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Effects of Plyometric

Training on Sports
Performance
Mark A. Booth, MA1 and Rhonda Orr, PhD2
1
Department of Exercise and Sports Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; and 2Department of Exercise
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and Sports Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

ABSTRACT output of the stretch reflex of a muscle methods are not possible, too expensive
to increase speed and power. A period or impractical.
PLYOMETRIC TRAINING IS A
of rapid concentric contraction in the The purpose of this article is to review
SERIES OF EXPLOSIVE BODY
muscle after a rapid eccentric length- the existing literature on plyometric
WEIGHT RESISTANCE EXERCISES
ening of the muscle fiber under load training and its training effects as they
USING THE STRETCH- enhances the force generated by the
SHORTENING CYCLE OF THE relate to a wide range of sports and
muscle. The stretch-shortening cycle their performance indicators. In doing
MUSCLE FIBER TO ENHANCE (SSC) captures the energy of the so, it aims to provide practical guide-
PHYSICAL CAPACITIES SUCH AS stretched muscle in its elastic compo- lines for safe and effective program-
SPEED, STRENGTH, AND POWER. nents and augments the next concen- ming within a variety of sports for
THESE PHYSIOLOGIC MEASURES tric contraction provided it is rapidly performance enhancement and injury
TRANSLATE TO IMPROVED PER- executed (73). This recoil effect can prevention programs.
FORMANCE IN MANY SPORTS, enhance physiological qualities indica-
INCLUDING COURT-BASED tive of improved sports performance
SPORTS, FIELD SPORTS, AND (speed, strength, and power) when har- PHYSIOLOGICAL ADAPTATIONS
WATER SPORTS. PERFORMANCE nessed and trained correctly. PT elicits a variety of physiological
ENHANCEMENTS RESULTING An array of field (3), court (30), and adaptations, both structural and neural.
FROM PLYOMETRIC TRAINING, individual (2) sports use plyometric ex- Changes in muscle size and/or archi-
INCLUDE IMPROVED SPRINT TIMES ercises. Correspondingly, the mode of tecture are common (52), whereas re-
OVER DISTANCES RANGING FROM exercises are wide and diverse ranging ductions in fat mass are not usually
5 TO 40 M, MAXIMAL MUSCLE from double-leg, single-leg, in place, seen (24). Traditional resistance train-
STRENGTH AND POWER, AND etc. (21,58,79). These exercises are ing (RT) elicits similar training adapta-
INJURY PREVENTION MEASURES not however limited to the lower tions. Typically RT uses higher training
SUCH AS IMPROVED LANDING extremities as upper body exercises volumes and allows for more concen-
MECHANICS, DECREASED (e.g., plyometric push-ups, chops, and trated eccentric loading. It therefore
medicine ball exercises) are commonly makes sense to combine RT and PT
GROUND REACTION FORCES,
used for throwing sports (49). when programming for performance
AND IMPROVED HAMSTRING TO
enhancement to maximize these train-
QUADRICEPS RATIOS. THE OPTI- PT is explosive in nature, therefore accu- ing adaptations. Vissing et al. com-
MAL DOSE FOR ATHLETIC EN- rate measurement of performance is vital pared RT and PT programs over
HANCEMENTS HAS NOT BEEN to detect significant worthwhile changes. a 12-week period. They observed
CONSISTENTLY IDENTIFIED. It is measured in a number of ways. Most increased quadriceps, hamstring, and
commonly, force plate measures (con- adductor whole-muscle cross-sectional
tact time, ground reaction forces, take- area (CSA) by 7 and 10%, respectively,
off velocity) (12,15,22,77) and electromy- whereas total muscle size increased
INTRODUCTION ography (16,22) to evaluate muscle
lyometric training (PT) is a cate- activation patterns, are used to assess per-

P gory of explosive body weight


resistance exercises which focuses
on exploiting the additional force
formance with plyometric exercise. Rel-
ative measures such as reactive strength
indices (14) are also used when other
KEY WORDS:
jump performance; strength; power; speed;
explosive exercise

30 VOLUME 38 | NUMBER 1 | FEBRUARY 2016 Copyright Ó National Strength and Conditioning Association

Copyright ª National Strength and Conditioning Association. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
both with PT and RT (66). A study by changes in stiffness observed in the gas- a concurrent increase in delayed onset
Chelly et al. (7) found increases in thigh trocnemius tendon complex or ankle muscle soreness over the first 48 hours
muscle volume were not accompanied joint itself (19). after training (69). Immunological
by change in leg muscle volume and The gastrocnemius muscle did how- measures of muscle damage in the
mean thigh CSA with PT. ever exhibit changes in stiffness of acute phase response have been mir-
More common structural changes 133% after 14 weeks PT training com- rored along a similar timeline, by
relate to changes in the mechanical reduction in jumping performance
pared with the control group. The PT
characteristics of the muscle-tendon (3,6) and rate of force development;
group demonstrated an improvement
complex and single-fiber mechanics thus providing evidence that acute re-
in squat jump (SJ) and reactive jumps
(52). Increases in single muscle fiber di- sponses are primarily a consequence of
of 117 and 119%, respectively (20).
ameters of 10% in type IIa, 11% in type I, peripheral fatigue. Hence, adequate
The physiological adaptations of neu- recovery between bouts of PT is imper-
and 15% in hybrid type IIa/x fibers have
romuscular function to PT include ative (13). By contrast, no differences in
been reported (37). The most com-
increased neural drive to agonist acute hormonal, metabolic, or neuro-
monly examined area of structural
muscles and changes in muscle activa- muscular responses to PT, regardless
change from PT involves analysis of
tion strategies related to the SSC (39). of repetition number, have been
the plantar flexor tendon responses
Female, high school volleyball players reported (2).
such as stiffness (25,39,49,78), transmis-
recorded increases in peak hamstring
sion of force (39), and CSA (39,45).
torques (44% dominant side/21% non- PLYOMETRIC TRAINING EFFECTS
Comparisons of these factors between
dominant) and decreases in peak land- PT can elicit varied training effects de-
traditional RT and PT have shown that
ing forces in conjunction with pending on the nature of the training
changes in jump performance relate to
a corresponding 10% increase in verti- program. This is usually determined by
changes in the MTC (71). However,
cal jump (VJ) height (25). In addition, the desired sport-specific performance
Foure et al. observed no change in joint
Hewett et al. observed an increase in enhancement. For example, a tennis
stiffness (18), whereas King et al.
hamstring to quadriceps ratios peak player would desire an improvement
observed increased joint stiffness (31).
muscle torque ratios of 26% dominant in agility. Greater enhancements in
This presents conflicting outcomes as
side, 13% non-dominant side. It is likely agility are seen using PT with a hori-
a result of PT. Interestingly, Kubo et al.
that these improvements in peak tor- zontal component (59). A sprinter may
(33) attributed increased tendon stiff-
que outputs relate to changes in land- desire greater speed of foot strike
ness to traditional RT but did not inves-
ing kinematics. Specifically, changes which would also typically require
tigate the effects of PT. To date, no
have been observed in hip abduc- some form of horizontal displacement
studies have compared the two types
tion/adduction and knee flexion angles in programming (72). Basketball or vol-
of training.
(78). Both PT and balance training leyball players, however, may require
A study by Carter et al. found PT and improved measures of lower extremity not only improved agility but greater
isometric contraction interventions valgus during drop-jump landing vertical leap, which will require exer-
showed increased tendon stiffness in cises with both horizontal and vertical
where PT showed greater benefits for
both groups where the difference in components (31).
2-foot landing tasks (45).
the extent of tendon stiffness changes
accounted for 21% of the variance in In the acute phase, PT demonstrates RUNNING ECONOMY
performance improvement in jump similar training-induced muscle dam- Maximal aerobic capacity is consid-
height (4). These results are supported age responses as traditional RT (69). ered a key to running performance in
by a series of studies by Foure et al. Excessive training volumes can induce distance events. However, other varia-
investigating the effect of PT on the neuromuscular impairments that can bles have been identified as better
Achilles tendon complex (18–20). After result in suboptimal training (13). Evi- predictors of performance such as
14 weeks PT, increases in tendon stiff- dence suggests that PT causes damage maximal aerobic velocity and running
ness of 24.1% with no concurrent to predominantly type II muscle fibers. economy (46). Several studies have
increase in tendon CSA indicated that Clearly distinguishable moderate and focussed on the benefits of PT to
these mechanical changes in the tendon severe sarcomere damage in type II running economy for a wide variety
were a qualitative rather than quantita- muscle fibers of both glycolytic and of land-based sports. These include
tive change. Any performance enhance- oxidative subtypes (86% and 84%, improved performance in middle and
ment resulting from PT training may be respectively, have been identified) long distance runners. One study by
due to improved force transmission (45) compared with 27% in slow-twitch fi- Spurrs et al. noted a significant
by a reduction in energy dissipation bers (34). Elevated creatine kinase and improvement (2.7%) in 3-km time trial
(18). The studies also suggested that lactate dehydrogenase levels (other for 17 male runners without concurrent
the changes were limited to the Achilles measures of acute muscle damage) improvement in maximal aerobic
tendon complex with no resultant were reported 72 hours after PT with capacity (V̇ O2max). This indicates the

31
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Plyometric Training

enhancements were due to muscular Another measure of strength, the ham- variations of explosive jumping. There-
efficiency, not metabolic changes (64). string to quadriceps (H:Q) ratio has fore, it is a common tool for both train-
Similarly, Vaczi et al. noted improve- been identified as a key indicator in ing and measurement of performance
ments in 18 male recreational runners anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) enhancement. A meta-analysis by
in three separate running velocities after injury prevention. Young female recre- Markovic of 26 studies of PT found
6 weeks of PT. Averaged values ational athletes showed an improve- improvements in depth jump (DJ)
(m$mL21$kg21) for the 3 running speeds ment in hamstring peak torques while and SJ performance by 4.7% and coun-
were: (a) experimental subjects-5.14 6 maintaining quadriceps output after six termovement jump (CMJ) perfor-
0.39 pretraining, 5.26 6 0.39 posttrain- weeks PT, therefore improving H:Q mance by 8.7% (57). These findings
ing; and (b) control subjects 5.10 6 0.36 ratio and ACL injury risk prevention are shown consistently in many studies
pretraining, 5.06 6 0.36 posttraining. (70). Also, Malisoux et al. (37) showed of varying PT protocols. SJ has been
There was no concurrent improvement individual fiber peak power outputs observed to improve in adolescent
in V̇ O2max (71). Saunders et al. (61) increased by 35% in type I, 25% in type boys over a 10-week program, consist-
investigated fifteen highly trained dis- IIa, and 57% in type IIa/IIx fibers. ing of 2 sessions per week, with training
tance runners using three different run- volume increasing from 60 to 100
ning velocities (14, 16, 18 km$h21) in SPRINT VELOCITY/AGILITY jumps per session over the trial (32).
4-minute treadmill tests. They observed A meta-analysis of 26 studies investi- Similar results have been seen in
improvements in 18-km$h21 test results gating the effects of PT on sprint healthy untrained adult men training
after 9 weeks PT, without concurrent performance found that sprint perfor- 4 days per week over 12 weeks (33).
improvement in aerobic fitness. mance was optimized under the fol- CMJ performance has been more
lowing parameters: (a) a training widely documented. Improvements in
period of ,10 weeks, (b) a minimum the order of 7.5% and 10% have been
MAXIMAL STRENGTH of 15 sessions in total, (c) high-intensity reported in healthy adult male recrea-
Maximal strength is seen as a key per- exercises, and (d) greater than 80 com- tional athletes (17). Vissing et al.
formance indicator in most sports. Evi- bined jumps per session (56). Further- observed an increase of 10% in CMJ
dence suggests that this particular more, sprint-specific PT exercises such performance in untrained adult male
neuromuscular quality is an underlying as those inclusive of an element of hor- subjects over a 12-week protocol train-
factor in most areas of functional izontal displacement were more bene- ing 3 days per week. Training volume
capacity (26,29,79). Research has ficial than those without. Additional increased from 60 impacts at the begin-
demonstrated that PT has a positive load in PT exercises was found to be ning to 180 impacts at the end of the
impact on maximal strength and power ineffective as a method of overload. PT study (76). Such improvements are not
(21). A meta-analysis by Saez-Saez de was shown to improve sprint perfor- limited to bilateral CMJ. Untrained
Villarreal et al. (58) of 15 studies on PT mance over distances from 5 to 30 m adult women improved single-leg
found a positive effect on lower-body in adolescents (5) and 40 m in junior CMJ performance and alternate-leg
maximal muscle strength. These soccer players (7,11). Improvements of bounding after 12 weeks (33 per week)
strength gains have also been shown 0.5–0.7 s have also been seen in agility of PT (36). Not all studies, however,
to be explosive in nature and enhanced trials, including 6 3 5 m shuttle run were unanimous in reporting improve-
by the addition of traditional RT test, t Test, and Illinois agility test from ments in VJ performance with PT.
(17,32). Greater improvements in max- pre- to post-test. There were no reduc- College-aged women (75) and highly-
imal strength were observed in a com- tions in times for the control group in trained male runners (71) showed no
bined RT/PT group (20%) when either measure (44). Despite the afore- improvement in VJ height which may
compared with a control group using mentioned improvements, PT has not indicate that 6 weeks of PT is insuffi-
PT only (6%) in 60 male physical edu- been shown to be a better method of cient to elicit performance gains in rela-
cation students (57). In addition to this, improvement in sprint performance tion to jump height.
Ramirez-Campillo et al. (52) noted than sprint training itself (52). This is
improved 5 repetition maximum squat in accordance with the theory of spec-
strength in 29 middle-distance runners ificity in sports training. Thus, PT RELATIONSHIP TO SPORTS
after 7 weeks of PT. PERFORMANCE
would be best used as an adjunct to
Marked improvement in maximal specific sprint training to maximize COURT SPORTS
squat strength in college-aged males speed and agility performance. Athletes involved in court sports expe-
(35,41,57) and leg-press performance rience high levels of transfer of PT ef-
have also been reported (37,76). VERTICAL JUMP fects to sports performance. Basketball,
PT improved ballistic leg press by The most studied performance mea- volleyball, netball, handball, and tennis
greater than 4-fold when compared sure in relation to PT is the VJ. The tend to require high levels of speed,
with conventional RT (17–4% respec- most commonly used plyometric exer- agility, and jumping ability to perform
tively) (76). cises revolve around the VJ and tasks such as shooting in basketball

32 VOLUME 38 | NUMBER 1 | FEBRUARY 2016


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and blocking in volleyball. Therefore, (22.1%) and various agility tests implications for throwing velocity (4).
many studies have examined the effects (29.6 %) have been observed in young The PT group improved throwing
of PT on performance. In a comparison athletes (43). Similar effects have been velocity from 83.15 to 85.15 mph after
of traditional PT and loaded plyometric observed in elite men 20.29(s) (t test) eight weeks of PT. Similar changes were
exercise using weight vests in 27 elite and 20.26(s) (Illinois agility test) (74). not observed in the control group, mak-
male basketball players, both PT and The impact of PT on jump height and ing this an important performance
loaded PT groups improved CMJ, SJ, lower-extremity power and their rela- enhancement for baseball.
and 5 repetition jumps performance tionship to kicking in soccer have also
with a significantly higher effect in the been explored. Of particular interest is WATER SPORTS
loaded group (30). Drop height was the practical application to improved Several studies have examined the ef-
shown to play an integral role in the ball speed (48,63) or total kicking dis- fects of PT in swimming, which may
magnitude of gains with PT in 33 elite tance (55). In a study conducted by have sports-specific benefits for kicking
junior basketball players. The training Rubley et al. (55) on 16 adolescent propulsion and horizontal forces
protocol of DJ at a height of either 50 female soccer players, improvements (9,53,54). Significant improvements in
or 100 cm, three times per week for 6 were noted in VJ performance and peak torques around both hip and knee
weeks increased VJ height 4.8 cm and kicking distance after 14 weeks PT, joints were noted after 9 weeks of plyo-
5.6 cm, respectively (42). In a more but not at seven weeks. This suggests metric long jump training. The
comprehensive study of upper- and young women may require longer increased horizontal force (7%) and
lower-body PT by Santos and Janeira adaptation periods than male soccer horizontal take-off velocity (16%) have
(60) in 24 junior recreational basketball players. significant performance implications for
players, the intervention group signifi- PT in rugby players has primarily start times and tumble turns (51), swim
cantly improved SJ, CMJ, DJ, and med- focussed on lower-body power outputs, performance time to 5.5 m (20.59 sec-
icine ball throw performances after 10 speed, and agility. A study of under-19 onds versus 20.21 for control group),
weeks. A detraining effect, 6 weeks after university-level rugby players (n 5 35) and velocity of take-off to contact
training, was found when the PT stim- showed significant improvements in 20- (0.19 milliseconds versus 20.07 milli-
ulus was removed despite the continu- m sprint time, Wingate anaerobic cycle seconds for control group) (2).
ation of regular basketball training. test performance, and t test agility after
INJURY PREVENTION
VJ performance improved by +11.1% 4 weeks of PT (50). A comparison of
when compared with control +4% in traditional postpotentiation activation Plyometric exercises are not only used
19 adolescent volleyball players with 6 strategies (i.e., heavy lifting stimulus for performance gain but as an injury
weeks of aquatic PT (40) and in 22 before explosive activity) and PT prevention tool. PT has been shown to
male handball players +2.78% CMJ, showed that a set of 40 SJ produced be more effective than RT in improv-
2.68% DJ, with a combined PT and an equivalent increase in CMJ perfor- ing functional performance of athletes
sprint training protocol over 12 weeks mance to that seen in a heavy squat after lateral ankle sprain (28). When
(8). Tennis has also shown to benefit followed by CMJ test. Similar results using PT in an injury prevention con-
from PT. Tennis-related plyometric were observed for tests timed at 1-, 3-, text, consideration must also be given
drills may be either upper- or lower- and 5-minute rest periods before CMJ to the type of exercise prescribed.
body in nature and benefit speed and (68). This research suggests a complex Other considerations include the land-
agility components of the sport (59) training protocol may not be required to ing mechanics involved in lower-body
and serve mechanics (23). In 26 elite elicit post-potentiation activation per- exercises or rotational torques involved
junior tennis players, ball speed formance benefits. in upper-body exercises. Fundamental
increased by 1–3% during a tennis to landing mechanics are muscle
serve when high volume upper-body recruitment strategies, joint angles,
THROWING SPORTS and loading patterns. Differences in
PT was added to the traditional tennis
warm-up before competition (23). The evidence suggests that upper-body hamstring and gluteal activities have
plyometric exercises are a valuable tool been identified across plyometric exer-
in throwing sports for increasing upper- cises during the preparatory and land-
FIELD SPORTS body power (62), and thus improving ing phases. Single-leg sagittal plane
The transfer of PT effect to improve- performance in track and field throwing hurdle hops produced the greatest glu-
ment in field sports performance re- athletes (47) and baseball pitchers (4). teal and hamstring activity across both
lates more to improvement in sprint Significant improvement in concentric phases. This exercise may be important
velocity and agility rather than jump- internal rotation and eccentric external to include in ACL injury prevention
ing ability. This is probably due to the rotation of the shoulder joint of programs (66). Investigation of seven
fact that these sports rarely involve division-1 baseball players (n 5 24) after plyometric exercises (2-foot ankle
jumping tasks during competition. Im- the ballistic-6 protocol (a set of 6 hop, repeated SJ, double-leg hop, DJ
provements in 10-m sprint time upper-body plyometric exercises) has from 30 and 60 cm, and single- and

33
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Copyright ª National Strength and Conditioning Association. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
Plyometric Training

double-leg tuck jumps) showed

3–4 min or Electrostimulation


marked differences in mechanical out-

1–2 min or Conventional RT

Olympic liftinga

Olympic liftinga

Olympic liftinga
Combination
put at the ankle and hip joints. Most
variables at the ankle joint were great-
est for two-foot ankle hop and tuck
jumps, whereas most hip joint variables
were greatest for repeated SJ or
double-leg hop (67).

4 min or

1 min or

2 min or
Rest
Practical recommendations for implementation of plyometric exercises into sports specific training programs

1:10

1:10

1:10

1:10

1:10
CONCLUSION
In conclusion, the length of PT pro-
grams, training dose (intensity, dura-
tion, and frequency of individual

Low to moderate
sessions), types of exercise, and place-
Intensity

High intensity

High intensity

High intensity

High intensity

ment in a periodized program will vary

unloaded
according to the sport, the training level
loaded

loaded

loaded

loaded

of the athlete, the particular physiolog-


ical attribute being trained (i.e., sprint
performance, muscular strength, jump
.300 contacts per

height), and the incorporation of other


30–60 throws per
.50 contacts per

.80 contacts per

.80 contacts per

modes of RT. Precise volumes, frequen-


Volume

cies, and intensities of PT have not yet


been specifically elucidated for optimal
session

session

session

session

session

improvements in sporting performance


and further investigations are war-
ranted. However, the findings of this
review indicate that plyometric training
Frequency

3 times per
Table 1

weekly

weekly

weekly

can be a valuable tool to include into


week
2–3/wk

structured strength and conditioning


Twice

Twice

8–10 wk Twice

programs to enhance sporting perfor-


mance across a wide variety of land-
Duration

.10 wk

,10 wk

,10 wk

and water-based sports.


20 wk

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS
When considering the practical appli-
Horizontal displacement

cation of PT, coaches should consider


Unilateral and bilateral

Unilateral and bilateral

Unilateral and bilateral

Unilateral and bilateral


Exercise modality

many aspects of the training program.


Elements of programming such as pro-
gram length, frequency of sessions,
upper body

component

intensity of exercises, and volume are


also crucial to the effects of PT and
may differ depending on outcome mea-
sure. Bi-weekly sessions are recommen-
ded for most sporting categories,
although water and court sports may
Training phase

precompetition

precompetition

require greater frequency. Performance


Competition or

Competition or

Competition or

enhancements are noted for programs


transitiona

transitiona

transitiona
Transition or

Field sports Transition or

less than 10 weeks in duration for most


RT 5 resistance training.

sporting categories. However, court


and water sports seem to require
longer training interventions. Recom-
mendations from 2 meta-analyses into
Track and

Throwing

program length and frequency are con-


sports

sports

sports
field

tained in Table 1 (10,56). The intensity


Water
Court

of exercises has been studied in relation


to depth of drop jumps (1,38,42),

34 VOLUME 38 | NUMBER 1 | FEBRUARY 2016


Copyright ª National Strength and Conditioning Association. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
unilateral versus bilateral exercises (36), and maximal force (59). Although sag- 2. Bishop DC, Smith RJ, Smith MF, and
and the addition of external loads (30). ittal plane, but not frontal plane, PT Rigby HE. Effect of plyometric training on
swimming block start performance in
When considering box height for DJ, no significantly improved VJ height in bas-
adolescents. J Strength Cond Res 23:
consistent recommendations have been ketball players. Coaches should imple- 2137–2143, 2009.
determined. Matavulj et al. (42) found ment both types of PT as both
3. Cadore EL, Pinheiro E, Izquierdo M,
that no differences in performance were contribute to improved power and Correa CS, Radaelli R, Martins JB,
gained from 50 cm or 100 cm heights. speed (31). Lhullier FL, Laitano O, Cardoso M, and
However, Marina et al. (38) conclude One final consideration when pro- Pinto RS. Neuromuscular, hormonal, and
the optimal height for DJ to be between gramming PT is the nature of the sur- metabolic responses to different plyometric
40 and 60 cm. In terms of landing training volumes in rugby players. J Strength
face on which the exercises are
Cond Res 27: 3001–3010, 2013.
mechanics, bilateral differences in land- performed. Although traditionally per-
ing force and contact time 4. Carter AB, Kaminski TW, Douex AT Jr,
formed on land-based surfaces (run-
are minimized from a height of 60 cm Knight CA, and Richards JG. Effects of high
ning tracks and grass fields), some volume upper extremity plyometric training
(1). When compared with bilateral studies have shown both aquatic and on throwing velocity and functional strength
plyometric exercises, unilateral PT pro- land-based PT produce improvements ratios of the shoulder rotators in collegiate
duced power and jumping performance in VJ height (65). In addition, plyomet- baseball players. J Strength Cond Res 21:
gains faster than bilateral PT, but per- ric training on sand has shown im- 208–215, 2007.
formance gains are longer lasting after provements in both jumping and 5. Chaouachi A, Hammami R, Kaabi S,
bilateral PT when the training stimulus sprinting ability and induced less mus- Chamari K, Drinkwater EJ, and Behm DG.
is removed (38). The literature suggests cle soreness. A grass surface seems to Olympic weightlifting and plyometric
high-intensity exercises and the addi- training with children provides similar or
be superior in enhancing CMJ perfor-
greater performance improvements than
tion of external load are beneficial for mance, whereas the sand surfaces seem traditional resistance training. J Strength
most categories except water sports. to elicit a greater improvement in SJ. Cond Res 28: 1483–1496, 2014.
Low-intensity exercises have demon- Therefore, plyometric training on dif-
6. Chatzinikolaou A, Fatouros IG,
strated the greatest benefit for this class ferent surfaces may elicit different Gourgoulis V, Avloniti A, Jamurtas AZ,
of sports. Training volumes of higher training-induced effects (27). Nikolaidis MG, Douroudos I, Michailidis Y,
than 50 foot contacts per session are Conflicts of Interest and Source of Funding: Beneka A, Malliou P, Tofas T, Georgiadis I,
suggested for court sports and 80 foot The authors report no conflicts of interest
Mandalidis D, and Taxildaris K. Time course
contacts are recommended for track of changes in performance and
and no source of funding. inflammatory responses after acute
and field sports. Throwing sports seem
plyometric exercise. J Strength Cond Res
to require lower volumes of 30–60 24: 1389–1398, 2010.
throws per session. This may be due Mark A. Booth 7. Chelly MS, Ghenem MA, Abid K,
to the upper body nature of these exer- is a PhD Candi- Hermassi S, Tabka Z, and Shephard RJ.
cises. Water sports require the highest date at the Uni- Effects of in-season short-term plyometric
training volume with greater than 300 versity of Sydney. training program on leg power, jump- and
contacts per session required to elicit sprint performance of soccer players.
a performance enhancement. Recom- J Strength Cond Res 24: 2670–2676,
mendations for exercise intensity and 2010.
volume are contained in Table 1. 8. Cherif M, Said M, Chaatani S, Nejlaoui O,
Gomri D, and Abdallah A. The effect of
Plyometric exercise selection is a combined high-intensity plyometric and
another crucial element to consider. Rhonda Orr is speed training program on the running and
Programs aimed at enhancing perfor- a Senior Lecturer jumping ability of male handball players.
mance must be designed differently in the Depart- Asian J Sports Med 3: 21–28, 2012.
from those that target reducing land- ment of Exercise 9. Cossor JM, Blanksby BA, and Elliott BC.
ing forces and minimizing injury risk and Sports Sci- The influence of plyometric training on the
(75). The exercises should be as specific ence at the Uni- freestyle tumble turn. J Sci Med Sport 2:
to the tasks or skill set performed in the versity of Sydney. 106–116, 1999.

sport. For example, long jump training 10. de Villarreal ES, Kellis E, Kraemer WJ, and
Izquierdo M. Determining variables of
should be used instead of VJ to improve
plyometric training for improving vertical
swim start performances (53). PT is jump height performance: A meta-analysis.
considered to improve fitness charac- J Strength Cond Res 23: 495–506, 2009.
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