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Terayon Communication Systems

TA 102/202 eMTA
Technical Support Guide

Part No. 8500276 Rev B

December 2004
Contacting Terayon Communication Systems
You can contact Terayon Communication Systems as follows:
• Telephone: (888) 783-7296 (888-7-Terayon) or 408-235-5823, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week
• Postal mail:
Terayon Communication Systems
4988 Great America Parkway
Santa Clara, CA 95054, U.S.A.

• e-mail: data-support@terayon.com (for technical support)


marketing@terayon.com (for product information)
• Feedback and suggestions to Technical Publications Group:
techpubs@terayon.com
• Worldwide Web: http://www.terayon.com

European Support
• Telephone: 32.1.638.4772
• email: eurospport@terayon.com (for technical support)

Asia/Pacific Support
• Telephone: 852.2111.5980
• email: apsupport@terayon.com (for technical support)

ii TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide


Contents
Chapter Preface
Why Use This Guide? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
How To Use This Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
About This Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
Icons Used in This Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii

Chapter 1 Overview
What is an Embedded MTA? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
MTA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Cable Modem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
The TA 102/202 eMTA at a Glance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
Hardware Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
TA 102/202 eMTA Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
RF Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
High Speed Data Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
POTS Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Speech Codec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
MIB Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
Quality of Service (QoS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
Standards Compliancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
DOCSIS 2.0/Euro-DOCSIS 1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
PacketCable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10

Chapter 2 Installation
Getting Started . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Package Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Terayon TA-102 or TA-202 MTA Modem Package Contents . . . . . . . . 2-2
System Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
MTA Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
What the Customer Will Need . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Modem Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
CATV Coax Cable to TA-102/202 eMTA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
Connecting the Power Adapter to the TA-102/202 eMTA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
Connecting the TA-102/202 eMTA to a PC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
Connecting the 10/100 Base-T Ethernet Cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
Connecting the USB Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
Connecting A Telephone to the TA-102/202 eMTA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13

TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide iii


TA-102/202 eMTA Start Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14
Front Panel Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15
BU 802 Battery Backup Unit Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16
Readying the Installation Site. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-18
Unpacking the BU 802 Battery Backup Unit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-18
Battery Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-19
eMTA/BBU Mating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-21
BU 802 Wall Mounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-22
Power Up and Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-24
Battery Status LED. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-25
BU 802 Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-27

Chapter 3 Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Typical End User Problems and Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Problem: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Possible Solution: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Problem: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Possible Solution: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Problem: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
Possible Solution: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
Problem: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Possible Solution: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Problem: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Possible Solution: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Problem: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Possible Solution: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Problem: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
Possible Solution: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
Problem: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
Possible Solution: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
Problem: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
Possible Solution: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
TA 102/202 eMTA Front Panel LED Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9

Chapter 4 PacketCable Network Architecture


PacketCable Network Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
PacketCable Functional Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
Trusted and Untrusted Network Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
Multimedia Terminal Adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
Cable Modem (CM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
Cable Modem Termination System (CMTS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
CMTS Gate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
Call Management Server (CMS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
Announcement Server (ANS). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7

iv TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide


OSS Support Systems (OSS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
Provisioning Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
Security Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
Record Keeping Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
PSTN Gateway. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
Placing a Call in a PacketCable Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10

TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide v


Preface

IMPORTANT: The Contents of the TA 102/202 eMTA Technical Support


Guide are subject to change without notice. Some features and capability
descriptions may not be complete and will be enhanced in future revisions of
the guide.

Why Use This Guide?


If your goal is to learn about the Terayon TA 102/202 eMTA, you are in the right place.
This guide provides a brief overview of the TA 102/202 eMTA as well as information
about how to install it and get it up and running.

How To Use This Guide


This guide is organized so you can find out about the TA 102/202 eMTA in a sequence
you prefer, or you can read about specific TA 102/202 eMTA topics without the need to
wade through information you already know. Each chapter gives you a list of topics you
can use as a guide to what’s in the chapter.
You’ll also find that some topics may be covered in more than one place in the guide,
with one location providing more information than the other. When this happens, we
provide a cross-reference to where the topic is covered in detail.

About This Guide


The following tells you what we have included between the covers of this guide.

Organization
Chapter 1: “Overview” outlines the functional features of the TA 102/202 eMTA.
Here’s where you learn what the TA 102/202 eMTA can do. We cover
operational features, hardware architecture, along with MIB support.

TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide vii


Chapter 2, “Installation” This chapter tells you how to install the TA 102/202 eMTA.
You’ll find out what tools you’ll need, what the environmental and power
requirements are, and a slew of installation instructions.
Chapter 3, “Troubleshooting” This chapter contains trouble shooting information
intended to help you identify and correct TA 102/202 eMTA malfunctions.
Chapter 4, “PacketCable Architecture” delves into the architecture of a PacketCable
network. If you have an understanding of how PacketCable works, or you
don’t care how it works, you can probably skip this chapter. But, it won’t
hurt to look it over anyway.

Icons Used in This Guide

WARNING: Warning icons and messages alert you to possible physical harm

! to you or the equipment.

CAUTION: Caution icons and messages are equipment damage


precautions to alert you to possible harm and/or equipment failure.

IMPORTANT: Important messages contain information essential to


avoiding a serious problem with an application, device, or system.

NOTE NOTE: Note messages are helpful hints to help you perform a task or
understand text.

viii TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide


Chapter 1
Overview

The Terayon TA 102 and 202 are PacketCable compliant embedded Multimedia
Terminal Adapters (eMTAs) that perform all the control functions required for
PacketCable telephony calls. Chapter 1 provides a brief overview of TA 102/202
eMTA features and functions. The material presented includes:
• What is an Embedded MTA?
• The TA 102/202 eMTA at a Glance
• Hardware Architecture
• MIB Support
• Security
• Quality of Service (QoS)
• Standards Compliancy

r
we
Po
ble
Ca
PC
ta
Da
st
Te

i n e1
L
e2
Lin

2
-10
TA

Figure 1-1 The TA 102/202 eMTA

TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide 1-1


Chapter 1 Overview What is an Embedded MTA?

What is an Embedded MTA?


No matter how much of a cyberpro you are — or how much of a novice, there’s always
something new to learn. The astute reader (you of course) may be wondering what an
embedded MTA is. Basically it’s an MTA and a cable modem combined into one box.

MTA
A Multimedia Terminal Adapter (MTA) is a device that performs all the control func-
tions for PacketCable telephony calls. One side of the MTA accepts input from tele-
phones or telephone like devices, the other side of the device connects to a cable modem.
In short, it converts analog voice signals to IP packets.

Cable Modem

As you already know, a cable modem is a device that resides in the subscribers home and
actually generates and places upstream signals on the coaxial cable. It also decodes the
raw downstream signals from the network so they can be interpreted by the MTA.

TA 102/202
Embedded Multimedia Terminal Adapter (eMTA)
(An MTA and a CM in one package)
Functions:
Converts voice signals to IP packets and vice versa.
Generates multiple audio indicators to phones.
Provides standard PSTN analog line signaling for audio tones,
voice transport, caller-ID signaling, and message and waiting
indicators.
Generates and places upstream signals on the coax cable
and decodes raw downstream signals from the HFC
network so they can be interpreted by the MTA.

Identifiers:
Two MAC addresses, one for the MTA, one for the CM.
Two IP addresses, one for the MTA, one for the CM.
Two Fully Qualified Domain Names (FQDN), one for the MTA,
one for the CM.

Figure 1-2 TA 102/202 eMTA

1-2 TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide


The TA 102/202 eMTA at a Glance Chapter 1 Overview

The TA 102/202 eMTA at a Glance


Built around the Terayon TJ 715x cable modem, the TA 102 (DOCSIS) and the TA 202
(Euro-DOCSIS) lets cable operators offer simultaneously to their subscribers, both high
speed data and voice services. The TA 102 and TA 202 are two-line, PacketCable
compliant eMTAs designed for indoor use. Both are AC powered with an optional
battery backup.
These high performance eMTAs are the only cable telephony products of their kind that
incorporate the Advanced Physical Layer technologies selected by CableLabs for inclu-
sion in the DOCSIS 2.0 specification. When deployed with a DOCSIS based CMTS, such
as the Terayon BW 3500 or the BW 3200, the combination delivers enhanced noise
immunity and substantially more upstream capacity than previous generations of of
DOCSIS or Euro-DOCSIS technology. This makes the TA 102/202 eMTA the most scal-
able VoIP solution available.

Features
Exclusive OpenPHY (A-TDMA and S-CDMA) technology — Delivers
substantially more bandwidth for enhanced scalability and superior noise immunity for
extremly high quality calls.
Single platform for integrated voice and data services — Exceptional scalability
and cost effective, especially when used with a DOCSIS 2.0 based CMTS such as the
Terayon BW 3500 or BW 3200.
Forward and backward compatability — Coexits with DOCSIS and Euro-DOCSIS
1.0 and 1.1 modems and eMTAs on the same physical plant.
Easy installation and versatile performance — Horizontal, vertical or wall mount
orientation, plug and play self-installation, two RJ-11 jacks for separate voice lines,
transparent fax/modem support, plus Ethernet (RJ-45) and USB data interfaces.
High reliability — SNMP-based management, provisioning and monitoring interface;
optional battery backup provides six hours standby, four hours active.
Full security support — Invokes DOCSIS 1.1 BPI+ and PacketCable specifications.

TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide 1-3


Chapter 1 Overview Hardware Architecture

Hardware Architecture
In this section we delve into what’s inside the TA 102/202 eMTA. Figure 1-3 shows the
basic architecture of the eMTA, and the following sections describe its I/O interfaces.

16 MB
SDRAM

CABLE
CONTROL MODEM
RF IN/OUT
A/D
TUNER
iMEDIA
D/A
BROADBAND

CONN
RJ-45
ETHERNET
MODEM CHIP
INTERFACE

CONN
USB

USB
INTERFACE

4 MB
FLASH MEMORY
MTA

HV
CONN
RJ-11

SUBSCRIBER
LINE INTERFACE
LV CIRCUIT
SPEECH SUBSCRIBER
CODEC LINE INTERFACE
CIRCUIT HV
CONN
RJ-11

SUBSCRIBER
LINE INTERFACE
CIRCUIT

Figure 1-3 TA 102/202 eMTA Basic Architecture

1-4 TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide


Hardware Architecture Chapter 1 Overview

TA 102/202 eMTA Interfaces


An eMTA must interact and communicate with its environment so it can perform useful
tasks. It communicates with its environment through interfaces — electrical links that
connect two or more pieces of equipment together. The TA 102/202 eMTA provides four
interfaces for communicating with its environment. They are:
• RF Interface
• Ethernet Interface
• USB Interface
• POTS Interface.
The following sections explain the functions of TA 102/202 eMTA interfaces. Figure 1-4
identifies the interface connectors.

TA 102/202 eMTA
REAR VIEW

RF INTERFACE

RJ-45 ETHERNET INTERFACE


USB INTERFACE
RJ-11 POTS INTERFACE

Figure 1-4 TA 102/202 eMTA Interface Connectors

RF Interface
Like a television set, an eMTA requires a tuner to receive information from a cable chan-
nel. But unlike the television set, the eMTA can transmit information to the cable chan-
nel, thus requiring a tuner that can send and receive digital information. The TA 102/
202 eMTA uses a specially designed tuner for subscriber side cable modem applications.
The tuner covers a frequency range from 50 to 860 MHz for down stream signals, 5 to 42
Mhz for TA 102 upstream signals and 5 to 65Mhz TA 202 upstream signals. RF Inter-
face (tuner) connection to the cable channel is through a 75 ohm “F” type connector.
The TA 102 eMTA is DOCSIS 2.0 certified and the TA 202 eMTA is Euro-DOCSIS 1.1
compliant.

TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide 1-5


Chapter 1 Overview Hardware Architecture

High Speed Data Interfaces

The TA 102/202 eMTA is versatile in that it offers two methods for connecting a
subscriber PC to a CATV cable. There is a USB connection and an Ethernet connection.
Only one connection (Ethernet or USB) is permitted.

Ethernet Interface

For an Ethernet connection, the point of connection between a subscriber PC and the TA
102/202 eMTA is the Ethernet Interface. The Ethernet Interface consists of a standard
10Base-T RJ-45 Ethernet connector, voltage suppressors, a 10Base-T LAN single port
transformer module, and a universal Ethernet interface adapter.
The Ethernet Interface can support up 32 concurrent Ethernet devices (hosts) on the
internal LAN side, each one with its own IP and MAC address. Note that the interface is
fully compliant with the IEEE 802.3 specification and operates in full-duplex mode.
Additionally, the TA 102/202 eMTA Ethernet Interface can be configured so it can filter
packets that are not IP or ARP based.

USB Interface

For a USB connection, the point of connection for a subscriber PC and the TA 102/202
eMTA is the USB Interface. The USB Interface provides the physical interface to the
USB cable and consists of a standard USB connector, USB port transient voltage
suppressors, a switching current source, and associated components. In other words, it
has all the control circuitry and line drivers to support 12 Mbps operation, including the
CM USB Communications 1.1 Class Driver.

POTS Interface

For a POTS (Plain Old Telephone System) connection to a telephone the TA 102/202
eMTA provides a POTS Interface. The POTS interface consists of two Subscriber Line
Interface Circuits (see Figure 1-3) that provide two telephony line interfaces for twisted
pair connections. The Subscriber Line Interface Circuits (SLIC) provide the following:
• Line Feed, to provide power to a phone even during power outages.
• Overload Protection, so a lightning strike doesn’t blow up the MTA.
• Ringing, so you know when someone’s calling.
• Signaling, to detect when the receiver is off the hook and what number you dial.
• Coding, to convert analog signals to digital signals and vice versa.
Each line supports a loop length of at least one hundred and fifty(150) meters, providing
a loop line voltage of 48 VDC. Note also that each line can have its own phone number
and they can be used simultaneously. Both line interfaces support the administrative
coupling of multiple subscriber numbers to a single line.

1-6 TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide


Hardware Architecture Chapter 1 Overview

Additionally, both line interfaces support all telephony services, such as Caller ID, Call
forwarding, Call Waiting, etc. For a European application, the POTS interface can func-
tion with equipment compliant to the European Telecommunications Standards Insti-
tute (ETSI) specification.

Speech Codec
How do you send analog voice signals to and from a telephone over a PacketCable
network? Actually you can’t, the analog voice signals must be converted to digital
signals and then sent over a PacketCable network. The device in an MTA responsible for
signal conversion is called a Codec. Figure 1-5 illustrates the function of a Codec.

"Hello"

"Hello"

Analog Analog
Voice PacketCable Network Voice

MTA MTA

Codec converts Codec converts


analog to digital digital to analog

Figure 1-5 A Codec at Work

In the TA 102/202 eMTA the Speech Codec (see Figure 1-3) is a Digital Signal Processor
(DSP). It carries out the analog to digital and digital to analog signal conversion. What’s
inside a DSP? A DSP contains these key components:
• Program Memory: Stores the program the DSP uses to process data.
• Data Memory: Stores the information to be processed.
• Compute Engine: Performs the math processing, accessing the program from the
Memory and the data from the Data Memory.
• Input/Output: Serves a range of functions to connect to the outside world.

TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide 1-7


Chapter 1 Overview MIB Support

The program that runs the DSP is called an audio codec. A codec (coined from coder/
decoder) is a pair of algorithms. One algorithm takes analog input and delivers digital
output. The other algorithm does the opposite.

NOTE NOTE: The PacketCable 1.0 Specification only supports audio codecs.

By default, the TA 102/202 eMTA uses the G.711 audio codec. However, other audio
codecs, such as G.726, G.728, G.723, G.729E, and G.729A, can be downloaded to the TA
102/202 eMTA.
The G.711 codec is widely used in non PacketCable IP audio networks. It provides the
audio equivalent to so called “toll quality” in the PSTN. G.711 is an uncompressed codec
that produces a 64 kbit output, and accurately passes audio such as DMTF tones (touch
tones) and fax tones. G.711 also supports the tones used by the hearing impaired.

MIB Support
The TA 102/202 eMTA supports the following MIBs:
• Managed Objects defined in PacketCable 1.0 MIBs
• DOCSIS 1.1 MIBs
• IETF SNMP MIB II, per RFC 1213 with SMIv2 updates per RFC 1907,2013,2012,
and 2011 are accessible via the SNMPv3 interfaces.
• The TA 102/202 eMTA supports SNMPv3 with USM and VACM, per RFCs 2261,
2273, 2270, and 2275. It also supports SMIv2, per RFC 2578, 2579, 2580.
The following attributes from MIB II are supported:
• System object groups that contact, administrative, location and service information
regarding the managed node.
• Interfaces section of the MIB II (RFC 2233). The interfaces table provides mecha-
nisms for identification and independent management of the interfaces in the device
and needed for definitions of multiple interfaces in the TA 102/202 eMTA.
• IP object group that provides information relevant to IP protocol.
• Transmission group that provides a mechanism for other MIBs related to the under-
lying media for that interface to be hooked into the MIB tree.

1-8 TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide


Security Chapter 1 Overview

The TA 102/202 eMTA provides all of the following IETF IPCDN MIB features:
• Cable Device MIB as per [RS99a] (or the RFC version when published).
• Support for 32 concurrent filters in the Cable Device MIB without performance deg-
radation.
• Support for IP Packet Filtering and IP ToS coloring as per Cable Device MIB.
• RF Interface MIB

Security
For security the TA 102/202 eMTA supports the DOCSIS Baseline Privacy Plus
Interface Specification (BPI+) for establishing an authenticated and encrypted
connection to the CMTS. The TA 102/202 eMTA also implements the PacketCable
Security specification, therefore it cannot change its configuration and/or code load
without authorization and authentication from the CMTS. TA 102/202 eMTA
configuration is based on the concept of “least privilege.”

Quality of Service (QoS)


The TA 102/202 eMTA supports pre-provisioned Service Flows as described by the
DOCSIS 2.0 specification, and 32 SIDs. It also supports static and dynamic packet
classifiers along with flow scheduling mechanisms to deliver differentiated Type of
Service (ToS bits) to mark IP traffic.
Voice QoS is according to PacketCable specifications defined in the section entitled Pack-
etCable on page 1-10.

Standards Compliancy
The following sections outline TA 102/202 eMTA standards compliancy.

DOCSIS 2.0/Euro-DOCSIS 1.1


The TA 102/202 eMTA is DOCSIS 2.0 certified, Euro-DOCSIS compliant, and supports
the following specifications:
• SP-BPI+-I10-030730 Baseline Privacy Plus Interface Specification
• SP-CMCI-I09-030730 DOCSIS CM to CPE Interface Specification
• SP-OSSIv2.0-I04-030730 Operations Support Systems Interface Specification
• SP-RFIv2.0-I04-030730RF Interface specification
• TP-RFI-ATP I04-030716 RF Interface Acceptance Test Plan

TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide 1-9


Chapter 1 Overview Standards Compliancy

PacketCable
The TA 102/202 eMTA is fully compliant with the requirements described in the
following PacketCable documents:
• PKT-SP-CODEC-I05-040113
• PKT-SP-DQOS-I09-040402
• PKT-SP-EC-MGCP-I09-040113
• PKT-SP-MIB-MTA-I07-030728
• PKT-SP-MIB-SIG-I07-030728
• PKT-SP-MIBS-I07-030728
• PKT-SP-PROV-I09-040402
• PKT-SP-SEC-I10-040113.

Euro-PacketCable

The TA 102/202 eMTA is fully compliant with the requirements described in the TS 101
909 series documents (part 1 to part 26)

1-10 TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide


Chapter 2
Installation

You may never have to install the TA-102/202 eMTA, but you may have to field
telephone calls from customers that are having problems installing their TA-102/
202 eMTA. To assist you with answering customer installation questions,
Chapter 2 provides a TA-102/202 eMTA installation guide similar to the installa-
tion guide the customer receives with the equipment. The material presented
includes:
• Getting Started
- Package Contents
- System Requirements
• MTA Installation
- What the Customer Will Need
- Modem Connectors
- CATV Coax Cable to TA-102/202 eMTA
- Connecting the Power Adapter to the TA-102/202 eMTA
- Connecting the TA-102/202 eMTA to a PC
- Connecting A Telephone to the TA-102/202 eMTA
- TA-102/202 eMTA Start Up
- Front Panel Indicators
• BU 802 Battery Backup Unit Installation
- Readying the Installation Site
- Unpacking the BU 802 Battery Backup Unit
- Battery Installation
- BU 802 Wall Mounting
- Power Up and Check

TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide 2-1


Chapter 2 Installation Getting Started

Getting Started
This installation guide is designed for anyone who wants all the “how-to” information
about installing the Terayon TA-102 or TA-202 embedded Multimedia Terminal Adapter
(eMTA). You have probably heard of online help. Well, think of this installation guide as
onside help.

Package Contents
The the list below and Figure 2-1 identifies the contents of the box the TA-102/202
eMTA comes in.

Terayon TA-102 or TA-202 MTA Modem Package Contents


• Terayon Model TA-102 or TA-202 MTA Modem
• Modem Stand
• MTA modem Power Adaptor
• RJ-45 Ethernet Cable
• Universal Serial Bus (USB) Cable
• CD-ROM with USB Drivers

System Requirements
To install the TA-102/202 eMTA the customer computer system requires the following
hardware and software.

Hardware/Software IBM PC or Compatible Apple/Macintosh

CPU Pentium class microprocessor or Power PC 601 or later;


equivalent iMac®

Memory (RAM) 32 MB 24 MB

Available Disk Space 50 MB 50 MB

Operating System Windows® 95, 98, 2000, ME, XP, OS 7.5.1 or later
Windows NT® 4.0 Workstation

Network Connectivity Must have (any one): Must have (any one):
USB Port USB Port
10/100 Base-T Ethernet Card 10/100 Base-T Ethernet
PCMCIA Ethernet Card (laptop) Card
PCMCIA Card (laptop)

2-2 TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide


Getting Started Chapter 2 Installation

TERAYON
MULTIMEDIA TERMINAL ADAPTER MODEM
MODEL TA-102 or TA-202

POWER ADAPTER
NOTE: The appropriate Power Adapter is
included with your modem.

Te Ad
A
C

ra ap
yo to
n r
r
we
Po
ble
Ca
P C
ta
Da
st
Te
e 1
Lin
e2
Lin

2
-10
TA

MODEM STAND

RJ-45 ETHERNET CABLE

CD-ROM
WITH USB DRIVERS

USB CABLE

Figure 2-1 Package Contents

IMPORTANT: Computers using Windows 95, NT 4.0, or a Macintosh


operating system must use an Ethernet port to connect the TA-102/202 eMTA

TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide 2-3


Chapter 2 Installation MTA Installation

MTA Installation
This section guides you through the following installation steps:
• Connecting the CATV Coaxial Cable to the TA-102/202 eMTA
• Connecting the Power Adaptor to the TA-102/202 eMTA
• Connecting the TA-102/202 eMTA to the computer
• Starting the TA-102/202 eMTA.

What the Customer Will Need


To install the TA-102/202 eMTA, the customer will need the following items:
• Two coaxial cables of a length appropriate to the installation
• One cable line splitter
• A 7/16 inch wrench or spanner.
When installing the TA-102/202 eMTA a cable splitter and two new cables are required.
The cable splitter divides the incoming signal from the cable company into two signals,
one for the household TVs, and one for the MTA modem. No TV sets are allowed on the
cable that connects to the MTA modem. Figure 2-2 illustrates a typical MTA modem
installation.

CATV CONVERTER
TV CABLE

VCR
COAX CABLE "B"
(TV CABLE)

TV
TV

CABLE OUTLET
SIGNAL FROM
CABLE CO.

TV AND DATA CABLE


PC TOWER
CABLE SPLITTER
ER
IN

TT

UT
LI
SP

O
Hz
0M
60
5-
UT
O

ETHERNET OR USB CABLE

COAX CABLE "A"


(DATA)
Po
we

Ca
ble

PC
r

TERAYON
DOCSIS or EuroDOCSIS
ta
Da
st
Te
e1
Lin
e2
Lin

TA
-10
2
MTA MODEM

LINE 1 LINE 2
NEW INSTALLATION

Figure 2-2 Typical TA-102/202 eMTA Installation

2-4 TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide


MTA Installation Chapter 2 Installation

Modem Connectors
Take a moment to familiarize yourself with the TA-102/202 eMTA connectors identified
in Figure 2-3. An explanation of each connector follows the illustration.

1
2
3
4
5
6

Figure 2-3 TA-102/202 eMTA Connectors

1 - RF Cable Connector Connects the TA-102/202 eMTA to the incoming signal


from the cable company via a cable splitter.
2 - DC Power Input-jack Connects the TA-102/202 eMTA to the Modem Power
Adaptor or an optional Battery Backup Unit.
3 - RJ-45 Ethernet Port Connects the TA-102/202 eMTA to the Ethernet port on
the computer NIC card.
4 - USB Serial Port Connects the TA-102/202 eMTA to the USB port on the
computer.
5 - RJ-11 Line 1 Port Connects the TA-102/202 eMTA to an external telephone.
6 - RJ-11 Line 2 Port Connects the TA-102/202 eMTA to a second external tele-
phone.

TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide 2-5


Chapter 2 Installation MTA Installation

CATV Coax Cable to TA-102/202 eMTA


In order for the TA-102/202 eMTA and the subscriber’s PC to access the Internet, you
need to connect the coaxial cable that comes from the cable outlet to the eMTA. This is
typically done using a cable splitter.
To connect the TA-102/202 eMTA to the CATV coaxial cable, follow these steps:

1. Locate the CATV coaxial cable connected to the cable outlet.


You can find it in one of three ways:
- It may be connected to a TV, Converter Box, or a VCR.
- It may be connected to a wall mounted outlet.
- It may be coming out from under a baseboard or some other location.
2. When you locate the CATV coaxial cable, disconnect it from the TV, Converter Box, or
VCR. You may need to use a wrench to disconnect the cable.
3. Locate the cable splitter, then using Figure 2-4 as a guide, connect the CATV coax
cable you disconnected in step 2 to the IN connector on the cable splitter. Tighten the
connector with a 7/16 inch wrench.
CATV COAX CABLE
FROM
TV, CONVERTER, VCR or WALL OUTLET

CABLE SPLITTER
IN

T
U

COAX CABLE
O
R
E
T
T
LI
P
S

TO TV, CONVERTER OR VCR


T
U
O

(CABLE "B")

COAX CABLE
TO eMTA RF CONNECTOR
(CABLE "A")

Figure 2-4 Connecting Coax Cables to Cable Splitter

4. Using Figure 2-4 as a guide, connect one end of a coax cable (Cable “B”) to one of the
OUT connectors on the cable splitter. Tighten the connector with 7/16 inch wrench.
5. Connect the remaining end of Cable “B” (TV Cable) to the same TV, Converter Box, or
VCR.

2-6 TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide


MTA Installation Chapter 2 Installation

6. Again, using Figure 2-4 as a guide, connect one end of coax Cable “A” (Data) to the
remaining OUT connector on the cable splitter. Tighten the connection with a 7/16
inch wrench.
7. Remove the TA-102/202 eMTA from its box and place it near the computer.
8. Connect the remaining end of coax Cable “A” (Data) to the RF connector on the TA-102/202
eMTA as shown in Figure 2-5. Tighten the connection with a 7/16 wrench.

TERAYON
MULTIMEDIA TERMINAL ADAPTER MODEM
MODEL TA-102 or TA-202

RF CONNECTOR

COAX CABLE
FROM CABLE SPLITTER
(CABLE "A")

Figure 2-5 Connecting the RF Cable to the TA-102/202 eMTA

Connecting the Power Adapter to the TA-102/202 eMTA


Power for the TA-102/202 eMTA is generated by an AC Power Adapter unit that comes
with the unit or by an optional BU 802 Battery Backup Unit. If the subscriber is going to
use the BU 802 Battery Backup Unit, procced to “BU 802 Battery Backup Unit Installa-
tion” on page 2-16.
If the subscriber is going to use only the AC Power Adapter as the TA-102/202 eMTA
power source, perform the following procedure. Note that the Power Adapter comes
equipped with an AC power plug that is in compliance with the requirements of the
country.

TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide 2-7


Chapter 2 Installation MTA Installation

To connect the Power Adapter to the TA-102/202 eMTA, do the following:

1. Remove the Power Adapter from the eMTA box.


2. Using Figure 2-6 as a guide, align the key groove on the DC Output plug with the key
slot in the DC Power Input jack on the back of the eMTA.
3. Push the plug into the jack so the cable is firmly connected.

TERAYON
MULTIMEDIA TERMINAL ADAPTER MODEM
MODEL TA-102 or TA-202

POWER ADAPTER
OUTPUT CONNECTOR

TO POWER
ADAPTER
DC POWER
INPUT JACK

Figure 2-6 Connecting the Power Adaptor to the TA-102/202 eMTA

IMPORTANT: Do not connect the Adaptor to an AC outlet at this time.

2-8 TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide


MTA Installation Chapter 2 Installation

Connecting the TA-102/202 eMTA to a PC


If the customer computer is to communicate with the TA-102/202 eMTA and the
Internet, it must be equipped with a network interface. Today’s computers are typically
equipped with either a 10/100 Base-T Ethernet port or a Universal Serial Bus (USB)
port. The TA-102/202 eMTA comes equipped with RJ-45 Ethernet and USB connectors,
allowing the unit to connect to either an Ethernet port or a USB serial port. To connect
the TA-102/202 eMTA to a PC, do the following:

1. Before you begin connecting the TA-102/202 eMTA to a PC, check to see what kind of
a network interface the PC is equipped with.

IMPORTANT: If the customer PC does not have a network interface of some


kind, they will have to purchase one from a retailer or the cable company and
install it according to manufacturer instructions.

2. If the PC is equipped with a 10/100 Base-T Ethernet card, proceed to “Connecting the
10/100 Base-T Ethernet Cable” on page 2-9. If the PC is equipped with a USB Serial
Port, proceed to “Connecting the USB Cable” on page 2-11.

Connecting the 10/100 Base-T Ethernet Cable

To connect the 10/100 Base-T Ethernet cable, follow these steps:

1. Retrieve the 10/100 Base-T Ethernet cable from the box the TA-102/202 eMTA came
in.
2. Using Figure 2-7 as a guide, connect one end of the 10/100 Base-T Ethernet cable to
the RJ-45 Ethernet port on the back of the unit.
3. Connect the remaining end of the 10/100 Base-T Ethernet cable into the RJ-45 Ether-
net port on the Ethernet Interface Card as shown in Figure 2-7.
4. If the TA-102/202 eMTA is going to connect a telephone, proceed to “Connecting A
Telephone to the TA-102/202 eMTA” on page 2-13. If not, proceed to “TA-102/202
eMTA Start Up” on page 2-14.

TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide 2-9


Chapter 2 Installation MTA Installation

PC TOWER
REAR VIEW

TERAYON
MULTIMEDIA TERMINAL ADAPTER MODEM
MODEL TA-102 or TA-202

RF CABLE
TO
SPLITTER

RJ-45
ETHERNET
PORT

10/100 BASE-T
ETHERNET CABLE

ETHERNET
INTERFACE CARD

ETHERNET PORT

Figure 2-7 Connecting the 10/100Base-T Ethernet Cable

2-10 TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide


MTA Installation Chapter 2 Installation

Connecting the USB Cable

In order for the computer USB Interface to pass data back and forth to the TA-102/202
eMTA, you must connect a USB cable to the TA-102/202 eMTA USB port and the USB
port on the back of the computer.

IMPORTANT: Before you install the USB cable, you must install a USB
driver. Insert the USB Driver CD that came with the modem into your CD-
ROM drive and follow the online instructions. You may have to tell the
computer what drive your CD-ROM drive is.

USB DRIVER CD

CD-ROM DRIVE

To connect the USB cable, follow these steps:

1. Retrieve the USB cable from the box the TA-102/202 eMTA came in.
2. Using Figure 2-8 as a guide, insert the USB cable “B” connector into the USB Serial
port on the back of the TA-102/202 eMTA.
3. Insert the USB cable “A” connector into the computer USB Serial port on the back of
the computer.
4. If you are going to connect a telephone to the modem, proceed to “Connecting A Tele-
phone to the TA-102/202 eMTA” on page 2-13. If you are not going to connect a tele-
phone to the modem, proceed to “TA-102/202 eMTA Start Up” on page 2-14.

TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide 2-11


Chapter 2 Installation MTA Installation

TERAYON PC TOWER
MULTIMEDIA TERMINAL ADAPTER REAR VIEW
MODEL TA-102 or TA-202

RF CABLE
TO
SPLITTER

"A" CONNECTOR

"B" CONNECTOR
PC USB PORT

USB PORT
USB CABLE

Figure 2-8 Connecting the USB Cable

2-12 TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide


MTA Installation Chapter 2 Installation

Connecting A Telephone to the TA-102/202 eMTA


Since music and video are transmitted back and forth across an HFC network and the
Internet, why not telephone conversations? Well, now you can. Both the TA-102 and TA-
202 are equipped with RJ-11 phone jacks where you can connect two telephones. To
connect a telephone to the TA-102/202 eMTA, follow these steps:

1. Locate the telephone you wish to connect to the TA-102/202 eMTA and place it where
you wish to locate it.
2. Verify the telephone has an RJ-11 telephone cable connected to it.
If the telephone does not have a telephone cable connected to it, the customer can
purchase one at a local retail store.
3. Using Figure 2-9 as a guide, insert the telephone cable RJ-11 plug into the Line 1 RJ-
11 jack on the back of the unit.
4. If you have a second telephone, insert the telephone cable RJ-11 plug into the Line 2
RJ-11 jack on the back of the unit as shown in Figure 2-9.

TERAYON
MULTIMEDIA TERMINAL ADAPTER MODEM
MODEL TA-102 or TA-202

LINE 1
RJ-11 JACK

RJ-11 PLUG

RJ-11
TELEPHONE
LINE 2 CABLE
RJ-11 JACK
RJ-11
PLUG

RJ-11
PHONE
CABLE

Figure 2-9 Connecting Phones to the TA-102/202 eMTA

TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide 2-13


Chapter 2 Installation MTA Installation

TA-102/202 eMTA Start Up


To start operating the TA-102/202 eMTA, do the following:

1. Plug the Power Adaptor into an appropriate AC power outlet.


Once the TA-102/202 eMTA is properly connected and power is applied, it will auto-
matically boot-up and start scanning for an active downstream channel.
2. Verify the Power and PC LED indicators on the unit front panel are ON.

2-14 TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide


MTA Installation Chapter 2 Installation

Front Panel Indicators


The indicator LEDs on the front panel of the TA-102/202 eMTA tell you what’s happen-
ing during a communications session. The table below tells you what each LED indica-
tor means. Note that the customer has this table in their installation guide.

LED Color Definition

Power Green • Dark when power is Off.


• Solid when power is On.

Amber • Flashing slowly when the Battery Backup Unit bat-


tery is powering the modem.
• Solid when the Battery Backup Unit battery is bad.
Power
Cable Green • Dark when no downstream RF carrier is present or
when power is Off.
Cable
• Flashing slowly when an RF carrier is present and
ranging is in process.
PC
• Flashing rapidly when registration is in process.
• Flashing continuously when network access has been
Data
disabled by your cable company.
• Solid when modem registration is complete and
Test ready to transfer data.

Line 1 PC Green • Dark when there is no carrier signal present to or


from your PC or when power is Off.
Line 2 • Solid when there is a carrier signal present to or from
your PC.
TA-102 • Flashes slowly when data switch is OFF and PC con-
nected.

Data Green • Dark when there is no data passing through the


modem or when power is Off.
• Flashing when your PC is receiving data.

Test Green • Dark when initial modem self-test is OK, or power is


Off.
• Flashing when modem self-test is in process, or
when the modem is receiving software updates.
• Flashes when the modem fails the initial self-test
during startup.
• Solid when the modem fails the initial self test.

Line 1 Green • Dark when phone call service is unavailable.


• Solid when phone call service is available.
• Flashing when a phone call is in progress.

Line 2 Green Same as Line 1.

TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide 2-15


Chapter 2 Installation BU 802 Battery Backup Unit Installation

BU 802 Battery Backup Unit Installation


A telephone subscriber in a PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) typically will
still have phone service when the main AC power fails. That’s because the phone
company uses a battery backup system to keep the phones operational during a power
failure. On the other hand, a phone subscriber in an HFC PacketCable network will
loose phone service during a power outage—unless he or she operates their cable
modem/MTA from a battery backup unit.
To keep a TA-102/202 eMTA operational during a local AC power failure, Terayon pro-
vides the BU 802 Battery Backup Unit. As a battery backup unit the BU 802 senses an
AC power loss and automatically switches to battery power so the TA-102/202 eMTA
remains operational during an AC power outage. When AC power is restored, battery
power is switched out and the Power Adapter provides DC power for the TA-102/202
eMTA.

BU 802 BATTERY BACKUP UNIT BU 802 BATTERY BACKUP UNIT


REAR VIEW FRONT VIEW

BATTERY
STATUS
LED

BACKPLATE
DC VOLTAGE
OUTPUT CABLE
DC INPUT JACK (To MTA DC Input Jack) DC INPUT JACK
(From Power Adapter) (From Power Adapter)

Figure 2-10 BU 802 Battery Backup Unit

BU 802 units can hold two lithium battery packs. Each battery pack can power the TA-
102/202 eMTA for 2 or 4 hours, depending on the type. However to accommodate cus-
tomer preferences, the BU 802 can have up to five battery configurations. Figure 2-11
below illustrates those five battery configurations

2-16 TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide


BU 802 Battery Backup Unit Installation Chapter 2 Installation

Two 2S1P Lithium-Ion Two 2S2P Lithium-Ion One 2S2P Lithium-Ion Battery Pack
Battery Packs Battery Packs &
One 2S1P Lithium-Ion Battery Pack

One 2S1P Lithium-Ion One 2S2P Lithium-Ion


Battery Pack Battery Pack

Figure 2-11 BU 802 Battery Pack Configurations

WARNING: There is a danger of explosion if battery packs are replaced


incorrectly. Replace battery packs only with the same or equivalent type

! recommended by the manufacturer. Dispose of used batteries according to the


manufacturer’s instructions.

TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide 2-17


Chapter 2 Installation BU 802 Battery Backup Unit Installation

Readying the Installation Site


Before you begin to install the BU 802, take the time to do a few get-ready steps:

1. Perform a site survey to determine the best method for installing the BU 802 (desk-
top or wall mounting).
2. Make sure the installation site has ample space for tools, cabling, and battery instal-
lation or replacement.
3. Verify the BU 802 location will be within easy cable reach of the AC Power Adapter.

Unpacking the BU 802 Battery Backup Unit


The BU 802 Battery Backup Unit comes in a single shipping container that includes
battery packs. To unpack your BU 802 Battery Backup Unit, do the following:

1. Inspect the shipping container before opening.


If you see there is damage to the shipping container, arrange for an agent of the car-
rier to be present when you remove the equipment from the shipping container.
2. Remove the contents of the shipping container.
3. Verify you have everything you ordered.
4. Save the shipping container and packing material, you’ll need them if you ever intend
to ship the BU 802 to some other location

2-18 TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide


BU 802 Battery Backup Unit Installation Chapter 2 Installation

Battery Installation
Installing batteries into the BU 802 involves removing the unit back plate, connecting
battery cables to battery cable connectors, and placing battery packs into the individual
battery compartments. The only tool you will need is a medium size Phillips screw
driver.
To install batteries into the BU 802 Battery Backup Unit, do the following:

1. Using Figure 2-12 as a guide, take a medium size Phillips screw driver and remove
the two screws that fasten the unit back plate (battery cover) to the plastic case. Then
lift the back plate up and away from the case.
2. Locate the battery or batteries that came with the BU 802 and place them near the
unit.

BU 802 BATTERY BACKUP UNIT


REAR VIEW

DC POWER CABLE
TO TA-102/202 eMTA

BACKPLATE

FASTENING SCREWS
2 EA

Figure 2-12 BU 802 Backplate (Battery Cover) Removal

3. Referring to Figure 2-13, insert battery pack cable connectors into the battery cable
receptacles inside the BU 802 battery compartment.
4. With battery cables connected, install the battery packs into the BU 802 battery com-
partment, see Figure 2-13.
5. Reinstall the BU 802 backplate as shown in Figure 2-14.

TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide 2-19


Chapter 2 Installation BU 802 Battery Backup Unit Installation

BU 802 BATTERY
BACKUP UNIT

BU 802 BATTERY
BACKUP UNIT

BATTERY 1
CABLE CONNECTOR

BATTERY CABLE
RECEPTACLE

BATTERY PACK 1
LITHIUM-ION

BATTERY 2

BATTERY PACK 2
CABLE CONNECTOR LITHIUM-ION

BATTERY CABLE
RECEPTACLE

Figure 2-13 BU 802 Battery Pack Installation

BU 802 BATTERY BACKUP UNIT

DC POWER CABLE
TO TA-102/202 eMTA
FASTENING SCREWS
2 EA

BACKPLATE

Figure 2-14 Backplate (battery cover) Reinstallation

2-20 TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide


BU 802 Battery Backup Unit Installation Chapter 2 Installation

eMTA/BBU Mating
Once you have installed battery packs into the BU 802, its time to mate the TA-102/202
eMTA with the BU 802 Battery Backup Unit. To do this, follow these steps:

1. Using Figure 2-15 as a guide, mount the TA-102/202 eMTA onto the BU 802.
2. Align the key groove of the BU 802 DC voltage output connector with the key slot in
the TA-102/202 eMTA DC voltage input jack, then push the connector into the jack so
the cable is firmly connected.

TA-102/202 eMTA

TA-102/202 eMTA

eMTA DC VOLTAGE
INPUT JACK

BBU DC VOLTAGE
OUTPUT CONNECTOR

BU 802 BATTERY BACKUP UNIT BU 802 BATTERY BACKUP UNIT


FRONT VIEW

Figure 2-15 Mating the TA-102/202 eMTA to the BU 802

3. Locate the Power Adapter that came with the modem.


4. Using Figure 2-18 as a guide, align the key groove of the Power Adapter DC Output
connector with the key slot in the BU 802 voltage input jack, then push the connector
into the jack so the cable is firmly connected

TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide 2-21


Chapter 2 Installation BU 802 Battery Backup Unit Installation

BU 802 Wall Mounting


Mounting the BU 802 to a wall location involves marking and drilling mounting holes,
installing mounting screws or Molly-Bolts, and mounting the unit onto the mounting
screws. To perform these tasks you will need the following tools:
• a power or hand drill
• a pencil for marking hole locations
• an appropriate size and type screw driver.
To mount the BU 802 to a wall, perform the following procedure. For best results, read
the entire procedure before starting.

1. Remove the BU 802 back plate (battery cover), then place and hold the back plate to
the selected mounting surface.
2. Using a pencil, trace the back plate mounting hole locations onto the mounting sur-
face as shown in Figure 2-16.
3. Reinstall the backplate onto the BU 802 as shown in Figure 2-14.

Trace mounting hole


onto mounting surface

BATTERY BACKUP UNIT


MOUNTING SURFACE

ole
g h ce
n tin surfa
u
mo ing
ra ce ount
T om
t
on

BATTERY BACKUP UNIT


BACK PLATE

Select the area where you wish to mount the Battery Backup unit.
Using the Battery Backup back plate as a hole template, trace the
mounting hole locations onto the mounting surface.

Figure 2-16 Mounting Hole Tracing

2-22 TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide


BU 802 Battery Backup Unit Installation Chapter 2 Installation

4. Using a hand or power drill, drill 2 holes into the mounting surface at the locations
you marked on the mounting surface. Make the depth of the holes equal to the
approximate length of the screws you are going to use.
5. Install the mounting screws into the mounting holes—wood screws for a wood sur-
face, Molly-Bolts for wall board. Do not tighten the screws all the way down. Leave
some space between the mounting surface and the screw head so you can mount the
BU 802 onto the screws.
6. Using Figure 2-17 as a guide, align the back plate mounting holes over the two
mounting screws, then slide the unit onto the mounting screws.

BATTERY BACKUP UNIT


MOUNTING SURFACE BU 802
BATTERY BACKUP
MOUNTING SCREWS UNIT
2 EA

Figure 2-17 BU 802 Wall Mounting

TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide 2-23


Chapter 2 Installation BU 802 Battery Backup Unit Installation

Power Up and Check


To power up and check out the BU 802 Battery Backup Unit, do the following:

1. Verify that all signal cables have been connected to the TA-102/202 eMTA.
2. Locate the Power Adapter that came with the modem.
3. Using Figure 2-18 as a guide, align the key groove of the Power Adapter DC Output
connector with the key slot in the BU 802 voltage input jack, then push the connector
into the jack so the cable is firmly connected

TERAYON DOCSIS MODEM


MODEL TA-102 or TA-202

POWER ADAPTER

Te Ad
A
C

ra ap
yo to
n r
BU 802 BATTERY
BACKUP UNIT
DC VOLTAGE POWER ADAPTER
INPUT JACK DC VOLTAGE
OUTPUT CONNECTOR

Figure 2-18 Connecting the Power Adapter to the BU 802 Battery Backup Unit

4. Plug the male end of the Power Adapter power cord into an AC outlet to power up the
BU 802 and the TA-102/202 eMTA.
5. Verify the BU 802 Battery Status LED is a solid green color to indicate the BU 802
receiving DC power from the AC Power Adapter.
6. After powering up the BU 802, wait 10 minutes, then disconnect the Power Adapter
power cord from the AC outlet.
7. Verify the BU 802 Battery LED is flashing green and the TA-102/202 eMTA Power
LED is flashing amber, indicating the TA-102/202 eMTA is operating from battery
backup power.
8. Reconnect the Power Adapter power cord to the AC outlet.

2-24 TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide


BU 802 Battery Backup Unit Installation Chapter 2 Installation

Battery Status LED


To keep subscribers informed of battery conditions, BU 802 Battery Backup Units are
equipped with a Battery Status LED. Located at the bottom right side of the BU 802, as
shown in Figure 2-19, this multi-colored LED indicates battery condition. Each
displayed color indicates a particular battery condition.

BU 802 BATTERY BACKUP UNIT


SIDE VIEW

BATTERY STATUS LED

BATTERY

Figure 2-19 Battery Status LED Location

Since the Battery Status LED has multi-color capability, your cable company has the
option of choosing a Default LED pattern or an Optional LED pattern. You may want to
call your cable company to find out what LED pattern they have configured the BU 802
Battery Backup Unit to use.

NOTE NOTE: As the cable company operator, you change the Battery Status LED
pattern from Default to Optional with a private MIB.

Just so you won’t have to rush out and acquire a secret decoder ring, we have provided
the following tables to help you decipher battery status.

TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide 2-25


Chapter 2 Installation BU 802 Battery Backup Unit Installation

If your BU 802 Battery Backup Unit is using a Default Battery Status LED pattern, use
Table 2-1 to determine battery pack status.

Table 2-1 Battery LED Status Conditions, Default Pattern


LED Color Battery Status
Green Battery packs are fully charged.
Flashing Green Battery packs are in a discharge mode.
Amber Battery packs are charging.
Flashing Amber Battery pack power is less than 25% of maximum capacity.
Red One of the two installed battery packs is defective.
Flashing Red Both installed battery packs are defective, or no battery packs have been installed.
Dark Battery packs have not been installed and the Power Adapter is not supplying the
BU 802 with DC voltage—most likely not connected to the BU 802.

If your BU 802 Battery Backup Unit is using an Optional Battery Status LED pattern,
use Table 2-2 to determine battery pack status

Table 2-2 Battery LED Status Conditions, Optional Pattern


LED Color Battery Status
Green Battery packs are fully charged.
Flashing Green Battery packs are charging.
Amber Battery pack power is less than 25% of maximum capacity.
Flashing Amber One or both of the installed battery packs is defective or are missing.
Dark Battery packs have not been installed and the Power Adapter is not supplying the
BU 802 with DC voltage—most likely not connected to the BU 802.

2-26 TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide


BU 802 Battery Backup Unit Installation Chapter 2 Installation

BU 802 Specifications

Table 2-3 BU 802 Battery Backup Unit Specifications


Specification Description
Backup Time Standby Time (on-hook state):
Rattings are for standard 4300 mA and • Up to 2 hours, one 2S1P battery pack.
2200 mA battery packs. Note also that • Up to 4 hours, one 2S2P battery pack.
all backup times are are applicable for • Up to 8 hours, two 2S2P battery packs.
new battery packs that come directly Operational Time (two continuous calls):
from the factory. • Up to 1 hour, one 2S1P battery pack.
• Up to 2 hours, one 2S2P battery pack.
• Up to 4 hours, two 2S2P battery packs.
Battery Type 2 rechargeable sealed Lithium-Ion battery packs @ 7.4 volts
nominal output.
Battery Charge Time 24 hours after fully discharged.
Input DC Voltage 9 to 15 VDC.
Battery Backup Unit DC Output Voltage 7 to 8.4 VDC.
Normal Operating Temperature 32°F (0°C) to 113°F (45°C)
Normal Operating Humidity 20% to 90% at 86°F (30°C)
Safety UL 60950, (CSA) C22.2 N0. 60950, IEC 60950, IS60950, CE
EMI/RFI FCC part 15, Class B, CE, EN 55022, EN 55024

IMPORTANT: Allow up to 24 hours charging time for the initial battery


charge: 6 hours for each 2S1P battery pack, and 12 hours for each 2S2P
battery pack. When charging is complete and AC power is a vailable, the
Battery Status LED on the BU 802 turns green.

TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide 2-27


Chapter 3
Troubleshooting

Chapter 3 contains troubleshooting information intended to help you identify


and correct TA 102/202 eMTA malfunctions. Troubleshooting information is con-
tained in Table 3-1 and in the section entitled ‘Typical End User Problems and
Solutions”.
Before getting into troubleshooting concepts, it maybe useful to briefly review the
normal power-up sequence of the TA 102/202 eMTA. When power is first applied,
the TA 102/202 eMTA automatically tries to join the network and become opera-
tional by performing the following operations:

Top 5 LEDs Turned ON


1. Power-Up Self-Tests
Cable LED Blinking Slowly
2. Downstream channel acquisition
3. Upstream channel acquisition/Ranging
Cable LED Blinking Rapidly
4. Cable Modem establishing IP connectivity via DHCP server
5. Obtain Time of Day
6. Download configuration file via TFTP server
Cable LED Turned On and Steady
7. Registration to authorize traffic forwarding
8. Baseline Privacy initialization if enabled
9. Cable Modem in operational state
Line 1 LED Blinking Slowly
10. MTA establishes connectivity via DHCP server
Line 2 LED Blinking Slowly
11. MTA finds Key Distribution Center (KDC)
12. MTA resolves the KDC Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) with DNS
13. MTA obtains tickets to the provisioning server from the KDC
14. MTA finds provisioning server
15. MTA resolves provisioning server FQDN with DNS
16. MTA establishes SNMPv3 keys with provisioning server
17. MTA informed of a successful key negotiation via an SNMP INFORM message
18. MTA gets SNMP sets for the config file location and name

TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide 3-1


Chapter 3 Troubleshooting

19. MTA downloads configuration file from TFTP server


20. MTA sends a final INFORM message to the provisioning server
Line 1 and 2 LEDs Blinking Rapidly
21. MTA finds the KDC associated with the Call Management Server (CMS)
22. MTA resolves KDC server FQDN with DNS
23. MTA obtains tickets to the provisioning server from the KDC
24. MTA finds the CMS
25. MTA resolves CMS FQDN with DNS
26. MTA establishes IPSEC SA with CMS per line
Line 1 and 2 LEDs ON and Steady
27. MTA registers each Line with corresponding CMS.

3-2 TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide


Troubleshooting Summary Chapter 3 Troubleshooting

Troubleshooting Summary
Table 3-1 shows the major problems that occur and the corrective action that can be
taken. Some of these actions can be taken by the end user, other actions must be
performed by a network administrator at the headend.

Table 3-1 Troubleshooting summary


Problem Action
TA 102/202 eMTA has no power. • Verify the AC outlet is providing power.
• Verify the Power Adapter is connected properly to the
TA 102/202 eMTA and the AC outlet. If the Power
Adapter is connected properly and still no power,
replace the Power Adapter or the TA 102/202 eMTA.
• If using a Battery Backup Unit, verify it is producing
the correct operating voltage. If not, replace the Bat-
tery Backup Unit.
No Downstream carrier • Verify TA 102/202 eMTA cabling.
• Check for presence of a video signal.
• Verify power levels.
• Verify CMTS operation.
• Replace the TA 102/202 eMTA
Ranging Failed • Verify power levels.
• Verify CMTS operation.
• Replace the TA 102/202 eMTA.
Registration Failed • Verify DOCSIS Provisioning Server operation.
• Verify CMTS operation.
• Replace the TA 102/202 eMTA.
No Ethernet Carrier • Check TA 102/202 eMTA cabling.
• Verify the subscriber’s PC Ethernet and network con-
figuration is correct.
Self-Test Failed • Replace the TA 102/202 eMTA.
No Dial Tone • Verify that when the phone is on the hook, the Line
LED is ON and solid (not flashing),

TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide 3-3


Chapter 3 Troubleshooting Typical End User Problems and Solutions

Typical End User Problems and Solutions


The following is a summary of typical problems and solutions end users encounter when
installing a TA 102/202 eMTA.

Problem:
I cannot access my E-mail or Internet Service.

Possible Solution:
Check all connections. Make sure the cable line is securely connected to the cable jack on
the back of the TA 102/202 eMTA. Verify the Ethernet or USB cable is securely plugged
into both the TA 102/202 eMTA and your network interface card or USB network inter-
face. Make sure your Power Adaptor is properly plugged into both the TA 102/202 eMTA
and a wall outlet or surge protector. If your TA 102/202 eMTA is properly connected, the
Power, Cable, and PC indicator lights on the TA 102/202 eMTA front panel should be a
solid color.
If the Power, Cable, and PC indicator lights (LEDs) are solid green (not blinking), your
TA 102/202 eMTA is operating properly. Try shutting down and powering off your com-
puter and then turning it back on. This will cause your computer to re-establish commu-
nications with your cable company server.

1. If you are using the cable line splitter, try bypassing the splitter by disconnecting it
and running a single coaxial cable between the TA 102/202 eMTA and your cable wall
jack. Try reconnecting after making this change. If reconnecting is successful, you
may have a bad splitter.
2. Your network interface card may be malfunctioning. Refer to the Manufacturer's doc-
umentation for troubleshooting information.
3. Call your cable company to verify their service is two-way. This modem is designed
for use with two-way cable plants. Verify your account is activated.

Problem:
The Cable LED never stops blinking.

Possible Solution:
Call your cable company for assistance and verify that you have subscribed for the ser-
vice.

3-4 TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide


Typical End User Problems and Solutions Chapter 3 Troubleshooting

If the Cable LED is blinking slowly, verify the upstream attenuation agrees with the RF
design budget.
If the Cable LED is blinking rapidly (fast), verify the subscriber MTA modem is autho-
rized for service, including DHCP service. Also verify the subscriber MTA modem config-
uration file is available on the TFTP server pointed to by the DHCP offer.

Problem:

At modem start-up, all the modem LEDs come ON.

Possible Solution:

A possible solution to this problem is to reset the MTA modem. To reset the MTA
modem, follow these steps:

1. Inset a pointed object, such as the end of a paper clip, into the Reset Switch access
hole on the back panel of the MTA modem, see Figure 3-1.
2. Push the pointed object to depress the Reset Switch. This action forces the MTA
modem to re-boot.
TERAYON
MULTIMEDIA TERMINAL ADAPTER MODEM
MODEL TA-102 or TA-202

DATA SWITCH

RESET SWITCH
PAPER CLIP

Figure 3-1 Accessing the MTA Modem Reset Switch

3. Wait a short period of time, then verify the MTA modem starts scanning for the active
modem channel from your cable company.

TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide 3-5


Chapter 3 Troubleshooting Typical End User Problems and Solutions

4. If all the MTA modem LEDs are still all turned ON after resetting the modem, dis-
connect the Power Adapter from the AC power outlet. Wait a few seconds, then recon-
nect the Power Adapter to the AC power outlet.
5. Again wait a short period of time, then verify the MTA modem starts scanning for an
active modem channel. If the MTA modem LEDs are still all turned ON, the unit is
most likely faulty. Issue an RMA for the unit.

Problem:

At modem start-up, only the Power LED comes ON.

Possible Solution:

Verify the RF coax cable from the cable wall jack or the cable splitter is properly
connected to the RF connector on the MTA modem. If the RF cable is not properly
connected to the MTA modem RF connector, the modem cannot communicate with cable
company resources and therefore cannot boot-up.
If the subscriber is using a cable line splitter, try bypassing the splitter by disconnecting
it and running a single coaxial cable between the MTA modem and the cable wall jack.
Try reconnecting after making this change. If reconnecting is successful, the subscriber
may have a bad splitter.
Additionally, verify the downstream signal is signal power is −15 dbmV to +15 dbmV.

Problem:
The power on my modem goes on and off sporadically. The Power light never
stops blinking.

Possible Solution:
You may be using the wrong power supply. Check that the power supply you are using is
the one that came with your TA 102/202 eMTA. If you cannot connect to the Internet at
all, use this checklist to help identify possible problems:
- Make sure your computer and monitor are turned on.
- Make sure all power plugs are completely inserted into their sockets.Your com-
puter and TA 102/202 eMTA should be plugged into grounded outlets.
- If you are using a power strip, make sure it is turned on.
- Make sure all data cables are firmly connected at both ends.
- If you still do not have a connection, call your cable service to confirm they have
properly set you up for service. If so instructed, reset your TA 102/202 eMTA.

3-6 TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide


Typical End User Problems and Solutions Chapter 3 Troubleshooting

Problem:

The PC LED is blinking slowly.

Possible Solution:

The Data Switch on the rear panel of the MTA modem has been accidently pressed
during installation. This action prevents the MTA modem from transferring data to the
PC. To fix the problem, press the Data Switch once (see Figure 3-2), then verify the PC
LED has stopped blinking. If the PC LED is still blinking, call your cable company for
service.
TERAYON
MULTIMEDIA TERMINAL ADAPTER MODEM
MODEL TA-102 or TA-202

DATA SWITCH

Push the Data Switch to place the switch


in the ON position, and stop the PC LED
blinking.

Figure 3-2 Pressing the Data Switch

NOTE NOTE: You can disable the Data Switch by implementing the Terayon TLV-
11 MIB in the MTA modem configuration file.

TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide 3-7


Chapter 3 Troubleshooting Typical End User Problems and Solutions

Problem:
Line 1 and/or Line 2 LEDs blink when the phones are on the hook.

Possible Solution:
Verify with your cable company that you have subscribed for voice service and that your
service has been defined properly.

Problem:
No dial tone.

Possible Solution:
Before you pick up the phone, verify the LED for the associated Line is turned ON and is
solid. If the LED for the Line is turned ON and solid, verify the RJ-11 telephone cable is
properly connected to the modem and the phone. If the cable connections check OK,
replace the phone and/or the RJ-11 telephone cable.
If either Line 1 or Line 2 LEDs are OFF (dark) or flashing, contact your service provider
and verify you have subscribed for voice service and that your service is properly
defined.

Problem:
When I make a phone call, voice quality is bad.

Possible Solution:
Voice quality is defined by the type of service you have subscribed to, the type of service
the person on the other end has subscribed to, and network quality. If you and the per-
son on the other end have subscribed to a good quality service and are still getting poor
voice quality, contact your service provider. Note that Terayon tests all TA 102/202
eMTAs before shipping to verify the product is fully compliant with voice quality
requirements.

3-8 TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide


TA 102/202 eMTA Front Panel LED Definitions Chapter 3 Troubleshooting

TA 102/202 eMTA Front Panel LED Definitions


The indicator LEDs on the front panel of the TA 102/202 eMTA tell you what’s happen-
ing during a communications session. The table below tells you what each LED indica-
tor means.

LED Color Definition

Power Green • Dark when power is Off.


• Solid when power is On.

Amber • Flashing slowly – eMTA is powered from battery.


• Solid when battery is bad.

Cable Green • Dark for no downstream RF carrier present or power Off.


Power
• Flashes slowly for downstream RF carrier present and ranging in
process.
Cable
• Flashes fast when registration is in process.
• Flashes fast continuously when network access has been dis-
PC
abled.
• Solid when modem registration is complete and ready to transfer
Data
data.

Test PC Green • Dark when no carrier is present to or from the PC or when power
is Off.
Line 1 • Solid when carrier is present to or from the PC.
• Flashes slowly when data switch is OFF and PC connected.
Line 2

Data Green • Dark when no data is passing through modem or when power is
TA-102 Off.
• Flashing when CPE is receiving data.

Test Green • Dark when initial modem self-test is OK, or power is Off.
• Flashing when modem self-test is in process, or when the
modem is receiving software updates.
• Flashes when the modem fails the initial self-test during startup.
• Solid when the modem fails the initial self-test.

Line 1 Green During Startup:


• Flashing slowly – retrieving MTA IP address.
• Flashing fast – in CMS (EP#1)a registration/security process.
• Solid - registered, service is available.
Normal Operation
• Dark when phone call service is unavailable.
• Solid when phone call service is available.
• Flashing when phone call is in progress.

Line 2 Green During Startup:


• Flashing slowly – retrieving MTA IP address.
• Flashing fast – in CMS (EP#2)a registration/security process.
• Solid - registered, service is available.
Normal Operation
• Dark when phone call service is unavailable.
• Solid when phone call service is available.
• Flashing when phone call is in progress.

a. When the Endpoint (EP) is not defined in the config file or has gone out of service, the corre-
sponding LED will be dark—service is unavailable.

TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide 3-9


Chapter 4
PacketCable Network Architecture

If music, video and other multimedia content can be shot across HFC networks,
why not conduct telephone conversations? With the PacketCable project from
CableLabs  conducting a phone conversation via an HFC network is now a real-
ity. Chapter 4 delves into the architecture of a PacketCable network. If you have
an understanding of PacketCable network architecture, you can probably skip
this chapter. But, it won’t hurt to look it over anyway. The material presented
includes:
• PacketCable Network Architecture
• PacketCable Functional Components
• Placing a Call in a PacketCable Network

"Hello" "Hello"

PacketCable Network

wer
Po
ble
Ca
PC
ta
Da
wer
st Po
Te
ble
1 Ca
Line
2 PC
Line ta
Da
st
Te
-102
TA 1
Line
2
Line

-102
TA

EMBEDDED MTA
EMBEDDED MTA

TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide 4-1


Chapter 4 PacketCable Network Architecture PacketCable Network Architecture

PacketCable Network Architecture


What makes up a PacketCable Network you ask? At a very high level, a PacketCable
network consists of three networks. Two of the networks are the familiar DOCSIS HFC
Access Network and the Managed IP Network (headend). The third network is the
Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). Figure 4-1 gives you a simplified view of a
PacketCable network.

PC PC

EMTA
Powe
r
EMTA Powe
r

Cable

Link
Cable PC

TELEPHONE
Link
PC Data

TELEPHONE Data

Test
Test

HFC HFC
NETWORK NETWORK
ROUTER

MANAGED ROUTER
BW 3500 IP BACKBONE BW 3500

ROUTER

MANAGED
ROUTER IP NETWORK

BW 3500 BW 3500
CMTS CMTS

RKS
ANNOUNCEMENT
CALL AGENT PLAYER MEDIA
DNS GATEWAY
CONTROLLER

DHCP

GATE ANNOUNCEMENT MEDIA


SNMP CONTROLLER CONTROLLER GATEWAY

TFTP PSTN

SYSLOG ANNOUNCMENT SIGNALING


CONTROLLER GATEWAY
KDC

OSS SERVERS CALL ANNOUNCEMENT PSTN


MANAGEMENT SERVER GATEWAYS
SERVER

Figure 4-1 PacketCable Reference Architecture

Referring to Figure 4-1, the HFC network provides reliable high-speed and secure data
transport between the cable customer premise and the cable headend. This access net-
work may provide DOCSIS 1.1 and/or DOCSIS 2.0 capabilities including Quality of Ser-
vice.

4-2 TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide


PacketCable Functional Components Chapter 4 PacketCable Network Architecture

The functional components of the HFC network include: a Cable Modem (CM), a Multi-
media Terminal Adapter (MTA) or an eMTA (a cable modem with an embedded MTA)
and a Cable Modem Termination System (CMTS).
Referring again to Figure 4-1, the Managed IP Network provides the long-haul connec-
tivity between other Managed IP and HFC Access Networks. It also provides the inter-
connections between PacketCable functional components responsible for signaling,
media provisioning, and establishing quality of service.
The functional components of the Managed IP Network include:
• Call Management Server (CMS)
• Announcement Server (ANS)
• Operational Support Servers (OSS)
• Signaling Gateway (SG)
• Media Gateway (MG)
• Media Gateway Controller
The third network in the PacketCable Reference Architecture of Figure 4-1 is the Public
Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). PSTN simply refers to the local, long distance,
and international phone system which we use everyday.

PacketCable Functional Components


PacketCable Architecture requires numerous network elements with well defined
interfaces between those elements. In the following sections we describe the functional
components in the PacketCable Network. Note that not all components are required to
be present in a PacketCable Network.

Trusted and Untrusted Network Elements


PacketCable architecture accommodates trusted and untrusted network elements.
Trusted network elements are generally located inside a cable operator’s managed
backbone network. Untrusted network elements, such as a cable modem or an MTA, are
usually located in a subscriber’s residence — outside the MSO facility.

Multimedia Terminal Adapter


A Multimedia Terminal Adapter (MTA) is a device in the home that performs all the
control functions for PacketCable telephony calls. One side of the MTA accepts input
from telephones or telephone like devices, the other side of the device connects to a cable
modem. In short, it converts analog voice signals to IP packets.

TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide 4-3


Chapter 4 PacketCable Network Architecture PacketCable Functional Components

In the current release of PacketCable specifications, it is assumed the MTA is tightly


coupled to a cable modem (CM). An MTA can be a standalone device or it can be embed-
ded within the cable modem — an MTA and a CM in one box.

Embedded Multimedia Terminal Adapter (eMTA)


(An MTA and a CM in one package)

Functions:
Converts voice signals to IP packets and vice versa.
Generates multiple audio indicators to phones.
Provides standard PSTN analog line signaling for audio tones,
voice transport, caller-ID signaling, and message and waiting
indicators.
Generates and places upstream signals on the coax cable
and decodes raw downstream signals from the HFC
network so they can be interpreted by the MTA.

Identifiers:

Two MAC addresses, one for the MTA, one for the CM.
Two IP addresses, one for the MTA, one for the CM.
Two Fully Qualified Domain Names (FQDN), one for the MTA,
one for the CM.

Figure 4-2 Embedded MTA

Cable Modem (CM)


Like the MTA, a cable modem is a device that resides in a subscriber’s residence. As a
network element, it facilitates data transmission over the cable network using the
DOCSIS protocol. In PacketCable, the CM handles the media stream and provides
services such as classifying traffic into service flows, rate shaping, and prioritized
queuing.

Cable Modem Termination System (CMTS)


Located in the cable operator’s headend or distribution hub, the CMTS operates at the
edges of the backbone network and the HFC cable modem network. The primary
function of the CMTS is to route packets between a cable modem network and a
headend backbone. It is the traffic cop responsible for the fate of packets whizzing
between the two networks.

4-4 TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide


PacketCable Functional Components Chapter 4 PacketCable Network Architecture

The CMTS is also responsible for managing access network (cable modem network)
resources for PacketCable services. Access network resources are first reserved when
service is requested, then committed when service is delivered, and released when the
service is complete. It is responsible for ensuring all the CMs in the network are syn-
chronized and have fair access to the telephony network.
Synchronizing the CMs is necessary because, unlike the PSTN, where each subscriber
has a pair of wires dedicated to carrying the subscribers traffic, the cable that connects a
subscriber to the headend is a shared resource. The CMTS must manage this resource
efficiently, fairly, and with a very fast response to changing requests for access from
cable modems.

Cable Modem Termination System


(CMTS)
Functions:
Allocates upstream bandwidth according to CM requests.

Classifies each arriving packet.


Performs traffic shaping.
Routes downstream packets to the HFC network.

Routes upstream packets to backbone network devices.

Converts and classifies QoS parameters into DOCSIS QoS


parameters.
Records usage of resources per call using PackeCable event
messages.

BW 3500 CMTS

Figure 4-3 Cable Modem Termination System (CMTS)

CMTS Gate

A CMTS Gate is a software application that runs on the CMTS. It is a functional


component that performs classification and enforces QoS policy on media streams as
directed by a Gate Controller.

TA 102/202 Technical Support Guide 4-5


Chapter 4 PacketCable Network Architecture PacketCable Functional Components

Call Management Server (CMS)


The CMS is a trusted network element that resides in the cable operator’s Managed IP
Network. It is responsible for initiating, processing, and call forward signaling
information. For example, when a subscriber places a call, the identity of the destination
party (in the form of digits) is passed to the CMS. The CMS verifies the subscriber has
permission to place the call, then initiates and processes signals related to the call.
Typically an MTA will only interact with one local CMS.

Call Management Server


(CMS)
Manages and maintains call state for VoIP services
Operates the following PacketCable software applications:

Call Agent (CA)


Gate Controller (GC)
Announcement Controller (ANC)

Figure 4-4 Call Management Server (CMS)

A PacketCable CMS runs the following logical PacketCable components:


• Call Agent (CA)
In PacketCable, the Call Agent refers to the control component of the CMS responsi-
ble for providing signaling services using NCS protocol to the MTA. Call Agent
responsibilities include but are not limited to:
- Implementing call features
- Maintaining call progress state
- The use of codecs within the subscriber MTA
- Collecting and pre-processing dialed digits
- Collecting and classifying user action.
• Gate Controller (GC)
Gate Controller is a QoS software application that runs on the CMS. It has the job of
coordinating all quality of service authorization and control. Specifications for Gate
Controller functionality are defined in the Dynamic Quality of Service (DQoS) Speci-
fication.
• Announcement Controller (ANC)
Like the Gate Controller, the Announcement Controller is software application that
runs on the CMS. As the name states, it controls announcement servers.

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PacketCable Functional Components Chapter 4 PacketCable Network Architecture

Announcement Server (ANS)


An Announcement Server is a network device that manages and plays informational
tones in response to events that occur on the network.

Announcement Server
(ANS)
Manages and plays informational tones and
messages in response to events that occur
on the network.
Runs the following PacketCable software applications:

Announcement Controller (ANC)


Announcement Player (ANP)

Figure 4-5 Announcement Server

A PacketCable Announcement Server runs the following software applications:


• Announcement Controller (ANC)
The ANC initiates and manages all announcement services provided by an announce-
ment player. It requests the announcement player to play announcements based on
call state as determined by the CMS. When the announcement player collects infor-
mation from an end-user, the ANC interprets the information and manages the ses-
sion.
• Announcement Player (ANP)
Functioning under the control of the ANC, the announcement player receives and
interprets commands from the ANC and delivers the appropriate announcement to
an MTA. It also accepts and reports user inputs (e.g. Dual-Tone Multi Frequency
tones).

OSS Support Systems (OSS)


Referring to Figure 4-1, Operational Support Systems (OSS) provide a variety of sup-
porting servers and functions to support the headend core business process. OSS main
functional areas are:
• Fault management
• Performance management
• Security management
• Accounting management
• Configuration management

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Chapter 4 PacketCable Network Architecture PacketCable Functional Components

Associated hardware components include:


• Provisioning servers
• KDC servers for security
• RKS servers for record keeping.

Provisioning Servers

Two kinds of provisioning occur in PacketCable, one on the IP side and one on the
PacketCable side. On the PacketCable side a limited number of devices and interfaces
support MTA device provisioning, event messaging to carry billing information, and
security for authentication and key management.
On the IP side, a DHCP server dynamically allocates IP addresses during an MTA provi-
sioning process. A DNS server maps between ASCII domain names and IP addresses
and a TFTP server downloads configuration files to an MTA. Additionally, a SYSLOG
server collects events, such as traps and errors, from an MTA.

Security Servers

Security management touches every component and interface in the PacketCable


network. The key headend server responsible for security is the Key Distribution Center
(KDC) server. It operates as a Kerberos server to manage component authentication,
key exchange, and encryption.

Record Keeping Servers

A Record Keeping Server (RKS) receives PacketCable event messages from a CMS, a
CMTS, and a Media Gateway Controller (MGC). First it assembles the event messages
into coherent sets called detail records (CDRs). CDRs are then made available to other
back office systems, such as billing, fraud detection, other systems.

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PacketCable Functional Components Chapter 4 PacketCable Network Architecture

PSTN Gateway
A PacketCable Network must be able to send calls to, and receive calls from the Public
Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) — you know, the telephone company. But, because
the PSTN is so much different than a PacketCable Network (its based on circuit-
switched technology), the PacketCable Network must employ an interface device called
a PSTN Gateway.
A PSTN Gateway carries out all the necessary interface functions between the two net-
works for both call signaling and so-called bearer traffic (the actual contents of calls).
PSTN Gateway
Serves as an interface device between the PacketCable
Network and the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN).

Divided into 3 functional components:

Media Gateway Controller


Maintains call state and controlls overall behavior of the PSTN Gateway.

Signaling Gateway
Provides signaling interconnection functions between the PSTN SS7
signaling network and the IP network.

Media Gateway
Terminates bearer (telephone call) paths and transcodes media between
the PSTN and the IP network.

Figure 4-6 PSTN Gateway

To enable operators to minimize cost and optimize their PSTN interconnection arrange-
ments the PSTN Gateway is broken down into three functional components:
• Media Gateway (MG): serves as the interface between the two networks for media.
• Signaling Gateway (SG): serves as the interface between the two networks for signal-
ing.
• Media Gateway Controller (MGC): controls the Media Gateway.

CMS MEDIA PSTN BEARER TRUNKS


GATEWAY

MEDIA GATEWAY
MTA CMTS BEARER CONTROLLER PSTN

SIGNALING
GATEWAY PSTN SIGNALING TRUNKS
PSTN GATEWAY

Figure 4-7 PacketCable/PSTN Interface Architecture

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Chapter 4 PacketCable Network Architecture Placing a Call in a PacketCable Network

Placing a Call in a PacketCable Network


If you have read the “PacketCable Network Architecture” and “PacketCable Functional
Components” sections, you have a pretty good understanding of the hardware and
software applications involved in a PacketCable network. But, what really happens
when someone makes a simple phone call?
To answer the question, the following paragraphs examine the process of making an
ordinary phone call on a packet based network. We’ll keep it simple and ignore a lot of
the details, but, hopefully you’ll get an idea of what goes on during a phone call.
To explain a PacketCable phone call, we have developed a simple example call. Figure 4-
8 provides a summary of the simple example.
Imagine for a moment a cable operator (ACE Cable Company) and two callers, Athena
and Brad. ACE Cable Company has all the equipment required to offer subscribers
PacketCable telephony and Athena and Brad are subscribers. Athena decides to call
Brad to ask questions about the project they are working on. Athena’s phone is con-
nected to an embedded MTA, in other words, a cable modem and a Multimedia Terminal
Adapter in the same box. The phone she is about to use is simply an I/O portion of the
MTA.
When Athena lifts the phone, she hears a dial tone. But this dial tone is not coming from
the phone company central office — it is being generated by the MTA her phone is con-
nected to. Athena dials Brad’s phone number. On a regular PSTN phone line, each digit
is sent to the central office as it is dialed. A switch in the central office collects the digits
and checks after each digit to see if an entire phone number has been dialed.
On the ACE Cable Company PacketCable Network, things are very different. Instead of
each digit being sent as dialed, the MTA collects the digits, but sends no signals to the
network until Athena presses the last digit. Athena’s MTA (we’ll call it MTAA) has an
internal digital map that tells it when Athena has dialed a complete number. As she
presses the final digit, the MTA recognizes a complete valid phone number and then
builds a UDP packet.
The UDP packet contains information about itself and the number Athena dialed, along
with the destination IP address of Brad’s Call Management Server (CMSB). MTAA
transmits the UDP packet to Athena’s CMTSA which acts as a router and forwards the
packet to CMSA. CMSA decodes the packet and checks to see if Athena is a paid-up sub-
scriber. When CMSA verifies Athena is a legitimate caller, it consults a data base to
determine the identity of the Call management Server (CMSB) that serves Brad’s phone.

CMSA now contacts CMSB informing it that Brad has an incoming call. It also sends a
message to CMTSA, telling it to reserve enough bandwidth on the HFC network to
ensure call quality. When CMSB receives the news that Brad has an incoming call, it
contacts CMTSB and instructs it to reserve bandwidth for the incoming call to Brad.

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Placing a Call in a PacketCable Network Chapter 4 PacketCable Network Architecture

3a Forwards info

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Figure 4-8 A PacketCable Phone Call

At last, CMSB sends a signal to Brad’s MTA informing it that Brad has an incoming call.
CMTSB routes the signal to MTAB which recognizes there is an incoming call and begins
to ring Brad’s phone.
The signals that pass between the two Call Management Servers (CMSA and CMSB)
and their associated MTAs include destination IP addresses of the far end. In brief,
MTAA is told the IP address of MTAB and vice versa. From this point on, the MTAs place
each other’s IP address in the destination fields of the UDP packets they generate. The
HFC network routes the packets directly between the MTAs instead of forcing the pack-
ets to pass through the Call Management Servers.

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Chapter 4 PacketCable Network Architecture Placing a Call in a PacketCable Network

And that is exactly what happens when Brad picks up the phone and says, “Hello”.
MTAB digitizes and packetizes Brad’s voice and transmits the packets with the IP
address of MTAA in the destination field. The opposite occurs at Athena’s end, and the
two are now talking.
When one of the callers puts the phone down, the associated MTA signals the far end
and it’s local CMTS that the call is complete. The local CMTS recovers the bandwidth
resources used for the call and sends instructions to the far-end CMTS to release its
HFC network bandwidth. Finally, several kinds of billing and logging messages are sent
to the ACE Cable Company billing and event data bases to ensure Athena is billed for
the extremely high quality call she just enjoyed.

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