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Epithelial Tissue

Terms that help us understand what kinds of tissues we are identifying:


Terms referring to the layers
Simple = one layer
Stratified = more than one layer
Pseudostratified = false layered (appears to be more than one
layer, but only one); ciliated = with cilia
Terms referring to the cell shapes
Squamous = flat
Cuboidal = cube
Columnar = rectangular (column)
Transitional = ability to change shape
Four types of tissues in the body

• Groups of cells similar in structure and


function
• The four types:
– Epithelial
– Connective
– Muscle
– Nerve
Remember the levels of organization
What is an Epithelium?

• Epi = “on” or “around”


• Thele = “nipple”

• Covers the external body surface


(epidermis), lines cavities and tubules, and
generally marks off our insides from our
outsides
Epithelial Tissues – two types
• Epithelia:
– layers of cells covering internal or external
surfaces

• Glands:
– structures that produce secretions
Characteristics of Epithelia
1. Cellularity: composed of cells bound by
cell junctions
2. Polarity: apical and basal surfaces
3. Attachment: via basal lamina to
underlying connective tissue
4. Avascularity: no blood vessels (but richly
innervated)
5. Regeneration: germinative cell division
Free Surface and
Attached Surface\
• Polarity:
– apical and basolateral surfaces
Repairing and
Replacing Epithelia
• Epithelia are replaced by division of
germinative cells (stem cells)
• Near basal lamina
Functions of Epithelial Tissue

1. Provide physical protection


2. Control permeability
3. Move fluids over the surface
4. Provide sensation (e.g. neuroepithelia)
5. Produce specialized secretions (glandular
epithelium)
Specializations

• Microvilli increase absorption or secretion


• Cilia (ciliated epithelium) move fluids
Effective Barriers

• Physical integrity is maintained by:


– intercellular connections
– attachment to basal lamina
– maintenance and repair
Classes of Epithelia
• Based on shape and layers
Classification of Epithelia
Apical surface

Basal surface Simple


• Simple or
Apical surface stratified

Basal surface
Stratified
Classification based on number of cell layers.
Classification of Epithelia
Squamous

• Squamous,
Cuboidal cuboidal, or
columnar

Columnar
Classification based on cell shape.
Simple Squamous Epithelia

• Single layer of flattened cells with disc-


shaped nuclei and sparse cytoplasm
Look like a fried egg from the top
• most delicate
• Diffusion, friction reduction
• Special names
Mesothelium:
• lines body cavities (e.g. peritoneum, pleura)
Endothelium:
• lines heart and blood vessels
Epithelia: Simple Squamous
(a) Simple squamous epithelium

Description: Single layer of flattened


cells with disc-shaped central nuclei
and sparse cytoplasm; the simplest
of the epithelia.

Air sacs of
Function: Allows passage of lung tissue
materials by diffusion and filtration
in sites where protection is not Nuclei of
important; secretes lubricating squamous
substances in serosae. epithelial
cells
Location: Kidney glomeruli; air sacs
of lungs; lining of heart, blood
vessels, and lymphatic vessels; lining
of ventral body cavity (serosae).

Photomicrograph: Simple squamous epithelium


forming part of the alveolar (air sac) walls (125x).
Simple Squamous Epithelium
Epithelia: Simple Cuboidal
• Single layer of cube-like cells with large,
spherical central nuclei
• Function in secretion and absorption
• Present in kidney tubules, ducts and
secretory portions of small glands, and
ovary surface
Epithelia: Simple Cuboidal
(b) Simple cuboidal epithelium
Description: Single layer of
cubelike cells with large,
spherical central nuclei.

Simple
cuboidal
epithelial
cells
Function: Secretion and
absorption.

Basement
Location: Kidney tubules; membrane
ducts and secretory portions
of small glands; ovary surface.
Connective
tissue

Photomicrograph: Simple cuboidal


epithelium in kidney tubules (430x).
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
• Kidney tubules
Epithelia: Simple Columnar
• Single layer of tall cells with oval nuclei
• May contain microvilli
• Goblet cells are often found in this layer
• Function in absorption and secretion
• Line digestive tract and gallbladder, small
bronchi, uterine tubes, and some regions of
the uterus
Epithelia: Simple Columnar
(c) Simple columnar epithelium

Description: Single layer of tall cells


with round to oval nuclei; some cells
bear cilia; layer may contain mucus-
secreting unicellular glands (goblet cells).

Simple
columnar
epithelial
Function: Absorption; secretion of cell
mucus, enzymes, and other substances;
ciliated type propels mucus (or
reproductive cells) by ciliary action.
Location: Nonciliated type lines most of
the digestive tract (stomach to anal canal),
gallbladder, and excretory ducts of some
glands; ciliated variety lines small
bronchi, uterine tubes, and some regions Basement
of the uterus. membrane

Photomicrograph: Simple columnar epithelium


of the stomach mucosa (860X).
Epithelia: Simple Columnar
• Intestinal lining
Epithelia: Pseudostratified
Columnar
• Single layer of cells with different heights;
all touch the basal lamina but some do not
reach the free surface
• Nuclei are seen at different layers
• Function in secretion and propulsion of
mucus
• Present in the male sperm-carrying ducts
(nonciliated) and trachea (ciliated)
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
(d) Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

Description: Single layer of cells of


differing heights, some not reaching
the free surface; nuclei seen at Cilia
different levels; may contain mucus- Mucus of
secreting cells and bear cilia. mucous cell

Pseudo-
stratified
Function: Secretion, particularly of epithelial
mucus; propulsion of mucus by layer
ciliary action.
Location: Nonciliated type in male’s
sperm-carrying ducts and ducts of
large glands; ciliated variety lines
the trachea, most of the upper
respiratory tract.

Basement
membrane
Trachea Photomicrograph: Pseudostratified ciliated
columnar epithelium lining the human trachea (570x).
Figure 4.2d
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium

• Trachea
Epithelia: Stratified Squamous
• Thick membrane composed of several
layers of cells (the only one with more than
2 or 3 true layers)
• Functions in protection of underlying areas
subjected to abrasion
• Forms the external part of the skin’s
epidermis (keratinized cells), and linings of
the esophagus, mouth, and vagina
(nonkeratinized cells)
Epithelia: Stratified Squamous
(e) Stratified squamous epithelium

Description: Thick membrane


composed of several cell layers;
basal cells are cuboidal or columnar
and metabolically active; surface
cells are flattened (squamous); in the
keratinized type, the surface cells are
full of keratin and dead; basal cells
are active in mitosis and produce the
cells of the more superficial layers.

Stratified
squamous
epithelium

Function: Protects underlying


tissues in areas subjected to abrasion. Nuclei
Location: Nonkeratinized type forms Basement
the moist linings of the esophagus, membrane
mouth, and vagina; keratinized variety
forms the epidermis of the skin, a dry Connective
membrane. tissue

Photomicrograph: Stratified squamous epithelium


lining the esophagus (285x).
Epithelia: Stratified Columnar
• Limited distribution in the body
• Found in the pharynx, male urethra, and
lining some glandular ducts
• Also occurs at transition areas between two
other types of epithelia
Stratified Columnar Epithelium
• Rare
• Salivary gland duct
Epithelia: Stratified Cuboidal
• Quite rare in the body
• Found in some sweat and mammary glands
• Typically two cell layers thick
• Only top layer is cuboidal
Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium
• Sweat gland ducts
Epithelia: Transitional
• Several cell layers, basal cells are cuboidal,
surface cells are dome shaped (or flat)
• Stretches to permit the distension of the
urinary bladder
• Lines the urinary bladder, ureters, and part
of the urethra
Epithelia: Transitional
(f) Transitional epithelium
Description: Resembles both
stratified squamous and stratified
cuboidal; basal cells cuboidal or
columnar; surface cells dome
shaped or squamouslike, depending
on degree of organ stretch.

Transitional
epithelium
Function: Stretches readily and
permits distension of urinary organ
by contained urine.
Location: Lines the ureters, urinary Basement
bladder, and part of the urethra. membrane
Connective
tissue
Photomicrograph: Transitional epithelium lining the urinary
bladder, relaxed state (360X); note the bulbous, or rounded,
appearance of the cells at the surface; these cells flatten and
become elongated when the bladder is filled with urine.
Epithelia: Transitional

• Urinary bladder
Glandular Epithelia
• Endocrine and exocrine
glands
Epithelia: Glandular
• A gland is one or more cells that makes and
secretes an aqueous fluid
• Classified by:
– Site of product release – endocrine or exocrine
– Relative number of cells forming the gland –
unicellular or multicellular
Glandular Epithelium: Endocrine Glands
– Secretions, called hormones, diffuse directly into the
bloodstream
– Function in maintaining homeostasis
Glandular Epithelium: Exocrine Glands
– Secrete products into ducts that empty onto the surfaces of
epithelium
– Skin surface or lumen of a hollow organ
– Secretions of the exocrine gland include mucus, sweat, oil,
earwax, saliva, and digestive enzymes
Structural Classification of Exocrine Glands

• Multicellular glands are categorized


according to two criteria:
– Ducts are branched or unbranched
– Shape of the secretory portion of the gland
• Simple gland duct does not branch
• Compound gland duct branches
• Tubular glands have tubular secretory parts
• Acinar glands have rounded secretory parts
• Tubuloacinar glands have both tubular and
rounded secretory parts
Structural Classification of Exocrine Glands
Glands are classified based on
mode of secretion - 3 types
Modes of Secretion
• Merocrine – products are secreted by
exocytosis (e.g., pancreas, sweat, and
salivary glands)
• Holocrine – products are secreted by the
rupture of gland cells (e.g., sebaceous
glands)
• Apocrine – products acumulate in the top of
the cell and then it breaks down
Functional Classification
of Exocrine Glands
The following types of epithelial tissues are covered in this activity:
1. Simple squamous epithelial tissue (lungs)
2. Simple cuboidal epithelial tissue (kidneys)
3. Simple columnar epithelial tissue (small intestine)
4. Pseudostratified (ciliated) columnar epithelial tissue (trachea lining)
5. Stratified squamous epithelial tissue (mouth lining)
6. Stratified cuboidal epithelial tissue (salivary glands, sweat glands)
7. Stratified columnar epithelial tissue (male reproductive tract)
8 Transitional epithelial tissue (bladder)
a. The tissue may show a full bladder
b. The tissue may show an empty bladder
What kind of tissue does this represent?
Simple squamous epithelial tissue

Where in the body would you find this tissue?


lungs
What kind of tissue does this represent?
Simple squamous epithelial tissue (superior view)
What kind of tissue does this represent?
Simple cuboidal epithelial tissue

Where in the body would you find this tissue?


Kidneys (tubules)
The lining of the kidney glomerulus (sing.)/glomeruli (pl.) is simple squamous epithelial tissue
What kind of tissue does this represent?
Simple columnar epithelial tissue

Where in the body would you find this tissue?


small intestine
What kind of tissue does this represent?
Pseudostratified (ciliated) columnar epithelial tissue
“false layered”; it looks like more than one layer, but it is not

Where in the body would you find this tissue?


trachea lining
What kind of tissue does this represent?
Stratified squamous epithelial tissue

Where in the body would you find this tissue?


mouth lining
What kind of tissue does this represent?
Stratified cuboidal epithelial tissue

Where in the body would you find this tissue?


salivary glands, sweat glands
What kind of tissue does this represent?
Stratified columnar epithelial tissue

Where in the body would you find this tissue?


male reproductive tract
What kind of tissue does this represent?
Transitional epithelial tissue

Where in the body would you find this tissue?


empty bladder
What kind of tissue does this represent?
Transitional epithelial tissue

Where in the body would you find this tissue?


distended (full) bladder
Basement membrane
Simple
Stratified
Pseudostratified
Squamous
Simple Cuboidal
Simple Squamous

Simple Squamous

Lung Tissue Kidney Tissue


Simple Columnar
Pseudostratified
Transitional Epithelium

• Multilayered
– surface cells varying in shape
• round to flat (if stretched)
– lines hollow organs that expand from within (urinary
bladder)