Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 14

COLEGIUL NATIONAL “BARBU STIRBEI”

CALARASI

LUCRARE PENTRU OBTINEREA


ATESTAULUI
DE
COMPETENTA LINGVISTICA

Profesor coordonator : Preda Gratiela

Elev: Ivan Georgiana Madalina

MAI, 2018

COLEGIUL NATIONAL “BARBU STIRBEI”

CALARASI
ABRAHAM LINCOLN

Profesor Coordonator:
Preda Gratiela

Elev:
Ivan Georgiana Madalina

MAI, 2018

2
CONTENTS

Argument…………………………………………………………………………….....................4

Chapter 1: Short biography………………………………………………………………………..6

1.1. Early life………………………………………………………………………....6

1.2. Marriage &


family…………………………………………………………….....6

Chapter 2: Presidency……………………………………………………………………………..8

2.1. The American Civil War………………………………………………………...8

Chapter 3: The assassination……………………………………………………………………..10

Chapter 4: The legacy……………………………………………………………………………12

4.1 The Lincoln Memorial………………………………………………………….12

Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………….13

Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………….…….14

3
ARGUMENT

Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his
assassination in April 1865. He successfully led his country through a great constitutional,
military and moral crisis – the American Civil War– preserving the Union, while ending slavery,
and promoting economic and financial modernization.

I have chosen to do my thesis paper on Abraham Lincoln because I wanted to learn about
someone interesting that left a huge mark on world history. I also believe that during this period
when my character and personality begin to form and stabilize such information is beneficial.
The courage this man had and the perseverance in reaching his goals is one that I admire and
look up to and would one day like to embody.

Chapter 1 is a short biography of Abraham Lincoln. He was born in Hardin County, Kentucky on
February 12, 1809. Abraham's wife was Mary Todd. They were married on November 4, 1842.
They had together four children: Robert, Edward, William, and Thomas. But Edward died
shortly before his fourth birthday, William died in the White House of typhoid at only age
eleven, and also son Thomas died in 1871 at age eighteen just before adulthood. Robert was the
only child of the Lincolns to live past the age of 18. The death of their sons had profound effects
on both parents.

The Presidency of Abraham Lincoln is outlined in Chapter 2. The Presidency of Abraham


Lincoln was dominated by the Civil War. Despite his limited military background, Lincoln
became a strong military leader, directing the actions of the Union. Lincoln amassed
considerable executive power- proclaiming a blockade and suspending habeas corpus. All of this
was done to "Preserve the Union". After his re-election, as the war drew towards a successful
conclusion, Lincoln remained committed to reconciliation with the South.

Chapter 3 focuses on the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes
Booth at the Ford Theater on April 14, 1865. Lincoln never regained consciousness and passed
away at 7:22 A.M. on the morning of April 15, 1865, at the Petersen House (across the street
from the theater).

The last Chapter comprises Lincoln's legacy. The legacy of executive authority did not last
beyond his death, and over the next forty years both Congress and the courts overshadowed the
White House in power and influence. Still, the most lasting accomplishments attributed to
Lincoln are the preservation of the Union, the vindication of democracy, and the death of slavery,
all accomplished by the ways in which he handled the crisis that most certainly would have
ended differently with a lesser man in office. His great achievement, historians tell us, was his
ability to energize and mobilize the nation by appealing to its best ideals while acting "with
malice towards none" in the pursuit of a more perfect, more just, and more enduring Union. No
President in American history ever faced a greater crisis and no President ever accomplished as
much.

4
In conclusion I would like to emphasize that not many presidents could be mindlessly passed off
as heroes; there are a few truly heroic presidents. Among them, Abraham Lincoln stands tall. In
1861, when Lincoln was elected to office, the situations of the time called for a hero, and Lincoln
stepped up and with this paper I would like to share his journey.

5
CHAPTER 1: SHORT BIOGRAPHY

1.1. EARLY LIFE

Abraham Lincoln was born in Hardin County, Kentucky on February 12, 1809, to Thomas
Lincoln and Nancy Hanks. Born in a log cabin in the backwoods, Lincoln was almost entirely
self-educated. In 1831 he settled in New Salem, and worked as a storekeeper, surveyor, and
postmaster while studying law. Little is known about Lincoln's ancestors. Historical
investigations have traced his family back to Samuel Lincoln, an apprentice weaver who arrived
in Hingham, Massachusetts, from Norfolk, England, in 1637.

When Lincoln was nine, his 34-year-old mother died of milk sickness. His older sister Sarah died
while giving birth at a young age. Soon after, his father married Sarah Bush Johnston, with
whom Lincoln became very close and whom he called "Mother." However, he became
increasingly distant from his father. Lincoln regretted his father's lack of education and did not
like the hard labor associated with frontier life. Still, he willingly took responsibility for all
chores expected of him as a male in the household and became an adept ax-man in his work
building rail fences. Lincoln also agreed with the customary obligation of a son to give his father
all earnings from work done outside the home until age 21. In later years, he occasionally loaned
his father money.

1. 2. MARRIAGE & FAMILY

In 1832, as a captain of the Militia Company, he went off to the Black Hawk War. Soon after the
War he ran for the Illinois legislature and lost. Afterward with a partner, he opened his own
general store but went broke. In 1834, as a Whig, he was elected to the legislature and served
four terms. But in the meantime, he read enough law to finally become a lawyer and in 1837 he
moved to Springfield. Here he attended legislative sessions and practiced law.

Lincoln's first romantic interest was Ann Rutledge, whom he met when he first moved to New
Salem; by 1835, they were in a relationship but not formally engaged. Rutledge wanted to notify
a former love before "consummating the engagement to Mr. L. with marriage." She died,
however, on August 25, most likely of typhoid fever.

Abraham's wife was Mary Todd; she was a Kentucky born girl. They were soon married on
November 4, 1842. In 1844, the couple bought a house in Springfield near Lincoln's law
office. Mary Todd Lincoln worked diligently in their home, assuming household duties which
had been performed for her in her own family. She also made efficient use of the limited funds
available from her husband's law practice.

They had together four children: Robert, Edward, William, and Thomas. But Edward died
shortly before his fourth birthday, William died in the White House of typhoid at only age
eleven, and also son Thomas died in 1871 at age eighteen just before adulthood. Robert was the
only child of the Lincolns to live past the age of 18.
6
The death of their sons had profound effects on both parents. Later in life, Mary struggled with
the stresses of losing her husband and sons, and Robert Lincoln committed her to a mental health
asylum in 1875.Abraham Lincoln suffered from clinical depression.
Lincoln's father-in-law was based in Lexington, Kentucky. He and others of the Todd family
were either slave owners or slave traders. Lincoln was close to the Todds, and he and his family
occasionally visited the Todd estate in Lexington. Lincoln's connections in Lexington could
have accelerated his ambitions, but he remained in Illinois, where, to his liking, slavery was
almost nonexistent.

7
CHAPTER 2: PRESIDENCY

No president of the United States ever assumed office under more difficult conditions than
Abraham Lincoln. By the time of his inauguration day, a large portion of the South had already
seceded as soon as they heard of his election. Nor did he have the support and confidence of a
large portion of the North either. To most Americans, Lincoln was relatively unknown and his
homespun image and penchant for humor often led both his opponents and his staff to
underestimate him. Such estimations show that Lincoln’s true intelligence and political acumen
were widely misunderstood, perhaps owing to the fact that he was a complex and very private
man, not readily given to sharing his inner thoughts with even his closest advisors. He also
appeared on the surface to be a man of great contradictions. He was anti-slavery and yet he
hesitated to free the slaves. He was a staunch believer in the Constitution and yet he suspended
the writ of habeas corpus. The answer to these seeming contradictions lies in Lincoln’s character.
He was both a man of high ideals and a pragmatist. His paramount goal was the preservation of
the Union.

The timeline of the president is as follows: In 1846, Lincoln won election to the U.S. House of
Representatives. He served up until 1849, and then returned to Springfield. In the 1850's he
returned to politics. He spoke out against slavery extension. In 1856 he became a Republican.
Two years later he ran for U.S. Senate, but lost however. He won the President nomination on the
third ballot and won. He was elected President on November 6, 1861. In November 1863,
Lincoln dedicated the Gettysburg battlefield, in a short speech known as the Gettysburg Address.
It summed up the Civil War and its meaning to the Americans. On January 1, 1863 Lincoln
issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which played a huge part in the North's resurgence. This
declared that slaves in the Confederacy were free. The end of the Civil War came at Appomattox
Court House in Virginia.

2.1. THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR


Lincoln, despite being little prepared for it by prior military experience, was first and foremost a
war president. The nation was at peace for less than six weeks of his presidency and his was the
only presidency that was entirely "bounded by the parameters of war". Lincoln was called on to
handle both the political and military aspects of the war, and his leadership has to be evaluated
based on his ability to balance these inseparable parts of the Union's efforts. He was a successful
war president to the extent that he was able to control the revolutionary forces unleashed by his
election and Southern secession, maintain the democratic principles that were the bedrock of the
nation, and achieve a military victory. His assassination near the end of the war left the final
challenge of reconstructing the nation to others, but Lincoln as early as 1863 established
principles that he felt should shape this process.
Lincoln ran on a political platform opposing the policies of the Pierce and Buchanan
administrations that would have preserved slavery for the foreseeable future. While
acknowledging that only a state could outlaw slavery within its own borders, the Republican
insistence on keeping slavery out of all territories would ultimately lead to the end of slavery in
the entire nation since, in the minds of both most Northerners and most Southerners, the survival
of slavery depended on its ability to expand. By his nature, Lincoln was open to political
8
compromises, but, from his election to his assumption of office, he led his party in standing firm
against any compromise on the territorial issues. After being sworn in as President he likewise
refused to accept any resolution that would accept Southern secession from the Union.

9
CHAPTER 3: THE ASSASSINATION

John Wilkes Booth, born May 10, 1838, was an actor who performed throughout the country in
many plays. He was the lead in some of William Shakespeare's most famous works. Additionally,
he was a racist and Southern sympathizer during the Civil War. He hated Abraham Lincoln, who
represented everything Booth was against. Booth blamed Lincoln for all the South's ills. He
wanted revenge.

In late summer of 1864 Booth began developing plans to kidnap Lincoln, take him to Richmond
and hold him in return for Confederate prisoners of war. By January, 1865, Booth had organized
a group of co-conspirators.

On March 17, 1865, the group planned to capture Lincoln who was scheduled to attend a play at
a hospital located on the outskirts of Washington. However, the president changed plans and
remained in the capital. Thus, Booth's plot to kidnap Lincoln failed.

On April 9, 1865, General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant two days later
Lincoln spoke from the White House to a crowd gathered outside. Booth was present as Lincoln
suggested in his speech that voting rights be granted to certain blacks. Infuriated, Booth's plans
now turned in the direction of assassination.

On the morning of Friday, April 14, 1865, Booth dropped by Ford's Theatre and learned that
the president and General Grant were planning to attend the evening performance of “Our
American Cousin”. He held one final meeting with his co-conspirators. He said he would kill
Lincoln at the theater. Atzerodt was to kill Vice-President Andrew Johnson at the Kirkwood
House where Johnson resided. Powell was assigned to kill Secretary of State William Seward.
Herold would accompany Powell. All attacks were to take place simultaneously at approximately
10:15 P.M. that night. Booth hoped the resulting chaos and weakness in the government would
lead to a comeback for the South.

The presidential party arrived at Ford's at about 8:30 P.M. Armed with a single shot derringer and
a hunting knife, Booth arrived at Ford's at about 9:30 P.M. Joseph Burroughs, a boy who worked
at the theater, held his horse in the rear alley. Booth went next door to a saloon for a drink. He
entered the front of Ford's Theatre around 10:07 P.M. Slowly he made his way toward the State
Box where the Lincolns were sitting with Clara Harris and Major Henry Rathbone. Lincoln's
bodyguard, John Parker of the Metropolitan Police Force, had left his post. At about 10:15 P.M.
Booth opened the door to the State Box, shot Lincoln in the back of the head at near point-blank
range, and struggled with Rathbone. Booth stabbed Rathbone in the arm and jumped over 11 feet
to the stage below. When he hit the floor he snapped the fibula bone in his left leg just above the
ankle. Many in the theater thought he yelled "Sic Semper Tyrannis" (Latin for "As Always to
Tyrants"). Mrs. Lincoln screamed, Booth flashed his knife at the audience, and he made his way
across the stage in front of more than 1,000 people. Everything happened so fast that no one had
time to stop him. Booth went out the back door, climbed on his horse, and escaped from the city
using the Navy Yard Bridge.

10
Back in Washington Lincoln never regained consciousness and passed away at 7:22 A.M. on the
morning of April 15, 1865, at the Petersen House (across the street from the theater).

Booth and Herold departed from Dr. Mudd's during the afternoon of April 15 and traveled
south. Federal authorities caught up with them at Garrett's farm near Port Royal, Virginia, early
in the morning of April 26. Hiding in a barn, Harold gave up. Booth refused, so the barn was set
on fire. Booth still didn't come out and was shot to death by Sergeant Boston Corbett. Corbett
had not been under orders to do this but felt other soldiers might be shot by Booth. Booth's body
was searched, and a diary was among the things found. Booth's remains were returned to
Washington where positive identification was made and an autopsy performed.

11
CHAPTER 4: THE LEGACY

Within days of his death, his life was being compared to Jesus Christ. Lincoln was portrayed to a
worshipping public as a self-made man, the liberator of the slaves, and the savior of the Union
who had given his life so that others could be free. President Lincoln became Father Abraham, a
near mythological hero, "lawgiver" to African Americans, and a "Masterpiece of God" sent to
save the Union. His humor was presented as an example of his humanity; his numerous pardons
demonstrated his "great soul"; and his sorrowful demeanor reflected the burdens of his lonely
journey as the leader of a "blundering and sinful" people.

Lincoln's legacy of executive authority did not last beyond his death, and over the next forty
years both Congress and the courts overshadowed the White House in power and influence. Still,
the most lasting accomplishments attributed to Lincoln are the preservation of the Union, the
vindication of democracy, and the death of slavery, all accomplished by the ways in which he
handled the crisis that most certainly would have ended differently with a lesser man in office.

4.1. THE LINCOLN MEMORIAL

Located on the National Mall in Washington, DC, the Lincoln Memorial honors Abraham
Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States. The theme of the building represents the Union.
The columns surrounding the walls stand for the 36 states in the Union at the time of Lincoln’s
death. The names of the 48 states in the Union (when the memorial was completed in 1922) are
carved on the walls along the outside of the memorial. A plaque honoring Alaska and Hawaii is
in the nearby plaza.

The chamber inside the memorial contains a statue of Lincoln seated, facing the Washington
Monument and the Capitol. The statue of Lincoln is 5.79 meters high and weighs 175 tons. The
chamber also houses two huge stone tables, one engraved with Lincoln’s Second Inaugural
Address, and the other with the Gettysburg Address. Two murals represent the principles of
freedom, justice, unity, brotherhood, and charity.

12
Conclusion

In conclusion, this thesis paper depicts the life of one of America’s most loved presidents. He is
known by many as Honest Abe, his character and perseverance shocked and still shocks many to
this day. He was a good man that loved freedom and wanted everyone to feel it on their own
skin. Overall apart from being an extraordinary role model his journey towards greatness is an
inspirational story for many.

Lincoln was called on to handle both the political and military aspects of the war, and his
leadership has to be evaluated based on his ability to balance these inseparable parts of the
Union's efforts. He was a successful war president to the extent that he was able to control the
revolutionary forces unleashed by his election and Southern secession, maintain the democratic
principles that were the bedrock of the nation, and achieve a military victory.

I hope that my depiction of his life will move many and force people to accomplish their goals.
Moreover, I hope that many will gain the courage to show people what they believe in and fight
for what they consider is right. Cowardice is a state that should have long been abolished.
Greatness is something we acquire in a lifetime; we are not born with it we have to work for it.
For those of us who were not born into wealth and influential families, our journey might seem
hard, but what I have learned is that it is not impossible.

13
Bibliography

 Adams, Charles F. (April 1912). "The Trent Affair". The American Historical
Review (The University of Chicago Press)

 Baker, Jean H. (1989). Mary Todd Lincoln: A Biography. W. W. Norton & Company.

 Blue, Frederick J. (1987). Salmon P. Chase: a life in politics. The Kent State University
Press.

 Lamb, Brian; Susan Swain, ed. (2008). Abraham Lincoln: Great American Historians on
Our Sixteenth President. PublicAffairs.

http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Abraham_Lincoln.aspx#2

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Lincoln

http://lincoln.lib.niu.edu/

http://edsitement.neh.gov/teaching-abraham-lincoln#node-19470

http://essaysforstudent.com/essay/Abraham-Lincoln/909.html

http://www.123helpme.com/preview.asp?id=50647

http://www.nps.gov/liho/historyculture/legacy.htm

http://millercenter.org/president/lincoln/essays/biography/9

http://sc94.ameslab.gov/tour/alincoln.html

14