITRIC ACID CLEANING (INCASE OF INORGANIC FOULING)

• Chemical cleaning tank should be cleaned with water.

• Take 900 liter of RO permeate water in chemical cleaning tank and should be free of oxidizing
agent.

• Start the chemical cleaning pump & open the recirculation valve, add Citric Acid and make Citric
Acid solution.

• To prepare 900 liters of cleaning solution are needed 8.74 kg of Citric Acid solution.

• Monitor the pH value and should be maintained within the limit of 2 - 4. If not maintained add
Ammonia (NH3) for maintaining the pH.

• Before chemical circulation ensure pump flow/chemical cleaning inlet line connection/return line /
permeate return connection to be made.

• When starting the chemical circulation first 10-15 % of solution should be drained out. That means
high concentration of contaminants should not be re – used.

• Circulate the solution 30 minutes check Feed flow, pH and temperature of solution and record the
same.

• Soak the chemical 30 minutes in the RO and both side (inlet /out let) should be closed during
soaking.

• Repeat the procedure if required.

• Drain out the chemical solution and flush the RO with RO permeate water Up to the pH reaches
neutral.

CAUTION

• Temperature should not increase to more than 35 deg.

• pH should be maintained 2 - 4.

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SODIUM HEXA META PHOSPHATE +HYTROCHLORIC ACID CLEANING (INCASE OF COLLIODAL
FOULING) :

• Chemical cleaning tank should be cleaned with water.

• Take 900 liter of RO permeate water in chemical cleaning tank and should be free of oxidizing
agent.

• Start the chemical cleaning pump & open the recirculation valve and add Sodium Hexa Meta
Phosphate(SHMP) slowly with RO permeate water. Ensure SHMP dissolved completely in the
chemical cleaning tank.

• To prepare 900 liter of cleaning solution are needed 8.74 kg of SHMP chemical powder.

• Add HCL (Max of 0.44 Kg) to the SHMP solution until pH value is reached 2. If it is going below 2
pH add caustic soda for maintaining pH is 2.

• Before chemical circulation ensure pump flow/chemical cleaning inlet line connection/return line /
permeate return connection to be made.

• When starting the chemical circulation first 10-15 % of solution should be drained out. That means
high concentration of contaminants should not be re – used.

• Circulate the solution 30 minutes check Feed flow, pH and temperature of solution and record the
same.

• Soak the chemical 30 minutes in the RO and both side (inlet /out let) should be closed during
soaking.

• Repeat the procedure if required.

• Drain out the chemical solution and flush the RO with RO permeate water up to the pH reaches
neutral.

CAUTION:

1. Temperature should not increase to more than 35 deg.

2. pH should be maintained 2 -3.

NOTE : The specified chemical quantity is was considered as 100% concentration.

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Do's and Don't s of Reverse Osmosis System

Do
· Maintain ORP between +200 TO +350 MV.
· Maintain minimum 0.5 Kg/cm2 pressure in RO HPP suction.
· Maintain recovery as per design
· Maintain the reject recirculation and reject drain as per design.
· Replace the MCF if the differential pressure crosses more than 0.8 Kg/cm2.
· Stop the HPP after full open of Brine control valve.
· Flush the RO with feed water for 5-10 min with RO feed pump before every startup and shutdown.

Don't s
· Don’t start the HPP with out full open of Brine control valve.
· Not to run the system with ORP more than +350 Mv.
· Never run the RO system with by pass of ORP meter and Dechlorination dosing.
· Never run the system with more than 2.5 Kg/cm2 differential pressure.
· Never run the system with permeate valve closed condition.
· Don’t start the system with out ensuring the Nil FRC in RO feed water.
· Never run the HPP with out minimum suction pressure of 0.5 Kg/cm2.

DE GASIFICATION SYSTEM
Start the De gasser blower immediately after startup of HPP pump. RO Permeate water is routed
to pass through a De gasification tower & the free carbon dioxide is removed from the water.

DEMINERALIZATION SYSTEM
The Operation can be performed Through Manually.
The above service cycle will perform with the fulfillment of following conditions/Interlocks.
1. OBR of SAC/SBA/MDB
2. pH of SAC
3. Conductivity of SBA
4. Conductivity & Silica of MDB

If any one of the above condition is not satisfied the particular system will go for regeneration
mode. All other units remaining idle.

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REGENERATION CYCLE:
Regeneration process calls for anyone of the following reasons.

A) Regeneration of SAC & SBA


▪ OBR of SAC exceeds 400m3/hr.
▪ SAC outlet pH increases above 4.5
▪ OBR of SBA exceeds 400m3/hr.
▪ SBA outlet Conductivity exceeds above 10.0 microsiemens/cm.

B) Regeneration of MB
▪ OBR of MB exceeds 6000 m3 /hr.
▪ MB outlet Conductivity exceeds above 0.5 microsiemens/cm

C) Regeneration of SAC, SBA & MB


▪ MB outlet Conductivity exceeds above 0.5 micro siemens/cm and the SBA outlet
Conductivity exceeds above 10.0 micro siemens/cm.
▪ MB outlet Silica exceeds above 0.02 ppm.

REGENERATION PROCEDURE FOR SAC:


Following operation can be done during SAC regeneration cycle. And The total time of
regeneration of a Strong Acid Cation shall not exceed 3 hours.
• Back Wash
• Middle collector Flushing
• Acid Injection
• Slow rinsing
• Final rinsing
During Regeneration cycle Flow and time should be followed as per the enclosed
“WTP - DM Regeneration design” sheet.

ACID INJECTION FOR SAC:

Cation resins shall be regenerated by Hydrochloric Acid (HCL). Check the level of Acid Measuring
tank and fill the Acid if the level is insufficient. Open the Power water valve and open the Acid outlet
valve up to achieve the required specific gravity. Chemical Injection time should be followed as per
the enclosed “WTP - DM Regeneration design” sheet.

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REGENERATION PROCEDURE FOR SBA:
Following operation can be done during SBA regeneration cycle. and The total time of regeneration
of a Strong Base Anion shall not exceed 3 hours.
• Back Wash
• Middle collector Flushing
• Caustic Injection
• Slow rinsing
• Final rinsing
During Regeneration cycle Flow and time should be followed as per the enclosed
“WTP - DM Regeneration design” sheet.

CAUSTIC INJECTION FOR SBA:


Anion resins shall be regenerated by Sodium Hydroxide. Check the level of Caustic Dilution tank
and fill the Caustic if the level is insufficient. Open the Power water valve and open the Caustic
outlet valve up to achieve the required specific gravity. Chemical Injection time should be followed
as per the enclosed “WTP - DM Regeneration design” sheet.

REGENERATION PROCEDURE FOR MDB:


Following operation can be done during MB regeneration cycle. And The total time of regeneration
of a Mixed Bed shall not exceed 3 hours.
• Back Wash
• Middle collector Flushing
• Caustic Injection
• Slow rinsing
• Acid Injection
• Slow Rinsing
• Water Drain for Air Scoring
• Air Scoring
• Final Rinsing
During Regeneration cycle Flow and time should be followed as per the enclosed
“WTP - DM Regeneration design” sheet.

ACID INJECTION FOR MDB:


Cation resins shall be regenerated by Hydrochloric Acid (HCL). Check the level of Acid Measuring
tank and fill the Acid if the level is insufficient. Open the Power water valve and open the Acid outlet
valve up to achieve the required specific gravity. Chemical Injection time should be followed as per
the enclosed “WTP - DM Regeneration design” sheet.

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CAUSTIC INJECTION FOR MDB:
Anion resins shall be regenerated by Sodium Hydroxide. Check the level of Caustic Dilution tank
and fill the Caustic if the level is insufficient. Open the Power water valve and open the Caustic
outlet valve up to achieve the required specific gravity. Chemical Injection time should be followed
as per the enclosed “WTP - DM Regeneration design” sheet.

After completion of the regeneration cycle, the DM stream is goes to service cycle.

SERVICE CYCLE:
DG WATER TRANSFER PUMP : WPP-13007A/B
Before starting the pump make ensure the DG water Storage tank level has sufficient water and
Open the suction and delivery valve. The delivery valve opening position adjust manually to
achieve the desired flow (service flow).
Caution: Never run the pump with air lock to avoid the damage of Pumps.

PH DOSING SYSTEM : DOT-53006


Check the level of pH dosing solution, and fill the solution if the level is insufficient. Start the dosing
pump and adjust the dosing rate as per required pH boost up. The dosing has to be optimized,
depending upon the required pH to avoid increase in TDS in the DM water. The same operation will
be done by automatically by auto - pH dosing pump.
Caution: Never run the pump with air lock to avoid the damage of diaphragm.
Note : Use Agitator for chemical preparation for proper mixing of chemical with water.

TROUBLE SHOOTING OF STRONG ACID CATION UNITS

Problem Cause Action


Carry regeneration as per
Loss of Capacity Improper regeneration
specifications
Change in raw water
Increase acid quantity
characteristics, Increase in
Na/TC.
Normal acid will not restore capacity
Over exhaustion of unit
increase acid quantity.
Remove resin fines Replace broken
Channeling strainer or laterals Faulty distribution
system-check and rectify.
Inspect resin bed depth
Loss of Resin
Control Backwash flow
Resin fouling 1. Get Resin analyze
2. Clean with acid

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3. Replace if analyze too much
decross linking and broken
beads.

Poor Quality of treated


Valve leakage Arrest the leakage
water
Higher flow greater than Increase Na/TC has more profound
normal design range effect on leakage from increased
increases leakage flow rate
The flow rate should be maintained
Low flow rate
above 0.5 GPM/ft3 of resin.
Does not have much effect except
Temperature
for very low temperature
Increased leakage (Analyze and
Increased TDS
correct).Add resin if required.
Valve leakage, High flow rate,
Hardness in Raw water change in Raw water composition .
Inefficient regeneration
Over exhaustion (Double injection)
High sodium slip in treated
Improper regeneration (Correct)
water

TROUBLE SHOOTING OF STRONG BASE ANION UNITS

Problem Cause Action


Put more resin, use more
Loss of capacity Increase in Ionic load regenerant. Check for Degasser
functioning.
Cation not working, Organically
Long Rinsing time
fouled resin. Give brine treatment.
Increase in Alkalinity Check. Add resin or reduce output
Chemically clean with hot caustic for
Fouled Resin silica & brine treatment for organic
fouling
Check Regeneration for Ca/Mg etc.
Check cation if regenerated by
Precipitation by Ca, Mg
H2SO4. Use Decationized or DM
water for dilution.
Use specified concentration of
Resin ageing
NaOH
Unit idle. Do not keep unit idle. Very
Bacterial contamination important where high purity water
required.

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Iron in regeneration or through
Heavy metal fouling leakage from cation. Damaged
Rubber lining.
Poor treated water Check cation. Do more Rinsing
High pH, high conductivity
quality Check conductivity meter
Check anion. Regeneration not
Low pH, High conductivity carried. properly. Organic fouling,
check pH meter
Resin organically fouled. (Clean
chemically). Carry regeneration as
per specification. Regeneration
High silica
temperature low (carry regeneration
by hot caustic). High service water
temperature, check.
Valve leakage, chloride in
Chloride leakage regenerant WBA not working silica
precipitation in WBA. Rectify.
Check cation. Use cation or DM
Hardness
water for dilution and rinsing.
Check raw water for sodium, check
Sodium leakage cation for sodium slip, Na slip give
rise conductivity.

TROUBLE SHOOTING OF MIXED BED UNITS


Problem Cause Action
Loss of capacity Organic fouling of anion Check and rectify. Give Brine wash
loss of resin.
Excessive Rinsing Organically fouled, clean.
Improper regeneration Channeling poor distribution. Check
laterals and strainers Use correct
quantity of regenerant.
Exhaustion of preceding MB need not be considered to be
cation / anion unit exhausted. Most MB’s are designed
for 3-4 runs of Anion and cation
Pressure drop Valve not opened fully. Broken or
blocked internals. High flow rate or
Resin fine etc.
Bacterial growth Unit idle. Check, Recycle water.
Poor Treated Water Low pH Anion resin organically fouled Clean,
quality Check Blower, Air Mixing not proper,
See note on acid leakage from MB.
High pH Cation/Anion not working, check,

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Regeneration not proper, check
Increase in ionic load.
Silica leakage Organic fouling clean. Improper
regeneration. Over exhaustion.
Clumping Happens with new resin, Give Brine
treatment.
High conductivity Air mix not proper, Insufficient air,
Fouled resin, Back wash not proper,
Improper regeneration, Channeling /
poor distribution.
General poor quality Loss of inert resin, Loss of cation
resin if no inert resin, Middle
collector not in proper position,
Backwash not proper. Air mixing not
proper

Do's and Don't s of MDB System.


Do
• Air Release and rinsing has to be done before every startup of service cycle.
• Maintain designed flow rate.
• Use clear MB water for regeneration solution preparation.
• Keep the AMT and CDT in closed condition.

Don't
• Don’t backwash with excess flow.
• Not to allow any oxidizing agent in to MB.
• Never use excessive chemical for regeneration.
• Never run the system with intermediate operation.

BULK ACID STORAGE SYSTEM :


Before starting the pump make ensure the connection between pump and tanker. The delivery
valve opening position adjust manually.
Caution: Never run the pump with air lock to avoid the damage of Pumps.

BULK CAUSTIC STORAGE SYSTEM :


Before starting the pump make ensure the connection between pump and tanker. The delivery
valve opening position adjust manually.
Caution: Never run the pump with air lock to avoid the damage of Pumps.

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NEUTRALIZED WATER TRANSFER PUMP :
Before starting the pump make sure the water level in Neutralization pit. Close the delivery valve
and then start the pump after priming. Open the delivery valve gradually to transfer the neutralized
water to guard pond.
Caution: Never run the pump with air lock to avoid the damage of Pumps.

6) SYSTEM DESCRIPTION – COOLING TOWER MAKEUP


FILTER FEED PUMP FOR CT MAKEUP : WPP-13002A/B
To feed the raw water from Raw Water Storage Tank to CT-filtration system, Two numbers (1W+1S)
of Filter feed pumps are provided. The capacity of pumps are 22.5 m3/hr @ 3.5 kg/Cm2. The same
pumps shall be used for CT-multi grade filter backwash. Suitable valves are provided for suction and
Delivery line for flow controlling.

MULTI GRADE FILTER : MGF-13002


After the dosing Multi Grade Filter is installed for primary filtration of raw water. It is Dead end
Filtration and there is no rejection. Some residual iron, manganese, clay, inert solids, bacteria, and
other constituents are still present in the water.
Filtration is the process of passing properly treated water through a bed of some type of media for
the purpose of reducing the particle concentration present in the water.
Multi Grade filter of size 1200mm dia and 2300 mm vertical height with both top and bottom dished
end construction provided for primary filtration of raw water. Raw water is passed through a Multi
Grade Filter (MGF) unit in order to remove suspended matters & turbidity present in raw water. It is
an MSRL vertical pressure vessel. Internally it is fitted with inlet top distributor and bottom
collecting system. Externally this unit is fitted MSRL frontal piping with butterfly valve for operation.
Inlet outlet pressure gauges and sampling valves also provided for performance observation of
filter.
This unit is charged with various sizes of pebbles, quartz sands of various sizes as per standard bed
height. Size of the media will be arranged such that the bottom contains larges size of pebbles and
top layer will be fine sand. Suspended matters & turbidity gets removed when raw water is passed in
downward direction through this filter bed under pressure. The Multi Grade Filter is capable to filter
up to particles size of 10 micron to 1 mm.

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ACTIVATED CARBON FILTER : ACF-13001
Activated carbon filter is installed for primary filtration of raw water. It is Dead end Filtration and
there is no rejection. Some residual iron, manganese, clay, inert solids, oder, chlorine, bacteria,
and other constituents are still present in the water.
Filtration is the process of passing properly treated water through a bed of some type of media for
the purpose of reducing the particle concentration present in the water.
Multi Grade filter of size 1200mm dia and 2300 mm vertical height with both top and bottom dished
end construction provided for primary filtration of raw water. Raw water is passed through a
Activated Carbon Filter ACF unit in order to remove suspended matters,oder, smell, & turbidity
present in raw water. It is an MSRL vertical pressure vessel. Internally it is fitted with inlet top
distributor and bottom collecting system. Externally this unit is fitted MSRL frontal piping with
butterfly valve for operation. Inlet outlet pressure gauges and sampling valves also provided for
performance observation of filter.
This unit is charged with various sizes of pebbles, quartz sands of various sizes as per standard bed
height Size of the media will be arranged such that the bottom contains larges size of pebbles and
top layer will be fine sand and activated carbon is used. Suspended matters & turbidity chlorine oder
gets removed when raw water is passed in downward direction through this filter bed under pressure.

SOFTNER SYSTEM : SOF 13001


The softening process consists of passing raw water containing hardness through a bed of cation
resin in sodium form. The hardness ions Ca & Mg are taken up by resin and in exchange sodium
ions are relinquished from the resin. Raw water will continue to get softened till the resin gets
exhausted. Bringing back the resin to it original form is called regeneration. Softener resin is
regenerated by sodium chloride of 10—15 % Concentration.

Softening is the process used for removal of hardness. The feed water containing hardness is
passed through the sodium form Cation resin. Calcium and magnesium both being divalent
displace the monovalent sodium and gets attached to the resin. The treated water coming out of
the unit contains the Na ions which has been displaced by Ca and Mg. As more and more
untreated water passes the unit the resin goes on getting converted to Ca and Mg form. The
selectivity of resin for divalent compound is more than that for monovalent ion. Higher
molecular weight ion is preferred if both ions are of same valence. Ca ions having higher molecular
weight is preferred over Mg ions and thus displaces the Mg ions further down the resin bed. Thus
the top of the resin is enriched with Ca ion. Ca ions pushes the Mg ions down the column
which in turn pushes the Na ions. This cycle continues till the hardness starts leaching out of the
unit. This is known as Exhaustion. The ions which appears first at the end of service cycle is
predominantly is Mg ions. Being dependent on flow rate and uniformity of flow distribution the
band may not be totally distinct. The effluent hardness is less than 5 ppm for low TDS water but

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is about 1% of the total influent hardness in a co-flow regenerated unit depending upon the
regenerant level.
Softner vessel - SOF13001 (20.2 m3/hr Capacity) is made up of MSRL and the size of 1500 mm
dia and 2500 mm Height has been arrived based on the input cation(Ca & Mg) load to the Softner.

BRINE MEASURING TANK FOR SOFTNER : BMT-53001


Softener resins shall be regenerated by Sodium Chlorite (NaCl).
The system consists of HDPE and Capacity of 2m3 sizes 1350mm DIA and 1600mm HOS tank
with over flow drain arrangement, One level indicator provided for visible level observation. One
agitator provided for brine solution preparation, salt proper mixing with water.

Service Cycle

Ca (HCO3)2 Ca NaHCO3
SO4 + Na2 R  R + Na2 SO4
Mg Cl2 Mg NaCl

Regeneration Cycle
Ca CaCl2
R + NaCl  Na2 R +
Mg Mg

7) SYSTEM OPERATION – COOLING TOWER MAKEUP


FILTER FEED PUMP FOR CT MAKEUP
Before starting the pump make sure the RWST has sufficient water. Close the delivery valve and
Start the Raw Water transfer Pump. Open the delivery valve gradually and adjust up to the required
flow and pressure to the Multi Grade Filter Inlet.

MULTI GRADE FILTER


• Before starting the pump open the service inlet valve and air vent valve ensure the complete air
release through air vent pipe.
• Open Service inlet valve and the Rinse outlet Valve and drain the water for few minutes.
• Check the quality of rinse out let if water quality found OK.
• Close the rinse outlet valve and open the Service outlet Valve.
• If the Pressure drop across the filter exceeds 0.8 kg/cm2 Isolate the filter and proceed for
Backwash.

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V13287 : SERVICE INLET VALVE
V13288 : BACK WASH OUTLET VALVE
V13289 : BACK WASH INLET VALVE
V13290 : SERVICE OUTLET VALVE
V13291 : RINSE OUTLET VALVE
V63292 : AIR RELEASE VALVE

Ensure the Multi Grade Filter is backwashed daily, irrespective of the no. of hours of service or
pressure drop across the filter bed.

Open backwash has to be done once in 6 months.

Procedure for Open Backwash


Open the top manhole of body flange as per the MGF design and drain the water from the filter and
maintain water level of 100 mm above the top layer of the filter media. Observe the media
condition. if the media condition is worst add HCL acid and maintain 5% concentration in the filter
and continue for soaking of 6-8 hrs. Start the filter feed pump and open backwash inlet valve and
maintain backwash flow velocity of 24-30 meter/hr. Continue this open backwash for 15-20 minutes
still the clear water from the backwash overflow. Now check the media condition if necessary
continue the above process for till getting satisfactory result. From the above treatment if the media
is not cleaned perfectly remove the media and replace the worst portion of the media.

Washing The Media


• Open the backwash outlet valve fully, and open the backwash inlet valve ensuring that sand is not
carried over to drain. Continue backwashing until the effluent is completely clear, and then close
both the valves.
• Open the rinse outlet valve and drain the water level in the vessel to just below the surface of the
filter bed. Scrape the top surface and remove any fines and dust collected on the surface.
• Close the vessel manhole.
• Connect the air release pipe.

Charging The Media


• Unpack the under bed material comprising of four grades of pebbles and Silex, fine sand by
opening side man hole if provided. Wash each separate grade thoroughly with Water to make it
free from dust, dirt and other impurities.
• Open the backwash inlet valve to fill up water in the vessel. And clean the vessel inside surface

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area then charge the First (coarser) layer of pebbles into the vessel with extreme care, so as to
avoid damaging the laterals or nozzles/strainers, and arrange the pebbles properly around the
laterals. Level the layer and note its depth.
• Charge the remaining layers of pebbles and gravels successively in a Similar manner, first
increasing the water level stepwise to cover each successive layer (by opening backwash inlet
valve), then charging and leveling each layer, and noting the bed depth at each stage. Check and
note the total depth of the under bed.
• Open the service inlet valve and fill up about half the vessel with water. Charge the mixed sand
media and level the top surface uniformly. Check the bed depth. Carry out open backwash for 10
minutes or until the clear water from backwash overflow.
• Fit the inverted bell mouth distributor.
• Close the manhole then fill the water by opening the service inlet valve ensure the complete air
release. Then carry out the backwash and rinsing before service cycle.

Do's and Don't s of Filtration

Do:

• Perform thorough filter inspections and correct problems as needed.


• Monitor peak turbidities, particle counts, backwash water turbidity, media % expansions, run times,
head loss, filtration rates, surface wash pressure and flow rates, etc.
• Adjust backwash rates & times as needed to properly clean the filters. - observe backwash for
signs of air and other problems. - continue to optimize backwash procedures by implementing step
backwash procedures or backwash water treatment (polymer or coagulant).
• Record keeping is very important for monitoring filter performance. If numbers are out of range,
they should trigger a maintenance work order or corrective action. Be specific on work order
requests since problems may occur on off-hours.

Don't:
• exceed filtration rate maximum for the filters (~ 3.0 MGD)
• make sudden and significant filtration rate changes. At my plant, no more than 0.1 MGD per filter in
30 minutes.
• re-start "dirty or off-line filters without backwashing first.
• keep poor performing filters, based on high effluent turbidity or particle counts, in service. Take bad
filters out of service.

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ACTIVATED CARBON FILTER
• Before open the MGF service Outlet valve open the service inlet valve and air vent valve ensure
the complete air release through air vent pipe
• Open Service inlet valve and the Rinse outlet Valve and drain the water for few minutes.
• Check the quality of rinse out let if water quality found OK.
• Close the rinse outlet valve and open the Service outlet Valve.
• If the Pressure drop across the filter exceeds 0.5 kg/cm2 Isolate the filter and proceed for
Backwash.

V13297 SERVICE INLET VALVE


V13298 BACK WASH OUTLET VALVE
V13299 BACK WASH INLET VALVE
V13300 SERVICE OUTLET VALVE
V13301 RINSE OUTLET VALVE
V63302 AIR RELEASE VALVE

Ensure the Activated Carbon Filter is backwashed daily, irrespective of the no. of hours of service
or pressure drop across the filter bed.

Open backwash has to be done once in 6 months.

Procedure for Open Backwash


Open the top manhole of body flange as per the ACF design and drain the water from the filter and
maintain water level of 100 mm above the top layer of the filter media. Observe the media
condition. if the media condition is worst add HCL acid and maintain 5% concentration in the filter
and continue for soaking of 6-8 hrs. if available blower Start the air scouring blower and continue
air scouring for 15-30 min. Then start the filter feed pump and open backwash inlet valve and
maintain backwash flow velocity of 24-30 meter/hr. Continue this open backwash for 15-20 minutes
still the clear water from the backwash overflow. Now check the media condition if necessary
continue the above process for till getting satisfactory result. From the above treatment if the media
is not cleaned perfectly remove the media and replace the worst portion of the media.

Washing The Media


• Open the backwash outlet valve fully, and open the backwash inlet valve ensuring that sand is not
carried over to drain. Continue backwashing until the effluent is completely clear, and then close
both the valves.
• Open the rinse outlet valve and drain the water level in the vessel to just below the surface of the
filter bed. Scrape the top surface and remove any fines and dust collected on the surface.

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• Close the vessel manhole.
• Connect the air release pipe.

Charging The Media


• Unpack the under bed material comprising of four grades of pebbles and Silex, fine sand by
opening side man hole if provided. Wash each separate grade thoroughly with Water to make it
free from dust, dirt and other impurities.
• Open the backwash inlet valve to fill up water in the vessel. And clean the vessel inside surface
area then charge the First (coarser) layer of pebbles into the vessel with extreme care, so as to
avoid damaging the laterals or nozzles/strainers, and arrange the pebbles properly around the
laterals. Level the layer and note its depth.
• Charge the remaining layers of pebbles and gravels successively in a Similar manner, first
increasing the water level stepwise to cover each successive layer (by opening backwash inlet
valve), then charging and leveling each layer, and noting the bed depth at each stage. Check and
note the total depth of the under bed.
• Open the service inlet valve and fill up about half the vessel with water. Charge the mixed sand
media and level the top surface uniformly. Check the bed depth. Carry out open backwash for 10
minutes or until the clear water from backwash overflow.
• Fit the inverted bell mouth distributor.
• Close the manhole then fill the water by opening the service inlet valve ensure the complete air
release. Then carry out the backwash and rinsing before service cycle.

Do's and Don't s of Filtration

Do:

• Perform thorough filter inspections and correct problems as needed.


• Monitor peak turbidities, particle counts, backwash water turbidity, media % expansions, run times,
head loss, filtration rates, surface wash pressure and flow rates, etc.
• Adjust backwash rates & times as needed to properly clean the filters. - observe backwash for
signs of air and other problems. - continue to optimize backwash procedures by implementing step
backwash procedures or backwash water treatment (polymer or coagulant).
• Record keeping is very important for monitoring filter performance. If numbers are out of range,
they should trigger a maintenance work order or corrective action. Be specific on work order
requests since problems may occur on off-hours.

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Don't:
• exceed filtration rate maximum for the filters (~ 3.0 MGD)
• make sudden and significant filtration rate changes. At my plant, no more than 0.1 MGD per filter in
30 minutes.
• re-start "dirty or off-line filters without backwashing first.

• keep poor performing filters, based on high effluent turbidity or particle counts, in service. Take bad
filters out of service.

SOFTENER

Service cycle
• Before open the ACF service Outlet valve open the service inlet valve and air vent valve ensure the
complete air release through air vent pipe
• Open Service inlet valve and the Rinse outlet Valve and drain the water for few minutes.
• Check the quality of rinse out let if water quality found OK.
• Close the rinse outlet valve and open the Service outlet Valve.
• If the Pressure drop across the filter exceeds 0.5 kg/cm2 Isolate the filter and proceed for
Backwash.

V13307 SERVICE INLET VALVE


V13308 BACK WASH OUTLET VALVE
V13309 BACK WASH INLET VALVE
V13310 SERVICE OUTLET VALVE
V13311 RINSE OUTLET VALVE
V63312 AIR RELEASE VALVE
V13315 POWER WATER INLET VALVE
V53316 EJECTOR SUCTION VALVE

Regeneration
After the unit has given specified quantity of treated water, it has to be regenerated.

Backwash and brine injection


• Open back wash inlet valve and back wash out let valve for 10 minutes.
• After back washing close the back wash inelt out let valve and start the injection.

• Before starting the brine injection open the rinse outlet valve and power water inlet valve and brine
ejector suction valve for 20 – 30 minutes.

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• After completion of brine solution close the ejector suction valve and continue the slow rinsing 20 –
30 minutes or upto brine tracing come out from the water. Close the Power water inlet valve and
start the final rinsing

Final rinse
• Open the service inlet valve and rising out let valve. Start the feed pump this operation continued
20 -30 minutes or outlet water hardness less than 30ppm.
• Then service cycle to continued. open the service outlet valve and close the rinsing outlet valve.

8. PERFORMANCE GUARANTEED WATER PARAMETERS AT THE OUTLET OF MIXED BED


PERFORMANCE GUARANTEE
• pH @ 25 Deg. C : 8.8 – 9.2 (After pH correction Dosing)
• Conductivity @ 25 Deg. C : < 0.5 Micro Siemens/cm (Before pH Correction Dosing)
• Total silica : < 0.02 ppm
• Net output at the outlet of MDB : 20 m3 /hr.

9. TOPUP RESIN REQUIREMENT FOR SAC, SBA, MB & SOFTNER


TOTAL QTY. TOPUP QTY.
S. NO APPILICATION MAKE TYPE
(Liters) (Liters)

1 SAC-01 RESIN (Cation) Rohm & Hass AMBERJET 1000H 800 40

2 SBA-01 RESIN (Anion) Rohm & Hass AMBERJET 4200CL 800 40

3 MB-01 RESIN (Cation) Rohm & Hass AMBERJET 1000H 400 20

4 MB-01 RESIN (Anion) Rohm & Hass AMBERJET 4200CL 600 30

5 SAC-02 RESIN (Cation) Rohm & Hass AMBERJET 1000H 800 40

6 SBA-02 RESIN (Anion) Rohm & Hass AMBERJET 4200CL 800 40

7 MB-02 RESIN (Cation) Rohm & Hass AMBERJET 1000H 400 20

8 MB-02 RESIN (Anion) Rohm & Hass AMBERJET 4200CL 600 30

9 SOFTENER RESIN Rohm & Hass AMBERLITE 120Na 2250 Liters 125

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10. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS PROCEDURE
METHODS OF WATER ANALYSIS

CHEMICAL CONTROL

CHLORIDES

Reagents and apparatus

Burette for silver Nitrate

Silver Nitrate solution 0.02N (N/50)

Potassium Chromate indicator solution

Phenolphthalein indicator solution

Nitric acid 0.02 (n/50)

10 ml. Graduate cylinder

10 ml. Graduated pipette (for boiler water or water with high chloride content).

150 ml. conical flask

METHOD

e) Measure a 100ml. Sample of the water to be tested in the graduated cylinder, then pour sample
into the conical flask.

f) Add five drops of Phenolphthalein indicator, if the sample turns pink run in 0.02N Nitric Acid until
the pink color is just discharged.

g) Add five drops of potassium chromate indicator.

h) Run silver nitrate into the sample, drop by drop, with constant shaking until the yellow color begins
to acquire a faint orange tint.

i) Note the burette reading – ‘A’

Measure out 100ml. Of distilled (or deionized) water, pour into the flask and repeat the test procedure note
the burette reading – ‘B’.

CALCULATION

Chloride content = (‘A’ – ‘B’) ml. Of 0.02N Silver Nitrate used x 10 expressed in parts per million (ppm) as
CaCO3.

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CHLORIDES

Mercuric Nitrate method for determination of chloride

REAGENTS AND APPARATUS

Burette for Mercuric Nitride

0.02N Mercuric Nitrate Hg (NO3)2 solution.

Concentrated Nitric Acid.

Distilled water.

0.02N Sodium Chloride solution.

0.1% w/v solution Diphenylcarbazone.

Nickel Nitride (buffer solution)

100 ml. Graduated pipettes.

250ml. conical flasks.

REAGENTS

(1) 0.02N MERCURIC NITRATE Hg (NO3)2

Dissolve 3.24 gms Hg (NO3)2 or 3.42 gms Hg (NO3)2 in approximately 500 ml. Of deionized or distilled
water which contains 3 ml. Of concentrated Nitric Acid. When totally dissolved make up to 1 liter
standardize as under procedure against standard Sodium Chloride solution.

(2) Standard Sodium Chloride solution (0.02N)

Dissolve 1.17 gms of pre-dried granular Sodium Chloride in 1 ltr. O distilled or deionized water (i.e. 1ml
0.02N NaCl = 1 MgCl as CaCO3).

(3) 0.1% w/v solution of Diphenylcarbazone in Iso-Propanol or Ethanol this solution is unstable and should
be renewed monthly.

(4) Nickel Nitrate (buffer solution)

4 molar crystalline nickel nitrate solution containing 5 ml of concentrated Nitric acid per 10 ml. Of solution.

PROCEDURE

Measure 100ml. Of sample into a 250 ml. Flask, add 2 ml. Diphenylcarbazone solution and mix and of
Nickel Nitrate buffer solution and mix again. The resulting solution should be a pale green color if the
solution has an orange tint, add Nitrate drop wise until the green tint is achieved. Titrate the solution with
Mercuric Nitrate until a faint but persistent violet color is observed (I.e. the end point).

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CALCULATION

Chloride content = Ml. Of titration solution x 1000 ml. Of sample expressed in ppm
chloride as caco3.

TEST SILICA (0-1 PPM) – MOLYBDENUM BLUE METHOD.

REAGENTS

(1) ACID MOLYBDATE SOLUTION

75 gms of Ammonium Molybdate annular are dissolved in 50 ml of distilled water. 322 ml of 10/n Sulphuric
acid are added gradually with constant shaking the solution is then made up to 1 liter with Silica free water.

NOTE

(1) Approx. 10/n Sulphuric acid is prepared by mixing 10 ml of conc. Silica-free water.

(2) 10% w/v Tartaric acid solution (or 10% Oxalic acid solution).

(3) REDUCING AGENT

[A] 90 gms Sodium Meta bisulphite are dissolved in 800 ml of silica free water.

[B] 7 gms Anhydrous Sodium Sulphate is dissolved in 10 ml. Silica free water. Together with 1.5gms of
1- Amino, 2- Naphthol, 4-Sulphonic acid solution (b) is mixed with solution (a) and the total volume made
up to 1 litre with silica-free water.

APPARATUS

LOVIBOND NESSLERISER

Disc for silica 0.2-1.0 ppm

Two 50 ml. Graduated tubes for nessleriser pipettes.

Alternatively a spectrophotometer may be used at the wave length corresponding to a maximum


absorption (approx. 80 mu But the exact wave length will have to be checked on each individual
instrument.

METHOD

50 mls of the water under test is treated with 2.0 ml. Acid Molybdate solution and allowed to stand for 5
mins. At a temperature of 20 – 300C if a tinge of yellow appears, 4 ml. Of 10% Tartaric (or Oxalic) acid is
added to the sample followed by 1.0 ml. Of reducing agent and the sample allowed to stand for 20 mins.
The blue colour of the sample is compared with that of a blank comprising the same water without
reagents, using either a B.D.H. lovibond nessleriser or a previously calibrated absorption meter.

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SILICA FREE WATER

Prepare and store in a polythene bottle a large batch of water containing not more than 0.005 SiO2
determine the silica content of the water by treating it as a sample as under ‘method’. This water is used to
prepare reagents and standards and to dilute samples when necessary – distilled water from an all metal
‘still’ or water which has been passed successively through a mixed bed deionization unit regenerated with
NaOH at a level of 20 lbs./cu.ft has been found to meet this specification.

TEST SILICA (0-1 PPM) – MOLYBDENUM BLUE METHOD.

REAGENTS AND APPARATUS

BDH Lovibond nessleriser.

Disc with colour standards 0.05 mg. To 1.0 mg SiO2.

10% w/v aqueous solution of Ammonium Molybdate.

2N Sulphuric Acid solution.

METHOD

1. Fill one of the nessler glasses to the 50 ml. Mark with the sample and place in the left hand
compartment of the nessleriser.

2. Fill the other nessler glass with the sample at 25-300C. Add 4 ml. Of the 2N Sulphuric acid and 2 ml
of the Ammonium Molybdate solution. Mix thoroughly, place in the right hand compartment and
allow to stand for 10 minutes.

3. Fit the glass standard disc in the hinged lid.

4. Stand the nessleriser facing a uniform source of light, looking north if possible and compare the
colour of the sample with the colours in the disc. Rotate the disc until the colours are matched.

INTERPRETATION OF RESULT

Silica content in parts/million (ppm) = disc Reading x 20 as SiO2. Should the Colour in the test solution be
deeper than the deepest standard, a fresh test should be carried out using a smaller quantity of sample
and diluting to 50 ml. With distilled water before adding the reagents.

NOTE

Most colorless salts, even when present in relatively large quantities are without influence upon the Colour

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produced in the test provided the concentration of free acid is not unduly disturbed. Phosphates, however,
must be absent, since they respond to the test and yield a yellow Colour similar to that produced by silica.
Phosphates maybe removed by treating 100c. Of the solution under test with 50ml of Sorensen’s borate
buffer solution (pH – 10.0) and 2 ml of 2N Calcium Chloride solution; after mixing and allowing to stand for
2 Hours the mixture is filtered. The test is made on 50 ml of the filtrate by the method described above. As
Sorensen’s borate buffer invariably contains silica derived from the glass bottle, a blank test should be
carried out and the necessary correction made. The result must be multiplied by 1.5.

TEST ALKALINITY

(TOTAL METHYL ORANGE AND PHENOLPTHALEIN)

REAGENTS AND APPARATUS

f) Burette for standard acid.

g) Nitric acid 0.02N (N/50).

h) Ml.graduated measuring cylinder

i) Conical flask (150 ml).

j) Phenolphthalein indicator solution

k) Screened Methyl Orange indicator solution

l) Ml. graduated pipette

m) Sodium ThioSulphate 10% q/v solution.

METHOD

If the alkalinity of the water is low, 100 ml. of sample should be measured using the graduated cylinder.
Otherwise a 10 or 20 ml. portion of sample should be taken with the pipette.

• Transfer the appropriate amount of sample to the conical – flask and add 5 drops of
Phenolphthalein indicator.

• Run in 0.02 N Nitric Acid from the burette until the pink colouration is just discharged.

• Note the volume of acid used multiply by the appropriate factor (see table) and record as ‘P’.

MLS OF SAMPLE TAKEN FACTOR

100 X 10

20 X 50

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10 X 100

• If the water is chlorinated add 2 drops of Sodium ThioSulphate solution. Add 2 drops of screened
methyl orange indicator add continue the addition of acid until the solution just turns to Smoke
Grey.

• Read the burette again note the total amount of acid used in both titration and multiply by the
appropriate factor (see the table above) record result as ‘M’.

INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS

The relative quantities of Bicarbonate and Carbonate and Caustic Alkalinity can then be obtained from the
following table

BICARBONATE CARBONATE CAUSTIC

P = Nil M=Nil Nil

P>1/2M M-2P 2P Nil

P=1/2M Nil 2P Nil

P>1/2M Nil 2(M-P) 2(P-M)

P=M Nil Nil P

NOTE

The above results are expressed in Parts/Million (PPM) as CaCO3.

CI) Screened Methyl Orange indicator solution. Preparation of indicator solution-dissolve 0.2g of
crystalline Methyl Orange in mixture of 25 ml. Cyanol FF in a mixture of 25 ml. Methylated spirits
and 25 ml deionized water. Mix the two solutions together.

CII)For most raw water samples, as also lime softened waters a 100 ml. sample.

CIII) Use Sodium Thiosulphate solution before addition of Methyl Orange only if water has been
chlorinated e.g. from bottling precipitators.

TEST HARDNESS

REAGENTS AND APPARATUS

1. N/50 E.D.T.A.

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4.0 Grams of Di sodium Di hydrogen Ethylene Di amine Tetra Acetate are dissolved in 800 ml of
water and standardized and adjusted a standard hardness solution unit 1 ml. = 1m. gm. CaCO3

2. AMONIA BUFFER

(a) Dissolve 16.9 g Ammonium Chloride, NH4H in 143 ml Conc. Ammonium Hydroxide, NH4OH; add
125 g of Magnesium salt of EDTA (this salt is available commercially) water.

(b) A buffer containing the Magnesium salt of EDTA may to be made as follows

Dissolve 16.9 g NH4Cl in 143 ml conc. NH2OH. Weigh out 0.25 g MgSO4 7H2O. Transfer
quantitatively to a 100 ml. volumetric flask and make up to column with distilled water. Pipette 50.0
ml of this solution into a porcelain dish; add a few drops of the NH4Cl-NH4OH solution (sufficient to
achieve a pH of 10.0-10.1); add 2-3 drops of indicator solution and titrate with EDTA with
continuous stirring until a steel-blue Colour with no tinge of red is present. To the 50 ml. of solution
remaining in the volumetric flask add exactly the volume of delta required in the above titration add
this solution to the NH4Cl-NH4OH moisture and make up to 200 ml. with distilled water.

Keep the solution (A or B) in a plastic or resistant glass container, tightly stopper to prevent loss of
NH3 or pickup of CO2.

3. INDICATOR

Mix 0.5g of Erichrome black T with 4.0 g Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride. Dissolve this mixture in 100
ml. of 95 per cent ethyl or isopropyl Alcohol.

• BURETTE FOR N/50 EDTA.

• 250 ml beaker.

• 50 ml measuring cylinder

• Stirring rod

• For soft water use 750 ml. evaporating dish and magnetic or electric stirrer.

• 50 ml. measuring cylinder.

FOR RAW WATER

A 50 ml quantity of the water is measured out in a measuring cylinder. 40 ml. of this are placed in a 250
ml. beaker 1 ml. of buffer solution and 6-8 drops indicator are added. The titration is then carried out by
adding delta solution from the burette, until the last tinge of red disappears. The last 10 ml. of water are

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then added and the titration completed to the same end-point. The liquid in the beaker is stirred and
supported on a stand, through which the beaker is illuminated from underneath by a blue light.

CHLORINE TEST PROCEDURE

Measure 5 ml. of the reagent in to a glass cylinder to this add rapidly 50 ml. of the water under test mix
thoroughly allow to stand for 1 minute and then compose the Colour with the Colour chart.

COLOUR PRODUCED FRC


WHITE MILKY FLUORESCENT NONE
FOINTLY PINK & MILKY 0.1 PPM
PINK 0.2 PPM
RED 0.5 PPM
PURPLE 0.6 PPM
VIOLET 0.8 PPM
BLUE 1.0 PPM

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF WATER FOR TSS, TDS & TS

Total solids are considered to be the sum of dissolved and suspended solids. In water sources the
dissolved solids which usually pre dominate, consist mainly of in organic salts, small amount of organic
matter and dissolved gases. The suspended solids contain much of the organic matter. Any increase of
these tends to increase the degree of pollution of water if used for public health purposes. Moreover this
parameter is very important for analysis especially in Reverse Osmosis plants as a measure of it’s
Performance.

Hence, to carry out the following analysis for unfiltered and filtered sample to determine TDS & TSS as
ppm for a water sample from s particular source.

PROCEDURE

• Weight accurately a thoroughly cleaned and dried evaporating dish of 250ml say ‘m1’ gram on
laboratory physical balance.

• Take 100ml of water sample in it.

• Evaporate the water carefully to dryness.

• When it is almost dried, keep the dish in a hot air over for 110-1000C

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• When residual water is removed completely, cool it at a desiccators to room temperature and find
the mass of residual along with the dish – say '2' gram

Mass of the residual = (m2 – m1) = x gram

The total solids in the sample X x 106/102=104 ppm

Note repeat the above for filter and unfiltered of the sample to determine TSS separately.

SYSTEM MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE SHOOTING


SYSTEM MAINTENANCE
In every section of The WTP system standby drives had been provided to overcome unexpected
shutdown. Regarding the process equipment standby is not provided and the same has to be
taken care by scheduled preventive maintenance. This section consists of summary of system
maintenance tasks which include scheduled maintenance, trouble shooting and repairs. This
section is to be read in conjunction with the detailed maintenance/trouble shooting/repair
instructions in the respective manuals supplied by various manufactures. All maintenance should
be documented in a maintenance log, so as to maintain a chronological history of all maintenance
tasks performed.

TYPE OF MAINTENANCE :
SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE
Regular preventive maintenance tasks are recommended on a periodic basis. The critical aspects
are summarized below.

INSTRUMENT CALIBRATION
Recommend intervals for calibration tasks as recommended on a periodic basis. The critical
aspects are summarized below to serve as quite.

INSTRUMENT RECOMMENDED INTERVAL

Conductivity Indicator 90 days


PH Indicator 90 days
Silica Analyzer 90 days
Pressure Gauge 100 days
Pressure Switch 30 days
Flow Indicator 60 days
Flow Transmitter 30 days

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ROUTINE MAINTENANCE
Open the valve bodies periodically and check the condition of internal parts and lubricate the seats/
spindles.

11. P&ID DIAGRAM FOR WATER TREATMENT PLANT


ENCLOSED.

12. POWER CONSUMPTION DETAILS


ENCLOSED.

13. TENTATIVE CHEMICAL REQUIREMENTS


ENCLOSED.

14. VENDOR'S MANUALS


ENCLOSED.

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14. TECHNICAL SUPPORT
Contact CL personnel in the following cases :
• When the module is preserved longer duration.
• For any failure of the system.
• For any up gradation of the system.
• For expansion of the system.
• Degrade in salt rejection.
• High differential pressure across the membrane system.

Do & Don’t Guide Line


• To follow the guide lines provided in O&M Manual for proper starting and shutdown of the plant.
• The plant to be operated by the trained and experienced personnel.

• To check the SDI of the feed water everyday before the HP Pump.

• To check the pressure difference of the MCF and to closely monitor the same.
• Change the MCF cartridges if the pressure difference exceeds more than 1.0 kg/cm2 OR once in
three months whichever earlier.
• Before starting HPP, keep the system full of water and free of air.

• Check for any abnormality of HPP.

• Correctly balance the RO Product and reject flow rate as per the plant design and specifications.

• Ensure system interlocks are in line as a protection to the plant equipments.

• Closely observe the pressure difference across the RO Module, quality of product water produced.

• Carry out minimum 15 min. flushing before starting and shutdown of the plant.

• Calibrate all the instruments for accuracy and reliability of data’s for ensuring overall integrity and
efficiency of the plant at regular intervals as per our recommendation.
• Keeps proper record of daily operational log sheets review the plant status, recording of daily
events, activities carried out and to maintain the equipment history record to carry out necessary
service in time.
• Always maintain minimum inventory of original spares and regular consumables to reduce down
time of the plant equipments.

Do Not
• Not to operate the plant when the SDI of the feed water is more than the limiting factor specified.
• Not to operate the plant when the pressure difference across MCF is more than 1.0 kg/cm2.
• Not to operate the plant when the feed water conductivity is more than the limiting factor specified.
• Not to run the HPP with LPS by passed and with insufficient suction pressure.
• Not exceed the product recovery rate more than the specified value.

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• Not to open and dismantle and HPP during the Guarantee Period without prior information to M/s.
CL.
• Not to open the RO module in case of any deviations of the plant parameters without prior
information to Ms/. CL during the Guarantee Period.
• Not to carry out any chemical cleaning during the guarantee period without prior information to Ms/.
CL as well as without the presence of M/s. CL’s representatives.
• Not to operate the plant without checking the presence of any oxidizing agents such as ozone,
chlorine before the RO feed.
• Not to use duplicate spare parts/regular consumables this may impair the long life of system and
equipments.

BRANCH OFFICES/AGENTS/REPRESENTATIVES AVAILABLE IN


ALL MAJOR CITIES; FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASES CONTACT
REGD. OFFICE & FACTORY
M/s CETHAR LIMITED
No 4, Dindigul Road,
Tiruchirapalli
Tamil Nadu 620 001
Phone No. : 0431-2484000
Fax No. : 0431-2481079

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