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Cell Structure and Processes

Teacher Michael Naputi


Cell structures

Animal Cells

Plant Cells


Cell membrane - thin layer that surrounds the cell

Genetic material - substances like DNA that control life processes

Mitochondria - the powerhouse of the cell

Chlorophyll - substance that convert sunlight to energy

Metabolism - all the chemical reactions in an organism

Diffusion - movement of particles from high to low concentration

Osmosis - diffusion of water through a cell membrane

Cell Structures
There are many types of cells, but they all share many of the same features.

- Cell membrane - surrounds and protects the cell parts

- Genetic material - controls life processes
- Cytoplasm - fluid area inside of a cell
- Ribosomes - where proteins are made
Animal Cells
Animal cells are found in the smallest insects to the
largest mammals.

Some of the important structures:

Cell membrane - protects the cell and controls

movement of substances

Nucleus - contains the genetic material for the cell

Cytoplasm - liquid area that holds other cell parts

Mitochondria - converts energy for the cell

Plant Cells
Plant cells are very similar to animal cells. Many of
the structures are the same, but there are some
very big differences.

Chloroplasts - contain chlorophyll that converts

sunlight into energy

Cell wall - a tough wall outside of the membrane

that supports the cell

Vacuole - water-filled sac in the cell that maintains

Cells need to make energy to stay alive and carry out many processes.

Metabolism is all of the chemical reactions that happen in the cells. For
metabolism to work, cells need many different substances.
Cell Membrane
The cell membrane controls which substances
move in and out of the cell.

Important substances like water, sugar and oxygen

are allowed to enter through the cell membrane.

Waste substances like carbon dioxide are sent out

of the cell.
Diffusion is the movement of particles from high to low
concentration areas.

An area of high concentration will contain many of the


An area of low concentration will contain fewer particles.

Osmosis is the movement of water molecules in and out of the cell through the
cell membrane.

Hypotonic - a lower concentration of substances INSIDE of a cell

Isotonic - same concentration INSIDE and OUTSIDE of a cell

Hypertonic - a higher concentration of substances OUTSIDE of a cell

Hypotonic - water will enter the cell
Water Movement
Isotonic - water will have little movement

Hypertonic - water will leave the cell