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JANUARY 2018

BREAKTHROUGH STRATEGIES: PERSUASIVE PRESENTING VOL. 87 NO. 01 | www.ohsonline.com

EMERGENCY SHOWERS &


EYEWASH:
Equipment for Extreme
Environments 8

2017 YEAR IN REVIEW:


Disasters, Delays, Debate
20

CONSTRUCTION SAFETY:
Forget Those Lagging
Indicators 31

Safe Steps for


Working at Height

0118ohs_0c1_v2.indd 1 12/8/17 10:54 AM


As One.
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3M and Scott Safety are trademarks of 3M Company. © 2017.

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FROM THE EDITOR

Caught By Surprise in 2017

S
everal things happened last year that surprised me, I
www.ohsonline.com
realized while reviewing our 2017 news coverage to
VOLUME 87 NUMBER 1
prepare the year-end review featured on page 20 of this
issue. In no particular order: EDITORIAL STAFF
■ The National Transportation Safety Board in September EDITOR Jerry Laws
found Tesla’s vehicle automation partly to blame for a fatal col- E-NEWS EDITOR Brent Dirks
lision—the design allowed the car’s driver to rely too much on ASSOCIATE CONTENT EDITOR Jessica Davis
the automation, and his resulting inattention was a factor in the ART STAFF
crash, according to NTSB. (I expected this problem to be a ma- ART DIRECTOR Dale Chinn
jor concern with self-driving technology, but not this soon.) Winning the 2017 PRODUCTION STAFF
■ President Trump decided in October to declare the opi- Folio Ozzie award for PRODUCTION COORDINATOR Teresa Antonio
oids epidemic a national public health emergency, citing the the best B-t-B digital
estimated 64,000 drug overdose deaths during 2016. (I hadn’t issue in October was SALES STAFF

foreseen how far or how fast this problem would spread.) a big surprise and a
INTEGRATED MEDIA REPRESENTATIVE-WEST
972-687-6718
Barbara Blake
■ The amount of damage done in the Houston area by Hur-
delight for me, our INTEGRATED MEDIA REPRESENTATIVE-EAST Jenna Conwell
ricane Harvey astonished me. Hurricane Alicia caused street
staff, and our company. 610-436-4372
flooding in Houston when I lived there in 1983, but nothing like
INFRASTRUCTURE SOLUTIONS GROUP
the destruction and widespread floods Harvey inflicted—enough to cause 885,222 individual
PRESIDENT & GROUP PUBLISHER Kevin O’Grady
assistance applications to be filed with FEMA as of Nov. 1 and to cause more than $200 mil-
GROUP CIRCULATION DIRECTOR Irene Fincher
lion in crop and livestock losses alone, according to Texas Gov. Greg Abbott. The Texas re- GROUP MARKETING DIRECTOR Susan May
quest for $61 billion in expedited federal funding to repair public infrastructure damaged by GROUP WEBSITE MANAGER Scott Newhouse
Harvey and to mitigate the potential for future storm damage is an indication of the hurri- GROUP WEBINAR ADMINISTRATOR Tammy Renne
cane’s enormous impact and a warning sign of the challenges ahead for coastal cities.
GROUP SOCIAL MEDIA EDITOR Sydny Shepard
■ Winning the 2017 Folio Ozzie award for the best B-t-B digital issue in October was a

big surprise and a delight for me, our staff, and our company.
What didn’t surprise me? Delay or repeal of Obama administration regulations from
the new administration happened as I expected. Actually, I’m a bit surprised OSHA enforce-
CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER Rajeev Kapur
ment has been as active as it has this year and that some regulations—such as the OSHA
CHIEF OPERATING OFFICER Henry Allain
construction standard on respirable crystalline silica, which the agency began fully enforcing
CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER Craig Rucker
on Oct. 23—weren’t blocked by the Trump administration and Congress.
CHIEF TECHNOLOGY OFFICER Erik A. Lindgren

JERRY LAWS EXECUTIVE VICE PRESIDENT Michael J. Valenti


jlaws@1105media.com
EXECUTIVE CHAIRMAN Jeffrey S. Klein

REACHING THE STAFF


Editors can be reached via e-mail, fax, telephone, or mail. A list of
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4 Occupational Health & Safety | JANUARY 2018 www.ohsonline.com

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
JANUARY 2018 | Volume 87, Number 1 | www.ohsonline.com
OIL & GAS SAFETY
24 From Sensors to
Data Logging

DRAEGER
Most devices with data
logging retain monitoring
information whenever they
are turned on. This can
provide useful snapshots
of conditions at the time
of an accident or unusual
24
event. by Larry Medina
FOOT PROTECTION
26 Foot Protection Essentials
The OSHA 1910.136 standard and the ASTM F2412-11
standard indicate how many kinds of foot injury are
possible, some of them even disabling. by Jerry Laws
CHEMICAL SAFETY/SDS
28 Chemical Safety: Find Your Flow
A good chemical approval process contains three vital ele-
ments, all of which can be enhanced and supported by a
technology solution. by Kraig Haberer
CONSTRUCTION SAFETY
31 Your Year-End Safety Celebration
Could Be Hiding Risk
We can’t use lagging indicators—counting what has already

14 happened—to evaluate our exposure to risk accurately.


by Nick Goodell

PERRYMAN CONSTRUCTION
34 Create a Culture

features
HONEYWELL INDUSTRIAL SAFETY.
of Safety and
Good Business
Will Follow
EMERGENCY SHOWERS & EYEWASH
Ultimately, construction
8 Safety Showers in Extreme and safety must become a
Challenging Environments habit and practiced by
Here’s an in-depth look at determining the right product
for your application. by Ryan Pfund
everyone every minute.
by Angelo Perryman 34
FALL PROTECTION
14 Safe Steps for Working at Height
departments
Regulatory compliance or short-term thinking alone is 4 From the Editor
clearly not enough to truly ensure workers are kept safe 7 Industry Update
and to avoid serious accidents. by John Eckel 36 New Products
INCENTIVES 39 Product Spotlights
40 Product Literature
16 Changing Behaviors for the Better 40 Classifieds
The most fundamental lesson is that it’s not the “stuff” they 41 Advertiser Index
give to their employees that create a safer workplace, but 42 Breakthrough Strategies
rather what the employees have to do to receive the “stuff.” by Robert Pater
by OH&S Staff
YEAR IN REVIEW Find OHS on:
20 A Year of Disasters, Delays, and Debate Twitter http://twitter.com/OccHealthSafety
It’s easy to identify the biggest safety stories of 2017—they Facebook http://facebook.com/ohsmag
involve the year’s repeated disasters. But there were many LinkedIn www.linkedin.com/company/
other big events during the year. by Jerry Laws occupational-health-and-safety-magazine

6 Occupational Health & Safety | JANUARY 2018 www.ohsonline.com

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INDUSTRY UPDATE

On the Move and Health—the leader of OSHA. . . . How-


ard Elliott was sworn in as administrator
AIHA announced in November 2017 that of the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials www.ohsonline.com
T. Renee Anthony, Ph.D., CIH, CSP, FAI- Safety Administration by Transportation ADVISORY BOARD
HA, has been selected as the new editor Secretary Elaine L. Chao in early Novem- Leo J. DeBobes, MA (OH&S), CSP, CHCM,
in chief of the Journal of Occupational and ber 2017 at DOT headquarters in Wash- CPEA, CSC, EMT
Environmental Hygiene and that Anthony, ington, D.C. . . . Schneider Electric in No- Stony Brook University Medical Center
Stony Brook, NY
an associate professor in the Department of vember 2017 announced the appointment
Scott Lawson
Occupational and Environmental Health of Santiago Perez as senior vice president,
The Scott Lawson Companies
at the University of Iowa’s College of Pub- solutions & services, in the United States. . . Concord, N.H.
lic Health, takes over as of Jan. 1, 2018. . . . Moldex promoted Craig Smidt to Direc-
Angelo Pinheiro, CSP, CRSP, CPEA
. . Minneapolis-based Environmental Re- tor of Marketing in November 2017. Senior HES Professional
sources Management (www.erm.com), a Marathon Oil Company
provider of environmental, health, safety, Oregon Company Fined in Fall Houston, Texas
risk, public affairs and sustainability-related Sayde Construction, Inc., an Oregon con- William H. Weems, DrPH, CIH
services, has hired Carla Picard as partner struction company, has been fined $115,740 Director, Environmental & Industrial Programs
and established a public affairs presence in University of Alabama College of Continuing Studies
after a worker fell nearly 20 feet from a
Tuscaloosa, Ala.
Richmond, Va., to serve clients in the Mid- house under construction in Ridgefield and
Henry Wright, MBA, CFPS
Atlantic region and elsewhere, following its died from his injuries in April 2017. The
Senior Vice President & Director — Risk Solutions
2015 purchase of Minneapolis-based Natu- Washington State Department of Labor & BB&T Insurance Services Inc.
ral Resource Group. . . . On Oct. 27, Presi- Industries announced that it cited Sayde Charlotte, N.C.
dent Donald J. Trump nominated Scott A. Construction for seven violations, includ-
Mugno, vice president for Safety, Sustain- ing failing to ensure workers were given EMERITUS
ability and Vehicle Maintenance at FedEx and used appropriate fall protection and Barry R. Weissman, MBA
Ground in Pittsburgh, Pa., to be assistant also failing to have a written fall protection Green Valley, Ariz.
secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety work plan.

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Archived free webinars include:


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7

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EMERGENCY SHOWERS & EYEWASH

Safety Showers in Extreme and Challenging Environments


Here’s an in-depth look at determining the right product for your application.
BY RYAN PFUND

BRADLEY CORP.
F
rigid environments? Corrosive chemicals? ■ Corrosive materials
Fluctuating work site requirements? When ■ Chemicals
selecting appropriate and reliable safety ■ Explosive or ignitable gases, and vapors

showers for use within some harsh work site ■ Explosive or ignitable dust

conditions, it can be a real jungle out there. Extreme Moreover, there are work environments requiring
environments and conditions such as sub-zero tem- challenging and unique applications, such as:
peratures, high heat, absence of plumbed water, and ■ Salt-laden environments (installations near or

particularly challenging configurations all require on the ocean)


specialized approaches for suitable emergency eye- ■ Enclosures that require fire ratings

washes and drench showers. In many of these cases, ■ Equipment that must be constructed according

delivering emergency shower safety is not a one-size- to seismic ratings


fits-all solution. ■ Mobile operations (such as construction)

The good news is there are plenty of specially en- ■ Hot environments

gineered solutions that take into account the harshest Specifically, there are a number of challenging
worksite settings while ensuring compliance with the work settings that require specially engineered safety
ANSI/ISEA Z358.1-2014 American National Standard shower solutions—mining, oil refineries, petrochemi-
for Emergency Eyewash and Shower Equipment.1 The cal, bio-diesel and ethanol facilities, to name a few.
following considerations will help determine ideal Extreme environments can lead to many con-
equipment needs for these unique situations. cerns when it comes to safety showers. Sub-zero tem-
peratures can cause pipes to break or burst and cause
What Constitutes an Extreme Environment? systemic damage affecting the usability of the safety
In general, extreme environments are driven by either equipment. In fact, ANSI/ISEA Z358.1 Section 6.4.5
temperature or site hazards. This includes: states that in geographic areas where an emergency
■ Extreme air temperatures in the range of -25° F fixture may freeze, safety personnel should consider
(-32° C) to 120° F (49° C) purchasing a freeze-protected fixture or additional ac-
■ Water temperatures between 32° F (0° C) and cessories to prevent the pipes from freezing.
110° F (43° C) There are a number of highly specialized safety
■ High winds showers engineered to withstand these elements while
■ Heavy precipitation providing technology to ensure ANSI compliance.

8 Occupational Health & Safety | JANUARY 2018 www.ohsonline.com

0118ohs_008_012_Pfund_v4.indd 8 12/8/17 10:55 AM


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Untitled-1 1 12/6/17 11:13 AM


EMERGENCY SHOWERS & EYEWASH

General ANSI Compliance may be less willing to drench for the entire potential hazards, a facility’s emergency
As with all emergency shower applications, 15 minutes if the water is not tepid. In ad- eyewash and drench shower needs can be
it is vital for affected users to drench with dition, extended exposure to cold air and assessed. Appropriate equipment should be
safety showers that provide tepid water in water can lead to hypothermia and make selected based on the level of exposure to
compliance with the ANSI/ISEA Z358.1- the affected person even more disinclined workers. In general:
2014 standard. ANSI calls for emergency to remove clothing. Conversely, water that ■ Emergency eyewash stations

eyewashes and drench showers to deliver is too hot can cause chemical reactions - effective for spills, splashes, dust,
tepid water (60-100° F/15.5-37.7° C) for a with eyes and skin or scalding. Further, for or debris likely to affect only the eyes
full 15 minutes to ensure adequate flushing immediate and easy access, ANSI recom- - provide a controlled flow of wa-
of hazardous materials from users’ bodies mends that stations be within 10 seconds or ter to both eyes simultaneously
and/or eyes. A compliant drench shower 55 feet (17 meters) from a potential hazard. - deliver an uninterrupted,
must provide this tepid water at a flow rate 15-minute supply of tepid water. Plumbed
of 20 gpm (76 lpm) for the entire 15-min- Types of Emergency units can supply a greater volume of wa-
ute duration. Shower Equipment ter—between 2.0 and 5.0 gallons per min-
People in extremely cold environments After analyzing conditions and identifying ute (7.5 and 19.0 liters per minute).
■ Emergency eye/face wash stations

- used when the entire face is at


risk from spills, splashes, dust, and debris
- irrigate the eyes and face simul-
taneously
- provide a large distribution pat-
tern of water—a minimum of 3.0 gpm (11.4
lpm)—to rinse the eyes and entire face.
■ Emergency showers

- used when larger areas of the


body are at risk
- flush a larger portion of the body
but are not appropriate for the eyes (a com-
bination eyewash and drench shower may
be used to simultaneously flush the eyes
and rinse larger areas of the body)
- deliver flushing fluid of 20 gpm
(75.71 lpm)

Emergency Shower Solutions in


Challenging Environments

Heat trace units are common, versatile, and


effective solutions for protecting against
damage due to frozen pipes and parts, but
they do not offer a comfortable environ-
ment in which to drench. The freeze and
scald valves ensure the uninterrupted flow
of water in case of power failure in cold tem-
peratures. These showers can be built for
Class 1 Division 1 Class 1 Division 2, and
Class 2 Division 2 hazardous locations.

10 Circle 7 on card. www.ohsonline.com

0118ohs_008_012_Pfund_v4.indd 10 12/8/17 10:55 AM


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Untitled-6 1 11/27/17 5:42 PM


Newer heat trace units incorporate
stainless steel eyewash bowls with covers to
protect the unit from wind, rain, and snow.
Emergency signaling alarms connected to
heat trace units will send immediate alerts
to co-workers and first responders about the
incident. These alarms can also be connect-
ed to building systems for remote monitor-
ing. Look for systems that meet the NEMA
4X standard and are certified to ANSI/ISEA
Z358.1 and cULus requirements.
Enclosed safety showers come as com-
plete packages offering an enclosed shelter
from the elements, privacy, and a warm
ambient environment. These showers can
withstand seismic activity, hurricane-force
winds, and highly corrosive environments
in petrochemical facilities, oil and gas re-
fineries, nuclear and power plants, mines,
and other industrial applications.
These freestanding units are insulated
to keep the internal temperature warm
down to -25° F (-32° C), making them ideal
for sub-zero applications. Several units will
require a plumbed water supply; however,
there are also self-contained units that will
require only a full tank of water and a con-
stant power source.
Portable gravity fed units are ideal
for work environments in which plumbed
water is not available. These convenient
systems incorporate water tanks that pro-
vide adequate water volume to complete a
full 15-minute flush at the ANSI-mandated
flow rate. Some units are designed with
hinged eyewash trays that may be activated
in one quick motion, while stainless steel
clamp mechanisms secure the tank during
transport.
Custom designed solutions may be re-
quired for challenging applications that re-
quire more complex and flexible emergen-
cy shower or tepid water systems. Variables
such as facility size and spatial configura-
tions, plumbing requirements and special
needs, and goals and budgets undoubtedly
make each application unique.

Ryan Pfund is Senior Product Manager,


Emergency Fixtures, for Bradley Corpora-
tion of Menomonee Falls, Wis.

REFERENCES
1. http://www.asse.org/ansi/isea-z358-
1-2014-american-national-standard-for-
emergency-eyewash-and-shower-equipment-/

www.ohsonline.com
Circle 20 on card.

0118ohs_008_012_Pfund_v4.indd 12 12/8/17 10:55 AM


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CIRCLE 11 ON CARD

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FALL PROTECTION

Safe Steps for Working at Height


Regulatory compliance or short-term thinking alone is clearly not enough
to truly ensure workers are kept safe and to avoid serious accidents.
BY JOHN ECKEL

HONEYWELL INDUSTRIAL SAFETY

F
all-related violations continue to dominate “Working at height” refers to work that takes place
OSHA’s top 10 employer workplace safety vio- in any circumstance in which a fall could cause per-
lations. In fiscal 2016, the No. 1 violation (as sonal injury. This includes working on a ladder, a flat
it is each year) was Fall Protection—general roof, or a fragile surface or even in an area near an
requirements, with 6,072 violations. The No. 3 viola- opening in a floor or a hole in the ground. A key point
tion was scaffolding (3,288 violations); No. 6 was lad- for any of these situations: Workers don’t need to fall
ders (2,241 violations), and No. 9 was fall protection— far to be seriously injured or even killed.
training requirements: (1,523 violations). Work at height takes place across a diverse range
Falls continue to be among the leading causes of of industries. Many hazards may be specific to a given
worker injuries and deaths. By reviewing key haz- working environment. However, a common cause of
ards, safety cultures, the impacts of regulations, and accidents is a failure to take sufficient precautions,
personal protective equipment (PPE), safety manag- especially when carrying out work at relatively low
ers can encourage and support safe practices for indi- heights (4 to 6 feet). Workers may fail to plan correct-
viduals who work at height. ly and underestimate the risks involved in working at

14 Occupational Health & Safety | JANUARY 2018 www.ohsonline.com

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5 27 49 71 93 115 137 159 181 203 225 247 269 291 313 335 357 379 401 423 445 467 489 511
6 28 50 72 94 116 138 160 182 204 226 248 270 292 314 336 358 380 402 424 446 468 490 512
7 29 51 73 95 117 139 161 183 205 227 249 271 293 315 337 359 381 403 425 447 469 491 513
8 30 52 74 96 118 140 162 184 206 228 250 272 294 316 338 360 382 404 426 448 470 492 514
9 31 53 75 97 119 141 163 185 207 229 251 273 295 317 339 361 383 405 427 449 471 493 515
10 32 54 76 98 120 142 164 186 208 230 252 274 296 318 340 362 384 406 428 450 472 494 516
11 33 55 77 99 121 143 165 187 209 231 253 275 297 319 341 363 385 407 429 451 473 495 517
12 34 56 78 100 122 144 166 188 210 232 254 276 298 320 342 364 386 408 430 452 474 496 518
13 35 57 79 101 123 145 167 189 211 233 255 277 299 321 343 365 387 409 431 453 475 497 519
14 36 58 80 102 124 146 168 190 212 234 256 278 300 322 344 366 388 410 432 454 476 498 520
15 37 59 81 103 125 147 169 191 213 235 257 279 301 323 345 367 389 411 433 455 477 499 521
16 38 60 82 104 126 148 170 192 214 236 258 280 302 324 346 368 390 412 434 456 478 500 522
17 39 61 83 105 127 149 171 193 215 237 259 281 303 325 347 369 391 413 435 457 479 501 523
18 40 62 84 106 128 150 172 194 216 238 260 282 304 326 348 370 392 414 436 458 480 502 524
19 41 63 85 107 129 151 173 195 217 239 261 283 305 327 349 371 393 415 437 459 481 503 525
20 42 64 86 108 130 152 174 196 218 240 262 284 306 328 350 372 394 416 438 460 482 504 526
21 43 65 87 109 131 153 175 197 219 241 263 285 307 329 351 373 395 417 439 461 483 505 527
22 44 66 88 110 132 154 176 198 220 242 264 286 308 330 352 374 396 418 440 462 484 506 528

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Specifications usually state that a harness can be used for a period
of 10 years, if inspected annually. But is mere visual inspection really
enough? How can a safety manager be sure that webbing is still suf-
ficiently fall resistant, even after only two or three years, if it has been
exposed to harsh conditions during that period?
such minimal elevation. They won’t secure Displaying this cultural commitment helps
themselves or the equipment properly, or instill positive safety behavior throughout
they may place equipment in inappropriate the organization.
areas where the footing isn’t secure.
A company’s safety culture strongly in- Keep an Eye on
fluences the way workers behave when they New Safety Equipment
work at height—and therefore affects the However, sometimes even commitment to
likelihood of accidents. a strong safety culture isn’t quite enough.
Many companies are entirely compli- Some problems are still in an ongoing pro-
ance-driven. They may supply workers cess of being solved by safety equipment
with the correct PPE and sometimes de- manufacturers. As users identify issues,
liver basic training, but once they meet es- manufacturers respond with new equip-
sential legal requirements, their efforts end. ment. Perceptive safety managers track on solutions and practices that will pre-
Employees are furnished the equipment these developments and make investments vent the severing of a lifeline and protect a
for the job and are expected to know how in new solutions when circumstances jus- worker in the event of a fall.
to use it correctly. Such companies believe tify them. Traditional SRL designs have not ad-
that since they have provided the mini- For example, a major challenge manu- dressed safeguarding workers from dangers
mum that is required; if something goes facturers face is how to assess the aging of associated with an edge. But without proper
wrong, the worker must be at fault. materials used in products such as safety edge protection, conventional lifelines risk
Companies in a second category take harnesses. Specifications usually state that a being compromised or severed. In fact, up
a somewhat more progressive approach. harness can be used for a period of 10 years, to 80 percent of fall protection applications
They actively seek to reduce risks, albeit in if inspected annually. But is mere visual in- have the potential for a lifeline to come into
a short-term or at most medium-term time spection really enough? How can a safety contact with an edge during a fall. So there’s
frame. Driven by data such as key perfor- manager be sure that webbing is still suf- a tremendous need for a safety product that
mance indicators (KPIs), these companies ficiently fall resistant, even after only two or can protect against this risk.
may take training seriously. They inspect three years, if it has been exposed to harsh In response, manufacturers are mov-
PPE dutifully and managers attend the site, conditions during that period? ing to offer versatile new SRLs designs. For
monitoring workers to make sure they are In response, the PPE industry is focus- sharp-edge applications, these feature a
using their equipment correctly. ing on the development of an aging detec- durable cable lifeline. Models for smooth-
Yet regulatory compliance or short- tor. This should enable safety managers to edge applications are equipped with a
term thinking alone is clearly not enough determine if the resistance of a given mate- durable web lifeline that is cut, abrasion,
to truly ensure workers are kept safe and to rial will still be strong enough to hold in the and chemical resistant. These new choices
avoid serious accidents with injuries or fa- event of a fall. should provide welcome solutions for
talities. A third category—one to which all safety managers with employees working at
companies should aspire—comprises em- Safety at the Edge height—and at the edge.
ployers with a strong safety culture. These In a related area, the industry is seeing Working at height carries inherent haz-
organizations take a long-term approach changes in the use of self-retractable life- ards. Risks need to be properly assessed
and recognize that good safety manage- lines (SRLs). Until now, companies could and work carefully planned, even at rela-
ment is a business enabler rather than a use SRLs (for both horizontal and vertical tively low elevations. Regulation is an im-
burden. In industries where the competi- applications), even when workers were car- portant driver for raising standards, but
tion for skilled labor is fierce, such as oil rying out work close to the edge of a roof. compliance alone is not enough. A mature
& gas and utilities, demonstrating that a All users had to do was add a steel sling at safety culture instills positive safety behav-
company cares about the health, safety, and the end of the SLR to ensure that it didn’t iors, while tailor-made product solutions
well-being of workers can go a long way to- break on the roof edge. can provide further invaluable protection.
ward helping it retain staff. Training and su- A new regulation, however, enforces
pervision are taken seriously. Management stricter controls. This stringent new safe-
regularly inspects equipment, conducts ty standard for fall arrest devices (ANSI John Eckel is a Senior Technical Training
practices on site, encourages feedback from Z359.14-2014, Class B & LE) directs manu- Specialist for Honeywell Industrial Safety,
workers, and disseminates best practices. facturers and employers to focus attention www.millerfallprotection.com.

www.ohsonline.com JANUARY 2018 | Occupational Health & Safety 15

0118ohs_014_015_Eckel_v2.indd 15 12/7/17 4:29 PM


INCENTIVES

Changing Behaviors for the Better

iQoncept/Shutterstock.com
This article has been developed from a conversation clear, I’m not proposing that we sit back and wait for
during the Incentive Marketing Association’s July 2017 those horrible outcomes, but I strongly believe that
annual Summit, when OH&S spoke with Sean Roark, if there is a good path and a disastrous path to be
CPIM, who was completing his term as president of followed using something like outcome-based safety
IMA. He is a regular contributor to OH&S. incentives, the role of the regulator is to prevent ac-
cess to the disastrous path, not wall off the entire
OH&S: We’ve been talking about OSHA’s guidelines route and ignore the high positives because of the
regarding safety incentives. Without the strict guide- existence of a possible negative.
lines that OSHA proposes, how do they uncover and OH&S: Are you suggesting that there is over-regula-
penalize fraudulent programs that are just meant to tion going on right now?
discourage reporting? Roark: There is actually a new plunge into the
Sean Roark: A great phrase that I first learned regulatory climate to implement a no-outcome-based
from an historic American document is, “We hold policy that has failed in the past. Here is a capsulated
these truths to be self-evident…” My professional history, which I sourced courtesy of Steve Slagle, man-
research of best practices has shown me that if a pro- aging director of the Incentive Federation:
gram element is not ethically achieving the desired In 1999-2000, while creating what would
result at the highest moral level, the longer it is al- become known as “The Ergonomics Rule,”
lowed to perpetuate, the more disastrous the after- OSHA began to challenge the efficacy of cer-
effects will be when the truth is ultimately, and in my tain types of safety incentive programs that
experience, inevitably, revealed. Refineries explode, focused on what is known as rate-based or
mines cave in, workers have health issues. To be outcome-based measurements. These pro-

16 Occupational Health & Safety | JANUARY 2018 www.ohsonline.com

0118ohs_016_019_Roark_v3.indd 16 12/7/17 4:29 PM


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Untitled-7 1 5/5/17 3:50 PM


INCENTIVES

grams reward workers when no safety is managed in the workplace, better than no program. About a third of
or low incidences of accidents or including employer practices such the time it’s worse, but let’s stay on track
injuries are reported over a spe- as fostering open communication with the fact that a well-designed incen-
cific period of time, and OSHA about safety issues, may encourage tive program produces way better results
had supported such programs for reporting of injuries and illnesses.” than a poorly designed one. Finally, a well-
many years. OSHA later changed researched incentive program that custom-
course and began to cite indus- OH&S: Okay, so we understand that fits the needs of the client and maximizes
try experts’ opinions that workers OSHA does not recommend “outcome- the engagement of the participants can
might under report injuries or ac- based” incentive programs. Still, you save lives and actually improve the bottom
cidents in order to receive a prom- mentioned that the rule affecting that was line of the offering company, through a su-
ised reward for an accident-free overturned by Congress in 2001. Why is perior ROI. So, if you accept the premise
workplace. This was a rule, which that a concern now? that outcome-based awards are an incred-
OSHA is allowed to promulgate, Roark: Here’s my opinion: Because the ibly effective engagement tool, then you
but Congress, which can overturn folks at OSHA, like many other clever folks have to downgrade the program that is of-
arbitrary agency rules, did just who deal with Congress, have noticed some fered which specifically excludes that tool
that in 2001. lack of cooperation and coordination with- to good or fair, which using the yardstick
In 2009, OSHA asked the Gov- in the two houses that makes the passage of I laid out above, will have a cost in ROI,
ernment Accountability Office even a simple bipartisan resolution a chal- employee health, and morale—and, regret-
to study the issue of accident and lenge. Taking advantage of that, or perhaps tably but statistically almost certainly, lives.
injury reporting, and in its 2010 by simple coincidence, OSHA re-intro- This conclusion is in direct contradiction to
report, the GAO stated, “Little re- duced a “guideline” as part of their “Safety OSHA’s mission.
search exists on the effect of work- and Health Program Guidelines,” which
place safety incentive programs went into effect [in December 2016]. This OH&S: Why are some companies continu-
and other workplace safety poli- particular guideline states, in summary, ing to include outcome-based awards in
cies on workers’ reporting of in- that any outcome-based incentive criteria their programs?
juries and illnesses.” In the GAO’s constitutes a rule violation. In implement- Roark: I’d start with my previous an-
research review, they discovered ing this guideline, they engineered a shift in swer. Some economists recognize it will
that “researchers distinguish be- perception and legal presumption. Previ- generate more value in ROI than is at risk
tween rate-based safety incentive ously, a company that thought its incentive by offending OSHA. Ethicists will take a
programs, which reward workers program was fair could assert that, and it high ground that if a company genuinely
for achieving low rates of reported was up to OSHA to prove that the company wants its employees to be safe, then it will
injuries or illnesses, and behavior- was wrong and the program was not fair. employ the most effective and proven
based programs, which reward OSHA could not meet this legal standard in means to achieve that goal. Folks who fol-
workers for certain behaviors, such many cases where a well-designed program low this sort of thing at a high level will of-
as recommending safety improve- clearly emphasized the need to properly fer outcome-based awards because they be-
ments. Of the six studies GAO report and penalized any participant who lieve that time is on their side. Those people
identified that assessed the effect failed to meet that requirement. think that OSHA has exceeded its authority
of safety incentive programs, two Now, OSHA has set a guideline which in even promulgating the guideline and
analyzed the potential effect on essentially stipulates that any outcome- that the faulty logic will not stand up when
workers’ reporting of injuries or based award is presumed to be a violation, it is ultimately challenged in court.
illnesses, but they concluded that and the burden of proving it is not shifts to
there was no relationship between the company. It has had a serious damp- OH&S: Why hasn’t it been challenged
the programs and injury and illness ening effect on safety incentive programs, already?
reporting.” (Emphasis added) to the point that many managers who do Roark: Now there’s an interesting ques-
Nonetheless, the GAO and, lat- not recognize the spectacular efficacy and tion. I don’t have access to “inside OSHA’s
er, OSHA, concluded that “experts integrity of a well-designed safety incen- head” but have been told by some very re-
and industry officials, however, tive program have either severely cut back liable folks whose past observations have
suggest that rate-based programs or completely discontinued safety incen- ended up to be validated that there is an
may discourage reporting of inju- tive programs. actual OSHA procedural directive to their
ries and illnesses. Experts and in- regional offices to not cite this rule unless it
dustry officials also reported that OH&S: Will following this guideline be ef- is a clearly indefensible case, preferably in-
certain workplace polices, such fective in keeping compliant companies out cluding either a loss of life or serious injury.
as post-incident drug and alcohol of trouble? If this is true, then OSHA senior policy staff
testing, may discourage workers Roark: With OSHA, perhaps. The cost recognizes that the chilling effect of the un-
from reporting injuries and ill- to the employer may be hard to measure, tested rule is going to effectively discourage
nesses. Researchers and workplace but will be there. In the end, a poorly de- result-based criteria (which we have estab-
safety experts also noted that how signed incentive program is almost always lished they are not fond of), and the great-

18 Occupational Health & Safety | JANUARY 2018 www.ohsonline.com

0118ohs_016_019_Roark_v3.indd 18 12/7/17 4:29 PM


est danger to losing that chilling effect would be if the rule were to ceive the “stuff.” Create a set of rules that teach and imprint best
be challenged and overturned in court. Don’t prosecute under the safety practices, and you can get an employee who would never
rule, and it can’t end up in court, the Big Chill perpetuates. Quod change a habit if you paid them to follow the rules, in order to earn
erat demonstrandum. the points for the blender that they want to receive, and in doing
so discover they have changed their habits, and consequently their
OH&S: So, what is the takeaway from all this to a safety professional? company’s culture, towards safety.
Roark: I can’t say what’s true for everyone, but here is the el- We’re having this conversation on a Walt Disney property.
evator version of this whole issue, stipulating that you are in a tall I have examined and appreciate Disney’s ability to identify what
building and the elevator is stopping at every floor: their “guest” participants want to experience, define what their cor-
Design is the key. Frankly, this whole regulatory mess has porate goals are, and find what steps and standards they have to
evolved from flawed programs that mostly had the best inten- implement to deliver the desired experience to their target audi-
tions and assumed that the easy way out was to tie rewards to ence, while achieving the endgame that they have defined as suc-
OSHA, workers’ comp, or other statutory reporting rates. In fact, cess. I suggest from this model, your readers can appreciate what
for the most part, my understanding is that this practice evolved the safety incentive professional does, following a similar process
from the assumption that such reporting was an “impartial mea- to design the program that fits your company’s unique needs.
surement” and reflected results arising from firmly defined and
monitored rules by a third party. Have people tried to corrupt this Sean Roark is immediate past president of the Incentive Marketing
practice? You bet. Does it sustain as a long-term policy? Nope. Association, treasurer of the Incentive Federation, and chairman
Sooner or later, I believe that the sheer momentum of habit and of the ASSE Downtown Houston chapter. He was the first person
culture will reveal itself in something so disastrous that it can’t named as a Fellow of the IMA and also was in the initial class of
be hidden. inductees as a Fellow of the Promotional Products Association In-
OSHA makes no bones about how the OSHA culture views out- ternational, making him the only person to hold both honors. He is
come-based incentives. They view such incentives as discouraging a Certified Professional of Incentive Management and a recognized
reporting and deny any positive redemptive value in the practice. authority on the topic of safety incentive program design and man-
Here’s the crux of it: They make an arbitrary unilateral claim that agement, and he has spoken on the topic across the United States and
all outcome-based incentives discourage reporting. They say it as on four continents.
a proclamation, and the inference is that it is a given that every
ethical and intelligent person should know. Those of us listening to
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a connection.
I am not urging everybody who reads this to throw in a bunch
of outcome-based awards as if they were throwing tea in Boston
harbor. I do suggest that you don’t succumb to broad-brush pro-
nouncements that all such awards are unethical, and look to what
outcome-basis, such as “no violations of SOP” or a celebration of a Scan to download from Scan to download from
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OH&S: You mentioned ongoing projects at the beginning of this


conversation. What would you pick as the primary ongoing chal-
lenge as relates to viable and effective safety incentive programs?
Roark: The most obvious to me is continuing to educate our
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0118ohs_016_019_Roark_v3.indd 19 12/7/17 4:29 PM


YEAR IN REVIEW: 2017

A Year of Disasters, Delays, and Debate


BY JERRY LAWS

I
t’s easy to identify the biggest safety stories of Oct. 26: Opioids public health emergency
2017—they involve the year’s repeated disasters. President Donald J. Trump declares a public health
Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria were devas- emergency and outlines several actions his adminis-
tating, especially in south Texas and Puerto Rico; tration is taking and will take to address the opioids
a June fire at a London residential high-rise building crisis, including new requirements from the Food
killed at least 80 people; and California wildfires in and Drug Administration on the manufacturers of
the fall killed 42 people and burned more than 8,000 prescription opioids to help reverse over-prescribing.
structures. The White House’s description of the actions notes
Beyond these, however, there were many other big that drug overdoses are now the leading cause of in-
events during the year: jury death in the United States, outnumbering both
traffic crashes and gun-related deaths, and the esti-
Nov. 13: Drug testing panel expands mated 64,000 drug overdose deaths in 2016 represent
The U.S. Department of Transportation publishes a a rate of 175 deaths per day and exceed the number of
final rule to expand its drug testing panel to include Americans killed during the Vietnam War.
hydrocodone, hydromorphone, oxymorphone, and His declaration of a Nationwide Public Health
oxycodone, a move the agency describes as “a direct Emergency allows for expanded access to telemedi-
effort to enhance safety, prevent opioid abuse and cine services, including services involving remote pre-
combat the nation’s growing opioid epidemic.” scribing of medicine commonly used for substance
The rule makes a significant change in the DOT abuse or mental health treatment, and allows HHS to
testing scheme that has been in place since it was cre- more quickly make temporary appointments of spe-
ated in 1988: DOT is removing the requirements for cialists with the tools and talent needed to respond
blind specimen testing in order to relieve employers effectively to the emergency and the Department of
and others of the cost and burden of doing this. Labor to issue dislocated worker grants to help work-
The rule says DOT will allow oral fluid drug test- ers who have been displaced from the workforce be-
ing and/or hair testing if either is added to the HHS cause of the opioid crisis, subject to available funding.
Mandatory Guidelines, and it means DOT-regulated Trump says he is awaiting the final report from the
employers must test for the four opioids starting on President’s Commission on Combating Drug Addic-
Jan. 1, 2018. tion and the Opioid Crisis, which the president estab-
“The opioid crisis is a threat to public safety when lished in March 2017.
it involves safety-sensitive employees involved in the
operation of any kind of vehicle or transport,” says Oct. 21: Wildfire cleanup in California
Transportation Secretary Elaine Chao. “The ability to California Gov. Jerry Brown issues an executive order
test for a broader range of opioids will advance trans- allowing EPA officials to help with the initial removal
portation safety significantly and provide another de- of hazardous waste that poses an imminent threat to
terrence to opioid abuse, which will better protect the public health and safety following major wildfires this
public and ultimately save lives.” month in the state. The order allows qualified profes-
sionals at the federal agency to assist state and local
Nov. 2: Fire extinguisher recall officials in immediately removing visible hazardous
The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission and debris such as batteries, flammable liquids, asbestos
Kidde announce the recall of about 40 million Kidde siding, paint, and pipe insulation from burned homes.
fire extinguishers due to reports they may not func- Initial removal of these hazards will help to pro-
tion properly in an emergency. The recall applies to tect public health and the environment, and it lets
134 models of Kidde fire extinguishers manufactured residents and cleanup crews more safely enter proper-
between January 1, 1973, and August 15, 2017, includ- ties and continue long-term recovery efforts. Brown
ing models that had been previously recalled in March earlier declared a state of emergency for the counties
2009 and February 2015; the recall involves both of Solano, Napa, Sonoma, Yuba, Butte, Lake, Men-
plastic handle and push-button Pindicator fire extin- docino, Nevada, and Orange because of the fires and
guishers. There had been approximately 391 reports also issued an executive order to cut red tape and help
of failed or limited activation or nozzle detachment, streamline recovery efforts.
including a 2014 death in which emergency respond- The wildfires destroyed more than 6,000 homes
ers could not get the recalled Kidde fire extinguishers and other structures, “creating extraordinary amounts
to work in a car fire following a crash, according to of hazardous debris,” his order says. It says local health
the agency. officers of Butte, Lake, Mendocino, Napa, Nevada, So-

20 Occupational Health & Safety | JANUARY 2018 www.ohsonline.com

0118ohs_020_023_REVIEW_v3.indd 20 12/7/17 4:30 PM


CIRCLE 9 ON CARD

Untitled-2 1 12/4/17 1:15 PM


YEAR IN REVIEW: 2017

noma, and Yuba Counties have proclaimed Battles says there were 247 deaths in the Tesla’s driver from using the car’s auto-
local health emergencies as a result of the 2015 attributed to impacts from dropped mation system on certain roadways were
debris, and the debris “poses an imminent objects, that Liberty Mutual reported lacking, and the combined effects of hu-
threat to public health and safety” because “struck by” incidents were up 8.6 percent man error and the lack of sufficient system
it is “filled with dangerous toxins including that year, and that Liberty Mutual spent safeguards resulted in a fatal collision that
heavy metals such as arsenic, cadmium, $5.3 billion on workers’ comp claims due should not have happened,” he says.
copper, lead, and lethal asbestos and must to “struck by” incidents from 2013 to 2014.
be removed cautiously and expeditiously.” July 27: Sleep deprivation
Sept. 20: Bauxite shipping warning A National Safety Council report indicates
Oct. 17: Balloon operators The International Maritime Organization almost half of Americans do not get enough
The National Transportation Safety Board issues a warning that bauxite may become sleep to safely perform the duties assigned
faults a “pattern of poor decision-making” unstable when carried in bulk on a ship, to them by their employer. It is based on a
by the operator of a balloon that crashed potentially causing the vessel to capsize. survey that found 43 percent of Americans
on July 30, 2016, in Lockhart, Texas, kill- IMO’s announcement says research pre- say they do not get enough sleep to mitigate
ing him and 15 passengers, after the bal- sented to it found that certain forms of critical risks that can jeopardize safety at
loon struck power lines. The pilot owned bauxite with a large proportion of smaller work and on the roads, including the ability
and operated the balloon. NTSB also faults particles could be subject to a newly identi- to think clearly, make informed decisions,
FAA’s oversight of commercial balloon op- fied phenomenon of “dynamic separation” and be productive.
erators, making two recommendations to when there is excess moisture in the cargo. “These findings are a literal wake-up
the agency that ask it to remove the medi- According to IMO, around 100 million call: When we’re tired, we can put ourselves
cal certificate exemption for commercial tonnes of bauxite, one of the world’s major and others at risk,” says Deborah A.P. Hers-
balloon operators and to find ways to bet- sources of aluminum, are moved annually man, president and CEO of the National
ter provide oversight of balloon operators. by sea. In 2015, the 10-year-old Bahamas Safety Council. “We hope Americans rec-
“Today’s recommendations, if acted flag Supramax bulk carrier Bulk Jupiter ognize that impairment stems not just from
on, will help to bring the safety standards sank with the loss of 18 seafarers, a sinking alcohol and drugs, but lack of restorative
closer to those that apply to powered flight,” referenced in the circular. rest—fitness for duty starts with getting a
NTSB Chairman Robert L. Sumwalt says. good night’s sleep.”
“Balloon pilots, their passengers, and their Sept. 12: Tesla crash
passengers’ loved ones deserve no less.” NTSB determines that a truck driver’s fail- July 23: Washington state intro-
The board concludes the medical cer- ure to yield the right of way and a Tesla duces E-DUI tickets
tification exemption for commercial bal- automobile driver’s inattention due to Beginning July 23, it is against the law in
loon operators contributed to the balloon overreliance on vehicle automation were Washington state for drivers to use hand-
crash. Also contributing to the accident the probable cause of a fatal May 7, 2016, held electronics while they are driving.
were the pilot’s impairing medical condi- crash near Williston, Fla. The safety board That includes all electronic devices—cell
tions and medications that likely affected also determines the operational design of phones, tablets, laptops, and video games.
his decision-making, the board finds, the Tesla’s vehicle automation permitted Tickets for driving while using hand-held
saying its investigators determined that the car driver’s overreliance on the automa- electronics will go on their record and be
depression, attention deficit hyperactivity tion, noting its design allowed prolonged reported to their insurance company, the
disorder, and the combined effects of mul- disengagement from the driving task and state warns, and an E-DUI ticket will cost
tiple central nervous system-impairing enabled the driver to use it in ways incon- $136 for the first violation and $234 for the
drugs probably affected the pilot’s ability sistent with manufacturer guidance and second (within five years).
to make safe decisions. warnings. The board issues seven new In line with the change, the Washington
safety recommendations and reiterates two state Traffic Safety Commission has report-
Sept. 26: Dropped objects standard previously issued safety recommendations. ed that fatalities from distracted driving
ISEA members involved in the develop- “While automation in highway trans- increased 32 percent from 2014 to 2015 in
ment of a new standard, ANSI/ISEA 121, portation has the potential to save tens of Washington state and that one-quarter of
Standard for Dropped Objects Prevention thousands of lives, until that potential is ful- all crashes involved a cell phone being used
Solutions, give an update on their efforts ly realized, people still need to safely drive just prior to the crash; the commission’s
to a packed session at the 2017 National their vehicles,” says Sumwalt. “Smart people most recent collision report, from 2014,
Safety Congress & Expo in Indianapolis. around the world are hard at work to auto- shows that distracted drivers crash every
The principal speakers are Virginia Battles, mate driving, but systems available to con- 12 minutes and distraction was a factor in
global vice president of sales for Ty-Flot, sumers today, like Tesla’s ‘Autopilot’ system, 40 percent of all collisions and in 123 fatal
and Nate Bohmbach, associate product are designed to assist drivers with specific collisions.
director for Ergodyne. hall. They explain tasks in limited environments. These sys- The law says hand-held cell phones may
that four categories of products will be tems require the driver to pay attention all not be used even when stopped in traffic or
referenced in the standard: anchor points, the time and to be able to take over imme- at a traffic light. It bars:
attachment points, tool tethers, and anti- diately when something goes wrong. Sys- ■ Typing messages or accessing in-

drop storage, such as self-closing bags. tem safeguards that should have prevented formation

22 Occupational Health & Safety | JANUARY 2018 www.ohsonline.com

0118ohs_020_023_REVIEW_v3.indd 22 12/7/17 4:30 PM


■ Watching videos or using cameras tions and solid gains in employee satisfac- such as using a leaf blower or attending
You can use your devices if you are: tion, according to the 2017 OPM Federal concerts. The study found 20 percent of
■ Hands-free (such as using Blue- Employee Viewpoint Survey. people who reported no job-related noise
tooth) and can start use by a single touch or exposure had hearing damage in a pattern
swipe without holding the phone Feb. 27: WHO lists ‘priority pathogens’ caused by noise. This damage appeared as
■ Parked or out of the flow of traffic The World Health Organization publishes early in a person’s life as the age of 20.
■ Starting your GPS or music before its first-ever list of antibiotic-resistant “pri-
you drive ority pathogens”—12 families of bacte- Jan. 19: Blankenship
■ Contacting emergency services ria that pose the greatest threat to human conviction upheld
Transit and emergency vehicle drivers health. The list highlights the threat of A federal appeals court upholds the Dec.
are exempt, while drivers of commercial gram-negative bacteria that are resistant to 3, 2015, conviction of Don Blankenship of
vehicles must follow federal laws. Two-way multiple antibiotics. conspiring to willfully violate federal mine
radio, citizens band radio, or amateur radio Dr. Marie-Paule Kieny, WHO’s assis- health and safety standards, following the
equipment are not included in the law. tant director-general for Health Systems methane explosion that killed 29 miners in-
and Innovation, says “antibiotic resistance side the Upper Big Branch South mine near
June 28: No state earns an ‘A’ for is growing, and we are fast running out of Whitesville, W.Va., on April 5, 2010. Blan-
preventable death efforts treatment options. If we leave it to market kenship is the former CEO of Massey En-
The National Safety Council says no state forces alone, the new antibiotics we most ergy, a subsidiary of which owned the mine.
does enough to protect its residents from urgently need are not going to be devel- A 3-0 decision by a panel of judges from
leading causes of preventable deaths and oped in time.” the 4th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals de-
injuries on the road, in homes, and at work. nies Blankenship’s appeal.
With preventable deaths at an all-time Feb. 9: Hearing loss report On Oct. 10, 2017, the U.S. Supreme
high, none of the 50 states, as well as Wash- A new survey from CDC finds that one Court refuses to consider Blankenship’s ap-
ington D.C., earned an “A” for overall safety. in four U.S. adults who say their hearing peal.
Seven states received a “B” rating, is good or excellent actually have hearing
while 11 states received an “F.” The report damage, and that much of this damage re- Jerry Laws is the editor of Occupational
marks the end of National Safety Month, sults from loud sounds that occur at home, Health & Safety.
which draws attention to eliminating pre-
ventable deaths.

June 19: AHA cardiac emergencies


campaign
The American Heart Association launches
a campaign that calls for training U.S. work-
ers to respond appropriately to workplace
cardiac emergencies and also for public ac-
cess to AEDs, automated external defibril-
lators. The association releases results from
new surveys that indicate most American
workers aren’t prepared to handle these
emergencies because they lack training in
CPR and first aid.

March 16: President proposes to


eliminate Chemical Safety Board
Five months after the U.S. Chemical Safety
Board released its 2017-2021 Strategic Plan,
President Donald J. Trump’s first budget
proposal proposes to eliminate that agency.
The board is an independent agency that
investigates serious chemical incidents,
such as the Deepwater Horizon explosion
and oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, the West,
Texas explosion of ammonium nitrate at a
fertilizer storage facility, and the Freedom
Industries leak near Charleston, W.Va.
The board responds over many months
by stressing the importance of its investiga-

www.ohsonline.com Circle 10 on card. 23

0118ohs_020_023_REVIEW_v3.indd 23 12/7/17 4:30 PM


OIL & GAS

From Sensors to Data Logging


Most devices with data logging retain monitoring information
whenever they are turned on. This can provide useful snapshots
of conditions at the time of an accident or unusual event.
BY LARRY MEDINA

DRAEGER
T
here is no such thing as “one size fits all” in sary steps to ensure that conditions are safe for work.
the world of safety, especially when it comes Once evaluation testing has been completed, ongoing
to choosing a gas detector. Each work site has verification testing can be done to ensure any and all
a unique set of challenges, and to ensure op- chemical hazards are below the levels necessary for
timal safety for on-site workers, selecting a device be- safe operation.
comes a critical choice for many safety managers. With
several factors to consider––the gases and vapors po- Sensor Selection
tentially present on the work site, the areas of risk, fixed Once there’s been a proper assessment of the surround-
vs. portable detectors, etc.––finalizing the “right” safety ing environment, consider which types of sensors can
suite can oftentimes be daunting. Here are a few tips accommodate the application, and ensure the chosen
that can help safety managers as they set out to identify sensors reflect and address the known and potential
the detector that is best suited for their workplace. atmospheric hazards. In situations where the environ-
ment is a confined space, portable gas detectors will
Understand the Environment often feature a catalytic sensor for the measurement
It’s critical for safety managers to conduct a risk as- of combustible gases, and one or two electrochemical
sessment to fully understand all aspects of risk on the sensors. Catalytic sensors are useful toward detecting
work site, including if there is a potential presence of concentrations in the lower exposure level (LEL), the
combustibles, toxic gases and volatile organic com- smallest concentration of vapor in air below which a
pounds (VOCs). Additionally, hazards such as oxygen flame will not ignite (even in the company of an igni-
enrichment—a condition that can cause materials to tion source), whereas electrochemical sensors are best
burn more vigorously than they would under normal suited for detecting specific toxic gases. The oxygen
circumstances—and oxygen deficiency can impact the reading is the first reading taken in preparation for a
device that’s ultimately selected. For example, an influx confined space entry in order to ensure that there are
of inert gases can deplete an area’s oxygen concentra- appropriate oxygen levels, and to also verify that there
tion, presenting potential consequences that could is enough oxygen for the proper operation of the Ca-
hinder mental and physical performance or cause a se- tEx sensor.
vere loss of consciousness. As such, selecting a device Other types of sensors include photoionization de-
that addresses these conditions becomes critical. tectors (PIDs), which measure a broad range of VOCs
This evaluation testing will determine the neces- such as methane, benzene, or hydrocarbons that occur

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0118ohs_024_025_Medina_v3.indd 24 12/7/17 4:31 PM


in oil drilling and refining, or infrared sensors that can directly mea- atmosphere into the detector for sampling) instruments. Pumps
sure carbon dioxide or methane. are particularly useful for reaching ambient atmospheres in inac-
The number of sensor configurations is large; however, safe- cessible places such as tanks, channels, or shafts.
ty managers are able to tailor their selection to best suit their
workers’ needs. Keeping a Record
Beyond identifying and alerting workers about the presence of gas-
Opt for Durability es, consider whether data logging features are important to daily
Detectors that are more resilient are more likely to have a longer operations. Most devices with data logging retain monitoring in-
lifespan and thus lead to lower long-term costs. However, it’s also formation whenever they are turned on. Oftentimes in the event of
crucial for safety managers to consider whether the portable gas an accident or unusual incident, this can provide useful snapshots
detector material is suited for the wear-and-tear of their unique of conditions at the time of the event. It also proves to be helpful
workplace environment. For example, if an environment is threat- for calibration and bump tests because most data logging instru-
ened by special gases such as hydrogen peroxide, hydrogen chlo- ments automatically update and store calibration information such
ride, or hydrogen fluoride (all of which are particularly hard to de- as dates.
tect because they adsorb to different surfaces), consider using a gas If devices operate both via diffusion and sample-draw modes
detector with an open gas inlet. This feature can prevent adsorbing (especially in the case of a pump attachment), safety managers may
surfaces from coming between the detector and the gas that is be- consider using instruments that make it possible to differentiate
ing detected to ensure workers’ safety. between measurements taken with or without the pump attached.
Whether they’re working in oil & gas or on a plant in the
Assess the Accessories chemical, pharma, or other industry, safety managers are always
Oftentimes, incorporating accessories to portable gas detectors looking to best maximize their workers’ safety. By tailoring their
can prove to be handy for many safety managers and help them devices to fulfill the demands and requirements of their applica-
tailor their safety devices to fit their specific workplaces. For ex- tions, safety managers can move one step closer to achieving their
ample, motorized pumps can be attached in order to allow work- goal.
ers to use their portable gas detectors both as diffusion (which
utilizes natural air currents to bring the sampled atmosphere into Larry Medina is the product portfolio marketing manager for
the instrument) and sample-draw (which mechanically draws the portable gas detection devices in North America at Draeger.

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Circle 25 on card. 25
Untitled-5 1 7/26/17 2:00 PM

0118ohs_024_025_Medina_v3.indd 25 12/7/17 4:31 PM


FOOT PROTECTION

Foot Protection Essentials


The OSHA 1910.136 standard and the ASTM F2412-11 standard indicate how
many kinds of foot injury are possible, some of them even disabling.

A
BY JERRY LAWS
document listing severe work-related inju- for impact and compression resistance in the toe area,
ries reported to OSHA from Jan. 1, 2015, metatarsal protection, puncture protection, conduc-
through March 31, 2017, is available on- tive properties to reduce hazards from static elec-
line, and it makes sobering reading. Am- tricity buildup, electrical hazards from stepping on
putations, slips and falls, crushing injuries, and many a live wire, and static dissipative properties. Another
more types of serious incidents from federal OSHA employer responsibility is to ensure the footwear is
states are listed there. Slips and foot injuries are com- maintained properly and replaced when necessary.
mon, such as this one from January 2015 in St. Louis: The OSHA standard and the ASTM F2412-11
“An employee was setting a string of four railcars standard indicate how many kinds of foot injury are
in the yard with his groundsman. The groundsman possible, some of them even disabling. “The most
secured the ground hand brake on the first railcar and common sprains are to the ankle,” Ron Bowles, di-
unhooked the string from the railcar. The employee rector of operations for MoveSMART, a system for
noticed a railcar starting to move as the manual preventing strains and sprains, slips and falls, and
ground brake on the first railcar failed. He attempted hand injuries, said during his Nov. 30, 2017, OH&S
to set the brake on the second car when the railcar Academy webinar, “Making the Right Moves to Pre-
wheel smashed his steel toe boot to the ground, frac- vent Strains and Sprains.” He explained why workers
turing his right foot and removing a toenail.” experience sprains and strains, that soft-tissue injuries
That’s a short description of severe trauma, I’m account for 33 percent of all lost-time injuries and ill-
sure you’ll agree, even though this worker was wear- nesses, and in some workplaces they account for half
ing protective footwear to shield him against crushing of them, he said. Bowles outlined ways to assist work-
impacts. The database1 doesn’t say anything about the ers in preventing these ailments and discussed bal-
medical costs of all of those injuries, enforcement ac- ance, force transfer, bracing, and set-up/positioning
tion taken, the amount of time lost, or whether the for doing tasks in his presentation that day.
injured employee ever returned to work.
A good starting point for what employers need Benefits of the ‘Employer Pays’ Rule
to do is to read 29 CFR 1910.136, Foot protection, In November 2007, when OSHA issued a final rule
OSHA’s general industry standard. At 1910.136(a), it saying employers must provide PPE at no cost to their
says this: employees when that PPE is used to comply with
General requirements. The employer shall ensure OSHA standards, then-Assistant Secretary Edwin
that each affected employee uses protective footwear Foulke said the agency estimated the rule would pre-
when working in areas where there is a danger of foot vent more than 21,000 workplace injuries annually—
injuries due to falling or rolling objects, or objects pierc- such as foot, head, and eye injuries. He explained the
ing the sole, or when the use of protective footwear will rule’s impact this way: When employees pay for their
protect the affected employee from an electrical hazard, own PPE, they are likely to buy the wrong protective
such as a static-discharge or electric-shock hazard, that equipment, may use it beyond its expected service life,
remains after the employer takes other necessary protec- or may avoid buying it at all. When employers pay for
tive measures. it, however, they are more likely to select the right PPE
Workers in many industries require footwear that for the hazards encountered in their workplaces, he
offers protection against the hazards mentioned in said. “When employers pay for PPE, we have found
that section of the standard, especially against impact, that they also make sure that the equipment is main-
and also slip resistance. tained and replaced as necessary, and generally take
more responsibility for PPE selection and use. It is this
Employer Responsibilities improvement in PPE usage that is expected to result
It’s the responsibility of employers, and by extension in fewer injuries and fatalities.”
their safety and procurement managers, to ensure
employees wear footwear that protects against the Jerry Laws is the editor of Occupational Health &
hazards they will encounter on the job, and that the Safety.
footwear meets the important industry consensus
standards, such as ASTM F2412-11, Standard Test REFERENCES
Methods for Foot Protection—its test methods con- 1. https://www.osha.gov/severeinjury/xml/severeinjury.csv
tain requirements to evaluate footwear’s performance

26 Occupational Health & Safety | JANUARY 2018 www.ohsonline.com

0118ohs_026_FOOT_v2.indd 26 12/7/17 4:31 PM


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CIRCLE 13 ON CARD

Untitled-2 1 12/7/17 11:23 AM


CHEMICAL SAFETY/SDS

Chemical Safety: Find Your Flow


A good chemical approval process contains three vital elements,
all of which can be enhanced and supported by a technology solution.
BY KRAIG HABERER

kenary820/Shutterstock.com
T
he ingredients of a sound chemical safety your understanding of your organization’s chemical
program include an accurate chemical footprint gains immediacy and transparency.
inventory, on-demand safety data sheets A good chemical approval process contains three
(SDS), and an efficient yet robust chemical vital elements, all of which can be enhanced and sup-
approval process. While there are many approaches ported by a technology solution: the approval form,
to track chemical inventories and approvals, there an approval process, and technology to run the work-
are some best practices to achieve chemical compli- flow. The approval form contains all relevant chemi-
ance and ease the burden of managing your chemical cal, use and regulatory data required for approval. The
inventories. In this article, we’ll discuss how compa- approval process is the logic and step flow of appropri-
nies today utilize a mix of business process and soft- ate reviewers and approval steps. Finally, the technol-
ware to achieve worker safety and hazard communi- ogy is the software that powers the form and business
cation compliance. logic through the workflow process.

Process as Prevention Make Your Approval Form Work for You


As with our own health, the best medicine is preven- A chemical approval form is a document of record,
tion. Identifying and tracking hazardous chemicals completed and submitted online or in print, that
coming into a facility is the best way to boost your enumerates the data that initiates the request, as well
chemical safety efforts and better prepare your orga- as data required for the material to be approved for
nization for any regulatory spot-checking. By taking a the facility. Often created by the EHS team or safety
preventative approach through a well-designed chem- manager, the form outlines the required and optional
ical introduction process, rather than relying solely on fields to be completed for chemical approval.
prescriptive measures based on periodic inventories, The form is then incorporated in the business

28 Occupational Health & Safety | JANUARY 2018 www.ohsonline.com

0118ohs_028_030_Haberer_v2.indd 28 12/7/17 4:32 PM


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CIRCLE 4 ON CARD

Untitled-2 1 8/24/17 12:49 PM


CHEMICAL SAFETY/SDS

A significant advantage of an online document workflow is the For companies that choose to employ
technology for their chemical management,
opportunity for dynamic response and action. In a dynamic you’ll find that most leading SDS manage-
form, the questions and fields can change based on the ment and chemical management software
systems have some level of chemical-ap-
previous answers, whether in terms of data input or on the proval functionality. As you assess the op-
unique requirements of your process itself. tions available on the EHS market, evaluate
the strength of those systems to account for
process developed by the safety team. nature (e.g., extremely low flash point, etc.) the needs of your unique facility or orga-
Again, the entire process can either be vir- - Disposal considerations nization. Is the system under consideration
tual, through the use of software and online ■ Compliance data flexible or customizable enough to support
workflow tools, or physical, where indi- - Ingredient data your particular requirements, whether by
viduals physically pass a paper document - GHS hazard statements reflecting existing criteria or dynamically
around for sign-off or via email. - Regulatory cross-references to responding to emerging needs? Does it give
A significant advantage of an online determine whether the chemical exists on you the information you and your approv-
document workflow is the opportunity any state or federal regulatory lists ers need? Is it scalable? Does it automate
for dynamic response and action. In a dy- - Internal banned substance lists the process adequately?
namic form, the questions and fields can Perhaps most importantly, once a
change based on the previous answers, chemical is approved, an automated system
whether in terms of data input or on the As you strategize your chemical associates the correct SDS to that chemi-
unique requirements of your process itself. approval process, look for ways cal, making vital safety information im-
For example, online forms can dynami- mediately available and ensuring you have
cally expand or contract depending on the
to get the most return for the required documentation readily at hand
hazardous nature of the material. A form to time spent by your submitters during a regulatory inspection or when-
approve more hazardous materials might and reviewers. ever you perform a compliance spot check
include more fields, while safer chemicals on your physical inventory.
may be adequately covered by a much What to Look for in a Chemical There are significant time-saving and
shorter form. Approval Process cost-efficiency benefits to implementing an
Dependent on the data entered into As you strategize your chemical approval online chemical approval workflow. From
the form, some systems allow for pre- process, look for ways to get the most re- responsive forms with pre-populated fields
populating fields with information already turn for the time spent by your submitters to dynamic customization where the pro-
available, such as cross-referencing a mate- and reviewers. When workers submit a cess itself can evolve based on the chemical
rial and its ingredients against banned sub- chemical for approval, is there an easy or or prior approval steps, a technology solu-
stances or other regulatory lists. automatic way for them to know immedi- tion beyond the static Excel spreadsheet
Your chemical approval form should in- ately whether that chemical already exists can move an organization from mere re-
clude any type of data or question that you in your system, either at their facility or at cordkeeping to true chemical intelligence.
feel is important to answer when introduc- a corporate level? As reviewers consider
ing a new chemical to your facility. Safety, the new chemical request, does your pro- Take advantage of the power
environmental, and company-specific data cess enable them to quickly correct errors
points can be included, and your form can or add any missing information? Are there
of software to automate your
be as brief or exhaustive as you see fit. criteria such as chemical type or quantity chemical approval process
What are some of the fields commonly thresholds that can trigger an automatic and let the system do the
included on a chemical approval form? approval or rejection?
■ Material name Once it is determined that the re-
work for you.
■ Person/department requesting the quested new chemical requires review Switching to an online workflow should
chemical by your approvers, consider the trans- streamline your administrative efforts, not
■ Quantity parency of your workflow. The ability to make them more complex. Take advantage
■ Date requested track who is reviewing, seeing at a glance of the power of software to automate your
■ Intended use of the chemical the real-time status of the request, and chemical approval process and let the sys-
■ Location of the material receiving prompt notification of approval tem do the work for you.
■ Safety data sheet or rejection can significantly streamline
■ Safety data report generation. A technology solution Kraig Haberer is a General Manager for
- Special handling or use instruc- that can automatically flag any roadblock HSI, an EHS software and services provider
tions on the way to approval allows the process offering solutions for workplace safety train-
- Exposure limits owner to proactively intervene to ensure ing, chemical management, incident man-
- PPE requirements each approval request is brought to a agement and emergency care training and
- Physical properties of a critical timely conclusion. certification.

30 Occupational Health & Safety | JANUARY 2018 www.ohsonline.com

0118ohs_028_030_Haberer_v2.indd 30 12/7/17 4:32 PM


CONSTRUCTION SAFETY

Your Year-End Safety Celebration Could Be Hiding Risk


We can’t use lagging indicators—counting what has already happened—
to evaluate our exposure to risk accurately.
BY NICK GOODELL

nd3000/Shutterstock.com

I
t’s that time of the year when we reflect back on ic gathering of Safety, Project, and Engineering folks
how our companies performed over the last 12 where the executives congratulated the team because
months. A common calculation is to look at re- only two people got hurt on a recently concluded
corded injury rates (using a variety of prescribed project. There were high fives, awards, and lots of cel-
metrics) and pat ourselves on the back if we hurt few- ebration (except from the two injured). But there is a
er people than we had planned. I was just part of such fundamental problem with the way that most compa-
a meeting, the typical construction company’s period- nies evaluate safety in the workplace. By counting the

www.ohsonline.com JANUARY 2018 | Occupational Health & Safety 31

0118ohs_031_033_Goodell_v3.indd 31 12/7/17 4:34 PM


CONSTRUCTION SAFETY

External pressures from regulators like OSHA, not break down at all in the past year. Would you trust your fam-
ily’s safety solely by a lagging indicator? Evaluating your corporate
insurers, and customers conditioned us to use safety risk management program is no different.
lagging indicators as a measure of safety. We Instead, most of us measure a vehicle’s condition using leading
found that companies that often view a safety risk indicators: signs that predict a failure before it occurs. These in-
clude adherence to a recommended maintenance schedule, annual
assessment as a measure of compliance have a state inspections, and resolving odd things noticed during opera-
higher exposure and cost of risk. tion. If you change the transmission fluid and find metal in the oil,
you can be sure of a problem. So why don’t we use leading indica-
number of bad things that have been recorded, you see only part of tors to evaluate how prepared our companies are to manage risk in
the picture—the lagging indicators—which can cause potentially the coming year?
significant blind spots to risk exposure. External pressures from regulators like OSHA, insurers, and
Consider instead evaluating safety performance with measures customers conditioned us to use lagging indicators as a measure of
that don’t require incidents to occur. Aside from issues with un- safety. For these groups, this is a universal and straightforward way
derreporting, misclassification of recordable injuries, or sloppy re- to evaluate for enforcement, intervention, premium increases, and
cordkeeping, I propose that workplace safety is much more than past performance as a poor safety prediction tool. This paradigm
just the absence of adverse events. We can’t use lagging indica- will only worsen as OSHA becomes increasingly dependent on lag-
tors—counting what has already happened—to evaluate our expo- ging indicators collected more broadly through electronic report-
sure to risk accurately. ing requirements. We found that companies that often view a safety
What if we measured other things the way most companies risk assessment as a measure of compliance have a higher exposure
measure workplace safety? and cost of risk.
Think back to a summer road trip. How did you gauge whether
your vehicle was prepared to make the trip? Did you assess the con- Through safety observation programs, best-in-
dition of your car solely by counting the times it had broken down
in the prior 12 months? For me, it would follow that my car is in
class companies are regularly collecting valuable
excellent mechanical condition, ready for any road because it did data about the behaviors and conditions that are
occurring on their work sites.
Putting Leading Indicators to Work
A more appropriate way to evaluate your performance is through
the use of safety leading indicators. These are the collection and
study of the conditions, behaviors, and attitudes that signal an en-
vironment where losses are more likely to occur.
Using our previous car analogy, one type of leading indicator is
the “maintenance” that you performed on your team last year. This
includes the training, education, certifications, and other creden-
TRAIN THE TRAINER ER
Electrical Safety Training for Instructors AINI
tials that your team has invested over the past year. How are you
maintaining your folks, and how are those records being used? The
TR
NFPA 70E 2
N

structure of your programs should reflect a high level of proficien-


G

018 cy in the types of work you are performing and expertise with the
UP

AT
ED WIT tools in use. Collecting the right kind of data will expose whether
H
D

› Partner with your company was going through the motions last year or if the
Electrical Safety Experts workers were building competencies that are genuinely protecting
your business from loss.
Through safety observation programs, best-in-class companies
› Train with Our are regularly collecting valuable data about the behaviors and con-
Industry Leading Materials ditions that are occurring on their work sites. A quality inspection
program paints a real picture of how much risk you are exposed to
and from which areas. Companies that hide behind “All Safe” in-
› Learn Best Practices, spection observations or use their inspection programs in a puni-
Not Just Textbook Definitions tive way are missing the opportunity to collect real leading indica-
tors of injuries. Aggregation of detail data in safety software allows
the ability to drill down and compare risks across your company,
your projects, your contractors, and crafts.

Big Data and Predictive Analytics


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32 Circle 19 on card. www.ohsonline.com

0118ohs_031_033_Goodell_v3.indd 32 12/7/17 4:34 PM


Sensors on vehicles, on equipment, and through 1. Engineer programs that identify and mitigate the specific
risks present on your projects. The formal job safety analysis pro-
wearable technology stream a wealth of useful cess is instrumental in preventing workplace injuries.
information that can be used to predict loss with 2. Ensure that your focus follows the 80/20 rule—80 percent
a high degree of accuracy. of your focus relates to active tasks; the other 20 percent includes
historical problem areas.
sources of leading indicators. Attitude surveys that are traditional 3. When they see low incident rates, especially when nobody is
in the Human Capital departments are finding their way into use, hurt, many organizations see this as a reason not to do anything to
with safety professionals looking to capture individual or cultural reduce workplace injuries further. Don’t fall into this trap.
attitude toward risk appetite, which may be a precursor to injury. 4. Measure success by selecting a few key indicators to ensure
Volumes of new data are coming to us from other sources, too. you are always addressing the correct workplace safety topics.
Sensors on vehicles, on equipment, and through wearable technol- 5. Stop and celebrate all of the achievements that have made the
ogy stream a wealth of useful information that can be used to pre- workplace safer.
dict loss with a high degree of accuracy.
“Big data” tools and modern analytics allow us further help to Where Is Your Focus?
predict injuries by combining the multiple data feeds. Through the What are you focusing on, and how will your approach in the
use of these advanced tools, we can develop some very sophisti- next year get you greater results? These are real questions to
cated leading indicators, and present them in a way that is as ac- consider if your goal is to drive processes that mitigate risk sus-
tionable in the field as it is in the boardroom. Data once hidden in tainably.
filing cabinets or complex programs can easily be mined for other
purposes and integrated with safety management systems. Nick Goodell is a Process Improvement Leader with Predictive
An accurate assessment of safety performance requires a move Solutions who is responsible for implementation of the SafetyNet
away from the traditional ways of using only historical loss data. software for new clients and helping existing clients use technol-
To create a unique and personal approach, consider the following ogy to benefit workplace safety. He has 20 years of experience in
workplace safety tips: software and risk management.

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Circle 21 on card.
www.ohsonline.com
Untitled-7 1
JANUARY 2018 | Occupational Health11/27/17 33
& Safety 6:01 PM

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CONSTRUCTION SAFETY

Create a Culture of Safety and Good Business Will Follow


Ultimately, construction safety must become a habit and
practiced by everyone every minute.
BY ANGELO PERRYMAN

PERRYMAN CONSTRUCTION
Perryman Construction built the Family Care and Literacy Center for the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia.

I
n the recent business bestseller, “The Power of valuable things happen:
Habit” by Charles Duhigg, there is a chapter about ■ Employees are safer and morale improves be-

Paul O’Neill becoming the new CEO of the global cause they are glad you care.
Fortune 500 company Alcoa. Duhigg observed ■ A culture of safety becomes a valuable com-

that, unlike most new CEOs who give their inaugural pany benefit, such that better employees will want to
speech about their plans to lower costs and raise rev- work for you.
enue and stockholder value, O’Neill’s message on his ■ Both managers and employees take greater re-

first day outlined a single goal, that of improving safe- sponsibility for operations, and results improve.
ty and of making it an institutional habit. Although ■ Profits increase due to streamlined operations

the investment community was initially shocked by and efficiencies.


his speech and his priority, O’Neill knew that his focus We call this safety environment: a culture of safety.
on safety would first lead to studying why employees The key to successful construction safety is to in-
got hurt, which ultimately would lead to making the stitutionalize policy and to build it into corporate cul-
entire operation more efficient and more profitable. ture and operations. Ultimately, construction safety
With one simple rule, he dramatically improved must become a habit and practiced by everyone every
the communication process in his massive organi- minute.
zation, as well as making it safer. That rule was that Here are six tips for starting and maintaining a
O’Neill, as CEO, needed to know about every acci- successful construction safety culture:
dent, within 24 hours of its happening, together with
a plan for solving that safety issue. Suddenly, top man- 1) Make construction safety
agers had to become keenly aware of activities all the the CEO’s priority.
way down the line because they were directly respon- A successful construction safety culture must start at
sible for safety and results. the top. He or she must support it and become pas-
When companies focus on safety, at least four sionate about safety. The CEO must demand, as did

34 Occupational Health & Safety | JANUARY 2018 www.ohsonline.com

0118ohs_034_035_Perryman_v3.indd 34 12/7/17 4:34 PM


Develop an ongoing program to research the latest safety tech-
niques as well as advances in technology, equipment, tools, materi-
als, and in work procedures. Digital technology builds in features
that enable you to track and record safety issues more effectively.
O’Neill, that every safety issue must be letters, digital media, team talks, and wher-
communicated to him within 24 hours, to- ever you communicate.
gether with a plan designed to ensure that
the mishap will never happen again. When 5) The culture of safety must
safety is highly valued and supported by the extend beyond your company, to
company’s board and executive leadership, subcontractors and other vendors.
it will be important to everyone throughout Your culture of safety should not end
the organization. with your company and its employees. It Promote your safety brand in
must pervade your entire process, includ- everything you do because it
2) Make construction safety ing subcontractors and other vendors. To
everyone’s priority, without fail. accomplish this, one must create safety will be a powerful differentiator
It should be obvious to everyone why hav- standards for subs, as well as your own em- for your company against its
ing a culture of safety is valuable. However, ployees. When you perform due diligence
when you quantify it, it truly hits home. into their companies, safety must be part
competition.
Make raises and promotion available only of the review. Ultimately, a process must be of your tag line, business card, email sig-
to those who completely embrace the safety developed to monitor their safety results, nature, brochures, advertising campaign,
culture. Design key performance indica- too. Their quality and safety record are as digital media message, presentations, and
tors (KPIs) around safety as well as results. important to consider as are their experi- more. Promote your safety brand in every-
Showcase and bonus employees who have ence and skills. thing you do because it will be a powerful
demonstrated exemplary safety responsi- differentiator for your company against its
bility or leadership. The culture of safety includes competition.

3) Empower all employees to be staying ahead of the curve re- Ultimately, customers under-
responsible about safety. garding the latest technology. stand how, by working with a
It is good to place responsible managers
on every site who are knowledgeable about 6) The culture of safety includes company that has a culture of
safety. However it is even more effective staying ahead of the curve regard- safety, it burnishes their brand,
to train and empower every employee to ing the latest technology. as well.
be responsible for safety. Many companies Your people are only part of the solu-
have a chief safety officer, but unfortunately tion. Safer equipment and tools can make Bottom line: Most customers and pros-
that is not enough. For the greatest suc- achieving goals easier. Develop an ongoing pects appreciate how a commitment to
cess, empower everyone and enable them program to research the latest safety tech- safety may cost more at the outset but is
to make on-the-spot decisions about safety. niques as well as advances in technology, worth more in the long run because it con-
equipment, tools, materials, and in work tributes to their satisfaction and success,
4) Communicate regarding procedures. Digital technology builds in while reducing adverse effects from loss of
construction safety on day one features that enable you to track and record morale and litigation. Ultimately, custom-
and every day. safety issues more effectively. ers understand how, by working with a
Most companies do a decent job of train- Ultimately, one can never take con- company that has a culture of safety, it bur-
ing new apprentices and interns about struction safety for granted because people, nishes their brand, as well.
safety and its priority at the company. But place, and equipment are always changing.
it is not enough to teach novices on their Although the goal is to make construction Angelo Perryman is CEO of Perryman Con-
first days and rarely again. There are two safety a habit with everyone, employees struction, a third-generation family business
areas where this process can be improved: should be coached to be on constant look- and a leading, full-service construction com-
One is in making the safety priority a major out for safety issues and then to take appro- pany on the East Coast, self-performing proj-
part of the company orientation for all new priate action when recognized. ect planning, management and construction
employees, even top executives and experi- When you commit to a culture of safety, projects. Perryman’s firm has an EMR (Ex-
enced masters. The second area is continu- it can become the essence of your company. perience Modification Rate) rating of less
ity; reinforcing the culture of safety at every Therefore, you can and should make it a than 1 and has gone over 100,000 hours and
level—executive, supervisor, foreman, and major part of your brand image and mes- five years without a time loss incident. www.
others—as well as in on-site posters, news- sage. Make your safety brand message part perrymanbc.com

www.ohsonline.com JANUARY 2018 | Occupational Health & Safety 35

0118ohs_034_035_Perryman_v3.indd 35 12/7/17 4:34 PM


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of a pick module or elevated platform roof. It features spans of up to 50 feet distance. The sign is UL Listed to UL
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36 Occupational Health & Safety | JANUARY 2018 www.ohsonline.com

0118ohs_036_038_NP_v2.indd 36 12/7/17 4:35 PM


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NEW PRODUCTS
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COLD WEATHER CLOTHING MOBILE APP PORTABLE WATER HEATER


The DRIFIRE® Cold Weather Balaclava By eliminating the fuss and expense of Bradley Corp. introduces Keltech®
by National Safety Apparel has soft, paper checklists, the simple-to-use Ve- Portables, an easy, convenient, and
double layer eight ounce FR fabric to locityEHS Mobile App allows workers to flexible mobile solution for using Keltech
keep you warm and protected. Featuring instantly report incidents, near misses, Electric Tankless Water Heaters on
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Made of NFPA 70E compliant, inherently form and is available to VelocityEHS cus- or fluid even in the most demanding
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USER INTERFACE GAS DETECTOR SAFETY SCALE


SpheraCloud, the cloud-based user The new Sensepoint XRL fixed gas de- Danray Products LLC has recently
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Safety, Operational Risk, and Product set-up, maintenance, and compliance the belt and disc and the tables on
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38 Occupational Health & Safety | JANUARY 2018 www.ohsonline.com

0118ohs_036_038_NP_v2.indd 38 12/7/17 4:35 PM


PRODUCT SPOTLIGHTS
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www.ohsonline.com JANUARY 2018 | Occupational Health & Safety 39

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40 Occupational Health & Safety | JANUARY 2018

0118ohs_040_Classified_v2.indd 40 12/8/17 10:56 AM


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ADVERTISER INDEX
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CIRCLE # COMPANY PAGE # CIRCLE # COMPANY PAGE # CIRCLE # COMPANY PAGE #


1 Ansul 11 14 Tingley Rubber 2 311 Danray Products LLC 38
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0118ohs_041_AdIndex_v2.indd 41 12/8/17 11:24 AM


BREAKTHROUGH STRATEGIES
B Y RO B E R T PAT E R

7 Keys for Powerfully Persuasive Presenting


Getting in front of a group is a power- sentation—how it begins. Do you cre-
ate an atmosphere of positive expec-
potentiated opportunity to stimulate lasting tancy, where participants are looking
advances in mindsets and skills. forward to getting something that they
want and can effectively use? So don’t Even in webinars,

I
know there’s no end to available advice on how to impressively begin by apologizing or telling a joke my finding ways to
present. Alternately, for persuasively presenting, here are some just for the sake of trying on humor
“secrets” that I’ve discovered (as in the old martial arts apho- that has nothing to do with your un-
engage participants
rism, “The best secrets keep themselves”) that are both critical derlying message. Everything I say and so they actually
and not evidently common knowledge. do during a presentation is to propel participate is im-
This is based on my delivering hundreds of presentations—at participants toward wanting to and
more than 27 National Safety Congresses; more than a hundred knowing how to improve their deci-
portant to activating
different ASSE, international, and large conferences; 70+ webinars; sions and actions. These include only them to do some-
too numerous corporate keynotes to count; and much more. That including appropriate humor that fur- thing different after
doesn’t include a large numbers of trainings for line staff, profes- thers my messaging.
sionals, and Executives. I’ve also taught presentation skills, writ- 5. And I do mean “participants”
the presentation.
ten a manual published by ASSE on this topic, and coached senior and not “audience.” Thinking of people in the former term reminds
Executives. And I’ve seen, as well as done, all kinds of missed pre- that they’re there to be mentally and even physically involved, not
sentation opportunities. My personal view is, “I’ll try to make a dif- just to show you awe or appreciation (as does an audience).
ferent mistake next time.” 6. Even in webinars, my finding ways to engage participants
From experience, here are 7 keys to presenting to persuade that so that they actually, well, participate, is important to activat-
unlock reluctance and resistance to improving: ing them to do something different after the presentation. Again,
1. Starting off, I re-focus on the overriding purpose of each of I’m a change agent, not an entertainer. Involvers might include
my presentations, both in planning and delivery. I’m not merely polls, individual exercises and reflectors (such as trying some-
trying to academically impart information or to tell people what thing mentally on), paired practices, demonstrations, and much
to do, nor to show anyone how much I know. I’m always aiming to more. It’s critical in any presentation—no matter how many
persuade, to reach people, to ideally help them make more success- participants—to break the inertia of their sitting mentally and
ful decisions, to transfer skills they can’t wait to apply to make their physically passive. If I want them to be doing something after the
lives work safer and better overall. presentation, I have to have them doing something active during
2. Getting in front of a group is a power-potentiated oppor- the presentation.
tunity to stimulate lasting advances in mindsets and skills. When 7. Sure, there are presentation techniques that help, from us-
you think about it, your presentation may only be as brief as 15 ing movement in different ways, employing silence, varying energy
minutes—but if you’re in front of just 20 people, that’s 5 person- (in more or less a sine wave manner), harnessing eye contact even
hours of possible impact. And that’s just the tip; much more than with a very large group, using the best while avoiding turnoff hand
just batching one message to a group, you have the chance to reach gestures—and more. But, as useful as these are, they pale in impor-
them, to angle up their mental and physical trajectory for weeks, tance to something else. Ultimately, the combination of showing
even months to come. So in my mind it pays to spend a good deal Concern and making strong Contact are two strands woven into
of preparation time to maximize even a “minimal” quarter hour of the lifeline guiding a presentation’s power to affect people. Banish
presentation contact. generic presentations. If you are truly concerned for participants’
3. I know that the most important parts of a presentation are well-being and safety and if you can tangibly convey this by making
not what many think, the content in the middle. Sure this may strong contact with them, backed by your preparation clearly dem-
comprise the bulk of the time, but it’s not necessarily the part that onstrating you understand their concerns and obstacles through
makes the most impact. Rather, the most persuasive stage is the using their language, referring to their specific work applications
closing—it’s the last thing people remember. Have you ever been and more, you can really move groups of people in ways that last
to a really good presentation that ended weakly, with the presenter for quite a time.
tailing off, looking down or embarrassed or unsure? This lowers Bottom line: The most influencing presentations I can make are
energy and weakens the entire message that people. Mark that I’m founded on my: keeping in mind my utmost goals, customizing
not a fan of “motivational” presentations of the “You can do it!” my presentation to participants’ current concerns and to my latest
type that are like gobbling sugar calories; these might taste good at thinking, involving everyone in some ways, making best possible
the time but are nutritionally empty of why you should do some- contact in the moment, and offering practical/do-able potential so-
thing or what to do or how to do it. Remember that the last verbal lutions to their vexing problems.
and nonverbal messages you communicate are what participants
best recall and walk away with. Robert Pater is managing director and founder of Strategic Safety
4. The opening is the second most important part of any pre- Associates/MoveSMART®. www.movesmart.com

42 Occupational Health & Safety | JANUARY 2018 www.ohsonline.com

0118ohs_042_Pater_v2.indd 42 12/7/17 4:37 PM


CIRCLE 22 ON CARD

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