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Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres within the Pharma, Bio and Fine Chemical Industries Authors Eur

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

within the Pharma, Bio and Fine Chemical

Industries

Authors Eur Ing Keith Plumb FIChemE and Neil Graham MIChemE

Presented by Eur Ing Keith Plumb FIChemE

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

Plumb FIChemE and Neil Graham MIChemE Presented by Eur Ing Keith Plumb FIChemE Equipment Use in
We are striving to avoid this! Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

We are striving to avoid this!

We are striving to avoid this! Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

We are striving to avoid this! Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
We are striving to avoid this! Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

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Overview • Definitions • Can an explosive atmosphere be formed? • Carrying out a Hazardous

Overview

Definitions

Can an explosive atmosphere be formed?

Carrying out a Hazardous Area Classification

Equipment selection

Residual risks

Additional measures

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

selection • Residual risks • Additional measures Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
selection • Residual risks • Additional measures Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

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Standards Used in this Presentation 1. IEC 60079-0:2009 Explosive atmospheres – Part 0: Equipment –

Standards Used in this Presentation

1. IEC 60079-0:2009 Explosive atmospheres Part 0:

Equipment General Requirements

2. IEC 60079-10-1:2009 Explosive atmospheres Part 10-1:

Classification of areas Explosive gas atmospheres

3. IEC 60079-10-2:2009 Explosive atmospheres Part 10-2:

Classification of areas Combustible dust atmospheres

4. IEC 60079-14: 2008 Explosive atmospheres. Electrical

installations design, selection and erection

5. EN 1127-1:2007 (E) Explosive atmospheres. Explosion prevention and protection. Basic concepts and methodology

6. EN 13463-1:2009 Non-electrical equipment for use in potentially explosive atmospheres Part 1: Basic methods

and requirements

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

explosive atmospheres Part 1: Basic methods and requirements Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
explosive atmospheres Part 1: Basic methods and requirements Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

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Explosive Atmospheres • Explosive atmosphere − A mixture with air, under atmospheric conditions of flammable

Explosive Atmospheres

Explosive atmosphere

A mixture with air, under atmospheric conditions of flammable

substances in the form of gas, vapour, mist dust, fibres or flyings

which, after ignited, permits self-sustaining flame propagation.

Atmospheric conditions

Conditions that include variations in pressure and temperature above and below reference levels of 101.3 kPa and 20°C, provided that the variations have negligible effect on the explosive properties of the

flammable materials.

Note: The standards do not apply to conditions other that atmospheric conditions.

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

do not apply to conditions other that atmospheric conditions. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
do not apply to conditions other that atmospheric conditions. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

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Relevant Substances – IEC 60079-10-1 • Flammable liquid − A liquid capable of producing a

Relevant Substances IEC 60079-10-1

Flammable liquid

A liquid capable of producing a flammable vapour under any foreseeable operating conditions.

Generally a liquid that is being used close to or above its flash point

Flammable gas or vapour

A gas or vapour which, when mixed with air will form a flammable atmosphere.

Gas or vapour that is close to or within the limits of the lower and upper explosive limits.

Flammable mist

Droplets of liquid, dispersed in air so as to form a flammable atmosphere. In general the droplets need to be smaller than 50 microns.

This can apply to liquids below their flash point but the concentration of sub 50 micron droplets must be great enough to allow ignition.

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

sub 50 micron droplets must be great enough to allow ignition. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres
sub 50 micron droplets must be great enough to allow ignition. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

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Relevant Substances – IEC 60079-10-2 • Combustible Dusts − Finely divided solids, 500 microns or

Relevant Substances IEC 60079-10-2

Combustible Dusts

Finely divided solids, 500 microns or less in nominal size, which may be suspended in air, may settle out of the atmosphere under its own weight, can burn or glow in air and may form explosive atmospheres with air at atmospheric pressure and normal temperatures.

Combustible Flyings

Solid particles, including fibres, greater than 500 microns in nominal size,

which can be suspended in air, may settle out the atmosphere under their

own weight, can burn or glow in air, and may form explosive mixtures with

air at atmospheric pressure and normal temperatures.

Dust Layers

A layer of dust, which is not likely to form a dust cloud, but may ignite due to

self heating or exposure to hot surfaces or thermal flux and cause a fire

hazard or over heating of equipment. The ignited layer may also act as an ignition source for explosive atmosphere.

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

may also act as an ignition source for explosive atmosphere. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
may also act as an ignition source for explosive atmosphere. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

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Workplace Risk Assessment Select appropriate equipment to minimise sources of ignition FG = Flammable Gas,

Workplace Risk Assessment

Select appropriate equipment to minimise sources of ignition

FG = Flammable Gas,

to minimise sources of ignition FG = Flammable Gas, START Carry Out Hazardous Area Classification No
START Carry Out Hazardous Area Classification No Can process Yes be changed FG or CD
START
Carry Out
Hazardous Area
Classification
No
Can process
Yes
be changed
FG or CD
to eliminate
present?
FG and/or
CD?
Yes
No
Explosive atmosphere
cannot be created
Change process to
eliminate FG and/or CD
END

Vapour or Liquid

CD = Combustible Dust or

Flyings Can oxygen Residual Yes be exclude risk of from the ignition? process equipment? No
Flyings
Can oxygen
Residual
Yes
be exclude
risk of
from the
ignition?
process
equipment?
No
Yes
No
Provide system to
eliminate oxygen

Mitigate consequences by providing explosion relief, suppression etc.

consequences by providing explosion relief, suppression etc. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
consequences by providing explosion relief, suppression etc. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

consequences by providing explosion relief, suppression etc. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

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Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres Is it likely that there will be a flammable gas,

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

Is it likely that there will be a flammable gas, vapour or liquid and/or

a combustible dust or

flyings present?

To check this you need to know the properties of the process materials being used.

or flyings present? To check this you need to know the properties of the process materials
or flyings present? To check this you need to know the properties of the process materials

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Overview of Likelihood of Explosive Atmosphere • Are flammable gases, vapours or mists (FGs) and/or

Overview of Likelihood of Explosive

Atmosphere

Are flammable gases, vapours or mists (FGs) and/or combustible dusts or flyings (CDs) used or created as part of the process?

Can these be dispersed by some form of release, including

spillage?

Is it credible that a mixture with air in the explosion range can be formed?

This is determined by flash points plus lower and upper explosive limits for FGs and minimum explosive concentration for CDs.

Is the sufficient material to cause injury or damage.

See EN 1127-1 for more details

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

to cause injury or damage. • See EN 1127-1 for more details Equipment Use in Explosive
to cause injury or damage. • See EN 1127-1 for more details Equipment Use in Explosive

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Fire and Explosion Pentagon Fuel Dispersion Confinement Oxidant Ignition Source Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

Fire and Explosion Pentagon

Fuel

Fire and Explosion Pentagon Fuel Dispersion Confinement Oxidant Ignition Source Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

Dispersion

Confinement

Oxidant

Ignition

Source

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

Pentagon Fuel Dispersion Confinement Oxidant Ignition Source Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
Pentagon Fuel Dispersion Confinement Oxidant Ignition Source Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

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Flammability/Combustibility Properties • Flammable liquids, vapours and gases (FGs) − Flash points, lower explosive

Flammability/Combustibility

Properties

Flammable liquids, vapours and gases (FGs)

Flash points, lower explosive limit and upper explosive limit are frequently available from literature, material safety data sheets etc.

Flammable mists

Testing and simulation will be required to find out if it conceivable that a flammable mists can be created.

Combustible dusts and flyings (CDs)

Some literature information on minimum explosive concentrations is

available that is indicative but not suitable for design, e.g. BIA-Report

13/97 “Combustion and explosion characteristics of dusts”.

Combustibility properties are highly susceptible to the dust/flyings physical properties.

Laboratory testing of the actual dust/flyings being used is normally required.

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

of the actual dust/flyings being used is normally required. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
of the actual dust/flyings being used is normally required. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

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Minimum Ignition Energy - mJ

Minimum Explosive Conc - g/m3

Minimum Ignition Energy - mJ Minimum Explosive Conc - g/m3 10000 1000 100 10 1 Explosion

10000

1000

100

10

1

Explosion Data Lactose

Impact of Particle Size

Minimum Ignition Energy Minimum Explosive Concentration R 2 = 0.6926 R 2 = 0.1764
Minimum Ignition Energy Minimum Explosive Concentration R 2 = 0.6926 R 2 = 0.1764
Minimum Ignition Energy Minimum Explosive Concentration R 2 = 0.6926 R 2 = 0.1764
Minimum Ignition Energy Minimum Explosive Concentration R 2 = 0.6926 R 2 = 0.1764
Minimum Ignition Energy Minimum Explosive Concentration R 2 = 0.6926 R 2 = 0.1764
Minimum Ignition Energy Minimum Explosive Concentration R 2 = 0.6926 R 2 = 0.1764
Minimum Ignition Energy Minimum Explosive Concentration R 2 = 0.6926 R 2 = 0.1764

Minimum Ignition EnergyMinimum Explosive Concentration

Minimum Explosive ConcentrationMinimum Ignition Energy

Minimum Ignition Energy Minimum Explosive Concentration R 2 = 0.6926 R 2 = 0.1764
Minimum Ignition Energy Minimum Explosive Concentration R 2 = 0.6926 R 2 = 0.1764
Minimum Ignition Energy Minimum Explosive Concentration R 2 = 0.6926 R 2 = 0.1764

R 2 = 0.6926

R 2 = 0.1764

Minimum Ignition Energy Minimum Explosive Concentration R 2 = 0.6926 R 2 = 0.1764

0

50

100

150

200

250

Mean Particle Size - µm

Source: BIA-Report 13/97 Combustion and explosion characteristics of dusts

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

Combustion and explosion characteristics of dusts Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres 1000 100 10 1 www.integpharma.com

1000

100

10

1

Combustion and explosion characteristics of dusts Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres 1000 100 10 1 www.integpharma.com

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Minimum Ignition Energy - mJ

Minimum Ignition Energy - mJ 1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200

1200

1100

1000

900

800

700

600

500

400

300

200

Explosion Data Lignite

Impact of Moisture Content

R 2 = 0.3329

R 2 = 0.3329
R 2 = 0.3329
R 2 = 0.3329
R 2 = 0.3329
R 2 = 0.3329

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

Moisture Content % by Weight

Source: BIA-Report 13/97 Combustion and explosion characteristics of dusts

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

13/97 Combustion and explosion characteristics of dusts Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
13/97 Combustion and explosion characteristics of dusts Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

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Minimum Explosive Concentration in Context • The Minimum Explosive Concentration (MEC) measures the minimum quantity

Minimum Explosive Concentration in

Context

The Minimum Explosive Concentration (MEC) measures the minimum quantity of material that must be evenly distributed in air before the dust will explode.

If the MEC is high then a more concentrated dust cloud must be generated before an explosive atmosphere will be present.

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

be generated before an explosive atmosphere will be present. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
be generated before an explosive atmosphere will be present. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

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Minimum Explosible Concentration More Details • Typical MEC for dusts is 30 to 60 g/m

Minimum Explosible Concentration More Details

Typical MEC for dusts is 30 to 60 g/m 3 or greater

A 25 watt light bulb can be just be seen through a two metre coal dust cloud with a concentration of 40 g/m 3 .

It would be difficult to read a newspaper in typical explosive dust cloud. It is quite difficult to create a cloud this concentrated that will last more than a few minutes unless you are doing it as part of your process or you have poor housekeeping.

By way of comparison the typical occupational exposure limit for

pharmaceutical powders is

1 10,000

There is a 1,000 to 1,000,000 fold difference!

10,000 − There is a 1,000 to 1,000,000 fold difference! g/m 3 or less Equipment Use

g/m 3 or less

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

is a 1,000 to 1,000,000 fold difference! g/m 3 or less Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres
is a 1,000 to 1,000,000 fold difference! g/m 3 or less Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres
is a 1,000 to 1,000,000 fold difference! g/m 3 or less Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

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Quantity of Flammable Material • Is a Hazardous Area Classification (HAC) required where only small

Quantity of Flammable Material

Is a Hazardous Area Classification (HAC) required where only small quantities of materials exists?

A risk assessment is always required but not necessarily an HAC.

The UK Health and Safety Executive advice suggests:

Flammable liquids.

1. If equipment is above the 2 litre scale an HAC should be considered.

2. Above 50 litres an HAC is normally required.

Flammable gases

1. Low pressure odorised gases with small bore pipework do not normally need a formal HAC.

2. High pressure non-odorised gases normally require a formal HAC.

Combustible dusts - For quantities of 25 kg or less where the only way to create a dust cloud is to drop a bag of powder then a formal HAC

would not normally be required.

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

bag of powder then a formal HAC would not normally be required. Equipment Use in Explosive
bag of powder then a formal HAC would not normally be required. Equipment Use in Explosive

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Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres Can the process be changed to eliminate the flammable gas,

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

Can the process be changed to eliminate the

flammable gas, vapour

or liquid and/or a combustible dust or flyings?

be changed to eliminate the flammable gas, vapour or liquid and/or a combustible dust or flyings?
be changed to eliminate the flammable gas, vapour or liquid and/or a combustible dust or flyings?

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Change the Process • The best way to approach the problem of explosive atmospheres is

Change the Process

The best way to approach the problem of explosive atmospheres is to eliminate them by changing the process.

At the small scale changing to a less hazardous material

may eliminate the need for a full Hazardous Area Classification.

Chemical Engineers need to be involved in the early stages of develop to reinforce the need to eliminate FGs and/or

CDs.

If FGs and/or CDs cannot be eliminated then their inventories must be kept to a minimum.

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

be eliminated then their inventories must be kept to a minimum. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres
be eliminated then their inventories must be kept to a minimum. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

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Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres Carry Out Hazardous Area Classification Using Standard IEC 60079 Part
Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres Carry Out Hazardous Area Classification Using Standard IEC 60079 Part

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

Carry Out Hazardous Area Classification

Using

Standard IEC 60079

Part 10-1 “Classification of areas – Explosive gas atmospheres”

Part 10-2

“Classification of areas – Combustible

dust atmospheres”

gas atmospheres” Part 10-2 “Classification of areas – Combustible dust atmospheres” www.integpharma.com
gas atmospheres” Part 10-2 “Classification of areas – Combustible dust atmospheres” www.integpharma.com

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Hazardous Area Classification 1. Record physical properties on a data sheet. 2. Identify all of

Hazardous Area Classification

1. Record physical properties on a data sheet.

2. Identify all of sources of release and tabulate the result.

3. Identify the grade of release.

4. Note the operating temperature and pressure and plus level of housekeeping

5. Note the level of ventilation associated with each source of release.

6. Identify the zone for each source of release.

7. Calculate the size of each zone.

8. Plot the zones on the plan and elevation of the equipment.

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

8. Plot the zones on the plan and elevation of the equipment. Equipment Use in Explosive
8. Plot the zones on the plan and elevation of the equipment. Equipment Use in Explosive

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Step 1. Record Information on Data Sheet • Data table for gases, vapours and liquids

Step 1. Record Information on Data

Sheet

Data table for gases, vapours and liquids

Data sheet for dusts and flyings

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

sheet for dusts and flyings − Dust and flyings data sheet Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres
sheet for dusts and flyings − Dust and flyings data sheet Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

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Step 2 – Identify the Source of Hazard • Historically standards have used 2 methods

Step 2 Identify the Source of Hazard

Historically standards have used 2 methods

Generalized method; this involves making judgments about quite large areas of plant

'blanket' zone 2 inside building, 1m zone 1 around

e.g

vents, zone 0 inside vessels

Source of hazard method; each release point is analyzed to determine the distance at which the concentration of the

flammable falls below the LEL (by a margin).

Hazardous area classification standards IEC 60079-10-1 and IEC 60079-10-2 use the source of hazard method

Generalized method tended to be conservative (hence expensive) but could fail to identify small high hazard

points such as rotating equipment glands.

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

small high hazard points such as rotating equipment glands. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
small high hazard points such as rotating equipment glands. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

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Step 2. Indentify all sources of release and tabulate them. • Sources of release table

Step 2. Indentify all sources of release

and tabulate them.

Sources of release table

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

• Sources of release table − Sources of release table Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
• Sources of release table − Sources of release table Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

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Step 3. Identify the Grade of Release • Continuous Grade Release − Continuous or is

Step 3. Identify the Grade of Release

Continuous Grade Release

Continuous or is expected to occur frequently or for long periods (typical ~ 1000+ hrs/annum)

E.g. Inside processing equipment

Primary Grade Release

Expected to occur periodically or occasionally during normal operation (typically~ 10 1000 hrs/annum)

E.g. Loading powders or solvents into vessel without LEV

Secondary Grade Release

Not expected to occur in normal operation and, if it does occur, is likely to do so only infrequently and for short period.

Typically < 10 hr/yr and a persistence of max 1 hour

E.g. Equipment joints or spillage

Note 1.

Layers, deposits and heaps of combustible dust must be considered as any other

Note 2.

source which can form an explosive atmosphere. "Normal operation" means the situation when installations are used within their design parameters.

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

when installations are used within their design parameters. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
when installations are used within their design parameters. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

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Step 4. Note operating temperature and pressure and level of housekeeping • Operating pressure and

Step 4. Note operating temperature and pressure and level of housekeeping

Operating pressure and temperature

Important for calculation of the size of gas or vapour zone.

Level of Housekeeping

Relevant to the type of dust zone and the presence of dust layers

Three levels are defined:

1. Good Dust layers are kept to negligible thickness irrespective of degree of release.

2. Fair Dust layers are not negligible but are short lived (less than one shift)

3. Poor Dust layers are not negligible and persist for more than one

shift.

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

layers are not negligible and persist for more than one shift. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres
layers are not negligible and persist for more than one shift. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

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Step 5. Note type, degree and availability of ventilation • Required for calculating the size

Step 5. Note type, degree and

availability of ventilation

Required for calculating the size of the gas/vapour zone and for assessing the size of a dust zone.

Natural versus artificial general or local

Degree of ventilation

High (VH) Can reduce the concentration of a release virtually instantly.

Medium (VM) Can control the concentration of a release and maintain a stable zone boundary.

Low (VL) Cannot control the concentration of a release nor prevent long

persistence.

Availability of ventilation

Good present virtually continuously (min. 0.5 m/s for natural ventilation)

Fair expected to be present during normal operation

Poor not fair or good but discontinuities are not expected to occur for

long periods

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

but discontinuities are not expected to occur for long periods Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
but discontinuities are not expected to occur for long periods Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

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Step 6. Identify the Hazardous Zones • Zone 0 for Gases and Zone 20 for

Step 6. Identify the Hazardous Zones

Zone 0 for Gases and Zone 20 for Dusts

A place in which an explosive atmosphere is present continuously, or for long periods or frequently.

Zone 1 for Gases and Zone 21 for Dusts

A place in which an explosive atmosphere is likely to occur in normal

operation occasionally.

Zone 2 for Gases and Zone 22 for Dusts

A place in which an explosive atmosphere is not likely to occur in normal operation but, if it does occur, will persist for a short period only.

Notes:

1. Layers, deposits and heaps of combustible dust must be considered as any

other source which can form an explosive atmosphere.

2. "Normal operation" means the situation when installations are used within

their design parameters.

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

when installations are used within their design parameters. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
when installations are used within their design parameters. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

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Source of Release Versus Hazardous Zone • Traditionally there was a simple relationship    

Source of Release Versus Hazardous Zone

Traditionally there was a simple relationship

 
 

Gas

Dust

 

Continuous Grade

  − Continuous Grade Zone 0 Zone 20
  − Continuous Grade Zone 0 Zone 20

Zone 0

Zone 20

Primary Grade

− Primary Grade Zone 1 Zone 21
− Primary Grade Zone 1 Zone 21

Zone 1

Zone 21

Secondary Grade

− Secondary Grade Zone 2 Zone 22
− Secondary Grade Zone 2 Zone 22

Zone 2

Zone 22

But

Ventilation has an impact on the gas zone

Housekeeping has an impact on the dust zone

Consequences of an explosion also has an impact

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

dust zone − Consequences of an explosion also has an impact Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres
dust zone − Consequences of an explosion also has an impact Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

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Impact of Ventilation on Gas Zones     Degree of Ventilation     High  

Impact of Ventilation on Gas Zones

   

Degree of Ventilation

 
 

High

 

Medium

Low

Grade of

 

Availability of Ventilation

 

Release

Good

Fair

Poor

Good

Fair

Poor

G,F or P

         

Zone 0

Zone 0

 

Continuous

NH

Zone 2

Zone 1

Zone 0

+Zone 2

+Zone 1

Zone 0

Primary

NH

Zone 2

Zone 2

Zone 1

Zone 1

Zone 1

Zone 1 or

+Zone 2

+Zone 2

0

Secondary

NH

NH

Zone 2

Zone 2

Zone 2

Zone 2

Zone 1 or

0

Notes

1.

NH = Non-hazardous

2.

“+” symbol indicates surrounded by

3.

“†” There will be a Zone 0 if the ventilation is so weak and the release is such that in practice an explosive gas atmosphere exists virtually continuously i.e. approaching a no ventilation condition.

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

continuously i.e. approaching a no ventilation condition. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
continuously i.e. approaching a no ventilation condition. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

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Impact of Housekeeping on Dust Zones • Housekeeping has an impact on thickness and the

Impact of Housekeeping on Dust

Zones

Housekeeping has an impact on thickness and the persistence of

dust layers.

Dust layers are important because:

A dust layer can be raised into a cloud and acts as a source of release. This is a particular problem when small primary explosion raises dust

and cause a much larger secondary explosion.

Dust layers can be ignited by heat flux from equipment and act as a source of ignition.

Dust layers from primary and secondary grades of release can be there continuously with poor housekeeping.

A secondary grade release with a high deposition rate can lead to thicker layers than a primary grade release with a lower deposition rate if housekeeping is not adequate.

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

with a lower deposition rate if housekeeping is not adequate. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
with a lower deposition rate if housekeeping is not adequate. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

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Consequences of an Explosion • Traditional Hazardous Area Classification does not take into account the

Consequences of an Explosion

Traditional Hazardous Area Classification does not take into account the consequence of an explosion.

In a true risk assessment the consequences would be taken into account and this is now being recognised.

Two examples of changes that could be made

The use of Zone 1 equipment in a Zone 2 to allow this equipment to be used even in event of a prolonged gas release. The use of Zone 2 equipment in Zone 1 because the amount of flammable material available is small and the equipment is in a remote secure location that is normally unmanned.

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

is in a remote secure location that is normally unmanned. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
is in a remote secure location that is normally unmanned. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

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Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres Step 7. Calculate the Size of Each Zone www.integpharma.com
Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres Step 7. Calculate the Size of Each Zone www.integpharma.com

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres Step 7. Calculate the Size of Each Zone www.integpharma.com

Step 7. Calculate the Size of Each

Zone

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres Step 7. Calculate the Size of Each Zone www.integpharma.com

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Step 7a – Calculate the Size of Each Gas Zone • The size and shape

Step 7a Calculate the Size of Each

Gas Zone

The size and shape of the zone is influenced by

mass released (total and rate)

if a liquid is released, the fraction of the liquid flow that vaporizes dispersal parameters e.g. buoyancy, ventilation/wind effects

Industrial experience was enshrined in various codes and guidelines but these were shown to give quite widely varying predictions 1 .

The work of Cox, Lees & Ang hoped to help progress from

the empirical, experienced based methods towards more

rigorous, quantitative methods.

'The dispersion of leaks by ventilation is difficult to model and more work needs to be done in this area

IEC 60079-10-1 attempts to provide a rigorous,

quantitative method but fails to do so.

“This standard is not based on any rigorous science” 2

1. See figs 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 'Classification of Hazardous Locations'; A.W. Cox, F.P. Lees, M.L. Ang

2. Pers comm. UK Health and Safety Executive

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

Lees, M.L. Ang 2. Pers comm. UK Health and Safety Executive Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres
Lees, M.L. Ang 2. Pers comm. UK Health and Safety Executive Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

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• Section 5.4 states: Extracts from IEC 60079-10-1 − "The extent of the zone depends

Section 5.4 states:

Extracts from IEC 60079-10-1

"The extent of the zone depends on the estimated or calculated distance over which an explosive atmosphere exists before it disperses to a concentration in air below its lower explosive limit with an appropriate safety factor. When assessing the area of spread of gas or vapour before dilution to below its lower explosive limit, expert advice should be sought“

Section B.5.2.3 states:

"In the open air an assessment should be made on the basis of the site layout and site features. Estimates of Vz [hypothetical volume] should be made based on the result of using an appropriate modeling tool e.g. from CFD analysis"

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

using an appropriate modeling tool e.g. from CFD analysis" Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
using an appropriate modeling tool e.g. from CFD analysis" Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

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IEC 60079-10-1 Annex B • Annex B outlines a method for determining the type of

IEC 60079-10-1 Annex B

Annex B outlines a method for determining the type of zone by

estimating the minimum ventilation rate required to prevent significant build up of an explosive gas atmosphere

calculating a hypothetical volume, Vz, which allows determination of the degree of ventilation

estimating the persistence time of the release (for transient releases)

determining the type of zone from the degree of ventilation and the grade of release (table B.1 in the standard)

The method is not intended to determine the extent of the hazardous areas (though standard is not clear on this).

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

of the hazardous areas (though standard is not clear on this). Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres
of the hazardous areas (though standard is not clear on this). Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

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IEC 60079-10-1 Annex B Continued • Section B.5.2.2 states: – "The hypothetical volume Vz gives

IEC 60079-10-1 Annex B Continued

Section B.5.2.2 states:

"The hypothetical volume Vz gives a guide as to the volume of flammable envelope from a source of release but that envelope will not normally equate to the volume of the hazardous area. Firstly, the shape of the hypothetical volume is not defined and will be influenced by ventilation conditions (see B.4.3 and B.5). The degree and availability of ventilation

and possible variations in these parameters will influence the shape of the

hypothetical volume. Secondly the position of the hypothetical volume with respect to the release will need to be established. This will primarily depend on the direction of ventilation with the hypothetical volume biased in the down-wind direction. Thirdly, in some situations, account must be taken of the possibility of varying directions of ventilation and the buoyancy (or relative density) of the gas or vapour."

Calculation of Vz by the method outlined in Annex B is

necessary to evaluate the type of zone but does not provide sufficient data to delineate the zone. Vz is merely a measure of ventilation effectiveness.

It is important to note that work by the Health and Safety

Laboratories in the UK suggests Vz could overestimate the

volume of the hazardous area by as much as 1000 times.

the volume of the hazardous area by as much as 1000 times. Equipment Use in Explosive

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

the volume of the hazardous area by as much as 1000 times. Equipment Use in Explosive

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Example – Degree of Ventilation • Release characteristics – Flammable material: – Molecular mass of

Example Degree of Ventilation

Release characteristics

Flammable material:

Molecular mass of Toluene:

Source of release:

Lower explosive limit LEL:

Grade of release:

Safety Factor k:

Release rate (dG/dt) max

Toluene 92 kg/kmol Failure of flange gasket 0.046 kg/m 3 (1.2 vol%) Secondary 0.5 for secondary grade 2.8 x 10 -6 kg/s

Ventilation characteristics

(indoor situation)

No. air changes, C:

Quality factor, f:

Ambient temperature, T:

Temperature coefficient (T/293 K):

Building (room) size, V 0 :

1 per hour (2.8 x 10 -4 per sec) 5 equates to impeded air flow 20 deg C

1

10m x 15m x 6m = 900 m 3

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

to impeded air flow 20 deg C 1 10m x 15m x 6m = 900 m
to impeded air flow 20 deg C 1 10m x 15m x 6m = 900 m

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Example Continued Calculate the theoretical minimum volumetric flow rate of fresh air to dilute the

Example Continued

Calculate the theoretical minimum volumetric flow rate of fresh air to dilute the release:

(dV/dt) min =

(dG/dt) max x k x LEL

T

=

2.8 x 10-6 0.5 x 0.046

x

293

293

x

293

= 1.2 x 10 -4 m 3 /s

Evaluation of hypothetical volume Vz:

V z = f x (dV/dt) min

C

=

5 x 1.2 x 10 -4

2.8 x 10 -4

=

2.2 m 3

Calculate the time of persistence:

t = -f/C ln((LEL x k)/X 0) = -5/1 ln((1.2 x 0.5)/100)

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

ln((LEL x k)/X 0 ) = -5/1 ln((1.2 x 0.5)/100) Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres =

= 25.6 hr

ln((LEL x k)/X 0 ) = -5/1 ln((1.2 x 0.5)/100) Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres =

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Example - Conclusion • The hypothetical volume V z is greater than 0.1m 3 but

Example - Conclusion

The hypothetical volume V z is greater than 0.1m 3 but less than the room volume V 0 (900 m 3 ).

In this case the degree of ventilation may be considered as medium with regard to the source of the release and area under consideration. Therefore a secondary grade of

release would equate to Zone 2

However the flammable atmosphere would persist therefore the concept of Zone 2 may not be met.

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

would persist therefore the concept of Zone 2 may not be met. Equipment Use in Explosive
would persist therefore the concept of Zone 2 may not be met. Equipment Use in Explosive

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Zone Sizing • Standard IEC 60079-10-1 does not give the zone sizing – a very

Zone Sizing

Standard IEC 60079-10-1 does not give the zone sizing a very unsatisfactory situation.

The examples given in IEC 60079-10-1 can be used to give

a judgemental zone sizing. An example is covered later.

Standard IP15 for may be used for zone sizing as could computation fluid dynamics.

The Health and Safety Execute the safety agency for the UK

government has done some research into this problem and

will be issuing some guidelines in the near future.

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

problem and will be issuing some guidelines in the near future. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres
problem and will be issuing some guidelines in the near future. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

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• Zone 20 Step 7b. Assess the Size of Each Dust Zone − A zone

Zone 20

Step 7b. Assess the Size of Each Dust

Zone

A zone 20 is generally inside contained equipment that determine size of the zone. If a Zone 20 exists outside equipment you have got a serious housekeeping and GMP problem.

Zone 21

The size will depend on the dust properties and ventilation.

Good exhaust ventilation will down grade this to a Zone 22. A distance of 1m from the source with a vertical extension to a solid floor is usually adequate.

Zone 22

A distance of 3m from the Zone 20 or Zone 21 as appropriate, extending down to a solid floor is usually adequate.

Mechanical barriers such as walls may limit the extent.

The presence of dust layers may extent the Zone 22 or turn a Zone 22 into a Zone 21

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

layers may extent the Zone 22 or turn a Zone 22 into a Zone 21 Equipment
layers may extent the Zone 22 or turn a Zone 22 into a Zone 21 Equipment

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Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres Step 8. Plot the Zones on the Plan and Elevation
Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres Step 8. Plot the Zones on the Plan and Elevation

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres Step 8. Plot the Zones on the Plan and Elevation of

Step 8. Plot the

Zones on the Plan and Elevation of the Equipment

Use in Explosive Atmospheres Step 8. Plot the Zones on the Plan and Elevation of the

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Gas Zoning Example • A fixed process mixing vessel, situated indoors, being opened regularly for

Gas Zoning Example

A fixed process mixing vessel, situated indoors, being opened regularly for operational reasons. The liquid is piped into the vessel through all welded pipework flanged at the

vessel.

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

the vessel through all welded pipework flanged at the vessel. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
the vessel through all welded pipework flanged at the vessel. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

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Gas Zoning Example Principal factors which influence the type and extent of the zone. •

Gas Zoning Example

Principal factors which influence the type and extent of the zone.

Ventilation

Type

Degree

Availability

Artificial

Low inside vessel; medium outside vessel

Fair

Source of release

Liquid surface within vessel

The opening of the vessel

Spillage or leakage of liquid close to vessel

Grade of Release

Continuous

Primary

Secondary

Product

Flashpoint

Vapour density

Below process and ambient temperature.

Greater than air.

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

Below process and ambient temperature. Greater than air. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
Below process and ambient temperature. Greater than air. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

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Example Dimensions Taking into account the relevant parameters, the following are typical values which will

Example Dimensions

Taking into account the relevant parameters, the following are typical values

which will be estimated for this particular example.

a = 1m horizontally from the source of release

b = 1m above the source of release

c = 1m horizontally

d = 2m horizontally

e = 1m above grade

d c a a c d b Zone 0 Zone 1 Zone 2 Process Liquid
d
c
a
a
c
d
b
Zone 0
Zone 1
Zone 2
Process Liquid
e

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

d c a a c d b Zone 0 Zone 1 Zone 2 Process Liquid e
d c a a c d b Zone 0 Zone 1 Zone 2 Process Liquid e

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Dust Zoning Example 1 Bag emptying station with no LEV within a building Bag emptying

Dust Zoning Example 1

Bag emptying station with no LEV within a building

Bag emptying station with LEV

20
20
no LEV within a building Bag emptying station with LEV 20 Zone Zone 21 See plan

Zoneno LEV within a building Bag emptying station with LEV 20 Zone 21 See plan views

Zone 21LEV within a building Bag emptying station with LEV 20 Zone See plan views Zone 22

Zone 22Bag emptying station with LEV 20 Zone Zone 21 See plan views Equipment Use in Explosive

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

station with LEV 20 Zone Zone 21 See plan views Zone 22 Equipment Use in Explosive
station with LEV 20 Zone Zone 21 See plan views Zone 22 Equipment Use in Explosive

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• Zone 20 Bag Emptying Station with no LEV Within a Building − Inside the

Zone 20

Bag Emptying Station with no LEV

Within a Building

Inside the hopper because an explosive dust/air mixture is present frequently or even continuously.

The size of the zone is determined by the hopper.

Zone 21

The open manway is a primary grade of release.

Zone 21 exist around this manhole extending 1 m from the edge of the manhole and extending down to the floor.

Zone 22

Accidental spillage of the bag could cause a dust cloud to extend beyond the Zone 21 Zone 22 extends 3m from the edge of the Zone 21 so in effect fills the whole of a room

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

the edge of the Zone 21 so in effect fills the whole of a room Equipment
the edge of the Zone 21 so in effect fills the whole of a room Equipment

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• Zone 20 Bag Emptying Station with LEV − Inside the hopper because an explosive

Zone 20

Bag Emptying Station with LEV

Inside the hopper because an explosive dust/air mixture is present

frequently or even continuously

Zone 21

There is no Zone 21 in this case due to the dust extraction system

Zone 22

The open manhole is a secondary grade of release. There is no escape

of dust in normal circumstances because of the dust extraction system

in a well designed extraction system, any dust released will be sucked inside. Consequently, only a Zone 22 is defined around the manhole extending for 3m from the edge of the manhole and extending down to the floor.

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

from the edge of the manhole and extending down to the floor. Equipment Use in Explosive
from the edge of the manhole and extending down to the floor. Equipment Use in Explosive

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Dust Zoning Example 2 Cyclone and filter with clean outlet outside building Zone 20 Zone

Dust Zoning Example 2

Cyclone and filter with

clean outlet outside building

2 Cyclone and filter with clean outlet outside building Zone 20 Zone 21 Zone 22 Equipment
2 Cyclone and filter with clean outlet outside building Zone 20 Zone 21 Zone 22 Equipment
2 Cyclone and filter with clean outlet outside building Zone 20 Zone 21 Zone 22 Equipment
2 Cyclone and filter with clean outlet outside building Zone 20 Zone 21 Zone 22 Equipment
2 Cyclone and filter with clean outlet outside building Zone 20 Zone 21 Zone 22 Equipment
2 Cyclone and filter with clean outlet outside building Zone 20 Zone 21 Zone 22 Equipment

Zone 202 Cyclone and filter with clean outlet outside building Zone 21 Zone 22 Equipment Use in

Zone 21and filter with clean outlet outside building Zone 20 Zone 22 Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

Zone 22and filter with clean outlet outside building Zone 20 Zone 21 Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

with clean outlet outside building Zone 20 Zone 21 Zone 22 Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

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• Zone 20 Dust Zoning Example 2 Continued − Inside the cyclone because an explosive

Zone 20

Dust Zoning Example 2 Continued

Inside the cyclone because an explosive dust/air mixture is present frequently or even continuously.

Zone 21

The dirty side of the filter is a Zone 21, if only small amounts of dust enter the filter from the cyclone in normal operation. If this is not the case, the dirty side of the filter is Zone 20.

Zone 22

The filter clean side may contain a dust cloud if a filter element fails. This zone includes the ducting.

The Zone 22 extends around the outlet of the ducting and extends down the ground (not shown in diagram).

The size of the Zone 22 (in plan) around the outlet will depend on the process and properties of the dust. The expected minimum size would be

1m and the 3m is a reasonable maximum.

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

minimum size would be 1m and the 3m is a reasonable maximum. Equipment Use in Explosive
minimum size would be 1m and the 3m is a reasonable maximum. Equipment Use in Explosive

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Questions on Hazardous Area Classification Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
Questions on Hazardous Area Classification Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

Questions on Hazardous Area Classification

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

Questions on Hazardous Area Classification Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
Questions on Hazardous Area Classification Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

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Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres Select Appropriate Equipment for the Zone Identified www.integpharma.com
Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres Select Appropriate Equipment for the Zone Identified www.integpharma.com

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

Select Appropriate Equipment for the

Zone Identified

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres Select Appropriate Equipment for the Zone Identified www.integpharma.com
Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres Select Appropriate Equipment for the Zone Identified www.integpharma.com

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Equipment Definitions • Electrical Equipment – IEC 60079-0 − Items applied as a whole or

Equipment Definitions

Electrical Equipment IEC 60079-0

Items applied as a whole or in part for the utilization of electrical energy including amongst others, items for generation, transmission, distribution, storage, measurement, regulation, conversion and consumption of electrical energy and items for telecommunications.

Non-electrical Equipment EN 13463-1

Currently only applies in Europe. However, non-electrical equipment is very relevant to pharma, bio and fine chemicals.

Machines, apparatus, fixed or mobile devices, control components and

instrumentation thereof and detection or prevention systems, which

separately or jointly are intended for the generation, transfer, storage, measurement, control or conversion of energy and/or the processing of material and which are capable of causing an explosion through their own

potential sources of ignition.

Simple apparatus with no moving parts, e.g. containers or pipes on their

own are not considered equipment.

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

containers or pipes on their own are not considered equipment. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
containers or pipes on their own are not considered equipment. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

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• Electrical Equipment Sources of Ignition − Assume that without protective or preventative measures, electrical

Electrical Equipment

Sources of Ignition

Assume that without protective or preventative measures, electrical equipment will be an effective source of ignition i.e. a source of ignition that is capable of igniting the FGs and/or CDs where they are present.

Non-Electrical Equipment

Analyse the potential ignition sources to see if there are any effective ignition sources.

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

sources to see if there are any effective ignition sources. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
sources to see if there are any effective ignition sources. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

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Ignition Sources – Non-Electric Equipment 1. Does the e q ui p ment have a

Ignition Sources Non-Electric

Equipment

1. Does the equipment have a related ignition source other than static electricity?

Yes - Some form of preventive or protective measures may be required. See question 2 below.

No Non-electrical equipment where the only source of ignition is static electricity is not covered by the ATEX directive. Protection against static electricity is required covered later.

2. Are there effective ignition sources that can ignite the

explosive atmosphere present?

Yes Some form of preventive or protective measures will be required.

No Equipment is safe to use.

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

will be required. − No – Equipment is safe to use. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres
will be required. − No – Equipment is safe to use. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

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Equipment Providing Preventive or Protection Measures 1. Select equipment that is compliant with IEC or

Equipment Providing Preventive or

Protection Measures

1.

Select equipment that is compliant with IEC or EN Standards and certified to be compliant.

2.

Consider if there are any residual risks.

If residual risks exists then further preventive or protective measures will be required. See later.

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

preventive or protective measures will be required. See later. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
preventive or protective measures will be required. See later. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

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EU ATEX Marking 0999 II 2 G x Group II only G = Gas, vapour

EU ATEX Marking

0999 II 2 G x
0999
II
2
G
x

Group II only G = Gas, vapour or

mist D = Dust or flyings

Equipment Category 1, 2 or 3

Equipment Group I or II

EU Explosive Atmospheres Symbol

Notified Body reference number

CE Mark

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

Atmospheres Symbol Notified Body reference number CE Mark Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
Atmospheres Symbol Notified Body reference number CE Mark Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

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IEC Marking Gases, vapours and mists Ex d IIB T6 Gb - 40 o C<Tamb<+50

IEC Marking

Gases, vapours and mists

Ex d IIB T6 Gb - 40 o C<Tamb<+50 o C

Gas Group
Gas Group

Certified ambient temperature range

Explosion protection level

Temperature class reference to ambient of -20 to +40 o C unless indicated

reference to ambient of -20 to +40 o C unless indicated Type of protection code Explosion

Type of protection code

Explosion protection symbol

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

indicated Type of protection code Explosion protection symbol Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
indicated Type of protection code Explosion protection symbol Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

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IEC Marking Dust and Flyings Ex tb IIIC T125°C Db IP66 Ingress Protection Explosion protection

IEC Marking

Dust and Flyings

Ex tb IIIC T125°C Db IP66

IEC Marking Dust and Flyings Ex tb IIIC T125°C Db IP66 Ingress Protection Explosion protection level

Ingress Protection

Explosion protection level

Maximum surface temperature reference to ambient of -20 to +40 o C unless indicated

Dust Group

Type of protection code

Explosion protection symbol

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

Dust Group Type of protection code Explosion protection symbol Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
Dust Group Type of protection code Explosion protection symbol Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

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Marking Non- Electrical Equipment – EN 13463-1 II 2 G d IIA T4 Temperature class

Marking Non- Electrical Equipment

EN 13463-1

II 2 G d IIA T4
II
2
G d IIA T4

Temperature class

Gas group

Protection concept

Group II only G = Gas, vapour or mist D = Dust or flyings

Equipment Category 1, 2 or 3

Equipment Group I or II

Notes:

1. The “Ex” symbol is not used with non- electrical equipment

2. Dust groups IIIA, IIIB and IIIC are not used with non-electrical equipment.

3. The temperature class can be replaced by the maximum surface temperature in °C

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

class can be replaced by the maximum surface temperature in °C Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres
class can be replaced by the maximum surface temperature in °C Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

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Electrical Equipment Groups IEC 60079-0 EU Directive 94/9/EC IEC 60079-10-X Explosion Protection Level Group

Electrical Equipment Groups

IEC 60079-0

EU Directive 94/9/EC

IEC 60079-10-X

Explosion Protection Level

Group

Equipment

Equipment

Zones

Group

Category

Ma

   

M1

 

Mb

I

I

M2

NA

Ga

   

1G

0

Gb

II

2G

1

Gc

3G

2

Da

 

II

1D

20

Db

III

2D

21

Dc

3D

22

Ma, Mb, Group I, M1 and M2 apply to coal mining only

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

3D 22 Ma, Mb, Group I, M1 and M2 apply to coal mining only Equipment Use
3D 22 Ma, Mb, Group I, M1 and M2 apply to coal mining only Equipment Use

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Non - Electrical Equipment Groups EN 13463-1 EN 60079-10-X Equipment Group Equipment Category Zones

Non - Electrical Equipment Groups

EN 13463-1

EN 60079-10-X

Equipment Group

Equipment Category

Zones

 

M1

 

I

M2

NA

 

1G

0

2G

1

3G

2

II

1D

20

2D

21

3D

22

Group I, M1 and M2 apply to coal mining

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

2D 21 3D 22 Group I, M1 and M2 apply to coal mining Equipment Use in
2D 21 3D 22 Group I, M1 and M2 apply to coal mining Equipment Use in

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Protection Concept Electrical Equipment   Gases, Vapours and Mists Code Protection Concept Zone d

Protection Concept

Electrical Equipment

 

Gases, Vapours and Mists

Code

Protection Concept

Zone

d

Flameproof

1

pxb/pyb

Pressurised

1

pzc

2

q

Powder Filled

1

o

Oil Filled

1

e

Increased Safety

1

ia

 

0

ib

Intrinsic Safety

1

ic

2

nA

Non-sparking Energy limited

 

nL

2

nR

Restricted breathing

nC

Enclosed break

 

ma

 

0

mb

Encapsulation

1

mc

2

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

1 mc 2 Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres   Dusts and Flyings Code Protection Concept
 

Dusts and Flyings

Code

Protection Concept

Zone

ta

 

20

tb

Enclosure

21

tc

22

p

Pressurised

21/22

ia

 

20

ib

Intrinsic Safety

21

ic

22

ma

 

20

mb

Encapsulated

21

mc

22

Intrinsic Safety 21 ic 22 ma   20 mb Encapsulated 21 mc 22 www.integpharma.com

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Protection Concept Non-Electrical Equipment Gases, Vapours, Mists, Dusts and Flyings Code Protection Concept

Protection Concept Non-Electrical

Equipment

Gases, Vapours, Mists, Dusts and Flyings

Code

Protection Concept

Zone

fr

Flow restriction

2/22

d

Flameproof

1/21

c

Constructional safety

1/21

b

Control of ignition sources

1/21

p

Pressurisation

1/21

k

Liquid immersion

1/21

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

p Pressurisation 1/21 k Liquid immersion 1/21 Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
p Pressurisation 1/21 k Liquid immersion 1/21 Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

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Material Groups Gases, Vapours and Mists 1 Dusts and Flyings IIA MIE > 0.20 mJ

Material Groups

Gases, Vapours and Mists 1

Dusts and Flyings

IIA

MIE > 0.20 mJ

IIIA

Combustible flyings

IIB 2

MIE 0.05 0.20

IIIB 3

Non-conductive dusts

Electrical resistivity > 10 3 Ωm

IIC 2

MIE < 0.05

IIIC 4

Conductive dusts

Electrical resistivity < 10 3 Ωm

1. Group II subdivisions are also based on maximum experimental safe gap. See IEC 60079-12 and IEC60079-20

2. Equipment marked IIB can be used for IIA and IIB gases. Equipment marked IIIC can be used for IIA and IIB gases.

3. Equipment marked IIIB can be used for non-conductive dusts and combustible flyings.

4. Equipment marked IIIC can be used for conductive and non-conductive dusts and combustible flyings.

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

conductive and non-conductive dusts and combustible flyings. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
conductive and non-conductive dusts and combustible flyings. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

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Temperature Classes Gases and Vapours Temperature Class of Materials in Use Minimum Ignition Temperature of

Temperature Classes

Gases and Vapours

Temperature Class of Materials in Use

Minimum Ignition Temperature of Gas or Vapour °C

Allowable Temperature Classes of Equipment

T1

>450

T1 T6

T2

>300

T2 T6

T3

>200

T3 T6

T4

>135

T4 T6

T5

>100

T5 T6

T6

>85

T6

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

T6 T5 >100 T5 – T6 T6 >85 T6 Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
T6 T5 >100 T5 – T6 T6 >85 T6 Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

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Equipment Surface Temperature Dusts 1. Layers − If, the layer thickness is controlled and frequently

Equipment Surface Temperature

Dusts

1.

Layers

If, the layer thickness is controlled and frequently removed before thermal effects occur

Hopefully the case in a GMP facility

Then apply the rule, T max

T 5 – 75 , where:

T 5 75 , where:

T max is maximum surface temperature of the apparatus when tested in a dust free test method.

T 5 is the minimum ignition temperature of a 5 mm dust layer

2.

Clouds

For clouds apply the rule, T max

2. Clouds − For clouds apply the rule, T m a x 2/3 T C l

2/3 T Cl , where:

T Cl is the ignition temperature of a dust cloud

For more details see IEC 60079-14

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

temperature of a dust cloud For more details see IEC 60079-14 Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres
temperature of a dust cloud For more details see IEC 60079-14 Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

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Ingress Protection   Dust Water – Protected Against IP5X Dust Protected IPX4 Splashing water

Ingress Protection

 

Dust

Water Protected Against

IP5X

Dust Protected

IPX4

Splashing water

IP6X

Dust Tight

IPX5

Water Jets

   

IPX6

Powered Water Jets

   

IPX7

Temporary Immersion

   

IPX8

Continuous Immersion

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

Immersion     IPX8 Continuous Immersion Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
Immersion     IPX8 Continuous Immersion Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

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Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres Equipment Selection Examples www.integpharma.com
Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres Equipment Selection Examples www.integpharma.com
Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres Equipment Selection Examples www.integpharma.com

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres Equipment Selection Examples www.integpharma.com

Equipment

Selection

Examples

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres Equipment Selection Examples www.integpharma.com

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Example 1 – Ethanol Pump • Process − Batch transfer of the contents of a

Example 1 Ethanol Pump

Process

Batch transfer of the contents of a measuring head tank to a process

vessel.

Hazards Area Classification

Inside the pump is a Zone 1 because air can enter the pump at the start and end of each transfer.

Outside the pump there is small Zone 1 around the single mechanical seal because of the small leakage across the seal face.

Outside the pump there is a large Zone 2 due to the possibility of seal failure

and leakage from pipe joints.

Head Tank Transfer Pump Process Reactor
Head Tank
Transfer Pump
Process Reactor

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

from pipe joints. Head Tank Transfer Pump Process Reactor Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
from pipe joints. Head Tank Transfer Pump Process Reactor Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

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Ethanol Properties Flash Point 14°C Low Explosion Limit 3.3% Upper Explosion Limit 24.5% Minimum

Ethanol Properties

Flash Point

14°C

Low Explosion Limit

3.3%

Upper Explosion Limit

24.5%

Minimum Ignition Energy

0.65 mJ

Apparatus Group

IIA

Auto Ignition Temperature

363°C

Temperature Class

T2

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

Auto Ignition Temperature 363°C Temperature Class T2 Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
Auto Ignition Temperature 363°C Temperature Class T2 Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

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Equipment Selected Location Inside Pump Outside Pump Zone 1 1 2 Electrical or Non- electrical

Equipment Selected

Location

Inside Pump

Outside Pump

Zone

1

1

2

Electrical or Non-

electrical

Non-electrical

Electrical

Electrical

Category Required

2

2

2 or 3

IEC or EN Standard Marking

pc IIA T2

2 2 2 or 3 IEC or EN Standard Marking pc IIA † T2 ‡ x
x
x

Ex pc IIA T2 Gb

EN Standard Marking pc IIA † T2 ‡ x Ex pc IIA T2 Gb x Ex
x
x

Ex pc IIA T2 Gb or Ex pc IIA T2 Gc

‡ x Ex pc IIA T2 Gb x Ex pc IIA T2 Gb or Ex pc
x
x

II 2 G or

II 3 G

EU ATEX Marking

II 2 G

II 2 G

PC = Protection Concept e.g. d, e, fr etc. † IIB or IIC would also be acceptable ‡ T3 to T6 would also be acceptable

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

T3 to T6 would also be acceptable Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres Pump analysis in EN
T3 to T6 would also be acceptable Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres Pump analysis in EN

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Zone 0 Issues • Although in this example the pump does not contain a Zone

Zone 0 Issues

Although in this example the pump does not contain a Zone 0, the air space in the head tank and the process

reactor would each create a Zone 0.

LEV extract fans can frequently contain a Zone 0

There are no non-electrical equipment protection concepts that are suitable for Zone 0. To overcome the problem two independent protection concepts need to be used.

Later on we examine an alternative approach to this

problem.

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

Later on we examine an alternative approach to this problem. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
Later on we examine an alternative approach to this problem. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

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Example 2 Milling Dry Lactose • Dry milling of lactose down stream of a fluid

Example 2 Milling Dry Lactose

Dry milling of lactose down stream of a fluid bed dryer

discharging into an IBC, no solvent.

Connections

Clamped joint on outlet from dryer

Clamped joint on the inlet to the IBC

Containment

Fully contained pipe work

Mill has a purged mechanical seals

Located in a room with HVAC

Cleaning

WIP after milling

Dismantled for full clean

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

Cleaning − WIP after milling − Dismantled for full clean Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
Cleaning − WIP after milling − Dismantled for full clean Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

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Product Properties – Dust Example Lactose Based Dry Granules Minimum Explosive Concentration MEC 1 60

Product Properties Dust Example

Lactose Based Dry Granules

Minimum Explosive Concentration MEC 1

60 g/m 3

Minimum Ignition Energy (fines) 1

10 mJ

Resistivity 2

1 x 10 12 Ωm

Apparatus Group (Resistivity > 1 x 10 3 Ωm)

IIIB

Minimum Ignition Temperature Layer T 5 1

450

o C

Minimum Ignition Temperature Cloud T Cl 1

420

o C

1.

BIA Report 13/97 Combustion and explosion properties of dusts

2.

M. Murtomaa, E. Laine, Electrostatic measurements on lactose-glucose mixtures, J.

Electrostat. 48 (2000)

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

on lactose-glucose mixtures, J. Electrostat. 48 (2000) Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
on lactose-glucose mixtures, J. Electrostat. 48 (2000) Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

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Analysis • Sources of Release − MEC will be exceeded inside the mill − No

Analysis

Sources of Release

MEC will be exceeded inside the mill

No dust outside the mill unless there is mal operation and and dust cloud will be quickly remove by the HVAC

and and dust cloud will be quickly remove by the HVAC Continuous Grade Secondary Grade Zone
and and dust cloud will be quickly remove by the HVAC Continuous Grade Secondary Grade Zone

Continuous Gradeand and dust cloud will be quickly remove by the HVAC Secondary Grade Zone 20 Zone

cloud will be quickly remove by the HVAC Continuous Grade Secondary Grade Zone 20 Zone 22

Secondary Grade

Zone 20quickly remove by the HVAC Continuous Grade Secondary Grade Zone 22 • Probability of the Mill

Zone 22remove by the HVAC Continuous Grade Secondary Grade Zone 20 • Probability of the Mill acting

Probability of the Mill acting as an ignition source

EN 13463-1 states that single impacts between metal parts need not considered as potential ignition sources when:

the impact velocity is less than 1 m/s and sparking metals are avoided.

or less than 15 m/s and less than 150 J with non-sparking metals (Cu, Zn, Sn, Pb some brasses (CuZn) and bronze (CuSn). Standard Text

Austenitic stainless steel is not a major sparking risk because it is not easily oxidised. However, unless the impact speed is less than 1 m/s then there is a potential ignition source. Since the is MIE low, friction and static electrical discharge are also potential ignitions sources.

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

electrical discharge are also potential ignitions sources. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
electrical discharge are also potential ignitions sources. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

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Assessment of Risk versus MIE MIE mJ Recommended Action 1 500 Low sensitivity to ignition.

Assessment of Risk versus MIE

MIE mJ

Recommended Action 1

500

Low sensitivity to ignition. Earth plant and equipment when ignition energy

is at or below this level.

100

Consider earthing personnel when energy is below this level.

25

The majority of incidents occur when MIE is below this level.

10

High sensitivity to ignition. Consider restrictions on high resistivity non- conductors when MIE is below this level.

1

Extremely sensitive to ignition. Precautions should be as for flammable liquids and gases when MIE is below this level.

MIE is low on the scale shown in this table so static electricity is likely to be a significant problem.

1. J Barton, Dust Explosion Prevention and Protection A Practical Guide, IChemE

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

Prevention and Protection – A Practical Guide, IChemE Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
Prevention and Protection – A Practical Guide, IChemE Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

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Surface Temperature Required • Layer Ignition Temperature − T m a x 450 – 75

Surface Temperature Required

Layer Ignition Temperature

T max

Required • Layer Ignition Temperature − T m a x 450 – 75 o C T

450 75 o C

Ignition Temperature − T m a x 450 – 75 o C T m a x

Ignition Temperature − T m a x 450 – 75 o C T m a x

T

max

Temperature − T m a x 450 – 75 o C T m a x 375

375

o C

Cloud Ignition Temperature

T max

375 o C • Cloud Ignition Temperature − T m a x 2/3 x 420 o

2/3 x 420 o C

Ignition Temperature − T m a x 2/3 x 420 o C T m a x

Ignition Temperature − T m a x 2/3 x 420 o C T m a x

T

max

Temperature − T m a x 2/3 x 420 o C T m a x 280

280

o C

Select the lower temperature from above, therefore surface temperature of equipment must be less than 280 o C

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

surface temperature of equipment must be less than 280 o C Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres
surface temperature of equipment must be less than 280 o C Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

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Properties of Dusts - Reminder • The analysis in this example is based on data

Properties of Dusts - Reminder

The analysis in this example is based on data book

information, any actual analysis needs to be based properties

of actual material.

Particle size and moisture content will have an an impact on the material properties. Material tested needs to be at the moisture content leaving the dryer and the particle size

leaving the mill.

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

leaving the dryer and the particle size leaving the mill. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
leaving the dryer and the particle size leaving the mill. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

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Equipment Selected Location Inside Mill Outside Mill Zone 20 22 Electrical or Non- electrical Non-electrical

Equipment Selected

Location

Inside Mill

Outside Mill

Zone

20

22

Electrical or Non-

electrical

Non-electrical

Electrical

Category Required

1

3

IEC or EN Standard Marking

pc1/pc2 T125°C

1 3 IEC or EN Standard Marking pc1/pc2 † T125°C x Ex pc IIIB T125°C ‡
x
x

Ex pc IIIB T125°C Dc IP65

pc1/pc2 † T125°C x Ex pc IIIB T125°C ‡ Dc IP65 x EU ATEX Marking II
x
x

EU ATEX Marking

II 1 D

II 3 D

PC = Protection Concept e.g. d, e, fr etc. † pc1/pc2 indicates two independent methods of protection ‡ T125°C is a common surface temperature specification

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

surface temperature specification Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres ATEX Guidelines Mill Example www.integpharma.com
surface temperature specification Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres ATEX Guidelines Mill Example www.integpharma.com

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Zone 20 Issues • In this lactose milling example, the mill contained a Zone 20.

Zone 20 Issues

In this lactose milling example, the mill contained a Zone

20.

Zone 20s are common is solids handling equipment because air is frequently present during operations.

There are no non-electrical equipment protection concepts that are suitable for Zone 20. To overcome the problem two independent protection concepts need to be used.

Later on we examine an alternative approach to this problem.

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

Later on we examine an alternative approach to this problem. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
Later on we examine an alternative approach to this problem. Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

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Questions on Equipment Selection Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
Questions on Equipment Selection Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

Questions on Equipment Selection

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

Questions on Equipment Selection Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com
Questions on Equipment Selection Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres www.integpharma.com

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Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres Once compliant electrical and non- electrical equipment has been selected,
Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres Once compliant electrical and non- electrical equipment has been selected,

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres Once compliant electrical and non- electrical equipment has been selected, is

Once compliant electrical and non-

electrical

equipment has been selected, is there a residual

risk of explosion?

electrical and non- electrical equipment has been selected, is there a residual risk of explosion? www.integpharma.com

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Assessment of Residual Risks • EN 1127-1 lists the following possible ignition sources. − Hot

Assessment of Residual Risks

EN 1127-1 lists the following possible ignition sources.

Hot surfaces, mechanical sparks, flames and hot gases, electrical

sparks, stray electrical currents and cathodic corrosion protection, static

electricity, lightning, electromagnetic waves, ionising radiation, high frequency radiation, ultrasonics, adiabatic compression and chemical reaction.

Effective ignition sources - whether a possible ignition sources becomes an effective ignition sources depends on:

1. Properties of FGs and/or CDs e.g. minimum ignition energy, and

minimum ignition temperature.

2. Energy of ignition sources.

3. When ignition source occurs, normal operation, expected malfunction or rare malfunction.

Scale of anticipated effect of explosion

Inventory of FGs and/or CDs

Maximum explosion pressure, rate of pressure rise and deflagration constant K G or K St.

pressure rise and deflagration constant K G or K S t . www.integpharma.com Equipment Use in

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Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

pressure rise and deflagration constant K G or K S t . www.integpharma.com Equipment Use in
Sources of Ignition From Accident Reports Stactic Electriity 8.5% Gases Dusts Flames 7.9% 12.7% Hot

Sources of Ignition From Accident Reports

Stactic Electriity

8.5%

Gases

Dusts

Flames 7.9% 12.7% Hot Surfaces 4.8%
Flames
7.9%
12.7%
Hot Surfaces
4.8%

Other

3.2%

22.0%
22.0%

Stactic Electriity

Smoldering Nests

Hot Surfaces

12.0%

Electrical Arc and Mechanical Sparks Vehicle Ignition Sparks/Friction
Electrical Arc and
Mechanical
Sparks
Vehicle Ignition
Sparks/Friction

Flames

22.0%

Welding and Open

Self-Ignition

6.0%

Welding

4.2%

Pyrophoric Iron

Sulphide

10.0%

6.0% Welding 4.2% Pyrophoric Iron Sulphide 10.0% Unknown 17.0% Adibatic Compression 10.0% Mechanical

Unknown

17.0%

Adibatic Compression

10.0%

Mechanical

Sparks/Friction

32.7%

Electrical Equipment

8.0%

8.0%

8.0%

Fire and Explosion Incident Analysis May 2005 Canadian Upstream Oil and Gas Industry

Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

Canadian Upstream Oil and Gas Industry Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres 3.0% BIA Report 11/97 www.integpharma.com

3.0%

BIA Report 11/97

Canadian Upstream Oil and Gas Industry Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres 3.0% BIA Report 11/97 www.integpharma.com

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Sources of Ignition for Dust Explosions - Percentages Equipment Dust Silos and Collectors Mills and

Sources of Ignition for Dust

Explosions - Percentages

Equipment Dust Silos and Collectors Mills and Conveying Sieves and Dryers Mixers Polishers Ignition Bunkers
Equipment
Dust
Silos and
Collectors
Mills and
Conveying
Sieves and
Dryers
Mixers
Polishers
Ignition
Bunkers
and
Crushers
Systems
Classifiers
Source
Separators
Mechanical Sparks and
Mechanical Heating
17.2
41.0
71.3
45.5
1.8
46.1
86.4
12.5
Smouldering Nests
30.2
10.5
0
9.1
27.8
0
0
6.3
Electrostatic Discharges
2.6
9.5
3.7
16.7
9.3
34.6
0
12.5
Fire
6.0
4.8
1.3
0
0
3.9
0
12.5
Self Ignition
2.6
6.7
3.7
4.5
16.7
0
0
6.3
Hot Surfaces
10.3
0
3.7
4.5
16.7
0
0
0
Welding and Cutting
7.8
0.9
0
3.0
1.8
3.9
0
0
Electrical Equipment
3.5
0.9
0
0
0
0
0
0
Unknown
18.1
20.9
12.5
13.6
20.4
11.7
13.6
50.0
Other
1.7
4.8
3.7
3.0
3.7
0
0
0

Reference: BIA Report 11/97 Equipment Use in Explosive Atmospheres

1.7 4.8 3.7 3.0 3.7 0 0 0 Reference: BIA Report 11/97 Equipment Use in Explosive
1.7 4.8 3.7 3.0 3.7 0 0 0 Reference: BIA Report 11/97 Equipment Use in Explosive