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cHAprER 2 A "Methodical" History of Language Teachíng 37

Activity Types Learner Roles Teacher Roles Roles of Materials

Dialogues and drills, rep- Organisms that can be Central and active Primari Iy teacher-oriented.
etition and memorization, directed by skilled teacher-dom inated Tapes and visuals, lan-
pattern practice. training techniques to method. Provides model, guage lab often used.
produce correct controls direction and
responses. pace.

Imperative drills to elicit Listener and performer, Active and direct role; No basic text; materials
physical actions. Iittle influence over the "the director of a stage and media have an
content of learning. play" with students as important role later.
actors. lnitially voice, action, and
gestures are sufficient.

Learner responses to Learning is a process of Teachers must (a) teach Unique materials: col-
commands, questions/ personal growth. Learners (b) test (c) get out of the ored rods, color-coded
and visual cues. Activi- are responsible for their way. Remain impassive. pronunciation and vocab-
ties encourage and shape own learning and must Resist temptation to ulary charts.
oral responses without develop independence, model, remodel, assist,
grammatical explanation autonomy, and responsi- direct, exhort.
or modeling by teacher. bi lity.

Combination of innova- Learners are members of Counsel i ng/parental No textbook, which

tive and conventional. a community. Learning is analogy. Teacher pro- would inhibit growth.
Translation, group work, 'not viewed as an indi- vides a safe environment Materials are developed
recording, transcription, vidual accomplishment, in which students can as course progresses.
ref lection and observa- but something that is learn and grow.
tion, listening, free ach ieved col laboratively.

Activities allowing com- Should not try to Iearn The teacher is the pri- Materials come from
prehensible input, about language in the usual mary source of compre- realia rather than text-
things in the here-and- sense, but should try to hensible input. Must books. Primary aim is to
now. Focus on meaning, lose themselves in activi- create positive low- promote comprehension
not form. ties involving meaningful anxiety climate. Must and communication.
communication. choose and orchestrate a
rich mixture of classroom

lnitiatives, question and Must maintain a passive To create situations in Consists of texts, tapes,
answer, role play, lis- state and allow the mate- which the learner is most classroom fixtures, and
tening exercises under rials to work on them suggestible and present music. Texts should have
deep relaxation. (rather than vice versa). material in a way most force, literary quality, and
likely to encourage posi- i nteresting characters.

tive reception and reten-

tion. Must exude author-
itv and confidence.

Engage learners in com- Learner as negotiatoÍ/ Facilitator of the commu Primary role in promoting
munication; involve interactor, giving as well nication process, partici- commun icative language
processes such as as taking. pants' tasl<s, and texts; use; task-based materials;
information sharing, needs analyst, counselor, authentic.
negotiation of mean ing, process manager.
and interaction.
36 IHAPTER 2 A "Methodical" History of Language Teaching

Table 2.1. An overview of methods (adapted from Nunan, 1989a)

Theory of Learning Objectives Syllabus
Theory of Language
Habit formation; skills Control of structures of Craded syllabus of
Language is a sYstem of phonology, morPhologY,
ru le-governed structures are learned more effec- sound, form, and order;
00 ¿nd svntax. Contrastive
tively if oral precedes mastery over symbols of
hieraichically arranged. analysis.
written; analogY, not the language; goal:
analysi s. native-speaker masterY

sYl labus
Basicallv a structuralist, L2 learning is the same as Teach oral proficiencl' to Sentence-based
Ll learnin!; comprehen- produce learners who with grammatical and
;;;;i ü"*d;;;?
';ü lrñn,,roé
rorróuu6\' ,ion beforó produt tion i' t ¿n communir ¿le unin' lerical criteria being Pri-
"imorinled"'lhrough c¿r- h¡bitedly and intelligibly mary, but focus on
rying out cottañdt with native speakers' meaning, not torm.
(rightbrain functioni ng);
reduction of stress'

Each language is com- Processes of learning a Near-native fluency,.cor- Futitully,trtuttYlnl-..-,

."iÁnJ Irnnrrn" ,rJ fun- re( I pronunci¿lion' basit lessons planned around
oosed of elements that
cl¿mentallv"diff"erenl lrom of
prat tical knowledge tr¿mmdlr( dl llPm\ ¿no
+ iive it a unique rhYthm rz' ielated vocabularv ltems
ánd spirit. Functional ü i;;;; tt1*'ning ih" g',u*'.'-'u', of thé
vocabulary and core L un int"lÉ.tu.l, cogni"- to
Lear"ner Iearns how are introduced according
structure are keY to the i# pt.*;tl;;inn¿?t t. learn a language to their grammatical
spirit of the language. the music of the lan- comPlexitY'
F guage, silent awareness/
then active trial.
t)noil)ee is more than -a Learninq involves the No specilic obiectire>. No set svllabus course
>F *üi" p%"án. ril' n \e¿r-n¿rive mdster) i\
progression i' ropir -
lil;:;i?;,:#".;;i:: goal b¿sed; le¿rners provide

ir." ii i"""h"t in" *not" social protess ol grovrlh the " the Lopics syllabus
üá,.r.",,rir[: educa- rrot.hltdlit
[;;;' 'd"";ü;;;,;i' dence to self-direction emerges from learners'
intention and the
\)bo and communicative nnd indup"nd"nt"
teacher's reformulations'
{ processes.
The essence of language fhere are two ways of L2 Designed to give begin- Based on selection of
i; ;;;;;;;. v;."üirr,!, tanguage devetopmenr: . ners ándinteimediaie communicative activities
;;, ;;;;.,; i, in" n"á,t ,r.?rliit"",;-.i"t",,"1
¡earners basic commu- and ropics derived from
;iir;;;";;' earnerneeds

cannot lead to
(oral/written); academic
q) tion. learning skills

Rather conventional, Learning occurs through To deliver advanced con Ten unit courses con-
although memorization ,rlg"uün. when.le¿rñer' versation¿l ' ompelence ti:llli
3] graded br
quicklv..l errners.rre ,. dialogues '^i.Or0-Illd
;f ;h":" meaningrul ar|ln a deeplv r.laxed and Srammar
texts is recommended. iix". suroql" music is required to m¿ster prodi- vocabulary
o used lo induce lhis st¿te. giou: ltsl: ol \ocdbular)
qb the goar is

:o lanq.u¿ge is ¿ slstem for Doing atlivilies lhal ¿- Objecrive' will rellect,the

needs of the learner: lher
Will include some/all of
the fol lowing: structures,
o, É rhe Éxn"rersion óf inrolve re¿l communit
functions, notions,
¡ F ;;;i;n, ;ri."ry func- tion, carrying our mean- will include functional
.q * tion--¡n%i-act¡on'and ingful tasi<s, ánd using skills as well as Iinguistic themes, tasks. Ordering
will be guided bY learner
S H. communication lañguage which is mean- objectives'
ingful.to the learner Pro- needs.

mole learnins