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Fast Track Repair

Materials and Methods

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Fast Track
• New Technology
for mix designs
• Sequencing
methodology
• Innovative Bidding

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Need for Fast-Track
• Expedite construction
• Minimize airport traffic
disruption
• Minimize revenue loss
– Toll facilities
– Businesses

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Fast-Track
Current Definition:
• A series of techniques that decrease concrete
pavement construction/rehabilitation time
• It is a system!

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Planning Considerations

• Traffic management
• Fast track materials selection
• Fast track construction
• Team coordination
• Emergency planning
Traffic Management

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Traffic Control Strategy
uc tion

Quality
s tr
Optimizing Plan: Co n

– Project Cost
– Societal Cost
– Safety
– Traffic Management Users

Cost
Traffic Management Scenarios
Night Time Closures

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Project Components to Modify
for Fast-Track
• Planning & Specifications
• Concrete Materials
• Jointing & Sealing Procedures
• Concrete Curing & Temperature
Management Procedures
• Strength Testing Methods
• Traffic Opening Requirements
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Planning & Specifications
Possible Changes for Fast-Track

• Use partnering-based project management


• Consider night construction
• Use innovative equipment & materials
• Consider more than one concrete mixture
• Provide multiple options for contractors
(not step-by-step procedures)
• Use incentives and disincentives

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Site Rental Contracting
for Fast-Track

• Cost-plus-time (A+B)
– Bid Project Cost
– Bid Time
• Continuous site rental
– Bid like a completion-date contract

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Material Considerations
for Fast-Track
• Rapid early strength gain
• Long-term strength
• Freeze-thaw durability
• Workability
• Abrasion Resistance

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Materials
Possible Changes for Fast-Track
• Try different cement types
– Type I, II, or III
– Special blended cements
• Use helpful admixtures
• Keep water-cementitious ratio below 0.43

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Mix Proportioning
for Fast-Track

• No specific proportions
• Most local materials acceptable
• Verify compatibility of components in lab

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Mix Proportions from Actual
Fast-Track Projects
Runway Ext. US-71BOL US-81 Recon. Interchange
Dane Co. Storm Lake Menominee I-90 & SR-832
Material Wisconsin Iowa Nebraska Pennsylvania

Cement Type Type III Type III Type III Type I


Cement (lbs/yd3) 863 837 800 982
Fly ash (lbs/yd3) 0 92 (Class C) 0 0
Coarse Agg. (lbs/yd3) 1154 2216 1176 2253
Fine Agg. (lbs/yd3) 1541 1476 2733 1284
W/C Ratio 0.455 0.45 0.423 0.37
AE Admixture Yes Yes Yes Yes
Other Admixtures WR-Type A WR-Type A WR-Type F SRA-Type D
WR-Type F
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Flexural Strengths for Actual
Fast-Track Projects
6 9 1,300
800 1,200
8
5 1,100
Flexural Strength (MPa)

Flexural Strength (MPa)


700

Flexural Strength (psi)

Flexural Strength (psi)


7 1,000
600 6 900
4
500 800
5 700
3
400 4 600
300 500
2 3
400
200 2 300
1 200
100 1
100
0 0 0 0
0 6 12 18 24 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
Hours After Placement Hours After Placement

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Mix Proportions for Fast-Track
Projects
VDOT VDOT MdSHA
6hr Mix 6hr Mix 12hr Mix
Material

Cement Type Type II Type II Type I


Cement (lbs/yd3) 850 800 800
Fly ash (lbs/yd3) 0 0 0
Coarse Agg. (lbs/yd3) 1740 1748 Not Specified
Fine Agg. (lbs/yd3) 1039 1076 Not Specified
W/C Ratio 0.294 0.313 0.45
AE Admixture Yes Yes Required
Other Admixtures WR-Type A WR-Type A WR-Yes

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Portland Cement
for Fast-Track

• Different cements react differently


• Heat generation important
• Fineness of grind influential
– Type I: Blaine fineness 300-400 m2/kg
– Type III: Blaine fineness 500-600 m2/kg
• Tricalcium Silicate (C3S) content important

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Contribution of Cement Compounds

Compressive Strength (1000 psi)


Compressive Strength (MPa)

60 8
C3S
50
6
40
C2S
30 4
20
2
10 C3A + CSH2
C4AF + CSH2 0
0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Time (days)
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Supplementary Cementing Materials
for Fast-Track
• Tend to slow initial set!
• Act as fine particle fillers for workability
• Fly ash
– Type C
– Type F
• GGBFS
– Very temperature sensitive

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Chemical Admixtures
for Fast-Track
• Air-entraining
• Water-reducing
– Improves workability at constant water content
– Reduces necessary water by dispersing
cement particles
• Accelerating
– Increases reaction rate of C3A
– Chloride vs. non-chloride
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Curing & Temperature Management
Possible Changes for Fast-Track

• Specify blanket curing


• Monitor concrete temperature
• Control concrete temperature with
heated water

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Curing Compound
for Fast-Track

• Do not delay application!


• Application rate
– Normal: 5.00 m2/L
– Fast-track: 3.75 m2/L
– Overlay: 2.50 m2/L

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Temperature Management
for Fast-Track

Benefits:
• Aid strength development
• Understand sawing window
• Avoid cracking

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Blanket Insulation
for Fast-Track
• Place after spraying curing compound
• Reduce loss of hydration heat
• Lessen effects of:
– Air temperature
– Solar radiation

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Blanket Insulation Effects
150
Surface Temperature, ºC

Surface Temperature, ºF
60
Blanket Insulation

130
50
110
40
No Insulation
90
30

20 70
Air
10 50
1:00 5:00 9:00 1:00 5:00 9:00
pm am
9/22/2006 Time
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Temperature and Plastic Shrinkage

• Primary cause: rapid surface evaporation


• Factors:
– Air temperature
– Relative humidity
– Wind velocity
– Concrete temperature
• Potential greater when Tconcrete > Tair

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Temperature and Plastic Shrinkage

To reduce evaporation:
• Pave in evening or nighttime

• Water mist aggregate stockpiles

• Use resin-based Type 2/Class B curing

compound

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Strength Testing
Possible Changes for Fast-Track

• Use non-destructive methods


– Supplement cylinders and beams
– Replace cylinders and beams
• Use Concrete maturity
– Monitor concrete temperature and strength
• Use Pulse-velocity
– Monitor strength

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Maturity Testing

Internal temperature of concrete relates


directly to concrete strength
• Develop correlation curve in lab
• Precision to baseline cylinders: ±5%

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Maturity Testing
40

Compressive Strength (MPa)

Compressive Strength (psi)


35 5000
M(t) = Σ(Ta-To) ∆t
30
4000
M(t) = temperature-time factor 25
∆t = time interval 3000
20
Ta = average concrete temp.
To = datum temp. (-10oC) 15 2000
10
1000
5
0 0
0 100 200 300 400 500
Temperature-Time Factor, M(t)

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Pulse Velocity Testing

• Velocity of sound wave from transducer


to receiver through concrete relates to
concrete strength
• Develop correlation curve in lab
• Precision to baseline cylinders: ±10%

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Pulse Velocity
12

Compressive Strength (MPa)

Compressive Strength (psi)


10 1,500

8
1,000
6

4
500
Semi-direct 2
mode
0 0
2 4 6 8 10 12 14
(1000 ft/s)

0 1 2 3 4
Pulse Velocity (1000 m/s)
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Traffic Opening
Possible Changes for Fast-Track

• Revise criteria from time to strength

• Channel early loads away from slab edges

• Restrict early use to lesser loading

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Fast Track Summary
• Fast-Track works for all types of concrete pavement
• Start by considering fast-track in planning
• Use specifications that give contractors options
• Consider more than one mix
• Use innovative equipment
• Use non-destructive testing

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