Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 9

Aérospatiale Alouette II

The Aérospatiale Alouette II (French pronunciation: [alwɛt], Lark) is a


SA 313/SA 318 Alouette II
French light helicopter originally manufactured by Sud Aviation and
later Aérospatiale. It holds the distinction of being the first production
helicopter to be powered by a gas turbine engine instead of the
conventional heavier piston powerplant.

On 12 March 1955, the prototype SE 3130 performed itsmaiden flight.


The Alouette II was a widely used type and popular with operators,
with over 1,300 rotorcraft eventually being constructed between 1956
and 1975. It was mostly used for military purposes in observation,
photography, air-sea rescue, liaison and training, but it has also carried
An Alouette II with the Belgian Army
anti-tank missiles and homing torpedoes. As a civilian helicopter, the
Alouette II was used for casualty evacuation (with two external Role Light helicopter
stretcher panniers), crop-spraying and as a flying crane, with a 500- National origin France
kilogram (1,100 lb) external underslung load. Manufacturer Sud Aviation
Aérospatiale
A high-altitude derivative, the SA 315B Lama, was developed and
entered operational service in July 1971. The Alouette II also was First flight 12 March 1955
further developed into the larger and more powerful Alouette III. In Introduction 2 May 1957
1975, production of the type was terminated, having been effectively
Status In service
succeeded by these newer rotorcraft.
Primary users French Army
French Air Force
German Army
Swiss Air Force
Contents
Produced 1956–1975
Development
Number built 1,300+
Design
Variants Aérospatiale SA 315B Lama
Operational history
Variants Developed into Aérospatiale Alouette III

Operators
Former operators
Specifications (Alouette II)
See also
References
Citations
Bibliography

Development
Although Sud-Est's previous helicopter design, the SE 3120 Alouette, broke helicopter speed and distance records in July 1953, it
was too complex an aircraft to market successfully
. With the records falling, the French government started showing interest, but with
their financial backing, the state gave an ultimatum that within two years a helicopter had to be in production, otherwise all rotary
wing activities would cease. SNCASE came up with seven helicopter designs powered by turboshaft engines: X.310A – X.310G.
Earlier Joseph Szydlowski, the founder of Turbomeca, had successfully managed to develop the Artouste, a 260 hp (190 kW) single
shaft turbine engine derived from his Orédon turbine. The X.310G design was chosen and, together with the Artouste engine, was
fast-tracked towards production as theSE 3130 Alouette II.[1]

On 12 March 1955, the prototype SE 3130 performed its maiden flight;[2][3][4]


within three months, on 6 June, a pre-production Alouette II, flown by Jean Boulet,
[5][6][7] According
established a new helicopter altitude record of 8,209 m (26,932 ft).
to the manufacturer, such early demonstrations of the Alouette II had served to
promote the performance and advantages of turbine helicopters over their piston-
engined counterparts.[1]

A West German Alouette II patrolling


In April 1956, the first production Alouette II was completed, making it the first
the border with East Germany, 1985
production turbine-powered helicopter in the world.[1][4] Upon completion, several
of the initial production models were dispatched for a series of evaluation flights in
the Alps.[1] On 13 June 1958, a single SE 3130, again flown by Boulet, re-took the altitude record, reaching a height of 10,984 m
(36,027 ft).[6][8][9] In 1975, production of the Alouette II ended after more than 1,300 had been built; in 1969, a new high-altitude
variant, the Aérospatiale SA 315B Lama had been developed to replace it in this niche capacity.[1][10] A slightly larger and more
powerful helicopter in the form of the Aérospatiale Alouette IIIhas also entered production, which had negatively impacted upon the
demand for the older II model.[11]

Design
The Aérospatiale Alouette II is a French light helicopter, incorporating many innovations of its time.[7] It was powered by a single
Turbomeca Artouste II turboshaft engine capable of generating a maximum output of 400 hp. The speed of the main rotor is
controlled by an automated fuel supply governor, eliminating the necessity of a twist-grip throttle and a conventional link between
the throttle and the collective-pitch.[7] Instead, the Alouette II uses a simple control lever arrangement, which acts to directly regulate
the collective-pitch and actuate the governor while immediately and automatically applying the correct level of power to conform
[7]
with flight condition. Without a clutch, the transmission is considerably simplified in both design and maintenance aspects.

Despite being a light helicopter, the Alouette II possesses a reasonable lift capacity and can carry underslung loads on an external
sling; during one high-profile public demonstration, one helicopter was able to air-lift a compact Citroen truck weighing in excess of
half a ton without visible difficulty. While flying at sea level, the Alouette II uses only 300 of the powerplant's available 400 hp;
accordingly, performance can be maintained while operated at a high altitude and withinin tropical conditions where the additional
power would come into play.[7] It was capable of flying at altitudes of up to 2,286 meters above sea level while possessing an average
climb rate of 250 meters per second and a typical maximum range of 563 miles.[12] Various alternative landing gear configurations
could be fitted, including skids, wheels, orpontoons.[10]

The Alouette II is capable of accommodating a seating arrangement for up to five personnel, including the pilot; access to the cabin
was provided via a pair of side-hinged doors.[7] The compact cockpit was provided with a dome-shapred windscreen which provided
for excellent levels of external visibility.[12] The Alouette II also made innovative use of armaments. It was the first helicopter
worldwide to be equipped with anti-tank munitions in the form of the SS.11 MCLOS wire-guided anti-tank missile.[13][3] In addition
to anti-tank missiles, theFrench Army chose to arm their Alouette IIs with machine guns, while the French Navy outfitted theirs with
aerial torpedos to conduct anti-submarine warfare(ASW) duties.[4]

Under operational conditions, the Alouette II often proved to be a relatively maintenance-intensive rotorcraft.[14] It required a high
level of regular lubrication, the main rotorhead alone featuring 20 grease nipples that had to be re-lubricated after every five flight
hours, while the drive shaft for the tail rotor was similarly demanding. Due to its high susceptibility to dust ingestion, some operators
[14]
would have to remove the Alouette's rectangular sand filters after every landing in order to clean them.

Operational history
On 3 July 1956, prior to even entering civil service, the Alouette II was responsible
for breaking new ground when it became the first helicopter to perform a mountain
rescue mission, having been deployed to evacuate a mountaineer who had suffered
from cardiac arrest at over 4,000 m (13,000 ft).[15] On 3 January 1957, the Alouette
II was called upon again in order to rescue the crew of a crashed Sikorsky S-58,
which had been searching for missing mountaineers Jean Vincendon and François
Henry on Mont Blanc.[1]
An Alouette II in flight, 2010
On 2 May 1957, following a series of airborne trials, the Alouette II was awarded a
French domestic certificate of airworthiness, which cleared the type to enter service
with civil operators.[4] Initial production was allocated to fulfil those orders placed by the French military, as well as by civilian
customers. During 1957, the first deliveries of the Alouette II were made to the French Army.[16] Shortly thereafter, large-scale
orders for the type were received from serval foreign nations, including the United Kingdom, Federal Republic of Germany, and
Austria.[10]

Almost immediately upon entering service, French forces commenced active combat operations using their fledgling Alouette II
fleet; the type being placed into heavy use in the Algerian War, during which it made valuable contributions to France's activities in
the theatre.[17] When used as a troop-transport, up to 4 fully equipped soldiers could be airlifted at a time. Additionally, a number of
Alouette IIs were modified to become what has been argued by some to have been the world's first helicopter gunships; in this
capacity, it would have been typically armed withNord Aviation-built SS.10 or SS.11 anti-tank missiles.[17]

The nation of Rhodesia emerged as a prolific user of both the Alouette II and its
enlarged sibling, the Alouette III.[17] Early operations were flown with an emphasis
on its use by the Army and British South Africa Police, including paramilitary and
aerial reconnaissance operations. Throughout the 1960s, the type progressively
spread into additional roles, including aerial supply, casualty evacuation,
communications relays, and troop-transports.[18] Rhodesian aerial operations would
typically involve flying under relatively high and hot conditions, which reduced the
efficiency of aircraft in general; however, the Alouette II proved to be both hardy
Am Alouette SE.3130 II, formerly V-
and relatively resistant to battle damage.[12] In order to extend the inadequate range
54 of the Swiss Air Force, now on the
of the type, fuel caches were strategically deployed across the country to be used for
UK civil register as G-BVSD. It was
built in 1964. refuelling purposes.[18]

In order to improve performance, Rhodesia's Alouette II fleet was subject to


extensive modifications, including changes to their refueling apparatus, gun sights, cabin fittings, armouring, and armaments.[19]
Over time, the Rhodesian Security Forces developed an innovative deployment tactic of rapidly encircling and enveloping enemies,
known as the Fireforce, for which the Alouette II served as a core component.[17] The quick-reaction Fireforce battalions were
centered at Centenary and Mount Darwin; however, an deliberate emphasis was placed on locating both rotorcraft and troops as close
[20]
to a current or anticipated theatre of operations as would be feasibly possible.

By 1975, at which point production of the type was terminated, in excess of 1,300 Alouette IIs had been constructed. The rotorcraft
was also in use in over 80 countries, including 47 separate armed forces.[15] The Alouette II was produced and sold under licence by
Brazil, Sweden, India and in the United States.[10] While succeeded in some respect by the SA 315B Lama, which was itself a
derivative of the Alouette II; the French Army ultimately to replaced their Alouette II fleet with a newly developed observation and
reconnaissance helicopter in the form of theAérospatiale AS350 Écureuil.[21]

Variants
SE 3130 Alouette II – After 1967 called SA 313B Alouette II.
[22] which was abandoned in favour of the
SE 3131 Gouverneur – Refined executive version with enclosed tailboom,
Alouette III.[23]
SE 3140 Alouette II – Proposed version, it was going to be powered by a 298 kW (400 hp) Turbomeca Turmo II
engine. None were built.
HKP 2 Alouette II – Swedish licence version of the SE 3130
SA 318C Alouette II Astazou– It has a 550 shp (410 kW)Turbomeca Astazou IIA shaft turbine (derated to 360
shp) and strengthened transmission system of theAlouette III.
SA 318C Alouette II (was SE 3180 Alouette II) – After 1967 it was called the SE 3150.
SA 315B Lama – designed to meet an Indian armed forces requirement for operation in "hot and high" conditions; it
combined the Artouste powerplant and rotor system of the Alouette III with a reinforced Alouette II airframe.

Operators
Peru

Peruvian Army[24]

Tunisia

Tunisian Air Force[24]

Former operators

Austria

Austrian Air Force[25]

Belgium
A German Army Alouette II carrying
Belgian Army[26]
SA.11 anti-tank missiles,West
Gendarmerie [27] Germany, 1960

Benin

Military of Benin[28]
Brazilian Air Force[29]

Biafra

Biafran armed forces used a small number of Alouette IIs during


Nigerian Civil War. They were bought in 1967 in France via a
Luxembourgish firm.[30]

Cambodia A Search-and-Rescue Alouette II in


Gréolières, 2015
Royal Cambodian Air Force[29]

Cameroon

Cameroon Air Force[31]

Central African Republic

Central African Republic Air Force[32]

Republic of the Congo

Congolese Air Force[33]


Djibouti

Djibouti Air Force[34]

Dominican Republic

Dominican Air Force[35]

France

French Air Force[36]


French Army[37]
French Navy [38]
Gendarmerie Nationale[39]
Securite Civile[40][41]
French SE 313 Alouette II
Germany

German Army[42]
German Federal Police[43]
German Air Force [44]

Guinea-Bissau

Military of Guinea-Bissau[45]

Indonesia

Indonesian Army[46]
Indonesian Navy [46]

Israel An Aérospatiale SA 318 BW Alouette


II of the German Army
Israeli Air Force[47]

Ivory Coast

Ivory Coast Air Force[48]

Katanga

Katangese Air Force[49]

Khmer Republic

Khmer Air Force[29] Several Alouette IIs in formation flight

Laos

Royal Lao Air Force[50]

Lebanon

Lebanese Air Force[51]

Madagascar
Malagasy Air Force[52]

Mexico

Mexican Navy[53]

Netherlands

Netherlands Air Force[54]

Portugal Alouette II of the Portuguese Air


Force
Portuguese Air Force[55]
National Republican Guard (GNR)[55]

Rhodesia

Rhodesian Air Force[56]

Senegal

Senegalese Air Force[57]

South Africa A SAAF Alouette II

South African Air Force[58]

Sweden

Swedish Air Force[59]


Swedish Army

Switzerland

Swiss Air Force[60]

United Kingdom British Army Air Corps Alouette

Army Air Corps [61]

Specifications (Alouette II)


Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1966–67[2]

General characteristics

Crew: One
Capacity: Four passengers
Length: 9.66 m (31 ft 9 in)
Rotor diameter: 10.20 m (33 ft 6 in)
Height: 2.75 m (9 ft 0 in)
Disc area: 81.7 m² (881.4 ft²)
Empty weight: 895 kg (1,973 lb)
Max. takeoff weight: 1,600 kg (3,527 lb)
Powerplant: One × Turbomeca Artouste IIC6turboshaft, 395 kW (530 hp) derated to 269 kW (460 hp) each
Performance
Maximum speed: 185 km/h (100 knots, 115 mph) at sea level
Cruise speed: 170 km/h (92 knots, 106 mph)
Range: 565 km (305 nmi, 350 mi)
Endurance: 4.1 hours
Service ceiling: 2,300 m (7,545 ft)
Rate of climb: 4.2 m/s (820 ft/min)

See also
Closeup of a Turbomeca Artouste
Related development IIC6 turboshaft engine

Aérospatiale Alouette III


Aérospatiale Gazelle
Aérospatiale SA 315B Lama
Related lists

List of civil aircraft


List of rotorcraft

References

Citations
1. "1955: SE3130 "Alouette II"."(http://www.eurocopter.ir/site/en/ref/1955_-SE3130_454-125.html?noeu_id=454&page
_id=125&lang=EN) Eurocopter, Retrieved: 20 December 2015.
2. Taylor 1966, p. 61.
3. Boyne 2011, p. 74.
4. McGowen 2005, p. 74.
5. "FAI Record ID #9876 – Altitude without payload. Class E-1 (Helicopters), turbine(http://www.fai.org/fai-record-file/?r
ecordId=9876) Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20141217043038/http://www .fai.org/fai-record-file/?recordId=9
876) 17 December 2014 at theWayback Machine." Fédération Aéronautique Internationale(FAI). Retrieved: 21
September 2014.
6. "History of Rotorcraft World Records, Sub-class:E-1 (Helicopters), Category:General, Group 2:turbine"(http://record
s.fai.org/rotorcraft/history.asp?id1=112&id2=8&id3=1&id4=2) Archived (https://archive.is/20070611002512/http://reco
rds.fai.org/rotorcraft/history.asp?id1=112&id2=8&id3=1&id4=2) 11 June 2007 at Archive.is. Fédération Aéronautique
Internationale (FAI). Retrieved 3 November 2010.
7. Flight 8 July 1955, p. 54.
8. "FAI Record ID #9874 – Altitude without payload. Class E-1 (Helicopters), turbine(http://www.fai.org/fai-record-file/?r
ecordId=9874) Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20141217033555/http://www .fai.org/fai-record-file/?recordId=9
874) 17 December 2014 at theWayback Machine." Fédération Aéronautique Internationale(FAI). Retrieved: 21
September 2014.
9. Taylor 1966, p. 2.
10. McGowen 2005, p. 75.
11. McGowen 2005, p. 227.
12. Cocks 2015, p. 19.
13. Helicopters at War – Blitz Editions, p. 63,ISBN 1-85605-345-8.
14. Cocks 2015, pp. 22–23.
15. Boyne 2011, p. 101.
16. Cocks 2015, pp. 18–19.
17. Cocks 2015, p. 18.
18. Cocks 2015, p. 20.
19. Cocks 2015, pp. 20–22.
20. Cocks 2015, pp. 21–22.
21. McGowen 2005, p. 124.
22. "Business and Touring Aircraft: Sud-Aviation" (http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1957/1957%20-%201495.
html). Flight, 11 October 1957, p. 585.
23. "Helicopters of the World:SE.3160 Alouette III" (http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1959/1959%20-%20140
5.html). Flight, 15 May 1959, p. 684.
24. "World Air Forces 2013" (http://www.flightglobal.com/airspace/media/reports_pdf/emptys/101015/world-air-forces-20
13.pdf) (PDF). Flightglobal Insight. 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
25. "Ӧstereichische Luftstreitkräfte SE3130 Alouette II"(http://www.helis.com/database/modelorg/497/). Retrieved
12 March 2013.
26. "Aviation légère de la force terrestre AlouetteII" (http://www.helis.com/database/modelorg/135/). Retrieved 12 March
2013.
27. "Gendarmerie Alouette II"(http://www.helis.com/database/modelorg/1250/). Retrieved 12 March 2013.
28. "World Air Forces 1981 pg. 328"(http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1981/1981%20-%202500.html).
Retrieved 14 March 2013.
29. "World Air Forces 1971 pg. 924-925"(http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1971/1971%20-%201040.html).
Retrieved 14 March 2013.
30. Jowett, Philip (2016). Modern African Wars (5): The Nigerian-Biafran War 1967-70. Oxford: Osprey Publishing
Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-1472816092.
31. "World Air Forces 1981 pg.329"(http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1981/1981%20-%202501.html).
flightglobal.com. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
32. "World Air Forces 1981 pg.330"(http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1981/1981%20-%202502.html).
flightglobal.com. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
33. "World Air Forces 1981 pg. 332"(http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1981/1981%20-%202504.html).
flightglobal.com. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
34. "World Air Forces 1987 pg. 50"(http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1987/1987%20-%202500.html).
flightglobal.com. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
35. "World Air Forces 1981 pg. 333"(http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1981/1981%20-%202505.html).
flightglobal.com. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
36. "Armée de l'air Alouette II"(http://www.helis.com/database/modelorg/688/). Retrieved 12 March 2013.
37. "Aviation légère de l'armée de Terre Alouette II" (http://www.helis.com/database/modelorg/663/). Retrieved 12 March
2013.
38. "World Air Forces 1987 pg. 56"(http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1987/1987%20-%202506.html).
flightglobal.com. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
39. "World Helicopter Market pg. 51"(http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1968/1968%20-%201207.html).
flightglobal.com. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
40. "L'HISTORIQUE DE LA SECURITE CIVILE"(http://cohen.frank.free.fr/photos/helicoptere/securitecivile/historique.ht
m). helisecours.com. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
41. "Securite Civil Sud-SA-318C"(http://www.airliners.net/photo/France---Securite/Sud-SA-318C-Alouette/0727981/L/&si
d=ff896dec3485bef64e8bb085a6e25684). Demand Media. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
42. "Heeresflieger Alouette II"(http://www.helis.com/database/modelorg/137/). Retrieved 12 March 2013.
43. "Bundespolizei Alouette II"(http://www.helis.com/database/modelorg/536/). Retrieved 12 March 2013.
44. "World Air Forces 1975 pg. 298"(http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1975/1975%20-%201664.html).
flightglobal.com. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
45. "World Air Forces 1987 pg. 59"(http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1987/1987%20-%202509.html).
flightglobal.com. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
46. "World Air Forces 1981 pg. 347"(http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1981/1981%20-%202519.html).
flightglobal.com. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
47. "World Air Forces 1975 pg. 302"(http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1975/1975%20-%201672.html).
flightglobal.com. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
48. "World Air Forces 1981 pg. 351"(http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1981/1981%20-%202523.html).
flightglobal.com. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
49. "Congo, Part 1; 1960–1963"(http://www.acig.org/artman/publish/article_182.shtml). ACIG. 2003. Retrieved 9 August
2013.
50. "World Air Forces 1971 pg. 932"(http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1971/1971%20-%201049.html).
flightglobal.com. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
51. "World Air Forces 1987 pg. 68"(http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1987/1987%20-%202518.html).
flightglobal.com. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
52. "World Air Forces 1975 pg. 305"(http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1975/1975%20-%201679.html).
flightglobal.com. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
53. "World Air Forces 1975 pg. 305"(http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1975/1975%20-%201679.html).
flightglobal.com. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
54. "Koninklijke Luchtmacht SA 313"(http://www.helis.com/database/modelorg/201/). Retrieved 14 March 2013.
55. "Força Aérea Portuguesa Alouette II"(http://www.helis.com/database/modelorg/1794/). Retrieved 12 March 2013.
56. Nelson, Harold. Zimbabwe: A Country Study. pp. 237–317.
57. "World Air Forces 1987 pg. 81"(http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1987/1987%20-%202531.html).
flightglobal.com. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
58. "Suid-Afrikaanse Lugmag Alouette II"(http://www.helis.com/database/modelorg/686/). Retrieved 12 March 2013.
59. "World Air Forces 1987 pg. 91"(http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1987/1987%20-%202541.html).
flightglobal.com. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
60. "Schweizer luftwaffe Alouette II" (http://www.helis.com/database/modelorg/913/). Retrieved 12 March 2013.
61. "Army Air Corps Alouette II"(http://www.helis.com/database/modelorg/40/). Retrieved 12 March 2013.

Bibliography
Boyne, Walter. "How the Helicopter Changed Modern Warfare." Pelican Publishing Company, 2011. ISBN 1-58980-
700-6.
Cocks, Kerrin. "Rhodesian Fire Force 1966–80."Helion and Company, 2015. ISBN 1-91029-405-5.
"Helicopters in Europe: Fourteen Different Types Seen at Paris". Flight, 8 July 1955, pp. 54–55.
Taylor, John W. R. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1966–67. London: Sampson Low, Marston & Company, 1966.
McGowen, Stanley S. Helicopters: An Illustrated History of their Impact
. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2005.
ISBN 1-85109-468-7.

Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Aérospatiale_Alouette_II&oldid=848011079


"

This page was last edited on 29 June 2018, at 07:05(UTC).

Text is available under theCreative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License ; additional terms may apply. By using this
site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of theWikimedia
Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

Centres d'intérêt liés