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Everyday yes - no questions for practice

Here's a collection of everyday yes-no questions for practice.

Read each question several times - ALOUD. You may feel that you already know how to frame
these questions. And you could be right, too. But the aim here is not to teach you, but to teach
your organs of speech. Let the framework - the syntactic structure - of the questions get firmly
fixed in your mind. Let your organs of speech become used to moving according to the patterns
of these questions.
Therefore, even if you think you're very good at framing questions of these types, keep uttering
the questions ALOUD - several times. And you'll soon find that your organs of speech have
begun to get control over the question patterns. Here we go for the questions:
• Am I going north? • Am I headed towards town? • Am I making myself heard? • Anything
else I can do for you? • Are children allowed? • Are laundry machines available? • Are my
photos developed yet? •
Are pets allowed? • Are pets OK? • Are the kids ready? • Are there any nails in the box? •
Are there seats still available? • Are there tickets available on standby? • Are there vending
machines available? • Are these shop cakes? • Are they any good? • Are they going to be
OK? • Are things getting you down? • Are cameras permitted? • Are we almost there? • Are
we having fun yet? • Are we ready to leave?
• Is there anything I can do (to make it up to you)? • Is a gratuity included? • Is a meal
served? • Is a paper required for this course? • Is a washer and dryer available? • Is anyone
sitting here? • Is attendance required in this course? • Is everything all right? • Is
everything OK? •
Is he angry with me? • Is he breathing? • Is he getting fatter? • Is he nuts (= crazy)? • Is he
tall and dark? • Is it a big house? • Is it a fair proposition? • Is it cancer? • Is it catching? •
Is it causal or formal? • Is it close to public transportation? • Is it closing time already? • Is
it curable? • Is it difficult?
• Was he very late? • Was it a good game? • Was it a good show? • Was it expensive? • Was
it rough crossing them? • Was it twins or triplets? • Was it well acted? • Was the car
damaged? • Was the play good?
~ D'you agree with him? • D'you agree, Jim? • D'you and Mary like ice cream? • D'you both
play basketball? • D'you change your book every week? • D'you come here often? • D'you
ever go to the club? • D'you ever go to the theatre? • D'you follow? • D'you have his phone
number? • D'you have my prescription on file? • D'you have proof of insurance? • D'you
have reservations? • D'you have senior citizen discounts? • D'you have smaller bills? • D'you
have something a bit less expensive? • D'you have something specific in mind? • D'you have
student rates? • D'you have'the correct time? • D'you have the directions? • D'you have the
time? • D'you have this in a larger size? • D'you have this in a smaller size? • D'you have this
in blue? • D'you have this in stock? • D'you have this in suede? • D'you have this in wool? •
D'you have time for coffee? • D'you have to be there? • D'you have to drive this fast? • D'you
have to leave us? • D'you have vegetarian dishes? • D'you have your bank ID card? • D'you
have your keys? • D'you have your receipt? • D'you have your visa? • D'you hear? • D'you
hear me? • D'you hear what I'm saying? • D'you know any French? • D'you know Abdul
Zakir? • D'you know how much this was? • D'you know how to apply a tourniquet? • D'you
know how to find 501, Winston street? • D'you know if it's a boy or a girl? • D'you know the
time? • D'you know what I'm talking about? • D'you know what size you are? • D'you know
what the problem is? • D'you know what time it is? • D'you know what you want? • D'you
know where 327, Bristow Street is?
• Do you accept cheques? • Do you get the picture? • Do you accept credit cards? • Do you
agree? • Do you bake birthday cakes to order? • Do you care if I join you? • Do you carry
diet root beer? • Do you carry the Times of India? • Do you check out video cassettes? • Do
you come
here often? • Do you deliver? • Do you do alterations on men's clothing?
 Do you do alterations on women's clothing?
 Do I have to change buses? • Do I have to change planes? • Do I have to change trains?
• Do I have to feed them? • Do I have to stay over Saturday night? • Do I have to stay
• Does a bus go there? • Does a train go there? • Does anyone know CPR? • Does Arthur
really need it? • Does he ever lend a hand? • Does he know? • Does he sleep through the
night yet?
• Doesn't anyone want to do the crossword? • Don't I know you from somewhere? • Don't
you get a bit lonely? • Don't you go by underground? • Don't you have a light in your
garage? • Don't you have anything better to do?
• Did any of the parents turn up? • Did Bob talk to you? • Did everything go OK? • Did I say
you could touch that? • Did Olaf like it? • Did Mary post that letter? • Did someone mix
your plans? • Did the children behave? • Did the job take long? • Did they have any luck? •
Did we forget anything? • Did you bring me anything? • Did you bring the map? • Did you
buy anything? • Did you call at the bank? • Did you call him a liar? • Did you call, Frank? •
Did you catch the last train?
• Hadn't we better ring him now? Has he been sleeping well? • Has Michael arrived yet? •
Has she told them? • Has this been a problem before? • Hasn't this coupon expired? • Have
Bob and Jane arrived? • Have I made myself clear? • Have I met him before? • Have some?
• Have they figured out what's wrong? • Have we forgotten anything? • Have you any
cigarette left? • Have you any doubt about it? • Have you any objection? • Have you any
sealing wax? • Have you been keeping busy?
• Can anyone lend me a copy? • Can David borrow your penknife? • Can he play the piano?
• Can I apply for a credit card? • Can I ask you a question? • Can I borrow it ? • Can I
borrow some matches? • Can I borrow your rubber? • Can I bring my kids? • Can I bring
pets? • Can I bring something? • Can I bring two guests? • Can I bum a light? • Can I buy a
money order here? • Can I buy you a drink? • Can I call you a taxi? • Can I call you back? •
Can I change my flight schedule? • Can I change my itinerary? • Can I check my baggage
through? • Can I check your oil? • Can I check your ryres? • Can I come again on Monday?
• Can I come home by myself, Mummy? • Can I come over? • Can I get you something to
drink? • Can I get you something to drink with that? • Can I go standby?
• Could I bother you for the time? • Could I buy you a drink? • Could I come over later
today? • Could I get by, please? • Could I get you something to drink? • Could I give you a
lift? • Could I have a soda? •
Could I have a word with you? • Could I have more coffee, please? • Could I have
seconds, please? • Could I have some more bread, please? • Could I have some more
butter? • Could I have some more water, please? • Could I have some quarters, please? •
Could 1 have someone call you? • Could I have the bill?
• May 1 ask why you wish to cancel? • May 1 be excused? • May I be frank? • May I
borrow this a moment? • May I borrow this book for a while? • May I borrow this pen? •
May I borrow your pen? • May I bring a friend? • May 1 come to your lecture? • May I
come too? • May I get it gift wrapped? • May I have a receipt, please? • May I have another
 Must I eat it now? • Must 1 go by train? • Must she type it out again?
 Must we be very quiet? • Must you do that? • Must you beat a dead horse?
• Shall I buy you a replacement? • Shall I check your oil? • Shall 1 come in by the front
door? • Shall 1 get rid of it? • Shall 1 get you some more? • Shall 1 go back for it now? •
Shall 1 go or shan't I? • Shall I go to the meeting? • Shall 1 lend him mine?
• Should I bring anything? • Should 1 call a doctor? • Should 1 call for the nurse? •
Should I send them directly to the funeral home?
• Will I be able to make my connection? • Will he be all right? • Will he buy another one? •
Will he come back? • Will he say yes, d:you think? • Will he turn up, d'you think? • Will it
be on sale soon? • Will my insurance cover this? • • Will that be a large soft drink? • Will
that be all?
• Won't you be cold if you don't come inside? • Won't you come for a walk? • Won't you
have some grapes? • Won't he get irritated?
• Would a glass of water help? • Would anyone be interested in giving up their seat in
exchange for a free ticket? • Would anyone like coffee? • Would Julia subscribe, d'you
suppose? • Would RaJu take it, d you think? Would Pablo have a game? • Would you
please gift wrap that? • Would you accept a cigar? • Would you care for dessert? • Would
you care for some nuts? • Would you care for some tea? • Would you care for the butter? •
Would you care to make a reservation for another night? • Would you care to see the wine
list? • Would you care to stay for dinner? • Would you check my tyres? • Would you check
the battery? • Would you check the oil? • Would you check the shocks? • Would you excuse
me? •
Would you give me the Zip code for Los Angeles? • Would you have a look under the hood? •
Would you keep or sell it? • Would you like a baked potato, fries, or rice? • Would you like a
bite? • Would you like a I black one or a blue one?


Everyday wh-questions for practice
Here's a collection of everyday wh-words for practice. Read each word group several times -
• What sort of salary do you expect? • What are the requirements? •
Tell me exactly what happened? • What's the matter? • What's the ZIP code there? • What's
to go wrong? • Well, what d'you say to my offer? • What about a game of billiards? • What
about Sasha? • What about asking Hamid? • What about their offer? • What about giving it
to Frank? • What about his cabbages? • What about liver and onions? • What about Sheila?
• What about mileage? • What about Jose? • What about Smiths? • What about some
brandy? • What about something to drink? • What about the pills? • What about the
washing up? • What about this material? • What about this money? • What about this old
deed? • What about this waste paper basket? • What about Thursday? • What got into you?
• What kind of flowers did you have in mind? • What makes you think I care? • What time is
it? • What's your deal? • What's your point? • What's your sign (= star sign)? • What star
sign are you? • What's happening? • What's his name? • What do you want to hear? • What
about vegetables? • What aisle is the canned salmon in? • What am I charged with? • What
am I supposed to do about it? • What are my monthly principal and interest payments? •
What are the alternatives?

• When are we to expect you? • When are you being released? • When are you coming to
stay with us? • When are you due? • When are you free? • When are you going home? •
When are you going to Brazil again? • When are you open? • When are your office hours? •
When can I borrow it? • When can I move in? • When can I see you alone? • When can I
take occupancy? • When can you come? • When can you do it? • When can you give me an
estimate? • When can you let me have them? • When can you start? • When d'you want
me? • When do I have to be out of the room by?
• Where do you come off saying that? • Where are the best seats you have left? • Where are
the children's clothes? • Where are the napkins?
• Where are the periodicals? • Where are the public rest rooms? •
Where are the rest rooms? • Where are their bags? • Where are we? • Where are you going?
• Where are you going for your holidays? • Where are you located? • Where are you off to? •
Where are you off to now? • Where are you staying? • Where can I find children's clothes? •
Where can I get a library card? • Where can I get Italian food?
• Which ships call at Barbados? • Which airport? • Which are our places? • Which building
is your office in? • Which car shall I use? • Which comer? • Which credit cards do you
take? • Which d'you recommend? • Which day's best, d'you think? • Which do you prefer?
• Which do you prefer, Tom?
• Who are you? • Who asked you? • Who can say that? • Who can we ask? • Who can we get
to stand in? • Who d'you think will contribute? •
Who do I call in case of emergency? • Who do you think you are? • Who do you think you're
kidding? • Who do you want to speak with? • Who do you want to talk to? • Who do you
wish to speak to? • Who do you wish to speak with? • Who asked your opinion? • Who do
you think you're talking to? • Who gave you the right? • Who gave him the book? • Who
gave it to you? • Who got the goal?
• Why are they so cross with me? • Why are you looking so miserable? • Why are you so
blue (= sad)? • Why are you so bullheaded? • Why are you so late? • Why are you so
miserable? • Why be so rude to him? • Why bring an umbrella? • Why bring me that book?
• Why bring me that file? • Why can't you behave? • Why d'you ask about that book? •
Why d'you give me extra home work? • Why d'you put up with it? • Why d'you want more
money? • Why did he refuse? • Why did he run away? • Why did you go there? • Why did
you leave your last job? • Why did you lock the door? •
Why did you pay in cash? • Why didn't Zahid come? • Why didn't he ask me? • Why didn't
your brother mention it to her? • Why didn't they ignore it? • Why didn't you phone me,
then? • Why didn't you play? • Why didn't you talk them out of it? • Why didn't you tell


• How many weeks in advance do I have to buy to get a discount? • How much postage do I
need for this? • How close to the Town hall is it? • How much are my monthly principal and
interest payments? • How goes it with you? • How you doing? • How would I know? • How
are you this morning? • And how about your sister? • And how are you today? • And how
was your Christmas? • And how's the skirt? • And what is your name? • How do I get back
to the disc operating system? • Which line goes downtown? • How about a bite? • How about
a cup of coffee? • How about a game of bridge? • How about a rubber, Tony? • How about a
theatre tonight? • How about asking Ajith? • How about asking Pedro and Keshav? • How
about asking Priya to join us? • How about asking the Menons? • How about asking Tim? •
How about cleaning up a little around here? • How about going in the spring? • How about
Jane? • How about me going to fetch them? • How about phoning them? • How about
postponing the game? • How about Saturday? • How about six o'clock? • How about some
new heels? • How about the jacket? • How about visiting the museum? • How am I doing? •
How are you? • How are you doing? • How are you doing today? • How are you feeling? •
How are you feeling now?

Tag questions
Here's a collection of questions with question tags attached to them. Read each question
ALOUD several times - and get the feel of the tags. The questions would sound easy to you. But
just because they are easy, don't slacken your practice. The aim is NOT to teach you the
questions themselves. The aim is to let you get the feel of the tags and their patterns, and to
push you into the habit of using tag questions in everyday speech. So go over the questions as
many times as possible. Here we go:
• Buses are not running today + are they? • They're not the same + are they? • You're not
buying that one + are you? • You're not eating that + are you? • You're not really leaving +
are you? • You're not very good at it + are you? • I am the next +aren't I? • I'm controlling it
+ aren't I? • Everyone is well at home + aren't they? • These shoes are my size + aren't they?
• The grapes are fine and ripe + aren't they? • Blue and green are primary colours + aren't
they? • Only a few are going + aren't they? • They are + aren't they? • They are beautiful
places + aren't they? • You are going to play tennis + aren't you? • You are uneasy about the
quarrel + aren't you? • You're due in at ten + aren't you? • You're from Tokyo + aren't you?
 I can put trust in him + can't I? • I can do it any way I want + can't I?
 I can ring you back a little later + can't I? • They can catch the train, if they go fast +
can't they? • You can wait a little longer + can't you? • You can play + can't you Nadia? •
You can come on Friday + can't you? • You can manage Fridays + can't you? • You can play
on Saturday + can't you? • She couldn't manage with what she had + could she? • You could
see it at a glance + couldn't you? • You could run faster if you wanted + couldn't you?
• John didn't have any breakfast this morning + did he? • He didn't get many right + did he?
• She didn't help you with your work + did she? • They didn't answer your questions + did
they? • You didn't know I was an artist + did you? • You didn't know that + did you? • He sat
down opposite you + didn't he? • He wanted to throw a scare into me + didn't he? • He
wanted to clear \';J this matter + didn't he? • He did his best to ruin your life + didn't he? •
He took his friend home yesterday + didn't he?' He came back just a short time ago + didn't
he? • He gave it to you + didn't he? • He played for Korea + didn't he? • The fire broke out
late at night + didn't it? • Her car knocked a man down + didn't it? • The fish tasted bad +
didn't it? • The train left the station early + didn't it? • The box fell heavily + didn't it? • The
story amused everybody + didn't it? • It became stronger + didn't it? • She left the light on in
her room + didn't she? • ~11e fell off the bicycle + didn't she? • She waved to you from the
bus + didn't she? • She overslept a little this morning + didn't she? • All these things
happened long ago + didn't they? • This time everybody clapped harder than before + didn't
they? • They went to the football match yesterday + didn't they? • You got to the college
late+ didn't you? • You went there on foot + didn't you? • You lay awake all night + didn't
you? • You dropped the pen on the floor + didn't you? • You pulled him by the collar + didn't
you? • You felt dizzy after the accident + didn't you? • You broke the window
+ didn't you? • I don't need a jacket + do I? • I have no choice in the matter + do I? •
Nobody cares for the law nowadays + do they? • Her gray hairs don't show too much + do
they? • You don't eat much meat at home + do you? • You don't suppose it matters + do
you? • You don't care for it much + do you? • You don't mind + do you? • He doesn't wear
glasses + does he? • He doesn't take sugar in tea + does he? • He doesn't speak French +
does he? • He doesn't want it + does he? • That clown has no sense + does he? • This shirt
doesn't look well on me + does it? • The car doesn't start + does it? • It doesn't work + does
it? • That hardly counts + does it? • She doesn't interest you in the slightest + does she? •
He needs a haircut + doesn't he? • He sleeps too little + doesn't he? • This jacket goes well
with this skirt + doesn't it? • That shirt looks really stunning on him + doesn't it? • This fan
looks all right + doesn't it? • This one seems to be just as good as the other one + doesn't it?
• This shirt fits you better + doesn't it? • It looks like rain today + doesn't it? • The school
starts next week + doesn't it? • She knows how to drive a car + doesn't she? • She looks
very tired +
doesn't she? • She usually has curd for lunch + doesn't she? • Everybody wants to make money
+ don't they? • Oranges cost less than apples + don't they? • They live near the college + don't
they? • We have to get a chair made + don't we? • You want to change this hundred-rupee note
+ don't you? • You know how to ride a bicycle + don't you? • You know how to ride a scooter +
don't you? • You often wonder if I am happy + don't you? • You doubt if I can do the job well +
don't you? • You like your pants a little loose + don't you? • You do believe me + don't you? •
• You like Natasha a lot + don't you? • You had on a white shirt and blue pants + didn't you? •
You had to work long hours everyday + didn't you?
• He has gone off to some place far away + hasn't he? • Your son has grown up + hasn't he? • He
has taken off his shoes + hasn't he? • He has done very well in the test + hasn't he? • The
postman has delivered mail + hasn't he? • The milk has gone sour + hasn't it? • The war has
come to an end + hasn't it? • There has been a strike in the factory + hasn't there? • Father and
mother have not come so far + have they? • You haven't told him + have you? • You've never
been to Agra + have you? • I have been in the class room since the bell rang + haven't I? • I have
made out the receipt correctly + haven't I? • Somebody has to file a complaint+ haven't they? •
We have to discuss a few preliminaries + haven't we? • You've had lunch + haven't you? • You
have got enough for yourself + haven't you? • You have talked with her long enough + haven't
you? • You've got more than three + haven't you? • You have made up your mind to marry her +
haven't you? • Nobody had bothered to plant new ones + had they?
 He isn't kind to her + is he? • This battered old car isn't yours + is it?
 This chair isn't comfortable to sit in + is it? • Her house is not far to walk + is it? • It's
not very difficult + is it? • There is nothing further I've to do + is there? • There isn't a drop of
water left + is there? • There's nobody in + is there? • Their father is still living + isn't he? •
He is quite a good player + isn't he? • He is very selfish + isn't he? • He is putting off doing that
work+ isn't he? • He's a communist + isn't he? • He's nice + isn't he? • It is time for bed + isn't
it? • That is the man you told me about + isn't it? • That's enough + isn't it? • The tea is too hot
to drink + isn't it? • Your name is Kamala + isn't it? • Your father's name is Gopal Rao + isn't
it? • Your motor bike is in good condition + isn't it? • The box is too heavy to lift + isn't it? •
Your house is across the road + isn't it? • This report is badly written + isn't it? • Your house is
right by the park + isn't it? • It's a good plan + isn't it? • It's difficult + isn't it? • It's good + isn't
it? • It's Mohan Kumar + isn't it? • It's rather difficult + isn't it? • This is the bag you asked for
+ isn't it? • This
room's freezing + isn't it? • It is quite warm + isn't it? • She is always very unlucky + isn't she? •
She is the image of her mother + isn't she? • Mum is preparing the food + isn't she? • She is
afraid of the dark + isn't she? • She's a pleasant girl + isn't she? • There is a shorter way here +
isn't there? • There is plenty of time + isn't there? • There's a great deal of difference + isn't
• We mustn't hurt others + must we? • Children must do as they are told + mustn't they? • We
must water the plants well + mustn't we? • We must go now + mustn't we?
 Let's go out to dinner + shall we? • Let's give them a treat + shall we?
 I should think carefully before I act + shouldn't I? • I should take the train from the
junction + shouldn't I? • She should have told us before
+ shouldn't she? • He was not used to washing his own clothes + was he? • He was not used to
getting up early + was he? • There wasn't enough food left for you + was there? • He was
working all night + wasn't he? • He was sitting in his room all by himself + wasn't he? • He was
too scared to look at you + wasn't he? • The story he told was a strange one + wasn't it? • The
wind was blowing hard + wasn't it? • It was rather odd + wasn't it? • Lovely evening + wasn't
it? • The party was fun + wasn't it? • She was working far into the night + wasn't she? • There
was quite a crowd at the gate + wasn't there? • There was quite a crowd at the stadium + wasn't
there? • It was my mistake + wasn't it? • You weren't there + were you? • They were surprised
when they saw you + weren't they? • You were holding the things tight + weren't you?
 A good deal of the time you were alone + weren't you?
 There won't be any discounts + will there? • They won't treat this complaint lightly +
will they? • Call your dog + will you? • Help me put it right + will you? • Lend me fifty rupees +
will you? • Lend me your pen + will you? • You won't give me away + will you? • You won't tell
a soul + will you, Nadia? • You won't tell anyone + will you? • You won't tell him + will you? •
You won't tell anyone else all this + will you? • He will be free in a minute + won't he? • He will
tell you the result + won't he? • Jim'll help + won't he ? • It'll hurt + won't it? • There will be a
flower-show here next week + won't there? • Your friends will be coming to the station + won't
they? • You will get back a little after five + won't you? • Wait for me + won't you?

So, here we go for the question-initiator word groups:

• Am I right in thinking ... ? • Am I not right in supposing ... ? • Am I the only. .. ? • Am I
going to be ... ? • Am I a little ... ?


 Are short people ... ? • Are there any letters for. .. ? • Are there any ... ? Are they all ?•
Are you a ... ? • Are you afraid of ... ? • Are you
doing anything ? • Are you enjoying ... ? • Are you going to let me ... ? • Are you going to
pay for. .. ? • Are you going to visit. .. ? • Are you going to ? • Are you having a ? • Are you
having ... ? • Are you learning any ? • Are you nearly ? • Are your neighbours ?•
Are you sorry for what ... ? • Are you sure ... ? • Are your friends ? • Aren't you tired of...? •
Aren't you ... ?
• Can Dad ... ? • Can I borrow your...? • Can I help ... ? • Can I leave the washing up till .. ? •
Can we ... ? • Can they be ... ? • Can Rao ? • Can you be ready at. .. ? • Can you carry the ...
? • Can you drink ? • Can you imagine ... ? • Can you read the notice ... ? • Can you read
the ... ? • Can you remember when ... ? • Can you remember where ... ? • Can you see
the ... ? • Can you tell me how ... ? • Can you tell me the ... ? • Can you tell me what ... ? •
Can you tell me where ... ? • Can you tell me who ... ? • Can you tell me why you ... ? • Can
you tell me why ... ? • Can you tell me ... ? • Can they ... ? • Could he have prevented ... ? •
Could I have a cup of ... ? • Could I have a new ... ? • Could I have a look at ... ? • Could I
have some more ... ? • Could I have your ... ? • Could I see your. .. ? • Could I speak to ... ? •
Could you live entirely on your. .. ? • Could they be ... ? • Could we speak to the ... ? • Could
you change a ... ? • Could you do without ... ? • Could you help me with ... ? • Could you
keep it in your ... ? • Could you lend it to ... ? • Could you please ring back in ... ? • Could
you possibly do it ... ? • Could you possibly give me a ... ? • Could you read the ... ? • Could
you ring up the ... ? • Could you show me your ... ? • Could you sign the ... ? • Could you
spare ... ? • Could you wait a ... ? • Couldn't he be ... ? • Couldn't you leave some for. .. ?
• Did any of you actually see the ... ? • Did anyone ask any ... ? • Did he have to ... ? • Did he
help ... ? • Did they. .. ? • Did it take him long to
... ? • Did she have to ... ? • Did Sita have to ... ? • Did the idea interest any of...? • Did the
workers ... ? • Did they tell you to be ? • Did they understand what ... ? • Did you
buy ... ? • Did you do ? • Did you drink it ... ? • Did you ever have time ... ? • Did you
get a

chance to ... ? • Did you go to Japan for ... ? • Did you have a ... ? • Did you have a good
journey ... ? • Did you have any difficulty in ... ? • Did you have any money whe... ? • Did
you have to write ... ? • Did you have trouble ... ? • Did you hear a ... ? • Did you know she
hadn't anything to ? • Did you know what ... ? • Did you like the ... ? • Did you meet him ? •
Did you notice whether. .. ? • Did you post the letter. .. ? • Did you read ... ? • Did you
remember to ... ? • Did you reserve seats on ... ? • Did you see ? • Did you understand my
... ? • Did you use to ? • Did you visit the ? • Did your brother ... ? • Did your
mother say ? • Did your uncle agree to ... ? • Didn't I give you ? • Didn't I...? •
Didn't you do any work ... ? • Didn't you do some work ? • Didn't you use to ... ? • Do I
have to come at ... ? • Do I have to eat all this ? • Do Mary and Molly have ... ? • Do
most men ... ? • Do they all speak ? • Do they ever ... ? • Do they have to ... ? • Do we have
time to ... ? • Do you always have a ... ? • Do you come here by ... ? • Do you ever sleep in ... ?
• Do you feel that ... ?· Do you find it ... ? • Do you find that...? • Do you give it back
without ... ? • Do you grow your own vegetables ... ? • Do you have time to ... ? • Do you have
to ... ? • Do you have ... ? • Do you hear that noise ... ? • Do you
know anybody in ... ? • Do you know how far it is to ? • Do you know if any ... ? • Do
you know that ... ? • Do you know the ...............? • Do you know the way to ... ? • Do you know
what ... ? • Do you know where ..........................? • Do you know which is ... ? • Do you know
why ... ? • Do you know ......................................? • Do you like ... ? • Do you live ... ? • Do you
mind if 1. .. ? • Do you mind working on ... ? • Do you need ... ? • Do you object to ... ? • Do you
often eat ... ? • Do you often ................................? • Do you play ... ? • Do you prefer. .. ? • Do you
really think he used to ........................................? • Do you remember me asking for. .. ? • Do you
require ... ? • Do you see any ... ? • Do you see that ... ? • Do you see what ... ? • Do you suffer
from ... ? • Do you think hard when ... ? • Do you think he would come if ... ? • Do you think
he ... ? • Do you think I should ... ? • Do you think it wilL .. ? • Do you think we'll have to ... ? •
Do you think we should ... ? • Do you think you could ... ? • Do you understand what ... ? • Do
you want? • Do you want any more ... ? • Do you want to see the ... ? • Do they ... ?· Does a
number of people ... ? • Does anyone want tickets for. .. ? • Does he always ... ? • Does he drink. ..
? • Does he ever. .. ? • Does he have to ... ? • Does he know ... ? • Does he love ... ? • Does he
play ... ? • Does Mario ... ? • Does it cost very much to ... ? • Does it ever. .. ? • Does Raju
usually ... ? • Does she always wear. .. ? • Does she have to ... ? • Does your sister like ... ? •


Doesn't Mary ... ? • Doesn't Mr. Sharma know ... ? • Don't you wish you ... ?
• Had he realized ... ? • Hadn't we better ? • Has anyone cleaned the ... ? • Has Dad
ever. .. ? • Has he been ? • Has he missed his ... ? • Has he some other thing to ... ? • Has he
spoken to ... ? • Has he written to the . ? • Has his temperature ... ? • Has Nazia ? • Has
been ? • Has she fed the ? • Has she paid the ? • Has Sheila ... ? • Has somebody mended that
? • Has your dog ever bitten ... ? • Has
your friend gone ... ? • Hasn't he been ... ? • Hasn't she ? • Have I asked you to ... ? • Have
they ... ? • Have they been through .......................? • Have they done their. .. ? • Have they
repaired the ? • Have you and your friends ... ? • Have you any idea when ? • Have you any
other thing to ... ? • Have you any. .. ? • Have you anything else to ... ? • Have you been here ... ?
• Have you been to a ... ? • Have you been to the ... ? • Have they been to ... ? • Have you decided
on ... ? • Have you done any ... ? • Have you done this sort of ... ? • Have you eaten ... ? • Have
you ever been to ... ? • Have you ever driven ... ? • Have you ever drunk ... ? • Have you ever
eaten ... ? • Have you ever seen a ... ? • Have you ever seen ... ? • Have you ever tried to ... ? •
Have you ever watched ... ? • Have they ever. .. ? • Have we ever ... ? • Have you ever. .. ? • Have
you found the ... ? • Have you got a ticket for. .. ? • Have you got...? • Have you had anything
to ... ? • Have you had enough of...? • Have you had your. .. ? • Have you had ... ? • Have you
heard what ... ? • Have you lived here ... ? • Have you lost anything ... ? • Have you made the ... ?
• Have you met my ... ? • Have you paid the ... ? • Have you planted your. .. ? • Have you put the
car in ? • Have you seen a ? • Have you seen him ? • Have you seen his ? • Have you seen
my ...........................................................................? • Have you seen that ? • Have you sewn on
my ... ? • Have you spent all your. .. ? • Have you wound the ... ? • Have you ... ? • Have your
father and mother been ? • Haven't I given you ..? • Haven't you been ... ? • Haven't you got a ?
• Haven't you heard ?
• How can I possibly ... ? • How can I see when ... ? • How can they ... ? • How can one tell
if...? • How can we get there in ... ? • How can you bear to ? • How can you talk to
a ? • How could you be so ? • How did he ? • How did you come to ? • How did you
do in the ? • How did you get into ... ? • How did you get your. .. ? • How did you go
to ... ? • How do I get from here to ... ? • How do you get on with ... ? • How do you know
that ... ? • How do you know ? • How do you like my ... ? • How do you like this ... ? •
How does it ? • How far can you ? • How far is it to ... ? • How far is ... ? • How farwill...?
• How large is ? • How long ago did ... ? • How long did you spend ? • How long does it take
to ... ? • How long have you been learning ? • How long have they been ... ? • How long
is ... ? • How long will you go on ? • How long will your friends be ... ? • How many cakes
can you get into ? • How many have 1...? • How many letters did you ... ? • How many of
these are ... ? • How many of you can ... ? • How many of you have ... ? • How many of you
must ... ? • How many people know the ... ? • How many pieces of...? • How many times
have I told you not to ... ? • How many ... ? • How much are you going to give me for. .. ? •
How much are ... ? • How much did it ... ? • How much did these ... ? • How much did you
pay for. .. ? • How much did he ... ? • How much did ... ? • How much do you think ... ?
• How much does it cost to ... ? • How much have you ? • How much must. .. ? • How
much will. .. ? • How often are there ? • How often did
he ... ? • How old are ... ? • How old is ... ? • How soon will. .. ?
• Is it cold ... ? • Is it less expensive ... ? • Is it more expensive to ... ? • Is it true that they ? •
Is it very painful to ... ? • Is it worth ... ? • Is she
interested in ? • Is that a personal...? • Is the lift ... ? • Is there a ... ? • Is there time
for ... ? • Is this the spot where ... ? • Is your friend ... ? • Is your name ... ? • Isn't he ... ? • Isn't it
wonderful to have ... ? • Isn't she ... ?
• May I borrow your ... ? • May I take ... ?
• Must you always ask me what ... ? • Must you do it alL .. ? • Must you make such a ... ? •
Mustn't you eat ... ?
• Shall I ask her to ... ? • Shall I ask the little boy how to ... ? • Shall I carry some of...? •
Shall I do it before ? • Shall I ever see ... ? • Shall I
go and get a ... ? • Shall I have to do the ? • Shall I lend you some ... ? • Shall I start...? • Shall
I tell him what ............................? • Shall I wait for. .. ? • Shall
we be in time ... ? • Shall we be ? • Shall we ever. .. ? • Shall we go for. .. ? • Shall we meet


here in ? • Should he be ... ? • Should I be ... ? •

Should I tell the ....? • Should she be ... ? • Should the man be ... ? • Should we cut the ?•
Should you say ... ?
• Was it very ... ? • Was the driver ? • Was there a lot to ... ? • Wasn't Mozart a famous ... ? •
Wasn't she ? • Were father and mother. .. ? •
Were there many people at the ... ? • Were there...? • Were they sur- prised ? • Were
we ... ? • Were you able to ... ? • Were you at the
cinema ? • Were you trying to ... ? • Were you very busy ? • Were you very late ? • Weren't
you supposed to ... ? • Weren't you ............................?
• What about going for ... ? • What about going to ... ? • What about just putting a ... ? •
What about leaving this ... ? • What are all these ... ? • What are they supposed to ... ? •
What are we going to have for. .. ? • What are you doing for. .. ? • What are you doing
next. .. ? • What are you going to do with ... ? • What are you going to ... ? • What are you
whispering to ... ? • What brand of ? • What can it ... ? • What caused the ... ? •
What changes would you ? • What colour shirt did ... ? • What colour would you like ... ? •
What date ... ? • What did he ... ? • What did she ... ? • What did you have for. .. ? • What
did you miss most when ... ? • What did you see when ... ? • What did you ... ? • What
different colour polishes do ... ? • What different colours ... ? • What different occa-
sions ... ? • What different people ... ? • What different places ? • What different types
of...? • What do I have to ... ? • What do they ? • What do you expect me to ... ? • What
do you mean by ... ? • What do you plan to ... ? • What do you think it is ... ? • What do you
think you are ... ? • What does it...? • What else besides medicines is ... ? • What else did you
... ? • What experience do you ... ? • What famous places are there: .. ? • What fell on
the ... ? • What fruits are there ... ? • What good books have you read ... ? • What happened
when ... ? • What has he been ... ? • What has he just. .. ? • What have I done with my ... ? •
What have people done about ... ? • What have you done for. .. ? • What have you done with
... ? • What have you got in ... ? • What have you just ... ? • What· have they ? • What
hotel is ... ? • What interest do you ... ? • What is meant by ? • What is the best way
to ... ? • What is the name of ... ? • What is the strange ... ? • What is wrong with ... ? • What
is your new ... ? • What made you do ... ? • What make~ people believe ? • What makes
you think ? • What material is ... ? • What number did ? • What other kinds of ?•
What other person did ... ? • What other person is ... ? •What other place can I...? • What
other places ... ? • What other thing could a ... ? • What other thing could ... ? • What other
thing must I...? • What other work besides ... ? • What part of ... ? • What place has he ... ? •
What place have you ... ? • What places have you ... ? • What purpose is served by ... ? •
What questions did ... ? • What road is ... ? • What salary do you ? • What school is ... ? •
What shall I do if...? • What shall I do
with my ? • What shall I do with ... ? • What shall I tell. .. ? • What shall we do if...? •
What should it ... ? • What should they have to ... ? • What size shoes does he ... ? • What sort
of...? • What thing did ... ? • What time did you ... ? • What time do you have to ... ? • What time
do you ... ? • What time does he ... ? • What time is ... ? • What time of year. .. ? • What train are
you ... ? • What type of work was he ... ? • What was he ... ? • What was she wearing when ... ? •
What were they. .. ? • What were you doing at the ? • What were you doing in the ... ? • What
were you
doing with ? • What will it ... ? • What would happen if ... ? • What would you do if...? •
What'll we do if...? • What's going to happen to ... ? • What's the capital of ... ? • What's the
name of ... ? • In what manner is ... ? • In what other way can ... ? • In what year is ... ? • At what
other place can ... ? • At what other time could ... ?
 When are we going to finish this ... ? • When are we going to meet ... ? When are you
beginning your. .. ? • When are you going back to ? • When are you going to have
your ... ? • When did they all tell you ? • When did you begin to ... ? • When did you last
go to ... ? • When did you last hear. .. ? • When did you last see ... ? • When did you last take
an ... ? • When did you last write a ... ? • When did you leave ... ? • When do they ... ? •
When does she ... ? • When should she ... ? • When will it ... ? • When will you be ... ? •
When have you cleaned the ... ?
• Where am I supposed to ... ? • Where are you going for your. .. ? • Where are the Barkers
spending their ... ? • Where are we going to keep the ... ? • Where are you spending ... ? •
Where are they ... ? • Where can I park my ... ? • Where did I leave my ... ? • Where did you


buy that...? • Where did you go ... ? • Where did you spend your ... ? • Where do you ... ? •
Where has he put my ... ? • Where has she been ... ? • Where have they been ... ? • Where
have30u put...? • Where shall we all ... ? • Where shall we meet ... ? • Where were you
last ... ? • Where
were you when ? • Where will they ... ? • Where will you be at ... ? • Where will you be
? • Where will you go after. .. ?
• Which cost more, these or those? • Which gives more ... ? • Which is better, this one or
that one? • Which is my ... ? • Which of the two girls is ... ? • Which of them ... ? • Which of
these two books have you ... ? • Which of these two ... ? • Which of you finished your ... ? •
Which of you knows how to ... ? • Which of you knows the ? • Which of you likes ... ?
• Which of you must ... ? • Which one are you ? • Which one did they ... ? • Which one
do you ? • Which one of these ... ? • Which way are you ... ? • Which will you ?
• Who are the ... ? • Who broke my ... ? • Who came ... ? • Who can answer my ... ? • Who
did you meet in the ... ? • Who do they want to ... ? • Who do you suppose would ... ? • Who
do you think is ... ? • Who do you want to ? • Who has been using my ... ? • Who has
takenmy ... ? • Who is that ? • Who is the ... ? • Who is this ... ? • Who likes ... ? • Who made
that dirty mark on ... ? • Who made that...? • Who owns this ... ? • Who phoned ... ? • Who
put salt in ... ? • Who shut the ... ? • Who taught you to ... ? • Who told you to ... ? • Who
used to live in this ... ? • Who wants to ... ? • Who will be ... ? • Who wrote ... ? • Who'll
come with me to ... ? • Who'll help ... ? • Who's taken my ... ? • Who's the present ruler of. ..
? • Whose car did you ... ? • Why are we trying to ... ?
• Why are you carrying a ... ? • Why are you carrying that ... ? • Why are you getting out the
... ? • Why are you in such a ? • Why are you
looking so ... ? • Why are you looking through ? • Why are you peeling that ... ? • Why
are you putting that ... ? • Why are you so ? • Why are you spending so long on ? • Why are
you taking all that .......................................? • Why are you taking out all your ? • Why are
you taking up that .......................................? • Why are you wrapping the ... ? • Why aren't you
taking the ... ? • Why can't he ... ? •
Why can't you answer. .. ? • Why did David ... ? • Why did he drive so ... ? • Why did she put
parsley in ... ? • Why did they. .. ? • Why did you break my ... ? • Why did you bring your...? •
Why did you buy all these ... ? • Why did you come so ... ? • Why did you come with ... ? • Why
did you have to ... ? • Why did you lock the door ... ? .' Why did you say so ... ? • Why did you
take his ... ? • Why did you throwaway those ... ? • Why did you travel. .. ? • Why didn't he call
the ... ? • Why didn't he repair ... ? • Why didn't he report it to ... ? • Why didn't she ... ? • Why
didn't they mend the ... ? • Why didn't you ask your father for ... ? • Why didn't you buy the ... ?
• Why didn't you do it if. .. ? • Why didn't you do it when ... ? • Why didn't you hit...? • Why
didn't you move your. .. ? • Why didn't you pay the ... ? • Why didn't you phone from ... ? • Why
didn't you say that...? • Why didn't you signal to ... ? • Why do I never have ... ? • Why do some
of them carry ... ? • Why do you keep your ... ? • Why do you suddenly want to ... ? • Why do
you have to ... ? • Why do you want a ... ? • Why does he sing so ... ? • Why doesn't he play ... ? •
Why doesn't he punish his boys when ... ? • Why doesn't he try ... ? • Why don’ you ask ... ? •
Why don't you cut your ... ? • Why don't you go and see ... ? • Why don't you go by ... ? • Why
don't you have your. .. ? • Why don't you open ... ? • Why don't you say ... ? • Why don't you
take it to ... ? • Why don't.you take the ... ? • Why don't you tie it. .. ? • Why has she not
eaten ... ? • Why have you brought your ... ? • Why have you forgotten to ... ? • Why have you
? • Why should she ................................? • Why wasn't anyone ? • Why wasn't the car ?•
Why weren't you .........................................? • Why weren't they ?
• Will his mother be ... ? • Will it be all right if...? • Will Mary and you be ... ? • Will she ... ?
• Will the shops be open at ... ? • Will they still be open at ... ? • Will the weather clear
up ... ? • Will there be a class ... ? • Will there be an ... ? • Will there be ... ? • Will they
be ... ? • Will they be open on ? • Will you be able to ... ? • Will you be angry if ... ? •
Will you be at the ? • Will you be here for. .. ? • Will you be quiet for. .. ? • Will you buy
me ... ? • Will you come again ... ? • Will.you come to ... ? • Will you explain what. .. ? • Will
you forget what ... ? • Will you go on strike when ... ? • Will you have another. .. ? • Will
you have enough money to ... ? • Will you have some more ... ? • Will you have time to ... ? •
Will you have to pay for ... ? • Will you help me if. .. ? • Will you help me or ... ? • Will you
help me to ... ? • Will you lend me your. .. ? • Will you please tell me when ... ? • Will you
remember these ... ? • Will your brother be ... ? • Won't he be .. ? • Won't they be able
to ... ? • Won't you find out why ? • Won't you have something to ... ? • Would you like
me to go through ? • Would you like a ... ? • Would you like another. .. ? • Would you like
to come with ... ? • Would you like to go to ... ? • Would you like to have ... ? • Would you
like to see ... ? • Would you like to wait or. .. ? • Would you like to ... ? • Would you like ... ?
• Would you mind getting out of ... ? • Would you mind if 1. .. ?

Fluency about wide range of topic

1. Phone call 4. Banking
2. Business 5. Food & Drink
3. Travelling

Read each word group ALOUD - several times. Continue saying the word groups aloud until
your organs of speech get used to them, and until you can say them smoothly and without
Here we go:

* Making & receiving phone call:

• Is Sharon there, by any chance? • Ahmed speaking .• Put me on to your accounts

department, please .• Could you put me through to Mr. Dixit, please? 0 You don't know me,
but our mutual friend, Bret, told me to call you .• I'm ringing from the XYZ company. • Good
morning. Mr. Murthy here.
o I'm phoning you to find out when your Managing Director will be back from England. 0
Could I have extension 532, please? 0 Mr. Kumar, we haven't met, but Mr. Shankar asked me to
contact you. 0 I had met him yesterday, and he suggested I should call him today. 0 I want to get
some information about a flight. 0 What time could I reach him? • I'm phoning to ask you
whether you could spare us some time tomorrow afternoon .• I rang you earlier, but I couldn't
get through. 0 I know you don't want to speak to me, but don't hang up yet. 0 Thank you for
your help. Bye bye. 0 I want a few details of your computers .• Can you connect me with your
Managing Director? • Can you tell me when the trains to Bombay leave? • You wanted to know
about the arrangements, didn't you? • Here's the position. 0 Have you a moment to speak on the
phone? 0 When can I reach you? 0 Will you please tell Mr. Sekhar that Ravi Kumar is on the
line for him?
o Would tomorrow morning or tomorrow afternoon be more convenient for you to see me? 0
Could I come at 10 o'clock instead of II? 0 Can I contact him tomorrow? • Can I speak to
someone in your sales department, please? 0 Hello, this is AjaiAjai Menon. 0 It's a business
matter. 0 This is Suresh again. Sorry, we were cut off. 0 I'm phoning back about your order for
a computer. 0 Can you confirm that you'll be able to attend? • I'm phoning you about an
overdue payment. 0 Those books you sent me - they're not the ones I had ordered. • I'll phone
again tomorrow. 0 Would you confirm the delivery date, please? 0 Would you confirm the price,
please? 0 I just wanted to tell you about tomorrow's meeting .• Could you tell me how long he'll
be' away? 0 My reason for calling you is this ... 0 Okay. I'll drop in tomorrow evening, then.
o You rang us up a few days ago about a computer. 0 The reason that I'm phoning you is to ask
a favour. 0 I'm phoning you, because we're having some problems with our computer. 0 It's
about a letter he wrote to me .• Will he be at the office tomorrow? 0 I've got a bit of a problem
here. 0 Listen. Tomorrow's meeting - it's been put off .• I need some information from you. o
I'm afraid I have to make a serious complaint .• Thanks a lot goodbye. 0 I bought a TV from
you last week, and I'm having some problems with it
° Have you got a note pad handy? ° You asked me to call back today. ° I'm going to be in your
area next week. • I'll telephone you again when it's delivered. ° You asked me to ring when I was
in town again. ° I'm ringing from the post office. ° Would you check if he's in John's office,
please? ° Will morning or afternoon suit you best? ° This is the number I was asked to ring. °
That's what I wanted to talk to you about. ° Isn't that the XYZ company? So sorry. ° Do you
know when he'll be back. ° I'd like to talk to someone about a bill I received from you today. •
I'll ring him at about 10 tomorrow, then. ° You'll remember I spoke to you last week about a
washing machine. ° It's about the computer I bought from you. ° I'll be in touch with you. °
Okay, bye .• I'm phoning for some prices for computers. ° You know we were talking about the
car you wanted to sell.
° I'd like some information on your new washing machine. • He asked me to confirm as soon
as possible. ° You wanted some details, didn't you? Here they are. ° He asked me to call this
evening. ° There's a serious problem, I'm afraid, and I'm phoning you about it. ° I'll ring
again then. ° Once again, many thanks. Bye bye. ° I'm phoning you to find out the price of
your washing machine. ° You know the quote you gave us for 50 ceiling fans last week. I'd
like to order 40. ° I'd like to know the price for a double-room. ° Think about it, and then
perhaps you'll call me back. ° If I'm not in, please leave a message with my secretary. ° Are
you sure he isn't there? ° I'll call you back in the evening, would 4 o'clock suit you? ° Mr.
Arora, it's about the invoice you sent us yesterday .• Would Friday 4 o'clock be suitable or
Saturday 11 o'clock? • Can I leave a message? • Okay. Bye now. ° I wanted to let you know
where you can contact me. ° Let's settle the matter while we're on the telephone .• I'm
phoning you, because it looks as though I won't be able to keep the appointment we made. °
Are you there, Mr. Joshi? ° I'd like to book a room for two nights. ° If I'm not there, please
leave a message for me. ° When you've checked things at your end, would you let me know?
° I'll call him back well before 5. • Could you tell him I'm arriving on the evening flight? °
Bye then. ° Bye for now. ° I'm phoning you about a serious matter. ° So long. Bye now .• Let
him know I've received his packet. ° I've seen your ad in to day's Indian Express. I'd like to
know your prices. ° Goodbye for now.
° Could you ask him about the order we had placed?

2. Word groups for use while answering a phone call

° 3311614. ° 3311614 - Raju Sharma. ° XYZ company. Good morning .• XYZ company here.
Can I help you? ° Who's calling? ° Ashok here. ° Hold the line, please. ° Who's that calling?
• Ajith, good to hear from you. How are you keeping? ° Who's speaking? ° Who's this
speaking? ° Who am I speaking to? ° Who would you like to speak to? • Just a moment
please. • How can I help you? ° May I ask what it's about? ° Accounts department - can I
help you? • What can I do for you? ° May I ask who you're looking for? • He won't be in all
morning. Can I help you? 0 Can somebody else help you?
o What number are you calling? 0 I'm afraid you've got the wrong number. 0 He isn't in at the
moment. Can I help you? 0 Could you hold on a minute? 0 I'm afraid this is rather a bad line.
Could you repeat that, please? 0 I'll see if he's here. 0 I'm afraid he's not in yet. 0 He is in a
meeting at the moment. 0 Is it to do with accounts? 0 Could you give me your name, please? 0
Hang on for a moment. Let me just check. 0 Please hold on. He's on the other line. 0 Hold on,
I'll tell him you're calling. 0 He's in a meeting with the General Manager at the moment. 0 Hold
on, please I'm just trying to connect you. 0 Is it to do with a sales query? 0 Where are you
ringing from? 0 I'll just have a look. Ah, here he is.
o Nobody by that name works here. 0 Hang on just a minute. 0 I'm sorry, there's no such
person here. 0 Shall I ask him to call you when he's free? 0 I'll phone you back as soon as
possible. 0 Who did you say you wanted to speak to? 0 Would you like to ring back later? 0
Could I have your number again, please? 0 I'll call you back tonight. 0 Is it about an order? 0
What seems to be the problem, Mr. Alfredo? 0 He'll only be in till 5 o'clock. 0 He's gone home.
Can I take a message? 0 If you give me your phone number, I'll call you back. 0 I'm afraid his
phone's engaged. Will you hold the line? 0 He isn't in at the moment. Can I give him a
message? 0 Okay then. I'll give you a call at your hotel. • Would you repeat your name, please?
. 0 What do you want to see me about? 0 He's out of the office at the moment. 0 He had to leave
for Bombay suddenly yesterday. 0 Sorry, he's just gone out. 0 He's with the Managing Director
in a meeting. Mr. Gupta is here. Would you like to speak to him? 0 I didn't recognize your voice.
0 Look, I'm rather busy at the moment. Can I call you back? 0 I'll be in all evening today. 0 I
was just planning to phone you in fact.
o You can reach him at home. 0 No, this isn't the number you want. 0 That's our number all
right, but this is not the Y:YZ company. 0 I'll see if he's in at the office. 0 You can telephone me
personally if ever you require service. 0 I'll ring you back, if you like. 0 Hold on - I'll get you the
information you need. 0 He's away for a few days. 0 I had better ring off now. Dad's waiting for
me outside. Okay - bye-bye. 0 It'd take too long to give you all the prices and terms on the
phone. Why don't you come down here? 0 I'll be in a meeting all evening. 0 Could you possibly
speak more slowly? 0 What is it all about? would you give me your telephone number, please? 0
I'll just note that down. 0 There's no person of that name here. 0 Let me ring you back in about
half an hour. 0 I can't tell you right now. I'll call you back. 0 He's away on a business trip .•
Sorry, I didn't catch that. Could you repeat it, please? 0 Okay. I'll see to that .• If I haven't
confirmed by this weekend, get in touch again. 0 Sorry to keep you waiting. He is on the other
phone. 0 That's a difficult question to answer. 0 I'll put you through to our accounts
department. o Thanks for letting us know the mistake. 0 Sorry, this is the wrong extension. 0
Who did you say you were?
o Hold on. I'll try to connect you. 0 I can hardly recognize your voice. It's as though you're miles
away. • Can I let you know the situation tomorrow? 0 There's no one by that name here. 0 You
can ring him at his hotel. • You know that order for three computers we placed with you last
week? I'm calling you about it. 0 Sorry, I didn't catch the name of the company. Could you
repeat it? 0 Could you give me your phone number? 0 I'll connect you with our accountant. 0
Hello, I can connect you now. 0 Thanks very much for ringing. 0 Thank you for calling, Mr.
Peter. 0 Well, I'm glad to hear that. 0 I haven't any time to talk just now. Can I ring you back in
an hour? 0 I think that's okay by me. I'll ring you back, shall? 0 Speak a bit louder, will you? 0
You must have the wrong Sharma from the phone book. 0 You asked me to call back about the
partnership deed. 0 Could you give me a fuller description? 0 All right, I'll see to it and you'll
get a call today. 0 Sorry, I couldn't hear what you said .• I'll let you know as soon as I can.
He's busy all weekend .• I'll tell you what I can do. I'll ... Give me a call tomorrow .• I'm sure
to have some news for you .• Can you call me back in a few minutes? • I'm glad you rang
back so soon.
• I'd be glad to see you if you're in this area .• How do you spell your name? • Is there
anything else I can do for you? • I need to know the reference number, please .• I don't know
his number off hand, but I can easily look it up for you .• Could I have your name and

3. Word groups to speak about telephoning in general

• I have to make a telephone call. • He spoke to me by (or on) the telephone last night. • She
telephones every week. • The phone's ringing, pick it up, will you? • Can I use your phone? •
I picked up the receiver to make a call, but there was no dialling tone .• I had/received a call
from him last night .• You're wanted on the telephone. • I've tried several times to ring his
office, but there's no reply .• He dialled his secretary and said something in to the phone .•
The telephone's out of order. • Your wife was on the telephone earlier. She wanted you to call
her back. • You can phone me tonight. • He lifted the receiver and dialled the number .•
Phone the hospital. • He can always be reached on the office telephone .• I phoned you, but
the line was engaged and I couldn't get through (to you) .• What's the dialling code for
Bombay? • As soon as the telephone rang, he picked up the receiver .• Somebody wants you
on the telephone .• He rang me last night about the meeting .• Can I contact you by phone?
• It's his dad on the phone. • I dialled the number, but there was no answer .• I'll be back
in a minute. If the telephone rings, answer it, will you? • Put in the money before
dialling .
 There's a phone call for you.
 The telephone's ringing. Can you pick it up? • Put the receiver down and call
again. • He was very angry and he slammed down the telephone .• I had a bad (or poor)
line and I couldn't hear clearly what he was saying. • Her voice was very clear on the
telephone .• He picked up the phone and passed it over .• He spoke for a few minutes and
then replaced the receiver .• He hung up before I could explain .• They telephoned the
good news immediately .• You can always reach me by telephone .• If you don't want to
be disturbed, leave the phone off the hook. • He telephoned from his hotel room .• The
telephone went dead in the middle of our conversation .• I picked up the telephone, but
the line was dead .• He hurled insults at me on the telephone and I had to hang up (on
him) .• Who answered the phone? • You can't telephone Kodaikanal directly from here. •
He telephoned a warning immediately .• Is that the phone ringing? • How do I dial
London from here?
 • Go and telephone the traffic police .• Were there any calls for me while I was
out? • He asked if you'd ring him back when you got in.

Fluency in Business English

Pick up each word group and utter it ALOUD several times. Keep up with the practice until
your organs of speech get used to saying these word groups - and until you're able to utter them
smoothly and without hesitation. Here we go:
Group 1
• We must invest if we want our business to grow. • You wanted to know the final price,
didn't you? • He's a businessman - he buys things cheap, and sells them dear .• Half the
order will arrive on Wednesday. The rest will arrive after a week. • We no longer stock that
product - there's no demand for it .• If your order is over Rs. 1,00,000 in value, we can go
along with the special discount terms. • They sold that old building, and it fetched Rs.
2,00,000 or so. • We'll have to analyze the situation before deciding what to do .• How much
stock did we have at the start of the year? • You'll have to make an estimate of the cost. • I'm
sorry we've really let you down, and there's no excuse .• Is this price list still valid?
• He has a business of his own. • They're going to open a new department store there. • We'll
be invoicing you separately for these items .• I think we're passing up an opportunity for
making good profit. • Shares have dropped. • He bought that car new. • We haven't got
enough space to stock them .• If we want to compete with overseas companies, we'll have to
improve the quality of our goods .• Certain things may go wrong in any business .• We need
the goods sooner than we thought .• That cement factory is up for sale .• They charge high
prices .• Let's work out the firm's profit for the current year .• We've dealt with them for
nearly five years now. • We need fast turnover and good profit .• We employ 500 workers .•
We'd like to order some office equipment .• Who looks after the accounts of the firm? • We
can't afford to buy it at that price .• Our lowest price is Rs. 200 a dozen .• He bought that
house cheap .• These are high-demand, high turnover brands, why don't you carry them in
your store? • The bill they sent to us was far too high due to a computer error.

Group 2
• He's bought a computer for his business .• Spending on advertising has increased in
absolute terms .• Have you made out an invoice for the goods? • We can't risk our business
coming to a stop just because the suppliers couldn't deliver on time .• Shares are rising .•
The new brand of coffee soon became a market leader .• What price did you give? • You've
done business with us before, haven't you? • We rely on advertising to sell our products. •
Phone him up and ask him to settle the account .• I'm already overstocked. • They do quite a
good trade in sports equipment .• The sales figures bear out what he says. • Business is bad. I
haven't made a sale all day. • Three months is my deadline .• These records will have to be
brought up to date every day. • This is an excellent profit-making line. • This month's
production figures are looking good. • Shares have been soaring for sometime now .• Do I
have to pay in cash, or will you accept a cheque? • We're hoping for a large sale of our new
product .• The factory lay idle during the strike .• Prices start at Rs. 150.
• I'd like to know your prices and terms .• That firm is not in business any more .• They're
business partners .• Your prices are too high .• The board of directors are (or is) meeting to
discuss this problem .• The maintenance contract is due for renewal next month. • I think
our plan is beginning to bear fruit - the sales figures have started going up .• Can you offer
the large size at the same price? • The staff are not always careful over the clerical
work. • I think the material was faulty. • We've decided to cut costs by 5% right away .•
Everything they sell are priced high .• The question you're raising is pretty important .• This
idea could save us a lot of bookkeeping work. • Is your April price list still valid? • We couldn't
get enough in all the sizes needed .• Prices for raw materials are getting lower .• Carry our
products and you just can't lose .• He's the real brains in the organization .• Mr. Prakash of the
XYZ company on the line, Mr. Varma .• I've made up my mind not to deal with that company
• That company manufactures sports equipment at a price that we can't match .• I'm busy
with an important customer .• He's thinking of expanding his business .• We can buy
cheaper elsewhere .• Shares are looking up .• He runs a petrol station .• The salary will be
fixed according to age and experience .• The new product will be fixed on sale next month .•
We'd like earlier delivery if possible .• The shop has a new look to appeal to young customers
.• Can you give me an idea about your product requirements? • Add Rs. 25 to the total to
cover postage and packing .• If your terms are reasonable we'll be able to place another
order soon .• Well, the point is, what can you do to help us? • Prices for computers are
dropping .• That's a well-known brand of tea .• I don't think these figures are accurate .•
Who's the other applicant? • Has he had any experience? • The firm's profits have
multiplied over the last two years .• We bought a computer from them, and we've had a lot
of service problems .• I think our new product should fill a gap in the market.
• Can you give us 45 day's extra credit? • How much money do they owe us? • Can you give
me a rough estimate of how much this work will cost? • The firm got itself into financial
difficulties. • Look, your product doesn't meet with our specification .• What's the price of
this TV? • A lot of customers would buy this stuff if you carried it .• The figures have been
adjusted to take account of inflation .• Look, we just can't accept these faulty goods .• You'll
have to share the extra cost of sending the goods by road .• I don't know why, but orders
have slumped .• The company's future doesn't look very hopeful. • The owners couldn't
make it pay, and the factory closed down .• What are your credit terms? • Business is looking
up .• The suppliers had difficulties in meeting our delivery schedules .• I think there's a need
for more spending on research .• The discount would be 3% higher for a repeat order .•
Business was quiet today, and I didn't have much work to do .• We're due to deliver their
order this Friday .• He

has a lot of money tied up in shares .• Customers often don't ask for something they don't see
in the store .• The output has increased in the past year.


Group 3
• Is that product still in demand? • These items will sell well and make profits for you .• Use this
method and you can multiply your profits in a very short time .• When did you place the order?
• This trip was financed by the company .• The transport strike has put us further behind with
our delivery. • If you want us to send it by post, we must charge postage .• It's very expensive to
advertise on television .• I can't tell you what the discount is, until I know how many you'd like
to order .• There's a 5% discount .• This seems a sensible solution .• He's not a government
servant - he's in business .• The production figures will bear him out .• There's been an increase
of 25% on last year's figures .• They make the best umbrellas on the market .• Our products are
always in demand .• We do regular checks on our products and make sure they're of high
quality.· You can take advantage of our introductory offer .• They haven't been able to work out
the terms of the contract satisfactorily .• They only sell goods for cash .• There's too little profit
in this item for the handling effort and expense involved.
• At last, his business is picking up. It has been making a loss so far, you know: • Will I have
any problem in getting spares? • We're sold out - we have no more .• He has the reputation of
being a keen buyer .• The bill should add up to about Rs. 9,750.
• Those are the best terms we can offer, I'm afraid .• Do you have our price list? • What's all this
going to cost? • He's decided to start a small retail business. • There are clear advantages to the
first plan .• We haven't worked out all those details yet. • Many small firms are facing financial
ruin .• Why are they withholding payment this time? • We've placed an order with them for
electrical goods .• The discount will be bigger if you order over 100 units .• You'll have to pay
for it when you order it .• Why has there been this hold up on delivery? • He's in business on his
own .• I once had a bad experience with your company. • We hope to expand our business this
year .• What's the order number? • The goods are now ready for collection. • We have a
production problem. • We're out of stock - all sold out .• What we need are products that turn
over rapidly. • You see, the discount depends on the quantity .• We'll have to order some more. •
How much does that computer cost? • We need to maintain the quality of our products. • Could
you give me some idea of your requirements? • I'll speak to my partner about it .• Business is
good at present .• Are they satisfied with the discount? • He has put a lot of money into that
business .• They're one of our most valued customers .• We can have the items ready by the
weekend .• The deal looked impossible, but he pulled it off. • Do you buy only on price? • We
can't afford to lose this contract. The future of our firm depends on it. • Have you checked with
our competitors?

Group 4
• The firm's finances are in bad shape .• He's temporarily short of cash. • We want Rs.
15,000 for this Tv. We can't settle for less .• Can you find out the price of their computers? •
A delivery van would bring the grocery order .• They tried out this idea, and there was an
immediate increase in productivity .• We're now living in the computer age. • Couldn't you
manage to allow me a better discount? • We've got it in stock, so I can send it at once .• The
chairman brought the meeting to a close .• He started an advertising business on his own .•
Don't promise a date unless you know you can honour it .• But you do like our products,
don't you? • They're business rivals .• It's cheaper. • I've made a mistake - the accounts
don't balance.
• These are damaged goods. they'll have to reduce the bills .• The suppliers say they would
be a bit late with delivery. • I'd talk things over first with my partner .• It's a real bargain at
that price .• We've decided to cut down on our advertising expenditure .• What'll happen to
the business when the Managing Director retires? • If you don't deliver immediately, we'll
be short of stock. • Our company agent there will meet you at the airport. • I thought prices
would be coming down now. • This accident would cost the company a lot of money .• That
car's a good buy .• I'm up to my nose in problems .• He's an aggressive salesman .• Yes, I
think we can go along with these arrangements .• You always get value for money at that
shop .• He would buy if it were cheaper .• These changes will save your firm a lot of money.
• That's not much more than the price you paid last year .• The quotation you sent us was
fine. We're ready to place an order now. • The company is planning to build a new factory
there .• She can't do shorthand .• We'll have to stock them again when our stock levels are
lower. • It's more expensive .• What'll the discount be? • Their ledgers are badly kept .• We
have a large number of credit customers .• They have a fine reputation for paying
promptly. • Read the credit terms carefully before signing. • Would you like it specially gift-
wrapped? • The firm needs to build up a good name for itself. • My partner is out of town .•
We agreed (on) a price of Rs. 15,500 .• Is that your best quote? •


Group 5
• He'll be at a conference all day tomorrow .• The firm's head office is in Bombay. • The job
was advertised in local newspapers. • Our Bombay agent is on the line. Will you take the
call? • The suppliers have got some trouble or other .• You have to be hard to succeed in
business .• I want to consult my partner .• That company is way ahead of us in their research
.• The supplier has stopped our discount .• We'll be able to send your consignment before the
end of the week. • She got that dress on the cheap .• We're not satisfied with the service we
get from your company. • They have a sweet-shop. • That shop sells high-quality goods .• It's
all very well to say we should advertise more, but is the expense worth it? • What have we
received for the goods we've sold this year? One million? • Business has been good for our
firm for some time now .• Haven't they despatched our order yet? • What's the retail price of
these bags, then? • Her father keeps a shop in our village .• I have some ideas for cutting
down overheads .• How much stock is left? • When he had enough capital, he bought a
shop .• Our company has won a contract for 20 buses. • Now we can confirm the
arrangements we made. • This bag looks cheap. It's poor value for money. • They've been
pressing us for payment for sometime now .• We're planning to open offices in Bombay and
Delhi this year.
• We can offer you a special discount if you order before March 31st .• There's a two week
delivery time .• Our firm has won a contract to build a bridge. • Let me check with the
accounts department .• The firm has just won an important contract .• Stamp those letters
with today's date. You received them today, didn't you? • I can pay you Rs. 10,000 in ready
cash .• That shop
doesn't sell goods retail. • You're right about quality, but price also matters .• He has made a lot
of money in business. • The shops in town close at 7.30 .• I'll make a bargain with you .• Sorry,
we don't allow credit .• He runs a shoe shop. • Well, if you can do that, that'll help .• Can you
find out how much stock we actually have? • Can we agree on a price? • Where's your
company's headquarters? • He owns his own business .• He works for the "XYZ company .•
The watch is still under guarantee.
 Last time, they had difficulty in meeting our delivery schedules.
 We're aiming at a 20% increase in profits. • These goods are in poor supply. You can't
get them easily .• They may claim compensation from us for failure to deliver on time .• This is
a repeat order, and you'll have to allow us a longer credit period. • That's a very valuable
contract .• They're expected to work an eight hour day. • The firm is in severe financial
difficulty. • Shirts like that don't come cheap. • Those goods were sent off days ago .• This is the
best business deal I've ever done .• The company has a lead of several years in the development
of this technology. • Let's not haggle over the price .• I think the price is reasonable .• They use
high-quality raw materials.
• Don't buy anything from them. They only buy shoddy goods .• Get the Accountant on the
phone for me, will you? • He's been doing a roaring trade and has been making a lot of
money .• I can't sign these papers without my partner's approval. • Their credit is good - we
can trust them. • Can you confirm the dates now? • The firm operates from its central office in
Madras .•
Your quality isn't good enough .• This advertising campaign is aimed at housewives. • Their
firm has gone broke .• What would they cost if I took a thousand? • We'll despatch them
immediately from stock. • That was a very difficult deal, but he managed to bring it off .• The
advertising budget for the new product is Rs. 50,00,000 .• Can you work out how much profit
the firm has made? • That contract ruined him .• I think Bombay might be a good market for
our products .• The company is hoping to expand into the American market .• I want to get a
good rebate.
• It was part of the deal they'd deliver in three months .• He deals in antiques .• We usually get
a better discount on a repeat order, • She always haggles with shopkeepers.

Importance of practice
So give great importance to the Business English word groups I've given you. Even if
you're someone who doesn't work in business, don't ignore them. Practice uttering them
several times - ALOUD.

Fluency in Banking English

. Pick up each word group and utter it ALOUD - several times. Keep uttering the word
groups ALOUD, until you can say them smoothly, and until they come out of your mouth
easily and readily. Here we go for the word groups:


Group 1
• She withdrew Rs. 1,000 from her bank account. 0 He paid the cheque into his account. 0
I'd like to make a deposit, please. We've been trying to arrange a loan from the bank. •
He's gone to put some money in his bank. O Interest is not allowed on a current account.
0 I get a statement from my bank every month.
o I want to cash a traveller's cheque. 0 I think he drew some money out of the bank
yesterday. 0 How much do I have to my credit? 0 I took Rs. 500 out of my bank
account. 0 When was the draft issued? 0 He had no money in his account, and so the
bank stopped the cheque. 0 The bank has allowed him to overdraw his account up to
Rs. 50,000. 0 How much money have I got left in my account? 0 He's the cashier. He
receives payment from customers and cashes cheques for them. 0 I drew a lot of
money out last month.
.• I'd like to make a transfer from my current account to my savings account. 0 The banks are
lending to small scale industries at much lower rates. 0 He kept a satisfactory credit account for
some time and then suddenly asked for temporary accommodation. 0 Can you make a draft on
the Bombay branch of the bank? 0 I haven't put any money into my account last month. 0 He
has asked the bank to increase his overdraft from Rs. 25,000 to Rs. 50,000. 0 He deposits Rs. 50
a week into his savings account .• I've invested all my money in the bank. 0 He gets 12% interest
on his money at the State Bank. • He keeps an excellent account and is a man of high standing. •
The bank has agreed to back us, and we're planning to go ahead with the scheme .• You must
sign on the back of the cheque. 0 Did you have to deposit any security to get the loan? 0 We
bank with the State Bank of India.
His monthly salary is paid into the bank by the company .• He got a Rs. 10,000 loan from
the bank. • Your bank account is overdrawn. • The loan was allowed for business purposes .•
Our bank allows us to run up an overdraft on our current account .• When did you lodge
the deeds with the bank? • The bank stopped payment of his cheque .• How many cheques
did we draw last month? • How much do you need to take out of the bank? • When did you
present the cheque to the bank? • I paid the cheque into his account .• Our account will be
nicely in the black next month.

Group 2
• Last week, we overdrew by Rs. 50,000 .• Normally the bank doesn't like to make unsecured
advances .• I'll have to check the entries in the pass book. • I'd like to open a savings account
.• Is there a fixed minimum deposit? • We're going to take out a

loan to expand our business .• Is that a cheque drawn on the State Bank of India? • Can you
tell me the amount of my current balance? • The cheque was paid into his current account .•
The bank has agreed to finance the new business .• They gave me a bank draft for Rs.
5,000 .• The bank charges me 20% interest on the loan .• Are you planning to leave money in
the bank for a long time? • The bank has allowed a loan of Rs. 10,000 on a joint account in
their names .• The bank dishonoured his cheque. He didn't have enough money in his
account to cover it .• This cheque has been drawn payable to Mr. Menon. So he'll have to
endorse it by signing his name on its back .• He borrowed the money on the security of his
house .• It'll take three days for your cheque to clear. • I paid the money in yesterday. • What
a relief! At last, our account is out of the red!
• Cash me this cheque please .• The bank manager wants us to clear the loan immediately .•
The bank has debited Rs. 500 against my account .• The bank can't grant you a loan if you
can't offer a guarantee or other security .• Bank interest rates are going to rise this month .•
Banks usually exercise caution in taking new accounts .• I've got some money in the bank. •
I don't think this cheque is in order. The amount in words doesn't correspond with the
figures .• The bank has given us an overdraft of Rs. 1,00,000. • I have an account with that
bank .• What did he borrow the money for? • I'm trying to reconcile the bank statement
with our records .• I don't think the balance on your account is large .• I went to the bank to
draw out my deposit .• He has a current account with the bank, but the advance was made
on a separate loan account. 0 He keeps his savings in the bank. 0 The loan is being paid
back by monthly instalments. 0 Has the cheque cleared yet? • Their account has been
working very satisfactorily.
o She drew a cheque on her Madras bank. 0 Whose account was the cheque paid into? 0 The
bank gave (or made) me an advance of Rs. 25,000 to start my business. 0 They have two
accounts and both are always kept in credit. 0 My wife and I have a joint account with that
bank. 0 The bank refused payment of the cheque for some reason. 0 He didn't have enough
money in his account to cover the cheque, and so it bounced.


Fluency in Travel English
Go through the word groups and utter each word group ALOUD - several times. Keep up
with this practice until you can utter all the word groups smoothly and with no hesitation.
Here we go:

Group 1
o Our plan was to leave early in the morning. 0 I'm planning to fly to Singapore next
month. • Last month we did (or made) a sight-seeing tour .• The tourist season is at its
height in August and September. 0 It'll cost you Rs. 3,000 or so to fly to Delhi. • You
needn't add any tips. 0 Can I have a room for the night, please? 0 Please book me on the
evening flight, will you? 0 You'll have to book well in advance. 0 If we don't book now,
we probably won't get a flight. 0 Last year we made a coach tour of Madhya Pradesh .•
The Air India flight was cancelled, and we had to book on another airline. 0 I think I'll
have to make a trip to Delhi this weekend. 0 The flight leaves at 4, so check-in is at about
3.45 or so. 0 Holiday prices are lower out of season.
• There's a small additional charge for the use of the swimming pool. • We missed the 4 o'clock
bus .• We checked in at the hotel last night .• We haven't any single rooms left .• He always
travels first class .• All the arrangements have been made .• Do you have room reservations? •
We got a guide to take us round the sights .• What would you do if the flight was cancelled? • In
the afternoon, we made a tour of the palace. • It was a good hotel, but it was rather noisy. • He
was carrying a rucksack on his back. • Transport facilities are good in that area .• We often
have last-minute cancellations .• It's a long train journey from here to there .• I'm thinking of
going on holiday next month. • When will you be going? Next month? • They've gone on a trip
to the seaside .• He left home to travel, and he was hoping for excitement and adventure .• I
don't like bus journeys much. I'd rather travel in a car. • You'll be served breakfast in your
room .• Let's go first class this time. Don't book second class .• He's due to arrive on the
morning flight .• There are no vacancies on the flight .• The price of the holiday includes
accommodation and breakfast .• We must go on a tour of the museum tomorrow .• I'll need
some extra money for the holidays .• We joined the passengers waiting to get on the bus .• I
helped him carry his luggage to the train. • What are your hotel rates?
• This is a long flight .• We broke our journey at Nagpur .• They had nothing to declare, and
they went straight through customs.
• We're going to Kashmir for our holidays .• I'm planning a short holiday; maybe a week or
so .• The beach was packed with people .• We spent two days in Delhi, and after that, we went to
Agra. • I had to run fast to catch the bus .• You needn't trouble to meet me. I'll hire a car and
come .• This time he's going by air .• Would you like a single room or double? • There are no
vacancies in the hotel. • We stayed at a hotel by the sea. • You'll have to book in advance if
you're travelling by train .• He's touring (in) Singapore .• Which way is north? • Is it cheaper
by train? • The Bombay flight arrives at noon .• While we are in Delhi, we should visit Agra.

Group 2
• This ticket is valid for any flight on that route .• Last year they went on pilgrimage to
Haridwar. • It's quicker to travel by train. • I'll have to catch the evening flight to Bombay. •
When is it you'd like to leave? • I went on a long train journey last month. •
That's an expensive country to visit .• Train is much quicker. • Let's not travel by air - let's
travel over land. • Sorry; we're fully booked up .• I can try to find another hotel for you, if
you like .•
I have an open ticket for that route .• We made the booking a month in advance .• Did you
manage to make a booking? • We're planning to book into the XYZ hotel on Friday
evening .• We saw some amazing sights at the zoo .• The train was delayed for hours and the
wait seemed endless .• Be sure to call and confirm your flight at least 48 hours before
departure .• I'll look you up when I come to Delhi .• (At a hotel:) You have a reservation for
me for today. • Ahmed is thinking of making a pilgrimage to Mecca .• This time let's travel in
comfort. • We spent a lot of our holiday sight-seeing in Delhi.

• There's one thing with the British Airways flight. The time might be more convenient for us
.• It's a day's journey by bus .• I did some cross-words to amuse myself on the journey. • It'll
cost you to go by train, so why not go by bus? • We didn't break the journey - we travelled
non-stop. • Is there a dining car on the train? • Is there a direct flight from Bombay to
Rome? • Can you hold the rooms for us till tomorrow? • Don't hurry; we're not
late .• We got off the bus at the last stop .• We left town last night on a bus. • That hotel


offers a range of leisure activities .•
I went with them to see the sights of Delhi .• Cost is an important element when we're thinking
of holidays .• What's the departure time of the flight? • Is there a connecting flight to Rome? • I
went and saw him when I was in Bombay last week. • The flight is fully booked .• Every year
thousands of pilgrims visit Mecca .• Everyone except Smitha is going on the trip .• We're
thinking of going on a conducted tour .• The Air India flight leaves much earlier, at 5A5 a.m .•
Can you drive me to the station? • 10% will be added on to your bill as a service charge .• We
didn't break the journey anywhere - we travelled through .•
• The train got in very late .• He's expected to arrive in Bombay by 11.00 a.m .• Let's go and
wander about the hills.
• Can you find us a good hotel? • When you leave the plane you'll have to go through customs
and immigration. • We were given a tour of the place .• The British Airways flight would be
slightly more - Rs. 9,500 or so .• From Madras, we went to excursions to a few places nearby. •
Is there a bank near here where I can change some traveller's cheques? • You'll have to show
your passport at the check-in desk .• They made an overnight stop in London. • Buses don't
run frequently in that area .• The time of the other flight is rather more convenient .• We broke
camp in the morning and left for home .• We missed our connection to Singapore. • He's
planning to write an account of his travels .• Do you have a single room free for Friday night? •
What time did you start out? • What's the changed departure time? • We're touring round Goa
during our holidays this year.
• Several airlines fly the same route .• We spent the night at a hotel. • What time does the train
get in, do you know? • What about the return flight? • Let's make an excursion to the moun-
tains .• It's a long way to drive. Why don't we take a train? • We put up our tents by a river .• I
think this time-table is out-of-date. • And when'll you be returning? • That night, we camped in
the hills .• When the bus stopped, we all got off. • This holiday has been excellent value for
money. • Have you booked your flight yet? • We travelled over by car. • I'm looking for a cheap
hotel for the night .• I'll leave buying the tickets to you .• Can you give me a lift into town? •
You can fly on the morning flight .• Where are you bound for? Bombay? • The arrival time of
the flight is 4.30. 0 I left the key at reception. 0 I left the key at the desk. 0 He likes travelling on
his own. 0 The plane got in at 5 o'clock. 0 The other flight lands in the evening. 0 Last month I
made a journey to Bombay. 0 Baggage should be checked in at least an hour before the flight. 0
Let's pitch camp here. 0 Are there any seats left? 0 That's an expensive hotel. 0 We went to Goa
for a holiday. 0 I'd like to go on holiday, but I can't find the money .• He took us on a tour of
the city. 0 We'll visit Goa on our way home. 0 He blew all his savings on a trip to Goa. 0 I'll
leave it you to buy the tickets. 0 He's arriving on the evening flight.

Speaking about Food and Drink

Go through all the word groups once or twice thoroughly. Then pick up each word group
and utter it ALOUD - several times.
Here we go for the word groups:

Group 1
o They're having lunch. 0 She sat there licking the ice cream. 0 She prepared a dish of
spinach and tomatoes. 0 The pudding won't keep - you'd better finish it off. 0 He ate the
cutlet in one bite. 0 That was a heavy meal- I shouldn't have eaten so much. o Can you
fry an egg for me? 0 Can you make a salad? 0 I had a big breakfast. • Is the food ready
yet? • She sliced the cucumber. o She likes her eggs hard-boiled .• She cooked us a nice
hot dinner. 0 Some kinds of food soon spoil. 0 The kettle's boiling. 0 She was munching
her breakfast noisily. 0 Curries take a long time to prepare. 0 He didn't have time to go
to the canteen, and he missed his meal. • Add some more salt and pepper. That'll
improve the taste. 0 When the phone rang the first time, I was at lunch, and I didn't feel
like picking it up. 0 There's too much salt in this stew. 0 He gave a dinner for his friends
last week. 0 Peel me an orange, will you? • These lemons make good pickles. 0 He took a
bite out of his sandwich. 0 The meat was beautifully cooked. 0 For dessert there are
oranges. 0 Sweep the biscuit crumbs off the table. 0 I don't think he was hungry. He just
sat there pecking at his food .• Don't forget to check the seasoning in the curry before
you serve it.
o He picked up a piece of meat and chewed at it. 0 He ate up all the food and left none for me.
0 He took a few gulps of coffee
and hurried out. 0 He doesn't eat meat. 0 How can I eat dry bread? Don't we have any butter or
jam left? 0 Let's pickle the lemons. 0 I want my tea black. 0 I wonder how he manages to tuck
away so much food. 0 He drinks his tea without sugar. 0 The tea was very hot and I sipped it
slowly. 0 This fish has a lot of bones in it. 0 I ate a big meal today. 0 She put all the ingredients
in a bowl and mixed them. 0 Boil an egg for me, will you? 0 I'm hungry - my stomach is
rumbling .• This milk tastes sour. 0 The dessert was apple .• They had no food of any kind in the
house. 0 Have you chopped the onions yet? • This is hungry work. 0 Digging up the garden is
thirsty work. 0 Potatoes have been cooked. Can you mash them for me? 0 The water's boiling. 0
He looks well, and he has a healthy appetite .• She hasn't much of an appetite. 0 He's a glutton -
he won't leave any of the food for the rest of us .• There's a sour taste in my mouth.
• She suffers badly from indigestion .• Chop a few cloves of garlic .• This meat is very tough .•
Don't eat that soggy sandwich. • This chicken curry is too hot for my taste. It's full of pepper .•
Break two eggs, beat them and make an omelet .• Season the soup with plenty of salt and
pepper. • He swallowed a mouthful of curd .• Don't have the ice cream now, it'll spoil your
appetite for dinner .• That was a heavy cake - it must have caused the indigestion .• That
restaurant specializes in Chinese dishes .• She served him a generous portion of roast chicken .•
Let's bake a cake, shall we? • Is there a pudding today? • Have a taste of this cake .• Is there
enough for four servings? There are four guests .• Drink your tea while it's still hot .• Here's a
crisp cucumber. Let's make a salad .• Can I have some mango chutney with my pancake? •
They finished off all the food before I could get any. • First you must bring the water to the
boil .• That was a really lavish meal. • That smells appetizing. • He doesn't need any medicine
now. What he

needs is healthy, wholesome food. • I haven't tasted such a beautiful chicken curry for ages. • It
tastes sour. • The smell was tempting. • You must serve this sweet cold, and not hot .• You've got
egg on your face. Go and wash. • There was a delicious smell from the kitchen, and it made our
mouths water .• They've asked me to dinner.

Group 2
• Put some pepper in it - that'll give it more taste. • Ask everybody to come. Dinner is
served .• Can I have a drink of water? • I was at breakfast, and then the door opened and
they came in .• I'm starving! Is the grub ready yet? • She served the snacks hot .• The kettle's
on the boil. • I'll have my coffee a bit weaker .• Don't make my tea too strong .• They ate at
the first serving (or
sitting) and we at the second serving (or sitting) .• I'd like a small taste .• It tastes bitter .• Is
there egg in this ice cream? • She bakes mouth-watering cakes .• He didn't eat much dinner.
• Cut the bread and make some toast .• She served out the soup to the children .• Give me
my eggs raw and not boiled. • The pudding looked very tempting. • They sell all kinds of
baby foods and health foods .• He always eats with a knife and fork. • He took a bite out of
the apple .• She served the portions with a lavish hand .• The food was awful.
• Have you stirred the cake mixture thoroughly? • She's in the kitchen, peeling the
potatoes .• First let's have a bite to eat .• I like to eat a lot of salads .• I didn't like the meat. It
was smelly. • He took a drink of water .• He swallowed the curd in a (or one) mouthful. • Add
some pepper, salt and other seasonings to the soup - that'll improve its flavour .• The kitchen
smelt strongly of fish. • He was hungry after his long walk. • The butter has gone (or turned)
rancid .• She cooked the vegetables with some hot tasting spices .• Cut the pie into four
portions, will you? • He only had a snack at lunch time. • Have you served coffee to all the
guests? • I had a black coffee with sugar. • She's on a diet she wants to reduce her weight. •
Let's make a stew out of the leftovers .• Let's heat (or heat up) the soup. It's cold now .• I've
forgotten when I last had a good meal. • The tarts you made last time had coverings of
pastry. • The eggs won't take long to fry .•
Cut these apples into halves and those apples into quarters .• Can I have a second helping? • It
tastes sweet .• We usually feed our kitchen scraps to our dog .• The meat tasted like mutton. •
Have a smell of this milk. Does it smell all right? • That's a nice chicken curry. • He ate a few
mouthfuls of food and rushed out of the house .• She prepared a dish of fish and vegetables .•
The factory canteen serves plain but wholesome meals .• What delicious food! • Most of the
mangoes were mellow, but some of them were still green and hard. • This recipe will be enough
for three servings. • Is this coffee sugared? • There's a smell of cooking. • He didn't like the food,
but he got it down somehow. • It was an atrocious meal.
• I had a strong black coffee, and it has left a bitter taste in the mouth .• What's that
delicious smell? • You can flavour the curry with pepper .• He eats the plainest of foods .• I
had a savoury pancake, and she had a sweet one .• Where do you usually lunch? • These
apples are not ripe enough to eat. They're still green .• Have you taken food yet? • Have you
started your baby on solids yet? • I feel like a coffee

Group 3
• I feel like having something - something small and light, like crisps .• He wasn't hungry


and h sat nibbling at his food .• Look at these vegetables. Aren't they fresh and crisp? • She
served us tea and cakes .• These snacks have sweet fillings inside .• I don't like to eat
vegetables when they're over-cooked. I like my vegetables lightly cooked .• That was a tasty
meal. • They're young and they have healthy appetites. • I like good, plain footnoting fancy •
He doesn't eat much breakfast .• How much chilly did you put in the curry? • Drink up -
hurry! • What was the main dish? • We had a snack of coffee and biscuits. • She bit off a
piece of the chocolate .• This is good chutney It has got a bit of bite to it .• Two ice creams,
please - one vanilla ice cream and one chocolate ice cream. • I have a very poor digestion .•
We have a guest. Lay a place at table for him. • They served us soup, a main meal and a
sweet. • That's a tasty dish. How did you make it? • I'm very thirsty - I need a long cool
drink. • They served us crisp toasted sandwiches for tea .• Let's make some toast for
breakfast .• I didn't like the food. It had almost no taste or flavour .• I like spiced food .• The
dinner smells good .• He had salt porridge for breakfast. • Add salt and pepper to taste .• He
doesn't like dishes that are mild in flavour .• He sat there sucking on an orange .• You can
eat it either raw or cooked .• Have you fed the baby yet? • I think it's a rotten egg. Don't use
it. • She was cooking dinner (or the dinner) .• The pancake had a

Fluency in speaking about a wide range of topics

In this Supplement, I'm going to give you word groups that have to do with seven other
important topics:
1). Good and bad.
2). Farming, Agriculture & Gardening. 3). Sports & Games.
4). Essential Computer English.
5). Nature.
6). Building and home.
Remember this: What's needed is not just to learn the content of these word groups; what's
needed is to train your organs of speech with them.
Here we go:
* Good & bad
Group 1
o We had a really pleasant time together. 0 His French wasn't as good as his English,
but good enough. 0 What an unpleasant man! 0 Don't expect them to be truthful-
they've got no ethics.
 The weather conditions were bad, and the plane couldn't land.
 He's a very able lawyer. 0 It's an old car, but it's basically sound. 0 This is
perhaps the finest film I've ever seen. 0 He showed excellent self-control in his
answer. 0 What an awful smell! 0 His work is satisfactory, but not outstanding. 0 He's
a nasty man, and he won't help anyone. 0 That's a remarkable achievement. 0 She
gave us some hints on how to look after indoor plants, and I found them very useful.
0 He says he's a policeman, but he doesn't look authentic/genuine. 0 He has a lot of
good qualities and he deserves admiration. 0 The conference was very dull, and I
didn't know what to do to amuse myself. 0 That's a marvellous dress you're wearing.
0 Some of these drugs have a harmful effect on the nervous system. 0 She's a very
skilled and experienced swimmer. 0 Many of them are incapable and don't have the
abilities necessary to do their jobs. o His work is first class. 0 What miserable
weather! If only it stopped raining! 0 That's a first rate plan/idea. 0 The management
of that company seems to be very inefficient. 0 Their work is well below standard. 0 I
don't think it was an honest answer.
.• I like the design of this building/ dress/furniture - it's stylish .• I'm not happy with his
work _ it's below a satisfactory standard. • Thank you for an excellent evening .• His
argument/reasoning was deeply flawed. • I don't think it's a sound idea/plan. • The problem
is, the supplies of medicines are not adequate. • She always goes out dressed in fine
clothes .• His new film is a miserable failure .• He's a first rate professional. • They're all
fine singers. • Change that dress - it looks awful on you .• He's very truthful, and you can
trust him .• I find it difficult to believe that he's a real/genuine doctor .• The telephone
system in our area is very inefficient. • We had a really good time at the party last night. •
This food has a nasty mouldy smell.
Group 2


• The terms of the new contract are really advantageous to us .• This film doesn't have any
technical merit, but it's very entertaining. • This medicine isn't suitable for all patients .•
He's a superior musician .• He's very competent in foreign languages .
• I think the fears of the industrialists are legitimate, and not groundless .• My room has a
fine view of the countryside .• The kitchen smelt foul. • His car is in first class condition. • If
you want to know how to start up a company, you should consult
• His interpretation of the balance sheet figures - it's faulty .• I don't think he's suitable for
that job. • He had a terrible accident last year .• Stress in itself is not always harmful. • He's
a nice person, and is pleasant to be with .• Their village/town is rather crowded, but very
pleasant. • He's good-looking and stylish .• The new boss is always nasty to me. • The work
was not up to standard. • That was a very competent performance. • The boss seems to be in
a foul mood today. • He's a genuine person _ always honest and sincere .• This butter tastes
stale .• I like her - her behaviour has a childlike quality. • She's very clean, and always keeps
the kitchen free from dirt .• Most people in that area are poor and live in housing of sorts/of
a sort .• That was a satisfying meal. • That bridge is in poor condition and may soon
collapse .• He's an expert tailor .• He claims to have invented this device, but do you think
his claim is legitimate? • The smell of rotting cabbage was disgusting .• The new
arrangement suits me fine .• He's a miserable man, and always bad-tempered .• That's a
great idea .• It was a bad accident, and his injuries were awful. • I don't think he was being
truthful with us when he said all those things. • The whole marketing department in our
company is very inefficient. • This milk has gone bad .• The food in that restaurant is very
good/poor .• His hearing/sight was defective. • He's a very talented tennis player .• This food
has gone off, and it smells. • He has superb confidence .• If you bury a piece of wood, it'd
decay/rot .• This medicine is an effective cure for TB. • This method is inefficient and
expensive. • The flight was very comfortable, and I enjoyed it .• He's a poor singer - his wife
can sing better than him .• He's a very friendly and agreeable person. • She has a nice little
house here .• Don't keep biting your nails - it's a disgusting habit .• He's a very moral
person - don't expect him to stoop to bribery.
Group 3
o It's not a very: expensive hotel - the prices are OK. 0 Did you go to the carnival? It was
an impressive spectacle. 0 I found his argument defective. 0 I think today's going to be a
pleasant day. o She's a very attractive and fashionable woman. 0 He made some nasty
jokes about me. 0 He's the most upright and trustworthy man I've ever met. 0 This sort of
diet isn't suitable for most people. 0 He has a few valuable contacts in the government. 0
The lecture was so dull I fell asleep. 0 The film didn't have ~ satisfying ending. 0 Her
grandfather is past 90, but his mind is sound. 0 Do you think the talks the unions had with
the management were genuine? • There's nothing more enjoyable than lying on that
beach. 0 He has a foul mouth and nobody likes him. 0 He's an excellent student. '
o That was a defective theory. 0 His jokes are always the same and they're boring. 0 He felt
that the only honourable course; of action was to resign. 0 The education system here isn't
as good as it should be. 0 Is the pain terrible/very bad? 0 I've made some arrangements,
but I don't know if they're OK. 0 The government's decision is very good news for small
investors. 0 That building is very old, and all the doors and windows are rotten. 0 That's a
very attractive dress. 0 I don't think that house is in very good condition - don't buy it. 0
He's a warm and kind-hearted man. 0 Divorce isn't good for children. 0 Look at those
flowers! Aren't they a beautiful sight! 0 This job is no good at all - I'm going to resign. 0
Bangalore has a pleasant climate.

o It was a boring meeting/party. 0 His musical ability is of a high standard. 0 He's an expert
in this sort of work. 0 Dishonest behaviour is something I had never expected from him. 0
The show was just excellent entertainment .• All these rumours are mischievous .• That's a
great relief. 0 The weather has been awful for a week now. 0 That food is no longer fresh -
it's stale. o Her son is an able child, and he's very good at his studies. 0 There's a negative
side to his character that I don't like. 0 That's an old building and it has started to decay. 0
He did OK at the interview .• The weather has been good for some time now. 0 Trying to
convince him of something is really tedious. 0 Adultery is considered immoral. • They're
very poor, and their living conditions are very harsh/severe .• I don't like his paintings -
they're of poor artistic quality. 0 He's a world-class tennis player. • He's evil, and he takes
pleasure in harming other people. 0 Do you think this is a suitable present for her? 0
Tomorrow is her birthday. 0 The water supply in this area is quite inadequate.


Group 4
• He always uses foul/bad language .• We had a really great time together .• He's wicked by
nature .• He's an honourable man, and he won't behave in a cheap way. • Filling up long forms
like these is tedious work. • I found most of his answers unsatisfactory .• His behaviour was
rude/shocking .• He isn't a good person to work with .• That's a school of quality. • This food
isn't fit to eat .• He's an evil man .• That's a useless job, but he had to take it because
opportunities were scarce .• He gave me a few valuable tips, and I found them very helpful. •
Our education system is hopeless .• He's very thorough, and is very methodical in his work. •
Food shortage has become severe .• He's a very capable person, and he can do most things
well. • That was a marvellous performance .• This is a nasty problem, and I don't know how to
deal with it .• He's a capable worker, and we don't want him to leave us .• The timing of the
meeting was very convenient .• He's very incompetent and can't do his job properly. • He
speaks good English .• The new boss is stern and hard to please, and isn't popular with the
staff. • That was a coincidence - a remarkable coincidence .• It was the most disgusting thing
I've ever tasted .• He's a splendid painter.
 That man is boring - he only talks about himself.

Group 5
• That's a horrible thing to say .• I can't stand the smell of rotting vegetables/meat/fish .•
The article he sent to them was not of an acceptable standard, and they decided not to
publish it .• He's a marvellous actor .• It was boring to sit there with nobody to talk to. • He
won't fail to notice things like these he has an expert eye, you know .• He's an honest man -
he never tries to deceive people .• That's not a bad idea .• When he started his career, he
was very honest, but now he's become corrupt .• He looked pathetic, and I felt sorry for
him .• Did he tell you the awful news? • His suggestion is certainly worthy of
consideration .• He's a dishonest lawyer. • He's sure to make a favourable impression on
the interview board. • She's a real expert on art, and you can learn a lot from a
conversation with her .• He coped with the situation admirably. • I've had a terrible
journey, and I'm very tired .• We had a wonderful time in Goa .• He was smart and well-
dressed .• There was a foul stench when the rubber started burning. • She's an able stu-
dent/teacher .• What rotten luck! • You should arrange a convenient time for the
negotiation .• That wasn't a satisfactory answer .• It tastes slightly bitter, and it has a very
unpleasant smell. • These are pathetic excuses - do you think I believe what you're saying? •
He looked splendid.
• I found that film very boring .• They're a bunch of incompetents .• He's past 70, but his
body is still sound .• He isn't an expert or anything - he's phoney. • She's very efficient and
does a good job as our Managing Director's secretary. • These shoes are great for walking
in the country. • He's a corrupt politician .• The washing machine was defective and wasn't
working properly. • He acted honourably, and apologized to them .• I don't like that man -
he's awful. • She's a thoroughly evil woman .• He's an annoying person - he keeps asking
personal questions. • He had a severe hip injury. • There's nothing like a good book .• His
efforts certainly deserve praise. • Some of these foods contain a lot of chemicals and
additives, and may have a harmful/damaging effect on your health. • I don't think she
should get married to him - he isn't worthy of her .• He's a specialist on European history. •
This is a pocket sized computer, and I find it very handy. • We usually avoid that restaurant
- it's a fancy place, and very expensive, you know .• The film was entertaining, but not
particularly good .• What an awful thing to say! • We took a chance, and we've won - it's
very satisfying .• She's a poor swimmer. • This toaster is a clever invention. • The trouble is,
none of their plans are thorough .• He was good at languages while at school. • Everybody
had a good opinion of the way the police handled the situation .• He's a great musician.

Group 6
• That was a pathetic attempt - no wonder it didn't succeed .• He was fired because he was
found to be inefficient .• This is a very satisfying job .• That's a rotten idea .• This is a hopeless
situation - I don't know how he's going to deal with it .• He has expert hands and will be able to
repair the car in no time. • It's an old car, but it's in good condition and quite dependable .• I
like him - he's a pleasant person .• He behaved dreadfully at the meeting .• He's a great one for
getting people to talk confidentially to him .• Don't eat that food - it smells dreadful. • He may
be poor, but he's honest. • This is the best hotel I've ever stayed at .• He's dishonest and
immoral, and he won't hesitate to trick you out of your money· In about a month, the weather
would become mild and warm. • The arrangement we come to must be satisfactory to both
parties. • That's an old and decaying building .• He's a talented musician.
• They've called off the strike - it's a very satisfying development. • Let's not forget that their
support is very valuable to us. • That bridge is very old and isn't in good condition. • He's bad
at mathematics. • They always buy the choicest apples/vegetables/fruits/meat .• That man has a
nasty mind .• I've never seen him confident that things would turn out well .• That's a very
popular and fashionable restaurant .• Their business partnership has turned/gone sour. •
That's a clever solution _ I've been wondering how to solve this puzzle. • This wallet is made of
genuine leather .• That's a dull novel, and there's nothing exciting in it.

* Farming, Agriculture & Gardening

Group 1
• Is the land there good for farming? • Press the seed into the soil, and cover it lightly • You
must remove all the weeds from around the plants/crops .• The future of farming certainly
looks bright in our country - many signs point in that direction.
• They have a good year-round supply of water for all their farm needs .• The plants were
grown indoors, and then transplanted outside .• We've lived and farmed here for more
than 50 years.
 His land is not suitable for cultivation because of shallow soil.

 When he retired, he took up gardening .• If you want to do the farm work efficiently,
you need modern machinery and equipment .• Have you sprayed the plants with
insecticide yet?
• During the growing season, most farm crops need about 1
inch of water a week .• Look at those cows grazing around that tree .• His farmland is
nearly level, and so, for him, erosion is not a problem .• When is cabbage ready for
harvesting? • They're thinking of taking up fish/sheep farming. • They always treat
soil/their plants with manure .• Many trees die because people often do careless planting .•
The flower-beds were full of weeds .• The long-term outlook for farming in our country is
certainly bright .• Their country is strong both in industry and agriculture .• Nearly all
farm plants are of the seed producing types. • There's a cowshed on the farm to
shelter/keep/milk the cows .• I'm thinking of planting bushes/trees/shrubs/veg-
etables/potatoes/beans in the garden .• If the land/soil isn't fertile, plants won't grow well .•
How do you prevent rabbit attacks in this area?
Group 2
• Farming is becoming more productive and more efficient in our country .• My parents are
farmers .• Fruit trees largely take care of themselves - except for pruning .• We're going to have
another year of crop failure .• Our farm produces farm products for sale and home use. • He
was pinching out the tips of the young growths, so they'll develop into bushy plants. • Some seed
varieties grow very fast. • What insect is most injurious in this region? • Look at those hens
loose in the farmyard. • Some plants don't transplant well. • You can prune the young tree by
trimming the roots and the top at the planting time .• We don't use any chemical pesticides - we
grow crops without using them. • Farmers in that area have started using machines for
threshing .• You should use stakes to support these plants .• Wheat, maize and rice are cereal
plants that produce grain .• Insects like these mostly attack cultivated plants and fruits .• They
have several acres under cultivation .• You should rake the soil smooth .• In general, the farmers
in our country have become more efficient during the last few years .• Have you fed the
chickens? • Are there any apple/cherry orchards in your area? • Nowadays, good agricultural
land is in short supply .• The seeds were planted in beds and there were irrigation furrows
between the beds.
• The trees gave a high yield last year .• When planting is done on ridges, you should be
careful not to expose roots, and you shouldn't cover plants when they're small. • How much
will it cost to produce an acre of tomatoes? • He employs more than 50 farm workers .•
Total farm production in our country during the last year was the largest on record .• The
government will have to do something to improve the level of living of farm people .• Many
plants make poor growth, because farmers don't handle them properly at planting time .•
Both of them work on a farm .• Those oranges look old and shrivelled. • This dry weather
is going to have a bad effect on our crops. • They have a number of fruit trees in their
backyard.• Get the tree in the position you want - then add soil in the hole and pack
again .• We cut long narrow trenches in the earth and planted the seed in them .• They use
a high-yielding variety of wheat for seed .• Fences keep cattle and sheep where they are
wanted, and also out of places where they're not wanted.

Group 3
• They grow crops and keep pigs at the farm .• There are trees of various ages in that farm .•
Organic manure like these make plants grow healthy and strong .• This is a chemical fertilizer -
you should spread it on the land/ground and work it in before planting .• All this land will have
to be brought under cultivation. • If you sow the seed now, the plants will be ready to be set in
the field by September. • All the farms in that region are highly productive. • They rotate crops
by growing different crops in succession in that field. • Where can we get good celery seed
from? • They live in a farming area .• A large part of the land on their farm is in crops. • The
vines provide shade as well as fruit .• Crop production per acre of cropland has certainly
increased .• Nowadays fewer men on the farm work fewer hours - but they produce more farm
products than ever before .• Some flowers don't transplant easily. • His son is at university
studying agriculture .• All these lumps of earth will have to be broken up .• Wells should be
located on the high side of the fields to provide for water flow.
• These trees no longer yield fruit. • How do you control grasshoppers and other insects in
your fields? • Buds have started appearing on the trees .• The roots are still unharmed -
they've produced a lot of sprouts .• He owns about 100 acres of farmland there .• Potatoes
grow under the ground .• The field had been ploughed, and we could see a series of ridges
in it .• Set the tree in a hole, and fill the hole to the top and pack. • How many acres of crop
land does their farm have? • The irrigation in that area is very poor .• What crops are
grown in your area for home use? • Their farmhouse is at the bottom of the valley. •
Vegetables and small fruits are high-return crops .• How much fertilizer should I use for
there .• We keep the fields flooded with water and use them for growing rice .• How deep should
the soil be ploughed to prepare it for melons?
• Put cow dung around the roots of these bushes .• While these plants are young, you shouldn't
cover the buds with soil during cultivation .• How do the growers in your area market the
spinach crop? • He grows mushrooms in the garden .• Land that's idle is losing fertility. • What
are the climate requirements of carrots? • Fewer farmers and more customers are to the
advantage of farmers .• Let's train the vines over/against the wall. • Don't set the plants too
shallow or too deep .• Crops grow well if you dig manure or chemical substances into soil. •
They're expecting a record harvest this year. • Ploughing is over, but there are lots of large
lumps of earth/clay on the surface .• The larger the farm in crop areas, the larger the net farm
income .• How many onion plants are required per acre
Group 4
• You should grow a cover crop like peas and turn it under as green manure .• We must weed the
garden today. • Most farmland is not being wisely used .• Carrots grow under the ground and
have green shoots above the ground .• What crops do you grow here for turning under as green
manure? • This land is poor and stony and isn't suitable for farming .• The crops are cut and
gathered after they have ripened .• Set the tree in a hole, and throw a few shovels of the topsoil
around and over the roots, and pack this well .• Wild plants like these grow among cultivated
plants .• When you plant these trees you should dig deep wide holes - or the roots won't spread
out in a natural position .• He doesn't own the farm - he only runs it. • Before planting time, the
soil is ploughed with a tractor and cut over with a harrow .• How are rows laid off for planting
lemons? • She planted flowers along the drive .• Farm people need as good housing as town
people .• It'll be a good idea to plant low-growing crops like cabbage, beans, onions, etc. between
the rows of trees .• They had a bumper wheat crop last year .• The soil here is too dry and rocky
- you can't cultivate this land .• Use a hoe and remove all these weeds .• We had a good/high
yield of rice last year. • The basic feed for the livestock on the farm is pasture.
• They sprayed the fruit trees with pesticide. • His farmland is gently sloping, and he has to
spend a lot of money to prevent erosion .• The yield was poor this year. • It's only three days
since we planted the seeds, and they've already started to
sprout .• Let's hope the rains won't fail this year .• He's an apple-grower/fruit-grower/flower-
grower/rose-grower .• The ponds dried up during the drought .•

* Sports & Games

Group 1
• All our players played well today .• Our team has a fairly good chance of winning this time. •
He doesn't like indoor games .• He only likes outdoor games .• Wimbledon is a major sporting
event .• She did well on Sports Day .• He was worried he'd lose his place in the team .• He's a
first-rate cricketer. • It's a defeat - they've lost .• When he was younger, he used to be interested
in sport. • T-here was keen competition among the various teams .• Don't play that card now -
play the king of clubs .• You can't beat him at tennis .• Let's go to the football match tomorrow,
shall we? • I'll bet they'll win the match. • He's the best opponent I've ever played against. • He
works out at a gym three times a week .• He jumped 18 feet. • He's beaten/broken the world
10,000 meters record. • The winner received a trophy and a certificate .• How many points have
their team scored so far? • He plays a lot of outdoor sports .• Then she challenged him to a game
of chess .• Do you like watching sports? • Our town doesn't have an indoor swimming pool. •
These exercises would help you reduce weight and improve your health .• Where are the
Olympic Games going to be held this time? • Is he good at boxing/wrestling?

Group 2
o I think you need more exercise. 0 More than 30,000 people turned up for the match. 0 The
fighters were aiming punches at each other. 0 Where's the shuttlecock? It's my turn to serve,
isn't it? 0 It's my service next. 0 He's in the college team. 0 Two of their players were sent out of
the ground for fouling. 0 If you want to be a good footballer, you should be good at passing. 0
The doctor has asked him to take more exercise. 0 The other boxer was knocked out in the
fourth round. 0 The cup final took place at another stadium. 0 He was anxious to know the
football result. 0 Look at the way he played/hit/kicked the ball. 0 Don't try to win the match by
fouling their players. 0 It was an easy catch, but the fielder dropped it. 0 He's very good at
sports. 0 He does a lot of keep-fit exercises. 0 Who played India this time in the final? Australia?
0 The crowd cheered when he received the prize. 0 He's never taken part in a sports
competition. 0 He did well in the long jump/the high jump. 0 Our team lost the World Cup final
again this time. 0 Who won? 0 They were last year's Cup finalists .• Tennis is his favourite sport.
0 Cricket and hockey are team sports. 0 He's exercising in the garden. 0 He plays football every

Group 3
o His favourite sports are football and running. 0 Are you interested in mountaineering? 0
They play very well, but they lack good sportsmanship. 0 The doctor has asked him to
exercise himself more. 0 He's a brilliant cricketer and a true sportsman. 0 Those two teams
tied for second place in the game. 0 I have never played basketball
o Is he competing in the long jump? 0 Who won first prize? 0 He played the Jack of Hearts. 0
Our college has a very good side/team, and we hope to win this year. 0 Thousands of football
fans came to watch the finals. 0 Have you entered for the race? 0 He qualified for the final by
beating 10 competitors. o If you play well, you can win a place for yourself on the university
team. 0 Many companies have come forward to sponsor our team this time. 0 He hit the ball
hard. 0 This was the first time they had won a game against England .• He does a lot of stomach
exercises. 0 He had to run against some of the best runners in the race. 0 The spectators were
shouting themselves hoarse and cheering on the team. 0 The last game resulted in a win for the
other side. 0 I'm a fan of yours. 0 Our team will win the world championship one day. • Their
team has qualified in the first quarter-final.

* Essential computer English

Here we go for the word-groups:
Group 1
• These bills were made by computers .• Before you buy your computer, think carefully about
what you want to use it for. • Can you show me how to load this program onto the computer? •
Without the proper software, your computer won't be able to do anything .• My disc is full. • Is
your PC still under warranty? • The monitor goes blank often - but the press of a key restores
it .• You don't need to know how a computer works you only need to know how to use it .• I've
been trying to learn some basic computer stuff .• Those two files can only be accessed with
special keystrokes .• You'd better store the backup disks in some other room. • Is the computer's
power cord plugged into the wall? • It'll be less expensive to upgrade the computer you already
have than to buy a new computer. • Do you know how to use a computer and do something? •
Computers came about as the result of a long series of experiments .• I don't think the keyboard
is plugged in right .• Of course, computers take away some people's jobs. At the same time, they
also create a number of new jobs .• I'm thinking of buying an accounting application .• Did you
install any new part recently? • His new computer has a colour monitor .• Monochrome


monitors are cheaper. • If your computer doesn't work, look for loose cables .• The computer
system at the bank crashed today, and I couldn't withdraw the money I needed.

Group 2
• There are lots of reasons to learn about computers .• He's very good at fixing computers .•
That's a new software package, and I don't know how to use it .• Computer software comes
on floppy disks and CDs. • Have you plugged the mouse all the way in? • Check the
brightness knob on the monitor. Has someone turned it down? • I'm very seriously thinking
about getting a computer .• The printer receives input from the PC and generates output in
the form of a print-out .• Don't you know what a computer is? • I think it's high time you
started learning basic computer skills .• If your PC seems completely dead, make sure all
connections are right .• If you want to exit, press the 'Escape' key .• I started up the
computer, but all I got was a blank screen. Is my monitor the problem? • The monitor is
blank. • What's the storage capacity of your hard disk? • They'll teach you everything you
need to know about your computer .• Copy the files from the floppies to the hard disk. • I
can't get in to the program .• The software tells the hardware what to do. • When I press
keys, the keyboard doesn't respond .• I know what computers are, and something about the
way they work. • The repair man forgot to turn off the power before opening the PC .•
There's been a number of important computer developments recently.
• My floppy drive isn't working properly. • Did they teach you anything substantial about
your computer? • This is the second time our computer network

has crashed this week. • My mouse is stuck, and it has locked my system up .• Comparison
of these figures will be made by computer. • If you want to keep up with advancing
technology, you'll have to upgrade your PC from time to time .• He's writing software to do
this work quickly .• A computer helps you get organized .• I'm just trying to get acquainted
with the keyboard .• All these problems were caused by computer error. • Have you
changed anything on your computer recently? Added a second floppy drive or a new piece
of software or something? • A computer user doesn't have to learn the inner-workings of a
PC. • They installed a new computer system in their office last week. • One thing about
computers is, they make information easy to store and retrieve.

Group 3
• I had accidentally jerked/pulled a cable loose from the back of the monitor - that was what
caused the problem .• They've been trying to program their computer to do this job .• We use a
computer to keep track of accounts and invoices .• Have you opened up your PC at any time
and looked inside? • Have you keyed all the data into the computer? • My computer keeps
freezing up - the Service Engineer says there's a bug in the software .• What does 'illegal
operation' mean? • Are all viruses destructive? • If you want to run the latest software, you
may have to upgrade your PC .• Computers are very useful. • Computers can be linked
together in networks .• The monitor is an expensive piece of equipment .• All day today, she's
been entering data into the computer .• That's a fast hard disk, and it can store and retrieve
data instantly .• If you add more memory; you can make your computer run faster .•
He's taken his computer to a repair place. 0 Do you know how to key in written texts? 0 Is
the monitor plugged in correctly? 0 How can I avoid getting a virus? 0 I accidentally
pressed a wrong key. 0 My PC is making a strange noise. 0 Spend a few days, and learn
about your computer first.

Group 4
• The keyboard plugs in at the back of the computer. • Don't turn the computer on and off
rapidly. • If you turn off the computer, and if you want to turn it on again, wait for 20 to 30
seconds .• I know my way around a program or two .• There was a bug in the computer
program - which was why these problems have been happening .• Turn off the computer
when you're done .• The great thing about computers is, they reduce tedious human labour
.• Power supplies in PCs are relatively inexpensive .• What are the records you entered into
the computer today? • Delete all unnecessary files and programs, so you can free up more
space on the hard disk. • Make a copy of the file on a floppy disk, and give it to me. • Don't
you know how to exit the program? • Who's that working on your PC? • Is he a repair
man? • The printer cable plugs into the computer here .• I think your computer's memory
needs to be upgraded.


• You should access the databases today and update them .• Do you run any special virus-
protection software on your PC? • She doesn't have much experience working with
computers .• Computers affect us in more ways than we imagine .• Have you labelled the
floppy disk? • Sometimes problems like these go away when you reboot your computer .•
You'll have to learn how to organize the files on your hard disk. • We have the details of all
our customers on computer .• My mouse has frozen .• How do you start this program? •
Computers - it's a subject you have to keep up with. • Computers have now become

Group 5
• Don't forget to disconnect all the cables from the back of the PC before opening it. • The
candidates must have basic knowledge of computers and ability to use them .• There's some
basic information you should know before you buy a computer. • At the end of each day, we
make a backup of all the data we've keyed into the computer .• The screen is blank. • I think
you have a disk problem .• I'm thinking of taking a computer programming course .• There are
a number of computer repair shops in this area .• He's bought the computer to do word
processing .• My computer locks up unexpectedly - yes, it stops working altogether a new
database program.
• Print that file on paper and give it to me - I need a hard copy .• In general, computers are
quite durable .• They have a computer to do accounting .• If you want to store more programs
and data, you need a larger hard drive .• The computer was down since the morning - it's now
up again. • Make a copy of the file before you delete it .• Is there a loose cable? Check all the
cables behind the system unit .• I can't access my disc .• Did you try out the computer before
you bought it? • Jobs like these are handled by computer in our office .• Do you know how to
use a word processor? • The monitor appears totally blank - do you think the monitor is
broken? • If you buy a computer from them, they'll give you the service and support you need. •
Save your work before you shut down the computer. • Computer literacy - it's very important
in today's world .• The computer booted up fine, but the picture on the monitor looks funny .•
The 'Backspace' key doesn't work right .• Insert a floppy disk in drive A. • Are all the cables in
the back of the monitor secure? • The computer froze when I pressed the ESCAPE key - it
stopped responding to my commands.

* Nature
Group 1
o There was a soft breeze - and it came from the north. 0 We could see birds bathing on
the edges of the streams. 0 The hills looked beautiful against the blue sky. 0 The earth was
full of dead leaves. 0 The sun was over the hills - the eastern hills. 0 The sky was pale blue.
o The horizon - it was filled with white clouds. 0 The mountains were shining - shining with
the setting sun. 0 The tree trunks - they looked dark. 0 There was a grove of bamboos to
my right - and a grove of mangoes to my left. 0 The eagle was not beating its wings and was
floating on the breeze. 0 There was a movement of some kind in the woods. 0 Outside, the
moon was bright. 0 The skies suddenly cleared. 0 It was a rough
road used by the villagers. 0 It was a beautiful country. • It was a clear starry night. 0 The
bushes have started flowering. 0 It was cool in the shade. 0 The crows were fighting .• We
sat there, facing the sea. 0 Look at those dark, heavy clouds .• The earth was soggy. 0 The
trees were covered with tender green leaves .• There was a glow in the sky - the eastern sky.
0 It was very quiet in the valley. 0 I could hear the roar of the sea. • There was a gentle
breeze. 0 The valley was full of trees and streams. 0 The fields were green - green with the
sprouting rice. 0 I found the evening full of light and, you know, splendors. 0 The leaves
sparkled - in the clear air. 0 The sound of the song - it filled the air .• It was a moment of
great beauty - of great beauty and stillness. 0 It was impossible to see the birds in the dark
foliage. • The hills were not high. 0 The stars were very clear. • The wild bushes were green.
• The hills in the distance looked black. 0 The smell of the earth - that pleasant smell - it
filled the air. 0 There was a goat tied to a fruit tree. 0 All along the banks of the river, there
were trees. 0 The path ended at the bank of a stream .• The tall palms were very still.

Group 2
o There was a strong smell of seaweed. • There were deep pools of clear water. • The sea was
calm .• The sea was violent and threatening .• The trees were putting out green leaves. • We were
then going through the outskirts of the city. 0 The birds were searching for worms. 0 The clouds
hid the sun.
• It was a very peaceful evening. • The blue of the sky was intense. • It was a beautiful bird - its
beak was red, and its tail was green .• There was a cool breeze from the mountains .• It was
pleasant in the shade of the big tree .• There was a column of smoke going straight up on the
hills .• It was very quiet by the river .• There were jasmines in bloom .• The whole garden - it
looked like an enchanted place .• The plants were beginning to bloom with red flowers .• There
were rows of carefully planted palm trees .• The leaves were covered with fine, red dust .• The
birds have settled down for the night .• They were resting in the cool shade of the tree .• The sun
was very clear in the sky .• There were butterflies hovering about the roses .• The horizon was
clear .• The trees and bushes were intensely green. • There was an open market on the
roadside .• The worms
were the same colour as the tender leaves .• The leaves were dark green .• There was a stream of
cool, fresh water among the bushes. • The air was completely still. • There were green trees on
both sides of the road. • The sun had just set, and we stood there watching the glow - the golden
• The creepers grew on that wall .• The sea was very calm .• The rabbit carne out from the thick
bushes .• There were a few birds perching among the rose bushes .• There was a little stream -
flowing under the stone bridge. • There was a sparkle in the sea .• It was a lovely place - rich
and enchanting .• It had been raining all night long, and now it was slowly clearing up .• The
sun was now a huge ball- a huge golden ball above the hills .• The river was swollen .• I sat
there, listening to the hum of the bees .• The rose bushes were covered with bright red roses. •
The trees and bushes were still, and they looked beautiful in the moonlight. • The shadows were
clear and sharp. • The sun was setting, and clouds were golden .• It was a small, well-kept park.
• There was a smell of the rain on dry earth. • Someone was playing the flute, and I could hear
its notes in the distance. • A few drops of rain fell. • It was pleasant and peaceful by the stream. •
The sky was intensely blue .• Frogs were making a loud noise .• The woods extended for miles .•
The vegetables they sold looked wilted. • Look at the hills across the lake

* Buildings & Home

Group 1
• Her father is a builder .• He doesn't have a good home life .• He came in through the front
door .• They sat on the sofa/ couch/settee and talked .• She lives in Delhi. • They're renovat-
ing their country house .• Those are large and expensive flats .• He's in the garden shed .•
That bed is a fine piece of furniture .• Go along the corridor. • He's gone home .• Don't
forget to flush the toilet. • They spent a lot of money fitting out the new house. • They have
a cottage by the sea .• He works in the building trade .• We slept out in a tent last night .•
Their flat is on the top floor of the building .• We should call for a plumber - this drainpipe
has a hole in it. 0 They went to China and settled there. 0 That's a large and splendid
house. 0 His friend will put him up for the night. 0 That house has a sloping roof and is
supported by sloping beams.
o They sat in the living room and chatted. 0 We're going to clean the house down this weekend.
0 He met with an accident on the building site. 0 He has built houses for two of my friends. •
They've rented the house from him. 0 The doorway is quite wide. 0 There was a large open
space between their house and garden. 0 There's a line of joined houses a little away from there.
0 He lives abroad most of the year. 0 I can't walk up the stairs - I'll take the lift. 0 I must go to
the toilet. 0 We'll go and wait at the bus shelter. 0 They live in a large, grand house. 0 He's an
architect. 0 She stood there looking out of the window.
o The children were playing in the attic. 0 There are a number of houses like these in the outer
parts of the town. 0 There's a garage as part of their house. 0 That's a large house, and the
dining hall is in the north wing. 0 There's a corridor leading from the front door. 0 Do you
have a flat here?
o We'll have to buy some new household equipment. 0 The whole new area is covered with
buildings now. 0 He's not a visitor - he lives there. 0 The dog went out through an opening in the
wall. 0 Where do you live? 0 That building is divided into flats and offices. 0 She decorated the
walls with pictures. 0 He was sitting on the divan. 0 I met him in the passage way. 0 The dirty
water doesn't flow away from the bath. 0 They have nice curtains in their house. 0 They have a
small house in the country. 0 They're putting up a new building there. 0 They left India, and
settled in Canada. 0 I only had a single room for living and sleeping in. 0 These waste pipes
carry water and waste away from the building. 0 He lives in a large, showy building. 0 The
gardens around the hospital are full of flowers, grass and paths. 0 The roof is supported by a
row of pillars. 0 The rails along the balcony prevented her from falling.


Here we go:
• He was - turning a corner .• She is not used to - having food in restaurants .• They're not on -
speaking terms .• I telephoned his office + but - but there's no - answer .• I like - living
economically .• She -' she doesn't - wear any - make-up .• He - he doesn't know - what is
good for him .• You'll soon be a - a doctor .• I'm - I'm getting used to travelling by bus .• He was
in a - in a panic .• It's no use my - reminding her .• They made him - kneel down .• You must
stop him - following her about .• You are always -forgetting - things .• They are quite - quite rare
.• That's my bag you're - picking up .• He's very bad - about about answering letters .• By next
Monday + I will have - left for - for Bombay. • That's the - main drawback + of this - of this
system .• You should look for a - job .• Would you mind keeping an - eye on these things? • This
is the - the first time + he has ever spoken to a - girl. • They get on - very well. • She likes -
looking after the children .• What a lot of - suffering - the flood has been - causing! • I've got
used to - to giving talks .• That sounds a - great - a great idea! • I'm - I'm looking forward to -
meeting them .• The building was on - on fire .• Neither of us - knew - how to open it .• I don't
remember their - their - overcharging us .• She - she keeps talking - about - herself. • They're
quite common .• He - admitted - doing it .• I expect + they'll - they'll get in touch with you .•
That's the - the trouble with - travelling alone.
• I don't know + how long ago it - it happened .• I've never - never stayed up so late - before .•
They don't see - much of - each other .• I like working - working with - you .• I saw it + from -
across the street .• The kitchen is - next to her - next to her bedroom. • I'm looking forward to -
hearing it .• I don't - like the idea of - of inviting them .• Would you mind - booking a - a seat
for me? • He is too - untidy .• You didn't make them - understand the - problem .• I can't stop
him - getting married .• You - you shouldn't have been - waiting for him .• You sound + as if -
you have no - no interest .• He denied - denied doing it .• I - I
- I doubt if he'll- if he'll bring it .• That's one - one advantage + of being a - government
servant .• Neither you + nor he + neither will be able to - do it. • He makes a point of - a point
of contradicting them .• I can't get to - sleep .• They often - meet .• I - I wouldn't like -
sweeping streets .• He was very - short of - short of money - then .• You could have - done it
yourself. • I'm all - in favour of that .• I don't mind him using it .• They're too - noisy .• Both of
us - have been to - Bangalore .• Let's try - oiling the - hinges .• You shouldn't be - working so -
hard .• She seemed a bit - nervous .• They charged him with - with attacking her .• They -
They probably won't - return it .• His - His letter - encouraged me + to - to do it .•
• It means + that - that he doesn't - know her. • The plants need watering. • I have a - pain + in
my - back. • We suspected him + of - of planning the - whole thing. • I was lying - stretched out
+ on the - on the bench. • I didn't hear the - clock striking. • You - You needn't have brought it -
• You can - You can bring - anyone you like. • What is the point + of making a fuss? • We've just
had a - baby .• You sound as if - as if you're bored .• The doors need - painting .• Nobody knows
- how much of it he has - he has - taken .• He's not ill + he's fine .• I would hate - digging
drains .• This is - five times as - as expensive as - that .• There's no need to - whisper. • You must
try to - try to avoid - rushing about .• I want to have a - serious - talk with you .• They've -
They've both been to - Washington .• He was afraid of - afraid of upsetting his wife .• That
doesn't - necessarily mean - that he will - that he'll do it again .•
There's - there's someone - running - down the road. • I heard him whistling. • He will- he'll
certainly be there. • Fancy -losing all your all your savings! • You shouldn't have - made such a
- such a scene there. • I don't mind - when - when you return. • She - She looks - ill. • I hate -
sharing the room with them. • He has been - organizing + his daughter's - wedding. • It sounds
as if - they are - they are enthusiastic. • That is - twice as - big as - this. • I feel a - a bit - sick. •
Look what you have - done to it. • I won't have him - arriving late .• Certain things that he
does + annoy me .• They don't let him - go out .• He didn't want to - risk - making things
worsen .• That may have been _ because - because she didn't like him .• I heard her - telling
them .• I'm - I'm having a bit of trouble - sleeping .• Imagine - entertaining those - those
wretched fellows! • We were sitting - talking - politics. • She seems to be - to be waiting for
somebody. • If - If only she had come a bit - a bit earlier! • He's worried about - about
travelling - by bus. • He looks like a - like a policeman. • I don't mind - walking the dog. • He
wanted me to - to turn off the - electricity. • He seems to be disgusted.
• This - This is about - half the - size of that .• It's not - quite to - mummy - taste .• I don't mind
- her going home - early .• You - You can meet _ whoever you like .• You can - keep it + as - as
long as you - like .• I don't - I don't want to - risk - annoying them .• They - they can't have
been - watching you .• My- My stomach is - giving me a - bit of trouble .• Fancy - not shaving at
all! • There was somebody - sitting
there + taking notes .• She heard me - threatening them .• If only we could - reach there in - in
time! • I doubt if - if they'll- enjoy it .• She looks as if - she is - she is going to - faint .• I don't
care for - polishing the car .• That shop has got a - a wider range of - goods .• I'm - I'm pretty


sure - you're - shocked .• This is - this is slightly - more expensive than - that .• She has been -
ill. • I saw people - people staring at them. • I had an - appointment with him + but - but I
couldn't keep it. • I object to him - behaving like this. • I don't mind - how late you - come. • I
don't mind - who you - who you go out with. • I'm afraid of - afraid of causing a scandal. • She
must have - come here - before. • He seems to be - trying to - please her. • I've - I've got a bit of
a - headache. • Imagine + not relaxing at all! • There isn't - enough food for - all. • I didn't
actually - see him throwing the stone .• You should have - told him - earlier .• Look out +
there's a car - coming .• He looks as though as though he's - worried .• She enjoys - looking
after the baby .• His car is more - economical to - run + than mine .• Don't talk too -loud .•
She heard me - telling him to - to do it .• This is much more - much more expensive than -
that .• Those people are very - noisy .• There's no need to - shout. • I won't have her - hang
washing + out of the windows .• Don't stay up so - so late .• You can go - anywhere you - like .•
I'm not interested in - in living in luxury .• It was several days - before I - heard from him .• My
throat's a - bit - dry. • He will have you - speaking French by the - by the year-end. • There
aren't - enough - seats for everyone. • He wanted to - wanted + to prevent you - going there .• I
wish + he - wasn't so - angry.
• There's going to be - trouble .• He seems (to be ) - angry .• His car is not as - expensive to - run
as mine .• I saw them - rushing out .• This isn't - this isn't nearly as - expensive as that .• It's -
It's - pouring with rain .• He likes spending money + better than saving it. • My neck has been -
hurting + since - since yesterday .• I'm not sure - I'd - like that. • You can say - whatever you -
like. • I'm used to - working late. • I spent my time - reading a- novel. • He doesn't look very -
well. • Don't keep everybody - awake .• Turn the music - down .• Mine is the - the one with a -
red cover .• He'll have you - swimming - by the weekend .• She wanted to - prevent you -
prevent Y0U reading it .• I wish she - I wish she came - earlier .• I'll have - I'll have finished it -
by this time tomorrow .• He seems to be a - a carpenter .• You don't eat - enough fresh fruit .•
She gets up - much earlier than - than anyone else .• He prefers - working during the night to -
sleeping .• This is almost as expensive as that .• It looks like - like rain .• I saw a few of them -
standing there .• Can - Can I borrow your - scooter?
• It is very difficult to - prevent it. • He has - He's worked as a - driver. • You don't - You don't
have to - do it. • I've got used to - getting up early. • They finished it + by - by six o’clock. • It's
not worth - worth spending that much money on it. 0 I couldn't help - sneezing. • He has got
shirt with - with four pockets. • Next week + he will still b - still b doing this. 0 He doesn't -
doesn't seem to - go out very often.
.• I heard a few of them - shouting at him. 0 He doesn't - work as - as efficiently as he used to. 0
It's raining - quite - quite heavily .• I can't - I can't do without it .• It's v ry difficult to - prevent
children - screaming .• They've never had any of their things - stolen .• We have a typist who -
who types - 50 pages a day. 0 She got here in an - hour .. 0 I don't feel like doing it .• We're
really - really looking forward to .It. 0 She - She couldn't help - yawning. 0 I wish he would -
stop It. 0 I spent all last week - reading books. 0 These changes will - cause a - lot of problems.

Analyze the texts now

Go through all the spoken texts given above carefully. Examine each text closely. Pay
attention to how the speaker builds each text from moment to moment. Look at the
hesitations, pauses, repetition of words, incomplete structures and the way word groups
are ordered. Analyze each text in this way. Yes, each text. Spend as much time as possible
doing this.
Remember this: The spoken English texts given above show one thing: They show
exactly how native speakers of English speak English. They're samples of unrehearsed and
spontaneous spoken English. This is how even the most highly educated native speakers of
English speak. And this is how you are going to speak too - from now on. Understand this: A
stretch of fluent speech is one in which the speaker spends as much as 30% to 50% of the
speaking time on speech-composition features alone.
And bear this in mind: The aim of this course is to help you speak continuously and
without stumbling. To achieve this aim, we have to do several things. Not just one or two,
but several things. And we're doing just that, in a programmed way.
That's it for this week. Bye for now.
Therefore, one thing is important: Give thorough training to your speech-organs in saying these
word groups. You'can do this 'by: uttering each word group ALOUD several'times.
Here we go for the WOrd? groups:
Action word groups


Pick up each word group, and utter it ALOUD several times.' Here w~go:
Group 1
o accepted him as one of us. 0 admitted seeing them. 0 appeared (to be) happy. 0 appeared
(to be) important. 0 appeared (to be) alone. 0 'appointed hi~ dir'ector. 0 arranged for the'
workers' to come. 0 asked her a few questions. 0 asked him a favour. 0 asking me a question.
0 avoided meeting him. 0 became a lawyer. 0 blamed me for the defects. 0 boiled an egg for
her. 0 boiled her an egg. 0 bought her a dress. 0 bought some flowers for ‘us. 0 bought us
some flowers. 0 brought you presents. 0 burning the ·paper. 0 called a porter for me. 0 called
me a porter. 0 calling him, names. '0 came hurrying. 0 came on foot. 0 came running. 0 can't
stand listening to it. 0 caught the next plane. 0 causing them trouble. 0 charged him with
those misdeec;ls. 0 checked those figures. 0 classed him as a genius. 0 cleaned the teeth. 0
compared her with her friends. 0 congratulated her on her success. '0 considered appointing
him. 0' considered the matter. 0 continued staring at it. 0 convicted him of murder. 0
convinced me of its use. 0 cooking the lunch. 0 cost me my life. 0 denied doing it. 0 denied the
chance to me. 0 deprived me of my chance. 0 described it as a success., 0 disliked doing it. 0
drank the coffee. 0 elected Anil Secretary. 0 enjoyed travelling. 0 envied them for it. 0 felt
warmer. 0 finished eating it. 0 finished his lunch. 0 found a parking place. 0 found a place for
him. 0 found him a house. 0 found him a place. 0 gave him a blow. 0 gave me very sound
advice. 0 gave some apples to us. 0 gave the matter some thought. 0 ~e'tting dressed, giving it
a wash. 0 got a pen for her, 0 got her a pen. 0 guaranteed them satisfaction. 0 handed the
book to her .. 0 happened to be alive. 0 happened to be awake. 0 hated doing it. 0 having a
wash. 0 informed them of it. 0 intended it as a warning. 0 intermeted iJ,as. all excuse. 0
introduced her to him. 0 jumped thirty feet. 0 kept murmuring. 0 knew
, that girl. 0 left a fortune for him. 0 left him a fortune. 0 left the work unfinished. 0 lent some
money to him. 0 lifted the parcel. 0 longed for her to come. 0 looked very untidy. 0 loved
reading it. ~ made a cake for us. 0 made 'a statement. 0 made us a cake, 0 making
excellent progress. o making some cakes. 0 named him their representative. 0 neglected
duty. 0 offere'd a j~b to him. 0 opened the can. 0 ordered dinner for us. 0 ordered us dinner.
0 paid him money. 0 paid them for the work. 0 paid wages to them .• 0 postponed delivering
it. • prevented' them from mischief. 0 promised a present to her. 0 protected the' boys from
danger. • proved (to be) interesting, 0 proved (to be) true. 0 proved (to be) wrong. 0 read a
story to them. 0 recognized him as the ambassador. 0 referred'him to a specialist. 0 regarded
it as a protest. 0 reminded me of my childhood. 0 rese'rvecl,a seat for me. 0 reserved'me a
seaL 0 saved me some trouble. 0 saved some money for them. 0 saved them some money. 0
saw him cross the road. 0 saw him crossing the road. 0 seemed (to be) satisfied. 0 seemed (to
be) surprised. 0 seemed (to be) very old.
o seemed colder, • seemed to be afraid, 0 seemed to be asleep. 0 shared the room. 0 showed
the picture to her.' 0 spared me some, time. 0 spared some time for me. 0 stopped looking at
it. 0 stopped smoking. 0 stopped working. 0 supplied them with provisions. 0 suspected him
of the theft.
o talked face to face. 0 taught Sanskrit to me. 0 thanked the host. 0 thanked them for the
help. 0 threw, that ball to m~. 0 told q. story to me. o told me the time. 0 told Raju about
everythjng. 0 took it as an insult. 0 treated us as guests. 0 tried repairing it. 0 underestimated
his ability. 0 used us as a bait. 0 visited the old village. 0 waited (for) one hour. 0 waited for
him to go away. 0 waited for something to happen. 0 walked (for) ten miles. 0 wanted some
paper, 0 weighed forty kilos. ~ weighed the pros ang cons. 0 ,went by car., 0 went downstairs.
o ,went shopping. 0 wished for the speech to be over. 0 woke the baby. 0 won the prize.
Group 2
o accounted to him for it. ,0 acted on instructions. ,0 added,to my problems. 0 addressed a
letter to him. 0 admired her for her courage. 0 advised us to stay away. 0 agreed on the
course of action. 0 agreed to meet us. 0 agreed to their proposal. 0 agreed with him about it.
agreed with me about them. 0 allowed for his weakness. 0 allowed her to come in. 0
amounted to $ lOOp. 0 answered for him. 0 apologized for the delay. 0 apologized to her. 0
apologized to her for it. 0 appealed to them. 0 applied for the post. 0 applied to the Director.
0 applied to them for the license. 0 appointed her to do the typing. 0 approved of her. 0
approved of it. 0 ,argued with her about them. ~ argued with me. 0 argu,ed with them about,
the price. 0 arguing about the plan. 0 arguing about their rights. 0 arranged for the money. 0
asked about it. 0 asked after your health. 0 asked for him. 0 asked for it. 0 asked for you. 0
asked her about you. 0 asked us to listen .• ate it with a spoon. 0 attended to him. 0 attended
to his work. 0 attended to the patients. 0 attended to the visitors. ~ attended to the 'work.
• bargained for the bag.' 0 bargained with the vendor. 0 bargained with them for it. 0
bargained with them for the bag. 0 began with a prayer. 0 believed in Buddhism. 0 belonged
to her, 0 belonged to·it. 0 benefited from it. 0 beware of him. 0 beware 0f it. 0 boasted about
his family. 0 boasted about it. 0 boasted 'of it. 0 boasting about their car. 0 boasting
about themselves .• borrowed it from him .• bought it for a small sum .• burnt it on purpose.


• called everyone in turn .• called for him .• called on them .• came by bus .• came by post. •
came in a bus .• cared about his career .• cared about us .• changed it for a better one .•
charged him for the damage .• charged him for the repairs .• claimed expenses from her .•
cleared him of suspicion .• combined business with pleasure .• combined with it .• combined
with the neighbours .• combined with them against the enemies .• compared it with that .•
compared the prices here with those there .• complained to him about them .• complaining
about everyone.
• complaining about everything .• complimented him on his dress .• congratulated him on it. •
consulted them about that .• contrasted their approach with ours .• crashed into the wall.
• dealt with the situation .• decided on it. • decided on the strategy .• decided to remain there .•
depended on him .• depended on it. • described it in detail. • deserved to win .• despaired of it .•
despaired of them .• did the cooking by electricity .• didn't agree about it. • didn't argue about
the cost .• didn't care about it .• didn't care about you .• didn't complain about it .• didn't talk
about you .• died for his principles .• died for the country .• died for them .• died of hunger .•
differed from it .• differed from that .• differed from them .• discussed it with me .•
distinguished between them .• distinguished them from these .• divided it between him and
her .• divided it into equal parts .• don't trouble about those things .• don't worry about them .•
dreamt about it. • dreamt about their marriage .• dreamt of her. • dreamt of it.
 dropped it by accident.
 economized on it .• emerged from it .• engaged in some urgent work.
 exchanged something for a clock .• excused him for the delay .• excused him from
attending the conference .• exempted him from the payment .• expected you to do it .•
experimented with her idea .• experimented with it.
• failed in the examination .• failed to complete it .• failed to get it. • failed to reach there .•
filled it with water .• finished it on his own .• forced him to sign it .• forced them to admit it .•
forgave him for it .• forgot about it. • forgot about you .• forgot to thank her .• fought against
corruption .• fought against it .• fought for his share .• fought for it .• fought them for his
share .• fought with her boss .• fought with him .• found fault with everyone .• found him lying
on the floor.
• gained by it .• gained by the experience .• gained from it. • gained from the sale .• getting
them an order .• going to his office .• got a seat for me .• got out of control. • got them to charge
it to my account.
• heard of him .• heard of it .• helped her (to) paint it .• hoped for a promotion .• hoped for it.
• indulged in it .• inquired about him .• inquired about it .• insisted on it .• instructed him in
gardening .• instructed him to come early .• interested him in our activities .• interfered in our
affairs .• interfered with it. • interfered with them .• invested in it.
• join this to that .• joined in it .• joined in the game .• joined with the other side .• joked about
her hairstyle .• joked about it .• joked with him about it .• joking about them .• judged by his
behaviour .• judged him from his actions.
• kept it in control. • killed him with a knife .• knew about him .• knew about it. • knew of it. •
knew of them.
• laughed about everything .• laughed about those people .• laughed at it .• leaning on the
window .• leant on him .• leant on it .• leant out of the window .• learnt about the situation .•
learnt about those people .• learnt the lesson by heart .• listened to him .• listened to it .• lived
by teaching .• lived for it. • lived in comfort .• lived in fear .• lived on canned food .• longed for
it. • looked after the children .• looked after the furniture .• looked at her .• looked at him .•
looked for it .• looked for the book .• looking for a paper weight .• looking for my uncle .• loved
to do it.
• made by hand .• made by machinery. • made from a large piece of wood .• made of wood .•
made of wool. • met her by chance .• met him by accident .• mistook her for someone else .•
mistook me for his brother.
• objected to his remarks .• objected to it .• offended against the law .• omitted to invite them .•
open it at page 41. • opened it by mistake .• opened it with a knife .• opened the safe .• operated
on him.
• paid for it .• paid him the money .• pardoned him for the mistake .• parted with it .• persisted
in it. • persuaded her to go .• pitied her for her sufferings .• played against them .• played with
them .• praised him for his courage .• preferred hot water to cold .• preferred to remain silent .•
preferred to walk .• prejudiced him against me .• prejudiced him against the union .• prepared
for it .• pretended not to notice .• prevented him from doing it .• profited by it. • profited by the
experience .• promised her to do it .• promised to bring it .• promised to get it. • promised us his
support .• promised us to bring it .• putting on more and more weight.
• qualified as a doctor .• qualifies you to practice as an advocate .• would qualify you for the
job.· qualified for the final. • qualified in the competition .• quarrelled about everything .•
quarrelled with everyone.
 quarrelled with them about the money.
 ranked first in the world .• ranked him 2nd out of 100 candidates .• ranks with the
best .• reasoned with him .• reasoned with the Manager. • reflected on it .• refused to talk .•
registered his name in advance .• relied on him .• relied on it .• reminded me of something .•
reminded me of you .• reminded me to do it. • replaced that by this .• replied to him .• reported
on him .• reported on it. • resigned from it .• resigned from the post .• responded to it. • resulted
from a misunderstanding .• resulted in failure .• retired from his job .• retired from service.
• saw him about it .• saw him by chance .• searched for him .• searched for it .• seemed to like
it .• sent the letter by mail. • served as a ladder.
• served as a reminder to us .• shared in his troubles. • shared in the
company's success .• shared in the profit .• shared the room with his friend .• shared the cost
with them .• shared the task with them .• shares her feelings with her husband .• shot at that
bird .• shot at the tiger .• showed it in public .• slept in a shed .• smelt of alcohol. • smelt of
cheese .• smelt of iodine .• smiled at them .• sold it for a large sum. • spent it on essential
things .• spent the money on rubbish .• spoke about him .• spoke about it .• spoke of it .•
spoke to me about it. • stared at her .• stared at it .• stayed in bed .• struggled with it .•
struggled with them .• su bstituted that for this .• succeeded in finishing it .• supplied them
with the things they wanted .• surrendered to the police .• surrendered to them .• swore at
them .• sympathized with them.
• taking them off the table .• talked about him .• talked about it. • talked of him .• talked of
it .• talked to me about it. • talking about his future plans .• talking about their
neighbours .• tasted like wax .• tasted of garlic .• tasted of soap .• teased him about it .• told
a story to me .• told me about you .• told me the way to the Library .• thanked them for the
help .• thinking about examinations .• thinking about his wife .• thought about him .•
thought about it .• thought about the troubles .• thought of everyone .• thought of him .•
thought of it .• traded in it .• traded with him .• tried to contact him .• troubled him about it.
• trusted him to be true to his word.
• undertook to complete it .• used a knife for cutting it. • used a new soap for washing it .•
can use it in cooking.
• voted for him .• voted in the election .• voted on the proposal. • voted to continue the
• waited for him .• waited for it .• waited for the bus .• waited for the others .• waited for the
result. • walking from his office to the bank .• warned us of the danger .• wanted them to
ask .• wanted to ask .• was suffering from some illness .• watched for a chance to do it .•
watched for him .• watched for his reaction .• watched for it .• went by bus .• went by car .•
went for pleasure .• went on foot. • wished for it .• wished for nothing more .• wondered at it
.• worried about him .• worried about it .• worrying about her son .• worrying about the
future. • wrapped it round his body .• writing about the loan .• writing about you .• wrote to
her about him .• wrote to them about it.
• yielded to an impulse .• yielded to those people.

Naming word groups

Here's a collection of specially selected naming word groups. Pick up each of them and utter it
ALOUD - several times. Here we go:
• the outside of the bottle .• the book I borrowed from him .• a certain amount of money .•
one of the most beautiful girls I've ever seen .• the price of this one .• somewhere where
things are cheaper. • an easier game .• much trouble .• thick cloud .• a long rest .• a wide
river. • the finest painter alive today. • a sharp tongue .• many pleasures.
 a man with a beard .• a good conscience .• the people who live there.
 an open-air life .• everything funny .• the floor under the fridge .• a beggar with one
eye .• a really genuine explanation .• a shelf above the window .• an hour's delay. • the life in
villages .• the children we met in the street .• a funny way of doing it .• the reason for the
quarrel. • a proud look .• a complicated business .• a hard struggle .• stolen things. • a clothes
shop .• a feeling of confidence .• a dress like that. • dirty habits .• the people in the next room .• a
remarkable woman .• a high wall.
·the news of his election .• precious little .• the car door .• the area behind the building .•
somebody important .• the lamp post over there. • that boy in a dirty shirt .• a short time .• a
tearing sound .• a general truth .• the roof of the house .• a free day .• the wrong colour .• a well-
paying job .• most vegetables .• an experienced doctor .• a broken window .• one who cannot
stand criticism .• piles of rubbish .• the main thing .• vegetables that we grow ourselves .• a
happy time .• another few weeks .• a sure way .• the bottom of the page .• all kinds of things. •
an expensive watch .• the way he does things .• those boys under the tree .• loud noises .• a bit of
advice .• a good voice .• a funny story .• half of us .• a beautiful present .• fine weather .• little
presents .• a boy full of enthusiasm .• worldly pleasures .• the boy running along the
road .• a nice little showroom.
• the hotel where he stays .• an ideal leader .• a cheap radio .• an expensive radio .• a real tyrant
.• a brief talk .• a long talk .• all this argument .• this whole argument. • people who succeed .• a
respectable profession .• an ingenious way of doing it .• a much better chance .• somewhere
quiet. • the book that I gave him .• a big place .• chance of winning .• experience abroad .• a
student of law .• cow's milk. • the people I was looking for .• the news that upset me .• a


mechanic's life .• a dangerous pest .• some children .• some of the children .• a little girl in the
corner .• weak-minded people .• another few people .• an absolutely awful behaviour.
• that thing up in the tree .• a fat boy .• a five-minute rest. • the lamp post between the two
buildings .• a man with long arms .• a building seventy feet high .• a seventy-foot high
building .• the man who she insulted .• a cultured mind .• a neighbour of my brother's .• a good
hiding place .• a splendid time .• a bit more life .• a foolish way. • many members .• many of the
members .• the only person I met there. • a good scolding .• an angry-looking man .• a very
nice surprise .• a successful businessman .• a terrible smash .• the whole story .• an excellent
singer .• a great bore.
• the tree in front of the garage .• a big fire .• a box for putting toys .• a large enough house .•
the basket under the table .• an astonishing sight .• a large house .• a big circle of friends .• a
lump of sugar .• a quarrel about something .• the end of the game .• an old sari of Sita's .• a
slack player. • a noisy place .• a book about house-building .• muddy hands .• some of them .•
many of us .• most of you .• the man opposite .• several ways to win them over .• a large bandage
.• her only true friend .• a good deal of loss .• a little more sugar. • a very annoying behaviour.' •
serious trouble.
• a bit of a fool. • the same thing I had told you last week .• half her friends .• a hissing noise .•
the man who was standing behind the curtain .• a rented house .• an accomplished singer. • an
out-of-the-way place.· a shop that sells cassettes .• a much happier time .• a broken knife .• the
right-hand drawer .• a friend of mine .• strong principles .• the people who should be more
anxious .• fields full of flowers .• a funny expression .• rough edges of the paper .• the thing
you're looking for .• half the time .• a clean dress .• lazy habits .• the girl who won the first
prize .• a rich businessman .• all previous orders .• a very kind person .• the boy who ran
quickest .• a lonely time .• half your time .•
a strange kind of Tv. • a troublesome back-pain .• things I can never forget .• a very attractive
place .• a warm day. • this year's result. • a story about life in villages .• a dangerous job .• a
bit of a problem .• a first-class show .• a stuffy room .• a well-dressed girl.
• a lot of shopping .• some of those playthings .• most people .• most of the people .• the food she
cooks .• the people taking part .• offensive language .• the woman standing in the corner .• her
little boy. • the people who live next door .• the book I like best .• a lot of harm .• a reputation
for efficiency .• a fine sight .• the same girl who sang at the meeting .• both our cars .• the last
person to do that .• the name of the man who just went out: • a large group of girls .• a gold
watch .• dull work .• a big black dog .• a strong healthy boy .• a pinch of salt. • a large basket .•
old times .• a large wooden chair.
• some plan for doing it .• the only solution possible .• a much greater problem .• the people
objecting .• a great hurry .• a good enough car .• the unemployed .• a wonderful invention .• a
funny expression .• silly excuses .• the girl hiding behind the door .• a large family. • the people
I had worked for five years before .• tod;J.y's fashions .• a loud knock. •
a chance of making money .• a beautiful green sari .• the man we met at the meeting .• an
impatient fellow .• the best time to start .• the thing that she would like .• sheets of paper.
• a thousand rupees .• slack management. • that man with a scar on his face .• the strongest
argument .• funny tricks .• customer's money. • a well-located house .• a knock at the door .•
sharp brains .• the greatest of all writers .• a wrong answer .• a lively place .• the price of veg-
etables .• good times .• keen competition .• a stupid old man .• an easy problem to solve .• the
man in front of the car .• great power. • something I have a lot of difficulty with .• the fruit
sellers .• the dog's tail. • job in town .• the thought of meeting her again .• a village several miles
away .• a bit of a mistake .• the comfort of travellers .• a thousand years .• a crowd of people .•
the man staring at her .• an article on federalism .• repeated attacks .• some hard exercise .• a
man with a nasty look .• all our money. • a short distance .• a week's journey .• the things on the
top of the car .• insolent behaviour.
• the last building on this road .• crowded streets .• a small blue ball. • the hospital I told you
about .• quite a nice collection. • that black mark on your shirt .• the woman who they met .•
restless people .• people who guard houses .• the house opposite yours .• top of his class .•
bottom of his class .• a piece of cloth to wipe this with .• the information that you need .• all I've
got .• bright lamps .• the house they used to live in .• the whole street. • outdated fashions .• a
man of medium height. • a large amount of work .• the best in the market. • the worst in the
market .• a strong wind .• a sickly boy .• the same advertisement that came yesterday. • as many
apples as I want. • as much milk as I want .• a prominent business man .• the girl repairing
watches .• a girl who repairs watches .• the price that we agreed upon.
 the next building to the Library .• a wild place .• pay rise .• idle talk.
 great hopes .• a large fat man .• an insolent speech .• a short dark fellow .• those who
stand up for their ideals .• plenty of amusements .• anybody who finds it. • a severe
command .• the middle of the show .• the results of his idleness .• the little that he has been
able to do .• the ring on his finger .• the chain around her neck. • most Saturdays .• anybody
clever at maths .• a long stay. • back muscles .• a discussion full of life .• inferior articles .• a
great influence .• a bad-tempered fellow .• a severe rebuke .• the fashions nowadays .• savage
beasts .• a boy just like you .• dishonest purposes.
• a place to live in .• a funny look. • the man sitting on her right. • the most extraordinary day. •
a good part of the work. • that girl with a dog. • all you want. • the right order .• a lovely


party .• the books in the cupboard .• a stamp on the cover .• man's mind .• the girl walking
around in the playground .• a bad puncture .• the front of the table .• an outstanding speaker .•
a bad smell .• the best years of our life .• an outline of the speech .• the only thing that matters .•
worthless goods.
• a man at the door .• a subject that is hard to understand .• the man standing nearest to the
door .• an executive fit to be our CEO .• people fit only for manual work .• that woman
carrying a load on her head .• the sale in the first few months .• an ugly look .• the person who
broke that glass .• somebody else's purse .• a social visit .• a nice easy time .• big enough
bottles .• the one who can shout the loudest .• bad toothache .• the trip through the hills .• the
children taking part .• a great strain .• a lot of dust. • the person responsible .• an angry-
looking face.
 the next stop .• the whole thing .• splendid dreams.
 most of the journey .• a walk through the park. • a walk across the park .• similar-
looking children .• people at home .• this side of the building .• a remedy for it .• a fine life .• an
old car with flat tyres .• the people who came to see you yesterday .• a jolly time .• the boy who
wanted to leave early .• a little shop .• all those who want it .• a great mistake .• the people who
live next door to us .• ugly surroundings .• a severe cold .• sufferings of the poor .• an excellent
choice .• cold weather .• home-grown vegetables.
• that strange man with him .• the breeze coming through the trees .• a
man you will like at first sight .• a job of some sort .• the best fridge in the world .• the man at
the entrance .• a man from Bangalore .• people who are excessively generous .• the servant in
their house .• four times as many applications as they expected .• a comfortable journey .• a
strong active man .• all Tuesday .• every Tuesday. • some hints on gardening .• the office that he
works in .• the usual practice .• my share of the property .• most of the damage .• things
someone else has .• a horrible headache .• a very small price .• the girl walking along the
road .• services of others .• a pretty boring job .• the leader of the group.
• every single page .• the minds of officials .• something interesting .• the girl climbing out of the
pool. • the bottom of the bottle .• appetite for food .• the vegetables I bought two days back .• the
chance of getting it .• half as smart as he pretends .• a place away from the house. • a bit of luck.
• strong engine .• most of what he says .• neighbour's wealth .• every one who wants it .•
something cheaper .• a bus engine. • a complete confession .• top of the cupboard .• a leading
politician .• a lorry loaded with vegetables .• money for his holiday .• a big eater. • miseries of
• advice about savings .• the girl running into the house .• difficult question to answer .• writing
paper. • a man in that house .• a bird's nest .• people coming out from the office .• long hours .• a
man who's twice as old as her .• horrible things .• the chairs in that room .• a great burden.
• the top shelf. • the car that crashed .• a friend living in Bombay .• a torn shirt .• the place
where they first met. • the tooth that aches .• a well-behaved boy. • a cardboard box .• the man
who took it away from here .• a friend of mine .• the person who this car belongs to .• the boy
who stole the pen .• a bad-tempered fellow .• the people there .• a chair leg .• the man sitting in
that chair .• warm climate .• the things they asked for .• the mathematics teacher .• the cushion
you're sitting on .• a neat and tidy place .• the man with a beard .• a clean-shaven man .•
the things that I borrowed .• we all. • I myself. • they both .• you yourself .• the box on the shelf.
• the day I last saw her .• the handle that came loose .• an iron box .• well-thought-out plans .•
the bag she wants .• blue cotton cloth .• the button that came off. • the people who took care of
her .• a bald-headed man .• ink stains .• a good night's rest. • those girls standing by the gate .•
the things you hear .• a clean white shirt .• a badly·built house .• people sitting nearer the
front .• the strongest of the four· the man without shoes .• the things that he left lying about. •
broken cups .• the way he solved the problem .• the man waving his hands .• a cotton pants .• a
well-built house.
• the shop she often goes to .• the people standing at the back. • an amusing experience .• the
man who told me about it. • a badly organized party .• the girl who looks like your sister .•
damaged goods .• the machine that broke down .• a half-hearted effort .• a long and tiring
journey .• a badly done job .• a man with a stick .• the tallest of the
five .• the car that went by our house a moment ago .• anyone brave enough to do that. • a
bent rod .• the office where she worked .• the man waiting outside .• a badly-cooked meal. •
the book you gave him .• up-to-date ideas .• an amusing person .• the man who asked for a
light. • a well-meant action .• warm clothes .• injured men .• the girl packing a suit case .• the
man who spoke kindly .• the people you told me about.
 a well-planned programme .• the back of the hall.
 the nearest bus-stop .• the longest way .• the shortest way. • the neat things .• the whole
time .• the wrong place .• the new officer .• the other one .• the next one .• the first thing .•
the last thing.
• a very good price .• a very busy time .• a very efficient girl. • a stony road .• a really
splendid lunch .• a really good view .• a nasty cold day.
• a horrid little place .• a poky little house .• a silly young fool. • a fine new house .• a sweet
little girl. • a lovely old house .• a nice hot drink.
• a great big thing .• a red silk tie .• a dark grey shirt .• a better black paint .• a wooden box .•
a horror film .• a dinner place .• the least difficult way .• the bedroom door .• a well-built
house .• a two-inch screw .• a well-fed calf .• a colour-printed book .• a right-sized shirt. • a
long-lasting polish .• a badly-torn dress .• a badly -stained shirt. • a kind-hearted man .• a
very commonplace building.
 that tall man .• several weeks .• this terrible weather .• extra practice.
 some rare specimens .• that thin fellow .• many rooms .• much light.
 very few windows .• humorous comments .• successful people .• bad weather .• some
good news .• much progress .• much gratitude .• some little difficulty .• his own words .•
another three weeks .• one important point .• one or two people .• a good thing .• Tom's one .•
your one.
• all your life .• all her friends .• all his luggage .• all my money .• all day .• all morning .• all
night .• all the years .• all these .• all hers.

Here's one of the most important things you should do when you're trying to develop your
vocabulary from the fluency building angle:
Try and gain mastery over phrasal verbs. You see, when you're trying to achieve a high level of
fluency in spoken English, the vocabulary items you must learn are not words like 'discern',
'eschew' or 'disdain', etc. No. Words like these are not normally used in spoken English. So in
place of these words, you must learn to use multi-word verbs like these:
'see through'(= discern), 'give up' (= eschew), 'look down on' (= disdain) .
Phrases like 'see through', 'look down on' and 'give up' are known as phrasal verbs.
You know, certain lexical verbs often combine with certain short ad-
words and word groups. If there's any doubt in your mind whether to learn a particular
vocabulary item, don't learn it. The rule is: 'When in doubt, throw it out'.
Let's now take up the second instalment of GSs:

Practise the following GS word groups in the same way as you've done in Lesson 2.
• I [will be] sending the parcel in a day or two .• I [won't be] mending the fuse till you
return .• We [will be] settling the accounts within a week .• We [won't be] blaming you for
it .• You [will be] answering his letter tomorrow, won't you? • You [won't De] buying your
shoes today, will you? • He [will be] signing the agreement one of these days .• He [won't be]
letting his house next year .• She [will be] thinking differently this time tomorrow .• She
[won't be] opening the letters till she gets well .• It [will be] growing big in a few weeks .• It
[won't be] working as smoothly as this for ever .• They [won't be] taking his threats seriously
until he acts·.
Note: Repeat the drill by substituting "would" for "will", and "wouldn't" for "won't".
• He [can't be] looking after the baby now .• They [can't be] demanding compensation for
such a minor injury. • They [can't be] leaving home in an hour .• She [can't be] taking part
in the competition .• It [can't be] happening like that. • He [can't be] doing their accounts
this year.
Note: You can use this structure to express doubt or surprise.

GS No. 26
• They [may be] doing it just to upset you .• I [may not be] going for my holidays this year .•
You [may not be] lying to me (but ... ) .• I [may be] making a fuss about nothing .• He [may
not be] telling the truth .• It [may be] lying outside somewhere .• It [may not be] happening
now. • They [may not be] looking for you.
Note: You can use this structure to express 'possibility' or 'likelihood'.
Note: Repeat the drill by substituting "might" for "may", and "might not" for "may not".
Note: This structure helps you express your intention to do something. In this structure, you
can also use 'ought to' in place of 'must'.

• He [must be] meeting her secretly .• You [must be] finding it difficult to deal with those
Note 1: This structure helps you suggest a probability or to say that something is likely
or logical.
Note 2: You can also substitute 'ought to be' or 'should be' for 'must be'.

• We [oughtn't to be] complaining about it now .• You [oughtn't to be] quarrelling now .•
They [ought to be] painting their house before the rains come .• You [oughtn't to be] losing
your temper at the meeting .• We [ought to be] getting back now.
Note: You can use this structure to suggest that it's a good idea to do or not to do something -
or to give advice or opinion.
Note: Repeat the drill by substituting "should be" for "ought to be", and "shouldn't be" for
"oughtn't to be".

 I [have been] bathing the baby .• I [haven't been] waiting for anybody.
 We [have been] standing in this queue until half an hour back .• We [haven't been]
quarrelling .• You [have been] making a noise, haven't you? • He [has been] reading the
instructions all day. • He [hasn't been] carrying the box .• It [has been] lying buried there .•
It [hasn't been] boiling for some time now .• They [have been] practising the violin till now .•
They [haven't been] changing the tyre .• I [had been] showing
. her a photograph (before you come) .• I [hadn't been] drinking blackcoffee then .• We
[had been] standing round the table (when the bell rang) .• We [hadn't been] going over
the report promptly. • You [had been] cutting down the trees (till they asked you to stop).

• I [will have been] working in this office for two years by next week .• We [will have been]
playing for two hours by then .• You [will have been] looking for her for an hour by then .•
He [will have been] living here for six years by this month end .• She [will have been]
wearing that dress for a week by tomorrow .• It [will have been] boiling for half an hour by
then .• They [will have been] doing this job for a month by tomorrow.
awake .• You [can't have been] lecturing for three hours without break. • She [can't have
been] putting the car away then.
Note: This structure helps you say that you're sure something is not true.

• I [may have been] brushing my coat then .• She [may have been] pouring out the tea
then .• He [may not have been] looking that way .• You [may have been] accusing him of
dishonesty. • You [may not have been] helping him with this work. • He [may have been]
having a bath. • He [may not have been] behaving well. • She [may have been] travelling by
car .• She [may not have been] speaking loudly. • It (= The salt) [may have been] dissolving
little by little.
Note: This structure helps you express possibility.

• We [mustn't have been] keeping it a strict secret .• It [mustn't have been] working
smoothly .• They [must have been] visiting their ancestral home there .• He [must have
been] working extra hours to finish that.
Note: You can use this structure to say that something is likely or logical or probable - because
of the available evidence.

GS No. 35
• I [ought to have been] staying in bed .• I [oughtn't to have been] pushing it out of the
way .• We [ought to have been] keeping a look-out on the right .• We [oughtn't to have
been] going straight on .• You [ought to have been] doing your lessons then .• You [oughtn't
to have been] fixing the pipes yourself .• He [oughtn't to have been] blaming the workers .•
She [oughtn't to have been] storing the boxes there .• They [oughtn't to have been] setting
off so early.
Note 1: You can also use "should have been" in place of "ought to have been", and
"shouldn't have been" in place of "oughtn't to have been".
Note 2: This structure helps you suggest that something was the right thing for somebody to
do, but that they didn't do it.
• I [will be] the villain in both the dramas .• I [won't be] the hero in the play they're putting
on .• We [will be] the winners this year .• We [won't be] the champions this time .• He [will
be] the Treasurer (for two
years) .• She [won't be] the right person for the job .• He [will be] a nuisance .• He [won't
be] the right candidate .• She [will be] a failure
in her personal life .• She [won't be] our representative next year .• It [will be] your last


chance .• lt [won't be] an easy job .• They [will be] our competitors .• They [won't be] MPs
any longer.
Note help you state what is going to happen or what is probably true or what is generally
true or possible.
• I [will be] nice to them .• I [won't be] angry .• We [will be] ready by then .• We [won't be]
wrong .• You [will be] safe there .• You [won't be] interested in it .• He [will be] surprised .•
He [won't be] free tomorrow .• She [will be] ready .• She [won't be] quiet about it. • It [will
be] dry by then .• It [won't be] fresh .• They [will be] satisfied .• They [won't be] silent
about it.
• I [will be] out (and not at home) .• I [won't be] there .• We [will be] somewhere else .• We
[won't be] around .• You [will be] away (will . you?) .• You [won't be] upstairs (will you?) .•
He [will be] there now .• He [won't be] here .• She [will be] downstairs .• She [won't be] in .•
It [won't be] off. • They [will be] abroad then .• They [won't be] home now.

• I [will be] at the gate .• I [won't be] at home .• We [will be] across the street. • We [won't
be] inside the tent. • You [will be] between them .• You [won't be] against this, will you? • He
[will be] with us by then .• He [won't be] for all this .• She [will be] on duty tomorrow .• She
[won't be] on their side .• It [will be] for his son .• It [won't be] before Monday: • They [will
be] in trouble .• They [won't be] in control then.

 You [can be] frank with her .• We [can't] be more generous than this.
 She [can be] lenient with them if she wants to .• I [can't be] firm with them .• He [can't
be] tough with them.
Note: You can use this structure to say that you or somebody else is (or is not) free to or is (or
is not) allowed to do something.

• You [can be] an imposter (for all we know) .• They [can be] policemen (but I'm not
Note: You can use this structure to express possibility or doubt.

• I (can be) a tough person (if I want to) .• I [can't be] an artist any longer .• We [can be]
a nuisance (if we want to) .• We [can't be] prompter than this.

• You [can't be] the person who met me .• He [can't be] her father .• It [can't be] the packet
they lost. • They [can't be] musicians .• She [can't be] as insincere as that .• He [can't be] as
helpless as all that. • It [can't be] correct .• They [can't be] happy there .• They [can't be]
serious about it .• We [can't be] the ones they have in mind.
Note: This structure helps you say that something is certainly not the case or to express doubt or

 I [can be] nasty (if I want to) .• We [can be] more generous, can't we?
 She [can be] very helpful to us if she wants to .• It (= Ajob like this) [can be] boring .•
He [can be] cruel sometimes.
Note: This structure helps you say what somebody or something is like in some
• He [can't be] abroad now .• She [can't be] downstairs .• It [can't be] here .• They [can't
be] there now.
Note: This structure helps you say that something is certainly not the case or to express doubt or
• I [can't be] of any help to them .• We [can't be] back to work till then.
Note: This structure helps you express ability or opportunity.
• You [can't be] at the mercy of those people .• She [can't be] behind all this .• She [can't be]
in any trouble .• It [can't be] against the law .• They [can't be] from England.
Note: This structure helps you say that something is certainly not the case or to express doubt or
• She [may be] a spy: • She [may not be] a beginner .• It [may be] his ambition .• It [may
not be] the only consequence .• They [may be] partners .• They [may not be] members
Note: This structure helps you to say that something is possible or likely, but you can't be
certain - or to say that something is true in some circumstances. In this structure, you can
substitute 'might be' for 'may be', and 'might not be' for 'may not be'.


• I [may be] a fool (, but ... ) .• I [may not be] the best salesman (,
but ... ) .• We [may be] relatives (, but...) .• We [may not be] strangers (, but ... ) .• You [may
be] his classmate (, but. .. ) .• You [may not be] an expert (, but ... ) .• He [may be] the
Manager (, but. .. ) .• He [may not be] the best among theJ;D (, but...).
Note: This structure helps you admit the truth of a situation before introducing a more
important point, argument, etc. that is in contrast with it.
• She [may be] clever at this kind of work .• She [may not be] hopeful of getting it .• It [may
be] too thin .• It [may not be] strong enough .• They [may be] disappointed about it.
Note 1: This structure helps you to say that something is possible or likely, but you can't be
certain - or to say that something is true in some circumstances.
Note 2: In this structure, you can substitute 'might be' for 'may be', and 'might not be' for
'may not be'.
• I [may be] greedy for power (but. .. ) .• I [may not be] excited about it (but...) .• We [may
be] inexperienced (but ... ) .• We [may not be] as brave as you (but...) .• You [may be] bigger
than him (but. .. ) .• You [may not be] astonished to hear it (but ... ) .• He [may be] penniless
(but...) .• He [may not be] unkind to them (but...) .• They [may not be] upset about it (but...).
Note: This structure helps you admit the truth of a situation before introducing a more
important point, argument, etc. that is in contrast with it.
• She [may be] outside (playing with the children) .• She [may not be] away. • It [may be] on
.• It [may not be] off .• They [may be] upstairs now .• They [may not be] downstairs now.
Note: This structure helps you to say that something is possible or likely, but you can't be
certain - or to say that something is true in some circumstances.
Note: In this structure, you can substitute 'might be' for 'may be' and 'might not be' for 'may
not be'.
• I [may not be] downstairs now (, but ) .• You [may be] inside
(, but ...) .• He [may be] abroad (, but ) .• She [may not be] around
(, but ...).
Note: This structure helps you admit the truth of a situation before introducing a more
important point, argument, etc. that is in contrast with it.

• He [may be] inside the house .• He [may not be] from the same village .• She [may be]
away from there .• She [may not be] on duty .• It [may be] beyond their control. • They
[may be] on leave today. • They [may not be] on holiday.
Note 1: This structure helps you to say that something is possible or likely, but you can't be
certain - or to say that something is true in some circumstances.
Note 2: In this structure, you can substitute 'might be' for 'may be', and 'might not be' for
'may not be'.
• I [may be] at fault (, but...) .• I [may not be] on the list now
(, but ... ) .• We [may be] under no obligation to do it (, but ... ) .• We [may not be] against
the scheme (, but...) .• You [may be] on his side (, but. .. ) .• You [may not be] in charge of
the office (, but...).
Note: This structure helps you admit the truth of a situation before introducing a more
important point, argument, etc. that is in contrast with it.

• I [mustn't be] a burden to anyone .• We [must be] the winners next year .• We [mustn't
be] a bother to them .• He [mustn't be] the Treasurer (any longer) .• It [mustn't be] our
responsibility .• They [mustn't be] the mediators.
Note: This structure helps you say that it's very important or necessary for something not to
• I [must be] the one they were talking about .• You [must be] Mary's Friend .• You
[mustn't be] a trouble to them .• He [must be] a troublemaker .• She [must be] the one
who did it .• She [mustn't be] his P.A. (from now on) .• It [must be] her idea .• They [must
be] a smart lot.
Note: This structure helps you say that something is very likely to be the case or logical or
probable - because of the available evidence.
• I [must be] bolder. • I [mustn't be] soft towards them .• We [must be] well·behaved .• We
[mustn't be] nervous .• You [must be] kind to them. • You [mustn't be] so cruel. • He [must
be] busy these days .• He [mustn't be] so untidy .• She [mustn't be] careless about it. • It
[mustn't be] obvious .• They [mustn't be] anxious ahout it.

Note: This structure helps you say that something is very important or necessary
(sometimes because of a rule or law).
• She [must be] devoted to him .• It [must be] useless .• They [must be] very energetic.
Note: This structure helps you say that something is very likely to be the case or logical or
probable - because of the available evidence.
• I [must be] outside now .• I [mustn't be] downstairs now .• We [mustn't be] there all the
time .• You [must be] inside .• You [mustn't be] outside .• He [mustn't be] here .• She
[mustn't be] away .• It [mustn't be] off. • They [mustn't be] downstairs.
Note: This structure helps you say that something is very important or necessary
(sometimes because of a rule or law).
I be]
• He [must . m .• She [must be] around .• It [must be] on .• They
[must be] upstairs.
Note: This structure helps you say that something is very likely to be the case or logical or
probable - because of the available evidence.
• I [must be] on my gu~rd .• I [mustn't be] at the end .• We [must be] outside the st~tion .•
We [mustn't be] on the platform .• You [mustn't be] out of the building .• She [must be] by
the side of that building .• She [mustn't be] in a foul temper like this all the time .• It
[mustn't be] in the middle .• They [mustn't be] out of hearing .
. Note: This structure helps you say that something is very important or necessary
(sometimes because of a rule or law).
• He [must be] out of his mind .• She [must be] in love with him .• He [mustn't be] in the
wrong .• It [must be] out of kindness for him .• They [must be] out of breath.
Note: This structure helps you say that something is very likely to be the case or logical or
probable - because of the available evidence.
• I [ought to be] an example to them .• I [oughtn't to be] a miser like this .• We [ought to
be] a source of strength to them .• We [oughtn't to be] the ones to do this dirty work .• You
[oughtn't to be] the one to
suffer for it. • He [oughtn't to be] a half-hearted person .• She [oughtn't to be] such a bore
like this .• They [oughtn't to be] such taskmasters.
Note: This structure helps you say that something is the right thing to do or that it's advisable,
desirable or necessary to do something. And so you can use this structure to give or ask for
advice or opinion.
• You [ought to be] the first person to ,do it .• It [oughtn't to be] a runof-the-mill kind of show .•
It [ought to be] the last warning.
Note: This structure helps you say what you expect to happen or what you would like to
• She [ought to be] the leader of the group .• He [ought to be] a great comfort to those
people .• They [ought to be] real professionals at their jobs.
Note: This structure helps you say what is probably the case.
• I [ought to be] certain about it. • I [oughtn't to be] furious at them .• We [ought to be] efficient
at jobs like these .• We [oughtn't to be] eager for results .• You [oughtn't to be] unfaithful to
your friends .• He [oughtn't to be] impatient with children .• She [ought to be] gentle with
them .• She [oughtn't to be] ashamed of her background .• It [ought to be] sufficient for them .•
It [oughtn't to be] identical with this one .• They [ought to be] keen on their work .• They
[oughtn't to be] so slow at their work.
Note: This structure helps you say that something is the right thing to do or that it's advisable,
desirable or necessary to do something. And so you can use this structure to give or ask for
advice or opinion.
• They [ought to be] answerable to the people who elect them .• He [ought to be] liable for
this damage .• They ought to be responsible for this mess.
Note: This structure helps you say what you expect to happen - or what you would like to
• He [ought to be] angry - I haven't replied to any of his letters .• It (= That dress) [ought to
be] expensive.
Note: This structure helps you say what is probably the case.
• I [ought to be] there .• I [oughtn't to be] here .• We [ought to be] inside .• We [oughtn't to
be] outside .• You [ought to be] in .• You [oughtn't to be] out .• He [ought to be] upstairs .•
He [oughtn't to be] away .• She [ought to be] upstairs .• She [oughtn't to be] downstairs .• It
[ought to be] on .• It [oughtn't to be] off .• They [ought to be] away. • They [oughtn't to be]
Note: This structure helps you say that something is the right thing to do or that it's advisable,
desirable or necessary to do something. And so you can use this structure to give or ask for
advice or opinion.
• I [ought to be] near them .• I [oughtn't to be] at the back .• We [oughtn't to be] at the


bottom of the list .• You [ought to be] in bed .• You [oughtn't to be] in control of the situation
.• He [ought to be] in his room .• He [oughtn't to be] in the wrong place .• It [ought to be] in
his hand .• It [oughtn't to be] in the first row .• They [ought to be] in front of the others .•
They [oughtn't to be] in charge of it.
Note: This structure helps you say that something is the right thing to do or that it's advisable,
desirable or necessary to do something. And so you can use this structure to give or ask for
advice or opinion.
• We [ought to be] in a stronger position by then .• They [ought to be] for this proposal.
Note: This structure helps you say what you expect to happen - or what you would like to
• He [ought to be] at the airport by now .• She [oughtn't to be] on the guest list - or she
would have been here by now.
Note 1: This structure helps you say what is probably the case.
• I [have been] a nuisance, haven't I? • I [haven't been] the favourite of my boss at any
time .• We [have been] the butt of their jokes .• We [haven't been] their customers for
sometime now. • You [have been] a mild-mannered person (so far) .• You [haven't been] a
hard-hearted person .• He [has been] a person with firm views (so far) .• He [hasn't been] a
rival for the leadership .• She [has been] one of their supporters .• She [hasn't been] a threat
to their position .• It [has been] a shady area so far, but now they're planning to cut down
the trees .• It
[hasn't been] a thorough-going analysis .• They [have been] the cause of all this .• They
[haven't been] our employees since last January. • I [have been] uneasy about the situation .•
I [haven't been] lucky in all this so far .• We [have been] indifferent to their views .• We
[haven't been] generous with them .• You [have been] concerned about her, haven't you? •
You [haven't been] patient with him .• He [has been] ignorant of all this .• He [hasn't been]
conscious of the smell. • She [has been] envious of everyone else .• She [hasn't been] quick at
typing .• It [has been] extremely useful to me .• It [hasn't been] repaired in a long time .•
They [have been] kind to us.
• I [have been] away. • I [haven't been] there .• We [have been] everywhere .• We [haven't
been] there .• You [have been] inside .• You [haven't been] outside .• He [has been] away. •
He [hasn't been] out .• She [has been] downstairs .• She [hasn't been] upstairs .• It [has
been] on .• It [hasn't been] off. • They [have been] here .• They [haven't been] there. • I
[have been] under a wrong impression .• I [haven't been] in your way .• We [have been]
behind the tree .• We [haven't been] at the meeting .• You [have been] at the mercy of the
bank, haven't you? • You [haven't been] at your best. • He [has been] in the army. • He
[hasn't been] at the order of anyone .• She [has been] in bad health .• She [hasn't been] in
town .• It [has been] out of order (so far) .• It [hasn't been] against the law .• They [have
been] by his side (all day) .• They [haven't been] at war with us then.
• I [can't have been] the one they were looking for .• We [can't have been] the people they
were talking about .• You [can't have been] the person I saw yesterday .• He [can't have
been] John's brother. • She [can't have been] your sister .• It [can't have been] Harris .•
They [can't have been] the same people. • I [can't have been] right about it .• We [can't
have been] wrong about him .• You [can't have been] surprised at her behaviour .• He
[can't have been] sorry about her .• She [can't have been] proud of him .• It [can't have
been] different from that. • They [can't have been] annoyed with you. • I [can't have
been] there .• We [can't have been] here .• You [can't have been] ourside .• He [can't have
been] inside .• She [can't have been] away. • It [can't have been] upstairs.'· They [can't
have been] downstairs. • I [can't have been] at work then .• We [can't have been] at
dinner at that time .• You [can't have been] by yourself .• He [can't have been] in his
right mind .• She [can't have been] in good health .• It [can't have been] to the right .•
They [can't have been] from London. • I [may have been] the person they asked for. • I
[may not have been] the person he wanted .• We [may have been] the target of their
criticism .• We [may not have been] an automatic choice .• You [may have been] a lazy
person (, but...) .• You [may not have been] a fullyqualified professional then .• He [may
have been] the inspiration for this work. • He [may not have been] a member of their
party (, but ..) .•
She [may have been] a timid girl (, bur ... ) .• She [may not have been] the one he was
after .• It [may have been] an out-of-the-way-place .• It [may not have been] an ideal place
(, but. .. ) .• They [may have been] experts at jobs of this kind.
• I [may have been] rude to them (, but ... ) .• I [may not have been] fit for that job (but. .. ) .•
We [may have been] a little careless .• We [may not have been] worthy of it. • You [may have
been] useful to him .• You [may not have been] aware of this (, but ... ) .• He [may have been]
doubtful about them .• He [may not have been] very eager for a chance. • She [may have
been] guilty (, but ... ) .• She [may not have been] interested in chess .• It [may have been]
inconsistent with his earlier version .• It [may not have been] suitable for their purpose .•
They [may have been] impressed with you.
• We [may not have been] there .• You [may have been] outside .• You [may not have been]


here .• He [may have been] upstairs .• He [may not have been] away .• She [may have been]
downstairs .• She [may not have been] in .• It [may have been] somewhere .• It [may not
have been] upstairs .• They [may have been] together .• They [may not have been] away. • I
[may have been] out of town .• I [may not have been] in a good temper .• We [may have
been] at her side .• We [may not have been] of any help to them .• You [may have been] at
the office .• You [may not have been] in a hurry the·n .• He [may have been] against the
proposal. • He [may not have been] in difficulties then .• She [may have been] at the
window .• It [may have been] in his bedroom .• It [may not have been] at the bottom .• They
[may have been] our of patience .• They [may not have been] at the hotel. • I [must have
been] a fool to think that it would be easy .• We [must have been] a sight to see then .• You
[must have been] his secretary .• He [must have been] a pompous idiot .• She [must have
been] a school teacher .• She [must have been] the first person in the line .• It [must have
been] a life of pleasure .• They [must have been] a privileged group. • You [must have been]
crazy about her .• They [must have been] too lenient with him .• She [must have been] rude
to them .• You [must have been] hopeless at it .• You [must have been] angry at her conduct.
• He [must have been] fascinated with them .• He [must have been] absent from there .• She
[must have been] interested in it .• She [must have been] pleased with them .• It [must have
been] harmful to them .• It [must have been] contrary to what she said .• They [must have
beeI1] disgusted with her .• They [must have been] fortunate in these things. • I [must have
been] upstairs .• I [must have been] away .• We [must have been] out .• We [must have been]
in .• You [must have been] downstairs .• You [must have been] away .• He [must have been]
here. • He [must have been] upstairs .• She [must have been] inside .• She [must have been]
out .• It [must have been] in .• It [must have been] • I [must have been] in a bad temper .• I
[must have been] under his inf1uence then .• We [must have been] in the garden .• We [must
have been] under their spell. • You [must have been] at Mr. Sharma's .• You [must have
been] out of town then .• He [must have been] at the door. • She [must have been] at school. •
She [must have been] in high spirits .• It [must have been] at the front .• It [must have been]
at the top .• They [must have been] at the meeting.
• We [needn't have been] their guests .• You [needn't have been] their candidate (this
time) .• It [needn't have been] such an elaborate ceremony .• They [needn't have been] the
mediators. • I [needn't have been] so tough with them .• We [needn't have been] mad with
them .• You [needn't have been] worried about her .• He [needn't have been] furious with
them .• She [needn't have been] anxious about us .• It [needn't have been] similar to those .•
They [needn't have been] so emotional about it. • I [needn't have been] there .• We [needn't
have been] outside .• You [needn't have been] upstairs .• He [ needn't have been] inside .•
She [needn't have been] downstairs .• It [needn't have been] there .• They [needn't have
been] here. • I [needn't have been] at the airport (to meet them) .• We [needn't have been]
at that party .• You [needn't have been] with them .• She [needn't have been] in that dress .•
He [needn't have been] in that room then .• It [needn't have been] in the middle .• They
[needn't have been] in the queue at that time. • I [ought to have been] the one to suffer for
it .• You [ought to have been] the one to make the suggestion .• She [oughtn't to have been]
such a spendthrift .• It [ought to have been] a free show .• It [oughtn't to have been] such a
costly affair .• They [ought to have been] actors .• They [oughtn't to have been] such an
irresponsible lot.
• I [ought to have been] certain about that man .• I [oughtn't to have been] mad with her. •
We [oughtn't to have been] intent on it .• You [ought to have been] independent of those
people .• You [oughtn't to have been] ahead of them .• He [oughtn't to have been] jealous of
those people .• It [ought to have been] clear to them .• They [ought to have been] considerate
to him .• They [oughtn't to have been] thoughtless like this.
• I [ought to have been] away .• I [oughtn't to have been] out .• We [ought to have been]
in. • You [ought to have been] on the committee .• You [oughtn't to have been] in their
group .• I [oughtn't to have been] in favour of it .• We [ought to have been] in business .•
We [oughtn't to have been] in such a situation .• He [oughtn't to have been] in his
pyjamas .• It [oughtn't to have been] in that form .• He [ought to have been] in a better
dress .• They [ought to have been] against the trend .• They [oughtn't to have been] in
such a strange place.
• It [ought to have been] a nice party. • It (= The campaign) [ought to have been] a huge
• The weather [ought to have been] quite pleasant there today .• The things he said [ought
to have been] tactless. • He [ought to have been] in the race .• She [ought to have been] on
a diet.
• I [ought to have been] the one to decide it. • We [ought to have been] their distributors .•
We [oughtn't to have been] their rivals .• You [ought to have been] the one responsible for
this job .• He [ought to have been] your partner in this business .• He [oughtn't to have been]
your roommate .• She [ought to have been] your wife.
• We [ought to have been] skilful at this kind of job .• He [ought to have been] good at
shorthand by this time .• It [ought to have been] evident to them. You [ought to have
been] upstairs .• They [oughtn't to have been] in.
 You [oughtn't to have been] there .• He [ought to have been] here .• She [oughtn't to
have been] downstairs .• It [ought to have been] there. • It [oughtn't to have been] here .•
They [ought to have been] away. • You [ought to have been] on his side in this .• It [ought to
been] in the collection.


additional adj. aloud adv. apologize (BrE also -ise)
NOTE: address n., v. alphabet n. v.
FEW ENGLISH adequate adj. alphabetical adj. apparent adj.
WORD THAT NEED adequately adv. alphabetically adv. apparently adv.
adjust v. already adv. appeal n., v.
admiration n. also adv. appear v.
UNDERSTAND AND admire v. alter v. appearance n.
TO MEMORISZE. admit v. alternative n., adj. apple n.
THIS WILL BE adopt v. alternatively adv. application n.
USEFUL IN EVERY adult n., adj. although conj. apply v.
DAY LIFE. advance n., v. altogether adv. appoint v.
advanced adj. always adv. appointment n.
a, an indefinite article in advance a.m. (NAmE also A.M.) appreciate v.
abandon v. advantage n. abbr. approach v., n.
abandoned adj. take advantage of amaze v. appropriate adj.
ability n. adventure n. amazing adj. approval n.
able adj. advertise v. amazed adj. approve (of) v.
unable adj. advertising n. ambition n. approving adj.
about adv., prep. advertisement (also ad, ambulance n. approximate adj.
above prep., adv. advert) n. among (also amongst) approximately adv.
abroad adv. advice n. prep. April n. (abbr. Apr.)
absence n. advise v. amount n., v. area n.
absent adj. affair n. amuse v. argue v.
absolute adj. affect v. amusing adj. argument n.
absolutely adv. affection n. amused adj. arise v.
absorb v. afford v. an a, an arm n., v.
abuse n., v. afraid adj. analyse (BrE) (NAmE arms n.
academic adj. after prep., conj., adv. analyze) v. armed adj.
accent n. afternoon n. analysis n. army n.
accept v. afterwards (especially ancient adj. around adv., prep.
acceptable adj. BrE; NAmE usually and conj. arrange v.
unacceptable adj. afterward) adv. anger n. arrangement n.
access n. again adv. angle n. arrest v., n.
accident n. against prep. angry adj. arrival n.
by accident age n. angrily adv. arrive v.
accidental adj. aged adj. animal n. arrow n.
accidentally adv. agency n. ankle n. art n.
accommodation n. agent n. anniversary n. article n.
accompany v. aggressive adj. announce v. artificial adj.
according to prep. ago adv. annoy v. artificially adv.
account n., v. agree v. annoying adj. artist n.
accurate adj. agreement n. annoyed adj. artistic adj.
accurately adv. ahead adv. annual adj. as prep., adv., conj.
accuse v. aid n., v. annually adv. ashamed adj.
achieve v. aim n., v. another det., pron. aside adv.
achievement n. air n. answer n., v. aside from apart from
acid n. aircraft n. anti- prefix ask v.
acknowledge v. airport n. anticipate v. asleep adj.
acquire v. alarm n., v. anxiety n. fall asleep
across adv., prep. alarming adj. anxious adj. aspect n.
act n., v. alarmed adj. anxiously adv. assist v.
action n. alcohol n. any det., pron., adv. assistance n.
take action alcoholic adj., n. anyone (also anybody) assistant n., adj.
active adj. alive adj. pron. associate v.
actively adv. all det., pron., adv. anything pron. associated with
activity n. allow v. anyway adv. association n.
actor, actress n. all right adj., adv., anywhere adv. assume v.
actual adj. exclamation apart adv. assure v.
actually adv. ally n., v. apart from (also aside at prep.
ad advertisement allied adj. from especially in NAmE) atmosphere n.
adapt v. almost adv. prep. atom n.
add v. alone adj., adv. apartment n. (especially attach v.
addition n. along prep., adv. NAmE) attached adj.
in addition (to) alongside prep., adv. attack n., v.
attempt n., v. battle n. blank adj., n. building n.
attempted adj. bay n. blankly adv. bullet n.
attend v. be v., auxiliary v. blind adj. bunch n.
attention n. beach n. block n., v. burn v.
pay attention beak n. blonde adj., n., blond adj. burnt adj.
attitude n. bear v. blood n. burst v.
attorney n. (especially beard n. blow v., n. bury v.
NAmE) beat n., v. blue adj., n. bus n.
attract v. beautiful adj. board n., v. bush n.
attraction n. beautifully adv. on board business n.
attractive adj. beauty n. boat n. businessman,
audience n. because conj. body n. businesswoman n.
August n. (abbr. Aug.) because of prep. boil v. busy adj.
aunt n. become v. bomb n., v. but conj.
author n. bed n. bone n. butter n.
authority n. bedroom n. book n., v. button n.
automatic adj. beef n. boot n. buy v.
automatically adv. beer n. border n. buyer n.
autumn n. (especially before prep., conj., adv. bore v. by prep., adv.
BrE) begin v. boring adj. bye exclamation
available adj. beginning n. bored adj. c abbr. cent
average adj., n. behalf n.: on behalf of sb, born: be born v. cabinet n.
avoid v. on sb’s behalf (BrE) borrow v. cable n.
awake adj. (NAmE in behalf of sb, in boss n. cake n.
award n., v. sb’s behalf) both det., pron. calculate v.
aware adj. behave v. bother v. calculation n.
away adv. behaviour (BrE) (NAmE bottle n. call v., n.
awful adj. behavior) n. bottom n., adj. be called
awfully adv. behind prep., adv. bound adj.: bound to calm adj., v., n.
awkward adj. belief n. bowl n. calmly adv.
awkwardly adv. believe v. box n. camera n.
baby n. bell n. boy n. camp n., v.
back n., adj., adv., v. belong v. boyfriend n. camping n.
background n. below prep., adv. brain n. campaign n.
backwards (also belt n. branch n. can modal v., n.
backward especially in bend v., n. brand n. cannot
NAmE) adv. bent adj. brave adj. could modal v.
backward adj. beneath prep., adv. bread n. cancel v.
bacteria n. benefit n., v. break v., n. cancer n.
bad adj. beside prep. broken adj. candidate n.
go bad bet v., n. breakfast n. candy n. (NAmE)
badly adv. betting n. breast n. cap n.
bad-tempered adj. better, best good, well breath n. capable (of) adj.
bag n. between prep., adv. breathe v. capacity n.
baggage n. (especially beyond prep., adv. breathing n. capital n., adj.
NAmE) bicycle (also bike) n. breed v., n. captain n.
bake v. bid v., n. brick n. capture v., n.
balance n., v. big adj. bridge n. car n.
ball n. bill n. brief adj. card n.
ban v., n. bin n. (BrE) briefly adv. cardboard n.
band n. biology n. bright adj. care n., v.
bandage n., v. bird n. brightly adv. take care (of)
bank n. birth n. brilliant adj. care for
bar n. give birth (to) bring v. career n.
bargain n. birthday n. broad adj. careful adj.
barrier n. biscuit n. (BrE) broadly adv. carefully adv.
base n., v. bit n. (especially BrE) broadcast v., n. careless adj.
based on a bit broken break carelessly adv.
basic adj. bite v., n. brother n. carpet n.
basically adv. bitter adj. brown adj., n. carrot n.
basis n. bitterly adv. brush n., v. carry v.
bath n. black adj., n. bubble n. case n.
bathroom n. blade n. budget n. in case (of)
battery n. blame v., n. build v. cash n.
cast v., n. chip n. column n. connection n.
castle n. chocolate n. combination n. conscious adj.
cat n. choice n. combine v. unconscious adj.
catch v. choose v. come v. consequence n.
category n. chop v. comedy n. conservative adj.
cause n., v. church n. comfort n., v. consider v.
CD n. cigarette n. comfortable adj. considerable adj.
cease v. cinema n. (especially comfortably adv. considerably adv.
ceiling n. BrE) uncomfortable adj. consideration n.
celebrate v. circle n. command v., n. consist of v.
celebration n. circumstance n. comment n., v. constant adj.
cell n. citizen n. commercial adj. constantly adv.
cellphone (also cellular city n. commission n., v. construct v.
phone) n. (especially civil adj. commit v. construction n.
NAmE) claim v., n. commitment n. consult v.
cent n. (abbr. c, ct) clap v., n. committee n. consumer n.
centimetre (BrE) (NAmE class n. common adj. contact n., v.
centimeter) n. (abbr. cm) classic adj., n. in common contain v.
central adj. classroom n. commonly adv. container n.
centre (BrE) (NAmE clean adj., v. communicate v. contemporary adj.
center) n. clear adj., v. communication n. content n.
century n. clearly adv. community n. contest n.
ceremony n. clerk n. company n. context n.
certain adj., pron. clever adj. compare v. continent n.
certainly adv. click v., n. comparison n. continue v.
uncertain adj. client n. compete v. continuous adj.
certificate n. climate n. competition n. continuously adv.
chain n., v. climb v. competitive adj. contract n., v.
chair n. climbing n. complain v. contrast n., v.
chairman, chairwoman n. clock n. complaint n. contrasting adj.
challenge n., v. close /kləʊs, NAmE complete adj., v. contribute v.
chamber n. completely adv. contribution n.
kloʊs/ adj.
chance n. complex adj. control n., v.
change v., n. closely adv. complicate v. in control (of)
channel n. close /kləʊz, NAmE complicated adj. under control
chapter n. kləʊz/ v. computer n. controlled adj.
character n. closed adj. concentrate v. uncontrolled adj.
characteristic adj., n. closet n. (especially concentration n. convenient adj.
charge n., v. NAmE) concept n. convention n.
in charge of cloth n. concern v., n. conventional adj.
charity n. clothes n. concerned adj. conversation n.
chart n., v. clothing n. concerning prep. convert v.
chase v., n. cloud n. concert n. convince v.
chat v., n. club n. conclude v. cook v., n.
cheap adj. cm abbr. centimetre conclusion n. cooking n.
cheaply adv. coach n. concrete adj., n. cooker n. (BrE)
cheat v., n. coal n. condition n. cookie n. (especially
check v., n. coast n. conduct v., n. NAmE)
cheek n. coat n. conference n. cool adj., v.
cheerful adj. code n. confidence n. cope (with) v.
cheerfully adv. coffee n. confident adj. copy n., v.
cheese n. coin n. confidently adv. core n.
chemical adj., n. cold adj., n. confine v. corner n.
chemist n. coldly adv. confined adj. correct adj., v.
chemist’s n. (BrE) collapse v., n. confirm v. correctly adv.
chemistry n. colleague n. conflict n., v. cost n., v.
cheque n. (BrE) (NAmE collect v. confront v. cottage n.
check) collection n. confuse v. cotton n.
chest n. college n. confusing adj. cough v., n.
chew v. colour (BrE) (NAmE confused adj. coughing n.
chicken n. color) n., v. confusion n. could can
chief adj., n. coloured (BrE) (NAmE congratulations n. council n.
child n. colored) adj. congress n. count v.
chin n. connect v. counter n.
country n. daily adj. derive v. discuss v.
countryside n. damage n., v. describe v. discussion n.
county n. damp adj. description n. disease n.
couple n. dance n., v. desert n., v. disgust v., n.
a couple dancing n. deserted adj. disgusting adj.
courage n. dancer n. deserve v. disgusted adj.
course n. danger n. design n., v. dish n.
of course dangerous adj. desire n., v. dishonest adj.
court n. dare v. desk n. dishonestly adv.
cousin n. dark adj., n. desperate adj. disk n.
cover v., n. data n. desperately adv. dislike v., n.
covered adj. date n., v. despite prep. dismiss v.
covering n. daughter n. destroy v. display v., n.
cow n. day n. destruction n. dissolve v.
crack n., v. dead adj. detail n. distance n.
cracked adj. deaf adj. in detail distinguish v.
craft n. deal v., n. detailed adj. distribute v.
crash n., v. deal with determination n. distribution n.
crazy adj. dear adj. determine v. district n.
cream n., adj. death n. determined adj. disturb v.
create v. debate n., v. develop v. disturbing adj.
creature n. debt n. development n. divide v.
credit n. decade n. device n. division n.
credit card n. decay n., v. devote v. divorce n., v.
crime n. December n. (abbr. Dec.) devoted adj. divorced adj.
criminal adj., n. decide v. diagram n. do v., auxiliary v.
crisis n. decision n. diamond n. undo v.
crisp adj. declare v. diary n. doctor n. (abbr. Dr,
criterion n. decline n., v. dictionary n. NAmE Dr.)
critical adj. decorate v. die v. document n.
criticism n. decoration n. dying adj. dog n.
criticize (BrE also -ise) v. decorative adj. diet n. dollar n.
crop n. decrease v., n. difference n. domestic adj.
cross n., v. deep adj., adv. different adj. dominate v.
crowd n. deeply adv. differently adv. door n.
crowded adj. defeat v., n. difficult adj. dot n.
crown n. defence (BrE) (NAmE difficulty n. double adj., det., adv., n.,
crucial adj. defense) n. dig v. v.
cruel adj. defend v. dinner n. doubt n., v.
crush v. define v. direct adj., v. down adv., prep.
cry v., n. definite adj. directly adv. downstairs adv., adj., n.
ct abbr. cent definitely adv. direction n. downwards (also
cultural adj. definition n. director n. downward especially in
culture n. degree n. dirt n. NAmE) adv.
cup n. delay n., v. dirty adj. downward adj.
cupboard n. deliberate adj. disabled adj. dozen n., det.
curb v. deliberately adv. disadvantage n. Dr (BrE) (also Dr. NAmE,
cure v., n. delicate adj. disagree v. BrE) abbr. doctor
curious adj. delight n., v. disagreement n. draft n., adj., v.
curiously adv. delighted adj. disappear v. drag v.
curl v., n. deliver v. disappoint v. drama n.
curly adj. delivery n. disappointing adj. dramatic adj.
current adj., n. demand n., v. disappointed adj. dramatically adv.
currently adv. demonstrate v. disappointment n. draw v.
curtain n. dentist n. disapproval n. drawing n.
curve n., v. deny v. disapprove (of) v. drawer n.
curved adj. department n. disapproving adj. dream n., v.
custom n. departure n. disaster n. dress n., v.
customer n. depend (on) v. disc (also disk, dressed adj.
customs n. deposit n., v. especially in NAmE) n. drink n., v.
cut v., n. depress v. discipline n. drive v., n.
cycle n., v. depressing adj. discount n. driving n.
cycling n. depressed adj. discover v. driver n.
dad n. depth n. discovery n. drop v., n.
drug n. emotional adj. euro n. extensive adj.
drugstore n. (NAmE) emotionally adv. even adv., adj. extent n.
drum n. emphasis n. evening n. extra adj., n., adv.
drunk adj. emphasize (BrE also -ise) event n. extraordinary adj.
dry adj., v. v. eventually adv. extreme adj., n.
due adj. empire n. ever adv. extremely adv.
due to employ v. every det. eye n.
dull adj. unemployed adj. everyone (also face n., v.
dump v., n. employee n. everybody) pron. facility n.
during prep. employer n. everything pron. fact n.
dust n., v. employment n. everywhere adv. factor n.
duty n. unemployment n. evidence n. factory n.
DVD n. empty adj., v. evil adj., n. fail v.
each det., pron. enable v. ex- prefix failure n.
each other (also one encounter v., n. exact adj. faint adj.
another) pron. encourage v. exactly adv. faintly adv.
ear n. encouragement n. exaggerate v. fair adj.
early adj., adv. end n., v. exaggerated adj. fairly adv.
earn v. in the end exam n. unfair adj.
earth n. ending n. examination n. unfairly adv.
ease n., v. enemy n. examine v. faith n.
east n., adj., adv. energy n. example n. faithful adj.
eastern adj. engage v. excellent adj. faithfully adv.
easy adj. engaged adj. except prep., conj. Yours faithfully (BrE)
easily adv. engine n. exception n. fall v., n.
eat v. engineer n. exchange v., n. fall over
economic adj. engineering n. in exchange (for) false adj.
economy n. enjoy v. excite v. fame n.
edge n. enjoyable adj. exciting adj. familiar adj.
edition n. enjoyment n. excited adj. family n., adj.
editor n. enormous adj. excitement n. famous adj.
educate v. enough det., pron., adv. exclude v. fan n.
educated adj. enquiry (also inquiry excluding prep. fancy v., adj.
education n. especially in NAmE) n. excuse n., v. far adv., adj.
effect n. ensure v. executive n., adj. further adj.
effective adj. enter v. exercise n., v. farm n.
effectively adv. entertain v. exhibit v., n. farming n.
efficient adj. entertaining adj. exhibition n. farmer n.
efficiently adv. entertainer n. exist v. farther, farthest far
effort n. entertainment n. existence n. fashion n.
e.g. abbr. enthusiasm n. exit n. fashionable adj.
egg n. enthusiastic adj. expand v. fast adj., adv.
either det., pron., adv. entire adj. expect v. fasten v.
elbow n. entirely adv. expected adj. fat adj., n.
elderly adj. entitle v. unexpected adj. father n.
elect v. entrance n. unexpectedly adv. faucet n. (NAmE)
election n. entry n. expectation n. fault n.
electric adj. envelope n. expense n. favour (BrE) (NAmE
electrical adj. environment n. expensive adj. favor) n.
electricity n. environmental adj. experience n., v. in favour/favor (of)
electronic adj. equal adj., n., v. experienced adj. favourite (BrE) (NAmE
elegant adj. equally adv. experiment n., v. favorite) adj., n.
element n. equipment n. expert n., adj. fear n., v.
elevator n. (NAmE) equivalent adj., n. explain v. feather n.
else adv. error n. explanation n. feature n., v.
elsewhere adv. escape v., n. explode v. February n. (abbr. Feb.)
email (also e-mail) n., v. especially adv. explore v. federal adj.
embarrass v. essay n. explosion n. fee n.
embarrassing adj. essential adj., n. export v., n. feed v.
embarrassed adj. essentially adv. expose v. feel v.
embarrassment n. establish v. express v., adj. feeling n.
emerge v. estate n. expression n. fellow n., adj.
emergency n. estimate n., v. extend v. female adj., n.
emotion n. etc. (full form et cetera) extension n. fence n.
festival n. forest n. gap n. grand adj.
fetch v. forever (BrE also for garage n. grandchild n.
fever n. ever) adv. garbage n. (especially granddaughter n.
few det., adj., pron. forget v. NAmE) grandfather n.
a few forgive v. garden n. grandmother n.
field n. fork n. gas n. grandparent n.
fight v., n. form n., v. gasoline n. (NAmE) grandson n.
fighting n. formal adj. gate n. grant v., n.
figure n., v. formally adv. gather v. grass n.
file n. former adj. gear n. grateful adj.
fill v. formerly adv. general adj. grave n., adj.
film n., v. formula n. generally adv. gray (NAmE) grey
final adj., n. fortune n. in general great adj.
finally adv. forward (also forwards) generate v. greatly adv.
finance n., v. adv. generation n. green adj., n.
financial adj. forward adj. generous adj. grey (BrE) (NAmE
find v. found v. generously adv. usually gray) adj., n.
find out sth foundation n. gentle adj. grocery (NAmE usually
fine adj. frame n., v. gently adv. grocery store) n.
finely adv. free adj., v., adv. gentleman n. groceries n.
finger n. freely adv. genuine adj. ground n.
finish v., n. freedom n. genuinely adv. group n.
finished adj. freeze v. geography n. grow v.
fire n., v. frozen adj. get v. grow up
set fire to frequent adj. get on growth n.
firm n., adj., adv. frequently adv. get off guarantee n., v.
firmly adv. fresh adj. giant n., adj. guard n., v.
first det., ordinal number, freshly adv. gift n. guess v., n.
adv., n. Friday n. (abbr. Fri.) girl n. guest n.
at first fridge n. (BrE) girlfriend n. guide n., v.
fish n., v. friend n. give v. guilty adj.
fishing n. make friends (with) give sth away gun n.
fit v., adj. friendly adj. give sth out guy n.
fix v. unfriendly adj. give (sth) up habit n.
fixed adj. friendship n. glad adj. hair n.
flag n. frighten v. glass n. hairdresser n.
flame n. frightening adj. glasses n. half n., det., pron., adv.
flash v., n. frightened adj. global adj. hall n.
flat adj., n. from prep. glove n. hammer n.
flavour (BrE) (NAmE front n., adj. glue n., v. hand n., v.
flavor) n., v. in front (of) gm abbr. gram handle v., n.
flesh n. frozen freeze go v. hang v.
flight n. fruit n. go down happen v.
float v. fry v., n. go up happiness n.
flood n., v. fuel n. be going to unhappiness n.
floor n. full adj. goal n. happy adj.
flour n. fully adv. god n. happily adv.
flow n., v. fun n., adj. gold n., adj. unhappy adj.
flower n. make fun of good adj., n. hard adj., adv.
flu n. function n., v. good at hardly adv.
fly v., n. fund n., v. good for harm n., v.
flying adj., n. fundamental adj. goodbye exclamation, n. harmful adj.
focus v., n. funeral n. goods n. harmless adj.
fold v., n. funny adj. govern v. hat n.
folding adj. fur n. government n. hate v., n.
follow v. furniture n. governor n. hatred n.
following adj., n., prep. further, furthest far grab v. have v., auxiliary v.
food n. future n., adj. grade n., v. have to modal v.
foot n. g abbr. gram gradual adj. he pron.
football n. gain v., n. gradually adv. head n., v.
for prep. gallon n. grain n. headache n.
force n., v. gamble v., n. gram (BrE also gramme) heal v.
forecast n., v. gambling n. n. (abbr. g, gm) health n.
foreign adj. game n. grammar n. healthy adj.
hear v. how adv. indeed adv. interpretation n.
hearing n. however adv. independence n. interrupt v.
heart n. huge adj. independent adj. interruption n.
heat n., v. human adj., n. independently adv. interval n.
heating n. humorous adj. index n. interview n., v.
heaven n. humour (BrE) (NAmE indicate v. into prep.
heavy adj. humor) n. indication n. introduce v.
heavily adv. hungry adj. indirect adj. introduction n.
heel n. hunt v. indirectly adv. invent v.
height n. hunting n. individual adj., n. invention n.
hell n. hurry v., n. indoors adv. invest v.
hello exclamation, n. in a hurry indoor adj. investigate v.
help v., n. hurt v. industrial adj. investigation n.
helpful adj. husband n. industry n. investment n.
hence adv. I pron. inevitable adj. invitation n.
her pron., det. ice n. inevitably adv. invite v.
hers pron. ice cream n. infect v. involve v.
here adv. idea n. infected adj. involved in
hero n. ideal adj., n. infection n. involvement n.
herself pron. ideally adv. infectious adj. iron n., v.
hesitate v. identify v. influence n., v. irritate v.
hi exclamation identity n. inform v. irritating adj.
hide v. i.e. abbr. informal adj. irritated adj.
high adj., adv. if conj. information n. -ish suffix
highly adv. ignore v. ingredient n. island n.
highlight v., n. ill adj. (especially BrE) initial adj., n. issue n., v.
highway n. (especially illegal adj. initially adv. it pron., det.
NAmE) illegally adv. initiative n. its det.
hill n. illness n. injure v. item n.
him pron. illustrate v. injured adj. itself pron.
himself pron. image n. injury n. jacket n.
hip n. imaginary adj. ink n. jam n.
hire v., n. imagination n. inner adj. January n. (abbr. Jan.)
his det., pron. imagine v. innocent adj. jealous adj.
historical adj. immediate adj. inquiry enquiry jeans n.
history n. immediately adv. insect n. jelly n.
hit v., n. immoral adj. insert v. jewellery (BrE) (NAmE
hobby n. impact n. inside prep., adv., n., adj. jewelry) n.
hold v., n. impatient adj. insist (on) v. job n.
hole n. impatiently adv. install v. join v.
holiday n. implication n. instance n. joint adj., n.
hollow adj. imply v. for instance jointly adv.
holy adj. import n., v. instead adv. joke n., v.
home n., adv.. importance n. instead of journalist n.
homework n. important adj. institute n. journey n.
honest adj. importantly adv. institution n. joy n.
honestly adv. unimportant adj. instruction n. judge n., v.
honour (BrE) (NAmE impose v. instrument n. judgement (also
honor) n. impossible adj. insult v., n. judgment especially in
in honour/honor of impress v. insulting adj. NAmE) n.
hook n. impressed adj. insurance n. juice n.
hope v., n. impression n. intelligence n. July n. (abbr. Jul.)
horizontal adj. impressive adj. intelligent adj. jump v., n.
horn n. improve v. intend v. June n. (abbr. Jun.)
horror n. improvement n. intended adj. junior adj., n.
horse n. in prep., adv. intention n. just adv.
hospital n. inability n. interest n., v. justice n.
host n., v. inch n. interesting adj. justify v.
hot adj. incident n. interested adj. justified adj.
hotel n. include v. interior n., adj. k abbr. kilometre
hour n. including prep. internal adj. keen adj.
house n. income n. international adj. keen on
housing n. increase v., n. Internet n. keep v.
household n., adj. increasingly adv. interpret v. key n., adj.
keyboard n. least det., pron., adv. look after (especially mass n., adj.
kick v., n. at least BrE) massive adj.
kid n. leather n. look at master n.
kill v. leave v. look for match n., v.
killing n. leave out look forward to matching adj.
kilogram (BrE also lecture n. loose adj. mate n., v.
kilogramme) (also kilo) n. left adj., adv., n. loosely adv. material n., adj.
(abbr. kg) leg n. lord n. mathematics (also maths
kilometre (BrE) (NAmE legal adj. lorry n. (BrE) BrE, math NAmE) n.
kilometer) n. (abbr. k, km) legally adv. lose v. matter n., v.
kind n., adj. lemon n. lost adj. maximum adj., n.
kindly adv. lend v. loss n. may modal v.
unkind adj. length n. lot: a lot (of) (also lots May n.
kindness n. less det., pron., adv. (of)) pron., det., adv. maybe adv.
king n. lesson n. loud adj., adv. mayor n.
kiss v., n. let v. loudly adv. me pron.
kitchen n. letter n. love n., v. meal n.
km abbr. kilometre level n., adj. lovely adj. mean v.
knee n. library n. lover n. meaning n.
knife n. licence (BrE) (NAmE low adj., adv. means n.
knit v. license) n. loyal adj. by means of
knitted adj. license v. luck n. meanwhile adv.
knitting n. lid n. lucky adj. measure v., n.
knock v., n. lie v., n. unlucky adj. measurement n.
knot n. life n. luggage n. (especially meat n.
know v. lift v., n. BrE) media n.
unknown adj. light n., adj., v. lump n. medical adj.
well known adj. lightly adv. lunch n. medicine n.
knowledge n. like prep., v., conj. lung n. medium adj., n.
l abbr. litre unlike prep., adj. machine n. meet v.
label n., v. likely adj., adv. machinery n. meeting n.
laboratory, lab n. unlikely adj. mad adj. melt v.
labour (BrE) (NAmE limit n., v. magazine n. member n.
labor) n. limited adj. magic n., adj. membership n.
lack n., v. line n. mail n., v. memory n.
lacking adj. link n., v. main adj. in memory of
lady n. lip n. mainly adv. mental adj.
lake n. liquid n., adj. maintain v. mentally adv.
lamp n. list n., v. major adj. mention v.
land n., v. listen (to) v. majority n. menu n.
landscape n. literature n. make v., n. mere adj.
lane n. litre (BrE) (NAmE liter) n. make sth up merely adv.
language n. (abbr. l) make-up n. mess n.
large adj. little adj., det., pron., adv. male adj., n. message n.
largely adv. a little det., pron. mall n. (especially metal n.
last det., adv., n., v. live /laɪv/ adj., adv. NAmE) method n.
late adj., adv. man n. metre (BrE) (NAmE
live /lɪv/ v.
later adv., adj. manage v. meter) n.
latest adj., n. living adj. management n. mg abbr. milligram
latter adj., n. lively adj. manager n. mid- combining form
laugh v., n. load n., v. manner n. midday n.
launch v., n. unload v. manufacture v., n. middle n., adj.
law n. loan n. manufacturing n. midnight n.
lawyer n. local adj. manufacturer n. might modal v.
lay v. locally adv. many det., pron. mild adj.
layer n. locate v. map n. mile n.
lazy adj. located adj. March n. (abbr. Mar.) military adj.
lead /li:d/ v., n. location n. march v., n. milk n.
leading adj. lock v., n. mark n., v. milligram (BrE also
leader n. logic n. market n. milligramme) n. (abbr.
leaf n. logical adj. marketing n. mg)
league n. lonely adj. marriage n. millimetre (NAmE
lean v. long adj., adv. marry v. millimeter) n. (abbr. mm)
learn v. look v., n. married adj. mind n., v.
mine pron., n. murder n., v. noisily adv. one another each other
mineral n., adj. muscle n. non- prefix onion n.
minimum adj., n. museum n. none pron. only adj., adv.
minister n. music n. nonsense n. onto prep.
ministry n. musical adj. no one nobody open adj., v.
minor adj. musician n. nor conj., adv. openly adv.
minority n. must modal v. normal adj., n. opening n.
minute n. my det. normally adv. operate v.
mirror n. myself pron. north n., adj., adv. operation n.
miss v., n. mysterious adj. northern adj. opinion n.
Miss n. mystery n. nose n. opponent n.
missing adj. nail n. not adv. opportunity n.
mistake n., v. naked adj. note n., v. oppose v.
mistaken adj. name n., v. nothing pron. opposing adj.
mix v., n. narrow adj. notice n., v. opposed to
mixed adj. nation n. take notice of opposite adj., adv., n.,
mixture n. national adj. noticeable adj. prep.
mm abbr. millimetre natural adj. novel n. opposition n.
mobile adj. naturally adv. November n. (abbr. Nov.) option n.
mobile phone (also nature n. now adv. or conj.
mobile) n. (BrE) navy n. nowhere adv. orange n., adj.
model n. near adj., adv., prep. nuclear adj. order n., v.
modern adj. nearby adj., adv. number (abbr. No., no.) n. in order to
mom (NAmE) mum nearly adv. nurse n. ordinary adj.
moment n. neat adj. nut n. organ n.
Monday n. (abbr. Mon.) neatly adv. obey v. organization (BrE also
money n. necessary adj. object n., v. -isation) n.
monitor n., v. necessarily adv. objective n., adj. organize (BrE also -ise)
month n. unnecessary adj. observation n. v.
mood n. neck n. observe v. organized adj.
moon n. need v., modal v., n. obtain v. origin n.
moral adj. needle n. obvious adj. original adj., n.
morally adv. negative adj. obviously adv. originally adv.
more det., pron., adv. neighbour (BrE) (NAmE occasion n. other adj., pron.
moreover adv. neighbor) n. occasionally adv. otherwise adv.
morning n. neighbourhood (BrE) occupy v. ought to modal v.
most det., pron., adv. (NAmE neighborhood) n. occupied adj. our det.
mostly adv. neither det., pron., adv. occur v. ours pron.
mother n. nephew n. ocean n. ourselves pron.
motion n. nerve n. o’clock adv. out (of) adv., prep.
motor n. nervous adj. October n. (abbr. Oct.) outdoors adv.
motorcycle (BrE also nervously adv. odd adj. outdoor adj.
motorbike) n. nest n., v. oddly adv. outer adj.
mount v., n. net n. of prep. outline v., n.
mountain n. network n. off adv., prep. output n.
mouse n. never adv. offence (BrE) (NAmE outside n., adj., prep.,
mouth n. nevertheless adv. offense) n. adv.
move v., n. new adj. offend v. outstanding adj.
moving adj. newly adv. offensive adj. oven n.
movement n. news n. offer v., n. over adv., prep.
movie n. (especially newspaper n. office n. overall adj., adv.
NAmE) next adj., adv., n. officer n. overcome v.
movie theater n. (NAmE) next to prep. official adj., n. owe v.
Mr (BrE) (also Mr. NAmE, nice adj. officially adv. own adj., pron., v.
BrE) abbr. nicely adv. often adv. owner n.
Mrs (BrE) (also Mrs. niece n. oh exclamation p abbr. page, penny
NAmE, BrE) abbr. night n. oil n. pace n.
Ms (BrE) (also Ms. no exclamation, det. OK (also okay) pack v., n.
NAmE, BrE) abbr. No. (also no.) abbr. exclamation, adj., adv. package n., v.
much det., pron., adv. number old adj. packaging n.
mud n. nobody (also no one) old-fashioned adj. packet n.
multiply v. pron. on prep., adv. page n. (abbr. p)
mum (BrE) (NAmE mom) noise n. once adv., conj. pain n.
n. noisy adj. one number, det., pron. painful adj.
paint n., v. persuade v. police n. previously adv.
painting n. pet n. policy n. price n.
painter n. petrol n. (BrE) polish n., v. pride n.
pair n. phase n. polite adj. priest n.
palace n. philosophy n. politely adv. primary adj.
pale adj. phone telephone political adj. primarily adv.
pan n. photocopy n., v. politically adv. prime minister n.
panel n. photograph n., v. (also politician n. prince n.
pants n. photo n.) politics n. princess n.
paper n. photographer n. pollution n. principle n.
parallel adj. photography n. pool n. print v., n.
parent n. phrase n. poor adj. printing n.
park n., v. physical adj. pop n., v. printer n.
parliament n. physically adv. popular adj. prior adj.
part n. physics n. population n. priority n.
take part (in) piano n. port n. prison n.
particular adj. pick v. pose v., n. prisoner n.
particularly adv. pick sth up position n. private adj.
partly adv. picture n. positive adj. privately adv.
partner n. piece n. possess v. prize n.
partnership n. pig n. possession n. probable adj.
party n. pile n., v. possibility n. probably adv.
pass v. pill n. possible adj. problem n.
passing n., adj. pilot n. possibly adv. procedure n.
passage n. pin n., v. post n., v. proceed v.
passenger n. pink adj., n. post office n. process n., v.
passport n. pint n. (abbr. pt) pot n. produce v.
past adj., n., prep., adv. pipe n. potato n. producer n.
path n. pitch n. potential adj., n. product n.
patience n. pity n. potentially adv. production n.
patient n., adj. place n., v. pound n. profession n.
pattern n. take place pour v. professional adj., n.
pause v., n. plain adj. powder n. professor n.
pay v., n. plan n., v. power n. profit n.
payment n. planning n. powerful adj. program n., v.
peace n. plane n. practical adj. programme n. (BrE)
peaceful adj. planet n. practically adv. progress n., v.
peak n. plant n., v. practice n. (BrE, NAmE), project n., v.
pen n. plastic n., adj. v. (NAmE) promise v., n.
pence n. plate n. practise v. (BrE) promote v.
penny platform n. praise n., v. promotion n.
pencil n. play v., n. prayer n. prompt adj., v.
penny n. (abbr. p) player n. precise adj. promptly adv.
pension n. pleasant adj. precisely adv. pronounce v.
people n. pleasantly adv. predict v. pronunciation n.
pepper n. unpleasant adj. prefer v. proof n.
per prep. please exclamation, v. preference n. proper adj.
per cent (NAmE usually pleasing adj. pregnant adj. properly adv.
percent) n., adj., adv. pleased adj. premises n. property n.
perfect adj. pleasure n. preparation n. proportion n.
perfectly adv. plenty pron., adv., n., det. prepare v. proposal n.
perform v. plot n., v. prepared adj. propose v.
performance n. plug n. presence n. prospect n.
performer n. plus prep., n., adj., conj. present adj., n., v. protect v.
perhaps adv. p.m. (NAmE also P.M.) presentation n. protection n.
period n. abbr. preserve v. protest n., v.
permanent adj. pocket n. president n. proud adj.
permanently adv. poem n. press n., v. proudly adv.
permission n. poetry n. pressure n. prove v.
permit v. point n., v. presumably adv. provide v.
person n. pointed adj. pretend v. provided (also providing)
personal adj. poison n., v. pretty adv., adj. conj.
personally adv. poisonous adj. prevent v. pt abbr. pint
personality n. pole n. previous adj. pub n.
public adj., n. real adj. remarkable adj. rider n.
in public really adv. remarkably adv. ridiculous adj.
publicly adv. realistic adj. remember v. right adj., adv., n.
publication n. reality n. remind v. rightly adv.
publicity n. realize (BrE also -ise) v. remote adj. ring n., v.
publish v. really real removal n. rise n., v.
publishing n. rear n., adj. remove v. risk n., v.
pull v., n. reason n. rent n., v. rival n., adj.
punch v., n. reasonable adj. rented adj. river n.
punish v. reasonably adv. repair v., n. road n.
punishment n. unreasonable adj. repeat v. rob v.
pupil n. (especially BrE) recall v. repeated adj. rock n.
purchase n., v. receipt n. repeatedly adv. role n.
pure adj. receive v. replace v. roll n., v.
purely adv. recent adj. reply n., v. romantic adj.
purple adj., n. recently adv. report v., n. roof n.
purpose n. reception n. represent v. room n.
on purpose reckon v. representative n., adj. root n.
pursue v. recognition n. reproduce v. rope n.
push v., n. recognize (BrE also -ise) reputation n. rough adj.
put v. v. request n., v. roughly adv.
put sth on recommend v. require v. round adj., adv., prep., n.
put sth out record n., v. requirement n. rounded adj.
qualification n. recording n. rescue v., n. route n.
qualify v. recover v. research n. routine n., adj.
qualified adj. red adj., n. reservation n. row /rəʊ, NAmE roʊ/ n.
quality n. reduce v. reserve v., n. royal adj.
quantity n. reduction n. resident n., adj. rub v.
quarter n. refer to v. resist v. rubber n.
queen n. reference n. resistance n. rubbish n. (especially
question n., v. reflect v. resolve v. BrE)
quick adj. reform v., n. resort n. rude adj.
quickly adv. refrigerator n. resource n. rudely adv.
quiet adj. refusal n. respect n., v. ruin v., n.
quietly adv. refuse v. respond v. ruined adj.
quit v. regard v., n. response n. rule n., v.
quite adv. regarding prep. responsibility n. ruler n.
quote v. region n. responsible adj. rumour n.
race n., v. regional adj. rest n., v. run v., n.
racing n. register v., n. the rest running n.
radio n. regret v., n. restaurant n. runner n.
rail n. regular adj. restore v. rural adj.
railway (BrE) (NAmE regularly adv. restrict v. rush v., n.
railroad) n. regulation n. restricted adj. sack n., v.
rain n., v. reject v. restriction n. sad adj.
raise v. relate v. result n., v. sadly adv.
range n. related (to) adj. retain v. sadness n.
rank n., v. relation n. retire v. safe adj.
rapid adj. relationship n. retired adj. safely adv.
rapidly adv. relative adj., n. retirement n. safety n.
rare adj. relatively adv. return v., n. sail v., n.
rarely adv. relax v. reveal v. sailing n.
rate n., v. relaxed adj. reverse v., n. sailor n.
rather adv. relaxing adj. review n., v. salad n.
rather than release v., n. revise v. salary n.
raw adj. relevant adj. revision n. sale n.
re- prefix relief n. revolution n. salt n.
reach v. religion n. reward n., v. salty adj.
react v. religious adj. rhythm n. same adj., pron.
reaction n. rely on v. rice n. sample n.
read v. remain v. rich adj. sand n.
reading n. remaining adj. rid v.: get rid of satisfaction n.
reader n. remains n. ride v., n. satisfy v.
ready adj. remark n., v. riding n.
satisfied adj. servant n. significant adj. sock n.
satisfying adj. serve v. significantly adv. soft adj.
Saturday n. (abbr. Sat.) service n. silence n. softly adv.
sauce n. session n. silent adj. software n.
save v. set n., v. silk n. soil n.
saving n. settle v. silly adj. soldier n.
say v. several det., pron. silver n., adj. solid adj., n.
scale n. severe adj. similar adj. solution n.
scare v., n. severely adv. similarly adv. solve v.
scared adj. sew v. simple adj. some det., pron.
scene n. sewing n. simply adv. somebody (also
schedule n., v. sex n. since prep., conj., adv. someone) pron.
scheme n. sexual adj. sincere adj. somehow adv.
school n. sexually adv. sincerely adv. something pron.
science n. shade n. Yours sincerely (BrE) sometimes adv.
scientific adj. shadow n. sing v. somewhat adv.
scientist n. shake v., n. singing n. somewhere adv.
scissors n. shall modal v. singer n. son n.
score n., v. shallow adj. single adj. song n.
scratch v., n. shame n. sink v. soon adv.
scream v., n. shape n., v. sir n. as soon as
screen n. shaped adj. sister n. sore adj.
screw n., v. share v., n. sit v. sorry adj.
sea n. sharp adj. sit down sort n., v.
seal n., v. sharply adv. site n. soul n.
search n., v. shave v. situation n. sound n., v.
season n. she pron. size n. soup n.
seat n. sheep n. -sized sour adj.
second det., ordinal sheet n. skilful (BrE) (NAmE source n.
number, adv., n. shelf n. skillful) adj. south n., adj., adv.
secondary adj. shell n. skilfully (BrE) (NAmE southern adj.
secret adj., n. shelter n., v. skillfully) adv. space n.
secretly adv. shift v., n. skill n. spare adj., n.
secretary n. shine v. skilled adj. speak v.
section n. shiny adj. skin n. spoken adj.
sector n. ship n. skirt n. speaker n.
secure adj., v. shirt n. sky n. special adj.
security n. shock n., v. sleep v., n. specially adv.
see v. shocking adj. sleeve n. specialist n.
seed n. shocked adj. slice n., v. specific adj.
seek v. shoe n. slide v. specifically adv.
seem linking v. shoot v. slight adj. speech n.
select v. shooting n. slightly adv. speed n.
selection n. shop n., v. slip v. spell v., n.
self n. shopping n. slope n., v. spelling n.
self- combining form short adj. slow adj. spend v.
sell v. shortly adv. slowly adv. spice n.
senate n. shot n. small adj. spicy adj.
senator n. should modal v. smart adj. spider n.
send v. shoulder n. smash v., n. spin v.
senior adj., n. shout v., n. smell v., n. spirit n.
sense n. show v., n. smile v., n. spiritual adj.
sensible adj. shower n. smoke n., v. spite n.: in spite of
sensitive adj. shut v., adj. smoking n. split v., n.
sentence n. shy adj. smooth adj. spoil v.
separate adj., v. sick adj. smoothly adv. spoken speak
separated adj. be sick (BrE) snake n. spoon n.
separately adv. feel sick (especially BrE) snow n., v. sport n.
separation n. side n. so adv., conj. spot n.
September n. (abbr. sideways adj., adv. so that spray n., v.
Sept.) sight n. soap n. spread v.
series n. sign n., v. social adj. spring n.
serious adj. signal n., v. socially adv. square adj., n.
seriously adv. signature n. society n. squeeze v., n.
stable adj., n. strong adj. suspicious adj. terrible adj.
staff n. strongly adv. swallow v. terribly adv.
stage n. structure n. swear v. test n., v.
stair n. struggle v., n. swearing n. text n.
stamp n., v. student n. sweat n., v. than prep., conj.
stand v., n. studio n. sweater n. thank v.
stand up study n., v. sweep v. thanks exclamation, n.
standard n., adj. stuff n. sweet adj., n. thank you exclamation,
star n., v. stupid adj. swell v. n.
stare v., n. style n. swelling n. that det., pron., conj.
start v., n. subject n. swollen adj. the definite article
state n., adj., v. substance n. swim v. theatre (BrE) (NAmE
statement n. substantial adj. swimming n. theater) n.
station n. substantially adv. swimming pool n. their det.
statue n. substitute n., v. swing n., v. theirs pron.
status n. succeed v. switch n., v. them pron.
stay v., n. success n. switch sth off theme n.
steady adj. successful adj. switch sth on themselves pron.
steadily adv. successfully adv. swollen swell then adv.
unsteady adj. unsuccessful adj. symbol n. theory n.
steal v. such det., pron. sympathetic adj. there adv.
steam n. such as sympathy n. therefore adv.
steel n. suck v. system n. they pron.
steep adj. sudden adj. table n. thick adj.
steeply adv. suddenly adv. tablet n. thickly adv.
steer v. suffer v. tackle v., n. thickness n.
step n., v. suffering n. tail n. thief n.
stick v., n. sufficient adj. take v. thin adj.
stick out sufficiently adv. take sth off thing n.
sticky adj. sugar n. take (sth) over think v.
stiff adj. suggest v. talk v., n. thinking n.
stiffly adv. suggestion n. tall adj. thirsty adj.
still adv., adj. suit n., v. tank n. this det., pron.
sting v., n. suited adj. tap v., n.. thorough adj.
stir v. suitable adj. tape n. thoroughly adv.
stock n. suitcase n. target n. though conj., adv.
stomach n. sum n. task n. thought n.
stone n. summary n. taste n., v. thread n.
stop v., n. summer n. tax n., v. threat n.
store n., v. sun n. taxi n. threaten v.
storm n. Sunday n. (abbr. Sun.) tea n. threatening adj.
story n. superior adj. teach v. throat n.
stove n. supermarket n. teaching n. through prep., adv.
straight adv., adj. supply n., v. teacher n. throughout prep., adv.
strain n. support n., v. team n. throw v.
strange adj. supporter n. tear /teə(r), NAmE ter/ v., throw sth away
strangely adv. suppose v. n. thumb n.
stranger n. sure adj., adv. tear /tɪə(r), NAmE tɪr/ n. Thursday n. (abbr. Thur.,
strategy n. make sure technical adj. Thurs.)
stream n. surely adv. technique n. thus adv.
street n. surface n. technology n. ticket n.
strength n. surname n. (especially telephone (also phone) tidy adj., v.
stress n., v. BrE) n., v. untidy adj.
stressed adj. surprise n., v. television (also TV) n. tie v., n.
stretch v. surprising adj. tell v. tie sth up
strict adj. surprisingly adv. temperature n. tight adj., adv.
strictly adv. surprised adj. temporary adj. tightly adv.
strike v., n. surround v. temporarily adv. till until
striking adj. surrounding adj. tend v. time n.
string n. surroundings n. tendency n. timetable n. (especially
strip v., n. survey n., v. tension n. BrE)
stripe n. survive v. tent n. tin n.
striped adj. suspect v., n. term n. tiny adj.
stroke n., v. suspicion n. tip n., v.
tire v. (BrE, NAmE), n. trip n., v. unite v. vertical adj.
(NAmE) (BrE tyre) tropical adj. united adj. very adv.
tiring adj. trouble n. universe n. via prep.
tired adj. trousers n. (especially university n. victim n.
title n. BrE) unkind kind victory n.
to prep., infinitive marker truck n. (especially unknown know video n.
today adv., n. NAmE) unless conj. view n., v.
toe n. true adj. unlike like village n.
together adv. truly adv. unlikely likely violence n.
toilet n. Yours Truly (NAmE) unload load violent adj.
tomato n. trust n., v. unlucky lucky violently adv.
tomorrow adv., n. truth n. unnecessary necessary virtually adv.
ton n. try v. unpleasant pleasant virus n.
tone n. tube n. unreasonable visible adj.
tongue n. Tuesday n. (abbr. Tue., reasonable vision n.
tonight adv., n. Tues.) unsteady steady visit v., n.
tonne n. tune n., v. unsuccessful successful visitor n.
too adv. tunnel n. untidy tidy vital adj.
tool n. turn v., n. until (also till) conj., prep. vocabulary n.
tooth n. TV television unusual, unusually voice n.
top n., adj. twice adv. usual volume n.
topic n. twin n., adj. unwilling, unwillingly vote n., v.
total adj., n. twist v., n. willing wage n.
totally adv. twisted adj. up adv., prep. waist n.
touch v., n. type n., v. upon prep. wait v.
tough adj. typical adj. upper adj. waiter, waitress n.
tour n., v. typically adv. upset v., adj. wake (up) v.
tourist n. tyre n. (BrE) (NAmE tire) upsetting adj. walk v., n.
towards (also toward ugly adj. upside down adv. walking n.
especially in NAmE) ultimate adj. upstairs adv., adj., n. wall n.
prep. ultimately adv. upwards (also upward wallet n.
towel n. umbrella n. especially in NAmE) adv. wander v., n.
tower n. unable able upward adj. want v.
town n. unacceptable acceptable urban adj. war n.
toy n., adj. uncertain certain urge v., n. warm adj., v.
trace v., n. uncle n. urgent adj. warmth n.
track n. uncomfortable us pron. warn v.
trade n., v. comfortable use v., n. warning n.
trading n. unconscious conscious used adj. wash v.
tradition n. uncontrolled control used to sth/to doing sth washing n.
traditional adj. under prep., adv. used to modal v. waste v., n., adj.
traditionally adv. underground adj., adv. useful adj. watch v., n.
traffic n. underneath prep., adv. useless adj. water n.
train n., v. understand v. user n. wave n., v.
training n. understanding n. usual adj. way n.
transfer v., n. underwater adj., adv. usually adv. we pron.
transform v. underwear n. unusual adj. weak adj.
translate v. undo do unusually adv. weakness n.
translation n. unemployed employ vacation n. wealth n.
transparent adj. unemployment valid adj. weapon n.
transport n. (BrE) (NAmE employment valley n. wear v.
transportation) unexpected, valuable adj. weather n.
transport v. (BrE, NAmE) unexpectedly expect value n., v. web n.
trap n., v. unfair, unfairly fair van n. the Web n.
travel v., n. unfortunate adj. variation n. website n.
traveller (BrE) (NAmE unfortunately adv. variety n. wedding n.
traveler) n. unfriendly friendly various adj. Wednesday n. (abbr.
treat v. unhappiness happiness vary v. Wed., Weds.)
treatment n. unhappy happy varied adj. week n.
tree n. uniform n., adj. vast adj. weekend n.
trend n. unimportant important vegetable n. weekly adj.
trial n. union n. vehicle n. weigh v.
triangle n. unique adj. venture n., v. weight n.
trick n., v. unit n. version n.
welcome v., adj., n., wonderful adj. adverb n. question tag (also tag
exclamation wood n. apostrophe n. question) n.
well adv., adj., wooden adj. article n. quotation marks (BrE
exclamation wool n. auxiliary (also auxiliary also inverted commas) n.
as well (as) word n. verb) n. reflexive adj.
well known know work v., n. bracket n. register n.
west n., adj., adv. working adj. clause n. regular adj.
western adj. worker n. colon n. relative adj.
wet adj. world n. comma n. reported speech (also
what pron., det. worry v., n. comparative adj., n. indirect speech) n.
whatever det., pron. worrying adj. compound n., adj. saying n.
wheel n. worried adj. conditional adj., n. semicolon n.
when adv., pron., conj. worse, worst bad conjunction n. simple adj.
whenever conj. worship n., v. consonant n. singular n., adj.
where adv., conj. worth adj. contraction n. slang n.
whereas conj. would modal v. countable adj. slash n.
wherever conj. wound n., v. continuous progressive subject n.
whether conj. wounded adj. derivative n. suffix n.
which pron., det. wrap v. determiner n. superlative adj., n.
while conj., n. wrapping n. dialect n. syllable n.
whilst conj. (especially wrist n. entry n. taboo adj.
BrE) write v. exclamation n. tag question question
whisper v., n. writing n. exclamation mark tag
whistle n., v. written adj. (especially BrE) (NAmE tense n.
white adj., n. writer n. usually exclamation uncountable adj.
who pron. wrong adj., adv. point) n. verb n.
whoever pron. go wrong figurative adj. vowel n.
whole adj., n. wrongly adv. full stop (BrE) n. word class part of
whom pron. yard n. gerund n. speech
whose det., pron. yawn v., n. hyphen n.
why adv. yeah exclamation idiom n. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
wide adj.
widely adv.
year n.
yellow adj., n.
imperative adj., n.
indirect speech reported Arts words
width n. yes exclamation, n. speech These are the 250 most
wife n. yesterday adv., n. infinitive n. common words (apart
wild adj. yet adv., conj. inverted commas from the Oxford 3000) in
wildly adv. you pron. quotation marks writing that deals with
will modal v., n. young adj. ironic adj. arts subjects (literature,
willing adj. your det. irregular adj. painting, music, etc.).
willingly adv. yours pron. literal adj. Knowing them will help
unwilling adj. yourself pron. literary adj. you to understand texts
unwillingly adv. youth n. modal n. about these subjects
willingness n. zero number noun n. more easily.
win v. zone n. object n. abstract adj.
winning adj. ordinal n. academy n.
wind /waɪnd/ v. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX paragraph n. aesthetic (NAmE also
esthetic) adj., n.
wind sth up parenthesis n.
part of speech (also word aesthetics (NAmE also
wind /wɪnd/ n.
window n. study terms class) n.
participle n.
esthetics) n.
album n.
wine n. Knowing these 80 words particle n. alien adj., n.
wing n. will be useful in your passive adj., n. amateur n., adj.
winner n. study of English and will perfect adj. angel n.
winter n. also help you to use the period (NAmE) n. arch n., v.
wire n. Oxford Advanced phrasal verb n. architect n.
wise adj. Learner’s Dictionary plural n., adj. architectural adj.
wish v., n. more effectively. It possessive adj., n. architecture n.
with prep. includes words to do prefix n. assumption n.
withdraw v. with grammar, preposition n. attribute v., n.
within prep. pronunciation and progressive (also auction n., v.
without prep. punctuation. continuous) adj. awareness n.
witness n., v. abbreviation n. pronoun n. ballet n.
woman n. active adj., n. punctuation n. bass n., adj.
wonder v. adjective n. question mark n. biography n.
bookshop n. everyday adj. lyric adj., n. rhythmic adj.
bourgeois adj. evident adj. magnificent adj. ritual n., adj.
bronze n. exploit v., n. mainstream n., adj. romance n.
canvas n. external adj. maker n. saint n.
catalogue (NAmE also fabric n. manuscript n. savage adj., n.
catalog) n. fantasy n. marble n. scholar n.
cathedral n. fascinate v. marvellous (BrE) (NAmE script n.
chapel n. fascinating adj. marvelous) adj. sculptor n.
charm n., v. fascinated adj. mask n., v. sculpture n.
charming adj. fate n. masterpiece n. sequence n.
childhood n. feminist n., adj. medieval (also sexuality n.
chord n. fiction n. mediaeval) adj. sheer adj.
choreographer n. fictional adj. melody n. significance n.
chorus n. flute n. metaphor n. sketch n., v.
classical adj. folk n., adj. mode n. so-called adj.
coincide v. fool n., v. modest adj. solo adj., n.
collector n. format n. myth n. sonnet n.
comic adj. fragment n. narrative n., adj. sophisticated adj.
companion n. gallery n. narrator n. sponsor n., v.
complexity n. gay adj., n. native adj., n. stun v.
compose v. gender n. neglect v., n. stunning n.
composer n. genius n. nightmare n. stylistic adj.
composition n. genre n. notably adv. subsequent adj.
comprise v. gesture n., v. notion n. subtle adj.
conceive v. gig /ɡɪɡ/ n. novelist n. suite n.
conception n. glory n. numerous adj. superb adj.
concerto n. golden adj. obscure adj., v. sustain v.
conductor n. graduate n., v. occasional adj. symphony n.
consciousness n. graphic adj. opera n. tale n.
conservation n. graphics n. orchestra n. talent n.
constitute v. guitar n. orchestral adj. talented adj.
convey v. guitarist n. passion n. temple n.
costume n. harmony n. pastel n. texture n.
creation n. haunt v. perceive v. theoretical adj.
creative adj. haunting adj. perception n. thrill n., v.
creativity n. haunted adj. perspective n. thrilling adj.
critic n. heritage n. phenomenon n. thrilled adj.
curator n. hint n., v. poet n. tragedy n.
dealer n. historian n. poetic adj. treasure n., v.
debut (also début) n. historic adj. portrait n. tribute n.
dedicate v. ideological adj. portray v. trio n.
dedicated adj. illustration n. poster n. triumph n., v.
depict v. imagery n. precede v. underlie v.
designer n. imaginative adj. primitive adj. underlying adj.
dialogue (NAmE also incorporate v. principal adj. undertake v.
dialog) n. insight n. privilege n. undertaking n.
differ v. inspiration n. profile n. undoubtedly adv.
dimension n. inspire v. prose n. usage n.
discourse n. installation n. psychological adj. utterance n.
distant adj. instrumental adj. publisher n. venue n.
distinct adj. intellectual adj., n. quartet n. verse n.
distinction n. intense adj. quotation n. viewer n.
distinctive adj. irony n. radical adj. violin n.
dome n. jazz n. realism n. virtue n.
dominant adj. journal n. reflection n. visual adj.
dynamic adj. lad n. rehearsal n. vocal adj.
echo n., v. leap v., n. renaissance n. watercolour (BrE) (NAmE
edit v. legend n. render v. watercolor) n.
elaborate adj. linguistic adj. repetition n. wit n.
embrace v., n. linguistics n. representation n. workshop n.
enhance v. listener n. resemble v.
episode n. literally adv. restoration n. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
era n. literary adj. revival n.
establishment n. revolutionary adj.
Science crystal n. gravity n. predator n.
database n. habitat n. prediction n.
words density n.
dependent adj.
hydrogen n.
hypothesis n.
prescribe v.
prey n., v.
These are the 250 most detect v. identical adj. principal adj.
common words (apart diagnosis n. identification n. probability n.
from the Oxford 3000) in diameter n. incidence n. probe v., n.
writing that deals with differ v. incorporate v. profile n.
science subjects digital adj. induce v. protein n.
(physics, chemistry, dimension n. infant n., adj. protocol n.
biology, etc.). Knowing discharge v., n. input n. proton n.
them will help you to disorder n. integrate v. pulse n.
understand texts about distinct adj. integrated adj. pump n., v.
these subjects more DNA n. intense adj. radiation n.
easily. domain n. intensity n. random adj., n.
activate v. dose n. interaction n. at random
acute adj. efficiency n. intermediate adj. rat n.
adjacent adj. electron n. intervention n. ratio n.
agricultural adj. eliminate v. ion n. ray n.
agriculture n. embryo n. isolate v. reactor n.
antibody n. emission n. isolated adj. readily adv.
array n. enhance n. journal n. receptor n.
assess v. enhanced adj. laser n. replacement n.
assessment n. enzyme n. linear adj. researcher n.
assumption n. equation n. liver n. residue n.
atomic adj. equilibrium n. long-term adj. resolution n.
attribute v., n. et al. abbr. magnetic adj. respective adj.
axis n. evaluate v. magnitude n. respectively n.
beam n. evaluation n. maintenance n. rotation n.
binary adj. evolution n. mammal n. satellite n.
bind v. evolutionary adj. marine adj. scan v., n.
biological adj. evolve v. matrix n. scatter v.
bond n., v. exceed v. mechanical adj. scattered adj.
boundary n. excess n., adj. mechanism n. sediment n.
calcium n. expansion n. membrane n. segment n., v.
capability n. experimental adj. mode n. sensitivity n.
carbon n. exploit v. modification n. sequence n., v.
chromosome n. exploration n. modify v. sequencing n.
chronic adj. exposure n. molecular adj. serum n.
circuit n. external adj. molecule n. shield n., v.
classification n. extract n., v. mortality n. significance n.
classify v. fibre (BrE) (NAmE fiber) multiple adj., n. sodium n.
clinic n. n. mutant adj., n. solar adj.
clinical adj. filter n., v. mutation n. solvent n.
clone n., v. finding n. neutron n. species n.
cloning n. fluid n., adj. node n. specification n.
cluster n., v. formation n. nucleus n. specify v.
component n., adj. fossil n. numerous adj. specimen n.
composition n. fraction n. observer n. spectrum n.
compound n., adj. fragment n. optical adj. spine n.
comprise v. framework n. oral adj. stain v., n.
compute v. frequency n. orbit n., v. statistic n.
computing n. functional adj. organic adj. statistics n.
consequently adv. furthermore adv. organism n. statistical adj.
conservation n. fusion n. outcome n. stem n., v.
consistent adj. galaxy n. oxygen n. stimulate v.
constraint n. gene n. ozone n. stimulus n.
continental adj. genetic adj. parameter n. structural adj.
coordinate (BrE also co- genetically adv. particle n. subsequent adj.
ordinate) v., n. genetics n. PC n. subsequently adv.
copper n. geological adj. percentage n. surgery n.
correlation n. geology n. pH n. survival n.
correspond v. graph n. phenomenon n. symmetry n.
corresponding adj. gravitational adj. plasma n. symptom n.
synthesis n. auditor n. dividend n. leisure n.
terminal n., adj. authorize (BrE also -ise) dominant adj. lender n.
theoretical adj. v. dot-com (also dotcom) n. liability n.
therapy n. banker n. e- combining form liable adj.
tissue n. biotechnology (also earnings n. limitation n.
toxic adj. biotech) n. economics n. liquidity n.
transformation n. bond n. economist n. long-term adj.
transition n. bonus n. effectiveness n. Ltd abbr.
transmission n. boom n., v. efficiency n. maintenance n.
transmit v. boost v., n. electronics n. maker n.
tumour (BrE) (NAmE borrower n. enhance v. managerial adj.
tumor) n. breach n., v. enhanced adj. manual adj.
undergo v. broadband n. enterprise n. margin n.
underlie v. broker n. equity n. maturity n.
underlying adj. burden n., v. evaluate v. mechanism n.
undertake v. carrier n. exceed v. memo (also
undertaking n. cater v. excess n., adj. memorandum) n.
variable adj., n. cater for in excess of merge v.
vector n. catering n. exclusive adj. merger n.
vegetation n. chartered adj. (BrE) exclusively adv. monetary adj.
velocity n. clause n. exemption n. monopoly n.
visual adj., n. Co. abbr. expansion n. monthly adj., adv.
volcano n. commodity n. expenditure n. mortgage n., v.
voltage n. compensation n. expertise n. motivation n.
widespread adj. competitor n. external adj. multinational adj., n.
wildlife n. completion n. fiscal adj. negotiate v.
worldwide adj., adv. comply v. flexibility n. negotiation n.
yield v., n. component n., adj. flexible adj. net (BrE also nett) adj.
comprise v. framework n. obligation n.
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX confidential adj. franchise n., v. online adj., adv.
Business and consistent adj. franchising n. operational adj.
consistently adv. fraud n. operator n.
finance words constraint n.
consultant n.
GDP n.
globalization (BrE also
organizational (BrE also
-isational) adj.
These are the 250 most consumption n. -isation) n. outcome n.
common words (apart contractor n. gross adj., adv., v., n. overseas adj., adv.
from the Oxford 3000) in cooperation (BrE also guidance n. ownership n.
writing that deals with co-operation) n. guidelines n. participant n.
business and finance. cooperative (BrE also co- high-tech (also hi-tech) participate v.
Knowing them will help operative) adj., n. adj. payable adj.
you to understand texts corporate adj. holder n. perceive v.
about these subjects corporation n. (abbr. holding n. percentage n.
more easily. Corp.) implement v. personal computer n.
accordance n.: in correspond v. implementation n. (abbr. PC)
accordance with corresponding adj. incentive n. personnel n.
accountancy n. creation n. incorporate v. plc (also PLC) abbr.
accountant n. creditor n. incorporated adj. (abbr. portfolio n.
acquisition n. currency n. Inc.) premium n., adj.
adjustment n. database n. incur v. principal adj.
administration n. dealer n. inflation n. principally adv.
administrative adj. debtor n. innovation n. privatization (BrE also
adviser (also advisor) n. decision-making n. input n., v. -isation) n.
agenda n. deficit n. institutional adj. probability n.
airline n. delegate n., v. integrate v. productivity n.
allocate v. dependent adj. integrated adj. profile n.
allocation n. depreciation n. interim adj. profitable adj.
allowance n. differ v. investor n. provider n.
analyst n. directive n. invoice n., v. provision n.
announcement n. disclose v. landlord n. purchaser n.
assess v. disclosure n. laptop n. ratio n.
assessment n. dismissal n. leadership n. recession n.
asset n. disposal n. lease n., v. recommendation n.
assumption n. at your/sb’s disposal leasing n. recovery n.
audit n., v. dispute n., v. legislation n. recruit v., n.
recruitment n. specialize (BrE also -ise) subscriber n. underlying adj.
redundancy n. v. subscription n. undertake v.
registration n. specialized (BrE also subsequent adj. undertaking n.
regulate v. -ised) adj. subsequently adv. utility n. (especially
regulator n. specification n. subsidiary adj., n. NAmE)
regulatory adj. specify v. supplier n. valuation n.
repayment n. stake n. surplus n., adj. variable adj., n.
replacement n. at stake sustainable adj. VAT n. (BrE)
resolution n. start-up adj., n. takeover n. vendor n.
restraint n. statistic n. taxation n. voluntary adj.
restructure v. statistics n. taxpayer n. voluntarily adv.
restructuring n. statutory adj. telecommunications warranty n.
retail n., adv., v. sterling n. (also telecoms) n. workforce n.
retailing n. stock exchange n. tenant n. worldwide adj., adv.
retailer n. stock market n. tender n., v. yield v., n.
revenue n. strategic adj. trader n.
scope n. strategically adv. transaction n.
seller n. structural adj. Treasury n.
settlement n. structurally adv. turnover n.
shareholder n. submit v. uncertainty n.
short-term adj. subscribe v. underlie v.


Regular verb:
The first word is the basic form shop, remind,
(= infinitive) of a trick, intend,
verb, the second word is the
past tense form of that verb,
kick, need,
and the third word is it past branch, yield,
participle: step, record,
• Possess,, possessed, decrease, divide,
possessed .• bless, blessed, flash, sound,
blessed .• produce, produced,
produced.· increase, increased,
lack, add,
increased .• force, forced, brush, avoid,
forced .• finish, finished; punish, succeed,
finished.(practice and repeat it wrap, attend,
several time -Loudly) excuse, land,
base, dance, decide,
dress, like, command,
pass, camp, include,
introduce, pump, load,
place, slope, mind,
advance, stamp, flood,
stretch, pack, guide,
promise, curse, shade,
rush, lock, reward,
practise, chase, pretend,
watch, prick, scold,
push, race, persuade,
each, smoke, offend,
heap, stick, fade,
milk, crash, fold,
uess, march, end,
rejoice, cease, explode,
search, pronounce, shield.
thank, wreck, surprise,
whip, nurse, use,
dip, establish, cause,
hook, fish, confuse,
mix, match. enclose,
risk, mend, pause,
such, defend, praise,
rap, hand, manage,
worship, surround, arrange,
influence, afford, advise,
bake, demand, please,
photograph, regard, raise,
shock, provide, suppose,
tax, depend, close,
crack, crowd, changed,
joke, wound, amuse,
block, descend, oppose,
seize, visit, bury,
charge, appoint, rub,
urge, separate, share,
advertise, repeat, combine,
exercise, defeat, seem,
recognize, present, deliver,
encourage, vote, govern,
civilize, exist, accustom,
toss, account, sign,
judge, report, scatter,
refuse. permit, tire,
operate, treat, return,
point, support, admire,
suspect, expect, smile,
doubt, shout, colour,
suggest, print, cry;
note, relate, love,
test, prevent, roll,
admit, attempt, declare,
paint, direct, cloth,
elect, want, stay;
act, represent, beg,
knot, post, aim,
invite, complete, struggle,
hate, connect, concern,
hunt, accept, settle,
invent, rest, agree,
heat, request, study,
interest, part, carry,
interrupt, collect, describe,
instruct, lift, complain,
infect, count, boil,
greet, result, suffer,
float, attract, serve,
comfort, start, train,
feast, seat, deserve,
consist, taste, approve,
delight, trust, supply;
educate, suit, cheer,
desert, twist, control,
disappoint, unite, destroy,
excite, waste, clean,
cheat, last, claim,
plant, state, save,
pilot, protect, cover,
ornament, wait, tie,
respect, limit. belong,
rent, breathe, travel,
fit, annoy; believe,
answer, decay, worry;
gather, drag, kill,
determine, reason, hasten,
borrow, hire, matter
try; repair, dry,
explain, prepare, deceive,
sail, murder, button,
compare, delay, fancy;
turn, exchange, appear,
behave, fasten, border,
allow, owe, comb,
order, enjoy; warm,
die, fail, bridge,
own, live, quarrel,
climb, flow, remove,
follow, wander, signal,
weigh, call, curl,
arm, continue, dare,
fill, earn, hurry,
discover, clear, favour,
gain, warn, fulfill,
welcome, form, copy,
arrive, employ, discourage,
care, ear, drown,
argue, handle, cure,
contain, preserve, fire,
enter, listen, enquire,
mention, remember, marry,
blame, name, lodge,
wonder, receive, flame,
play, happen, offer, satisfy;
consider, retire, whistle,
join, imagine, inquire
bill, open, slow,
curve, improve, hammer,
film, perform, examine
free, move, tidy;
mail, pour, bar,
conquer, remain, escape,
poison, inform, look,
rain, plan, park,
question, measure, ache,
chain, prove, walk,
row, nail, cough
wave, pull, laugh,
pile, screw, mark,
grieve, overflow, stop,
harm, steam, help,
obey; vary; pick,
develop, grind, ground, r undo • stink, stank, stunk .
talk, • wind, wound, wound . • swim, swam, swum.
ask, • sit, sat, sat • drive, drove, driven .
work, • spit, spat, spat . • ride, rode, ridden .
hope, • fight, fought, fought . • rise, rose, risen .
attack, • strike, struck, struck . • write, wrote, written .
jump, • get, got, got. • fly, flew, flown .
slip, • hang, hung, hung • blow, blew, blown .
drop, • hang, hanged, hanged . • grow, grew, grown .
furnish, • hold, held, held . • know, knew, known .
notice, • light, lit, lit . • throw, threw, thrown .
press, • slide, slid, slid . • draw, drew, drawn .
wash, • shoot, shot, shot . • fall, fell, fallen .
fix, • shine, shone, shone . • shake, shook, shaken
reduce, • stand, stood, stood . • take, took, taken .
express, • understand, understood, * see, saw, seen .
address, understood • eat, ate, eaten .
cross, • teach, taught, taught . • forbid, forbade,
touch, • catch, caught, caught . forbidden
wish, • make, made, made . • forgive, forgave,
miss, • bring, brought, brought forgiven
polish, • think, thought, thought • give, gave, given .
Irregular verbs • creep, crept, crept . • swell, swelled, swollen
• keep, kept, kept . • freeze, froze, frozen .
• bet, bet, bet .
• leap, leapt, leapt. • speak, spoke, spoken .
• burst, burst, burst .
• sweep, swept, swept . • steal, stole, stolen .
• cost, cost, cost .
• sleep, slept, slept . • weave, wove, woven .
• cut, cut, cut .
• weep, wept, wept . • forget, forgot, forgotten .
• hit, hit, hit .
• flee, fled, fled . • break, broke, broken
• hurt, hurt, hurt .
• hear, heard, heard . • wake, woke, woken .
• let, let, let .
• say, said, said . • swear, swore, sworn .
• put, put, put .
• sell, sold, sold . • tear, tore, torn .
• set, set, set.
• tell, told, told . • lie, lay, lain .
• shut, shut, shut.
• lean, leant, leant . • choose, chose, chosen .
• spread, spread, spread .
• mean, meant, meant . • bite, bit, bitten .
• split, split, split .
• buy, bought, bought . • hide, hid, hidden
• upset, upset, upset.
• leave, left, left .
• dig, dug, dug .
• lose, lost, lost .
• fling, flung, flung
• deal, dealt, dealt .
• spin, spun, spun .
• dream, dreamt, dreamt.
• stick, stuck, stuck .
• feel, felt, felt.
• sting, stung, stung .
• kneel, knelt, knelt.
• swing, swung, swung .
• begin, began, begun .
• win, won, won
• drink, drank, drunk.
.• breed, bred, bred.
• ring, rang, rung .
• meet, met, met .
• shrink, shrank, shrunk.
• read, read, read .
• sing, sang, sung .
bind, bound, bound .
• sink, sank, sunk.
• find, found, found .
• spring, sprang, sprung .
Substitute words:
Audiene a number of people listening to a lecture
Omnipresent one who is presents everywhere
Omnipotent one who is all powerful
Omniscient one who knows everything
Anthology a collection of poems
Bouquet a collection of flowers
Opaque which cannot be seen through
Philanthropist a lover of mankind
Misanthrope a hater of mankind
Altruist a lover of others (selfless)
Hanger a place for housing airplanes
Crèche a nursery where children are cared for while their parents are at
Dormitory the sleeping room in a college or public institution
Cosmopolitan a person who regards whole world as his country.
Optimist a person who always expects good things to happen or things to
be successful
Pessimist a person who always expects bad things to happen:
Atheist a person who believes that God does not exist
Chauffer a person whose job is to drive a car
Sculptor a person who cut stone
Florist a person who owns or works in a shop / store that sells
flowers and plants
Fastidious one who is very selective in one’s taste
Fanatic or bigot a person who has very strong, unreasonable beliefs or
opinions about race, religion or politics and who will not listen to
accept the opinions of anyone who disagrees:
Curator a person whose job is to be in charge of the objects or
works of art in a museum or art gallery, etc.
Lexicographer a person who writes and edits dictionaries
Anthropologist a person who studies anthropology (the study of the human race,
especially of its origins, Development, customs & belief
Autocracy a country that is ruled by one person who has complete power
Suicide a act of killing yourself deliberately
Homicide the crime of killing somebody deliberately
Fratricide the crime of killing your brother or sister
Fugitive one who runs away from justice or the law.
Martyr one who dies for noble cause
Novice or Tyro a person who has little or no experience of something or
is beginning to learn something.
Autobiography the story of a person’s life, written by that person
Maiden speech the first speech delivered by a person
Carnivorous any animal that eats meat
Cannibal a person who eats human flesh/ an animal that
eats the flesh of other animals of the same kind
Contemporaries person living at the same time.
Insolvent/Bankrupt a person who is unable to pay his debts.
Inaudible a sound that cannot be heard/that cannot hear
Inaccessible difficult or impossible to reach or to get:
Theocracy a country that is governed by religious leaders
Sacrilege an act of treating a holy thing or place without respect
Incorrigible having bad habits which cannot be changed or improved
Irreparable that cannot be repaired
Illegible difficult or impossible to read
Horticulture the study or practice of growing flowers, fruit and vegetables
Numismatics the study of coins and medals
Rhetoric the art of elegant speech or writing
Infallible never making mistakes
Teetotaler a person who does not drink alcohol
Indelible impossible to forget or remove
Orphan a child whose parents are dead
Potable safe to drink
Narcotic that affects your mind in a harmful way/ making you sleep
Amputate to cut off somebody’s arm, leg, finger or toe in a medical
Post mortem a medical examination of the body of a dead person in
order to find out how they died
Obituary an article about somebody’s life and achievements
that is printed in a newspaper soon after they
Orphanage a home for children whose parents are dead
Lunatic Asylum an institution where mentally ill people live
Infirmary a home for old persons
Fatal causing or ending in death
Fatalist the belief that events are decided by fate and that
you cannot control them
Transparent allowing you to see through it
Arsenal a building where military weapons and explosives are made or
Cloak Room a place of luggage at railway station
Granary a building where grain is stored
Hive a structure made for bees to live in
Kennel a small shelter for a dog to sleep in
Stable a building in which horses is kept
Wardrobe a large cupboard for hanging clothes in which
is either a piece of furniture or (in British English) built
into the wall
Mint a place where money is made
Archives a collection of historical documents or records of a government
Sanatorium a place for the sick to recover health
Axiom a rule or principle that most people believe to be true
Agenda a list of items to be discussed at a meeting
Facsimile an exact copy of handwriting, printing, etc.
Plagiarism to copy another person’s ideas, words or work and
pretend that they are your own:
Elegy a poem or song that expresses sadness, especially
for somebody who has died
Infanticide the crime of killing a baby
Morgue a place where dead bodies that have been found
are kept until they can be identified
Mortuary a building in which dead bodies are kept before they are buried
Mercenary only interested in making or getting money
Ephemeral lasting or used for only a short period of time
Incognito in a way that prevents other people from finding out who you
Fragile easily broken
Nostalgia a feeling of sadness mixed with pleasure and
affection when you think of happy times in the past
Versatile (of a person) able to do many different things
Monogamy the fact or custom of being married to only one
person at a particular time
Bigamy the crime of marrying somebody when you are
still legally married to somebody else
Polygamy the custom of having more than one wife at the same time
Polyandry the custom of having more than one husband at the same time
Misogynist a man who hates women
Bibliophile a person who loves or collects books
Plebiscite a decision made by voting
Effeminate (of a man or a boy) looking, behaving or
sounding like a woman or a girl
Philanderer a man who has sexual relationships with many different women
Veteran a person who has a lot of experience in a particular area or
Amateur a person who takes part in a sport or
other activity for enjoyment, not as a job
Loquacious talking a lot
Anarchist a person who believes that laws and governments are not
Philistine a person who does not like or understand art, literature, music, .
Plutocracy government by the richest people of a country
Aristocracy (in some countries) people born in the highest social class,
who have special titles
Bureaucracy government by the officials
Pseudonym a name used by somebody, especially a writer,
instead of their real name
Aquatic animal which live in water
Amphibian any animal that can live both on land and in water.
Mammals any animal that gives birth to live babies, not eggs,
and feeds its young on milk
Gregarious (of animals or birds) living in groups
Ambidexterity able to use the left hand or the right hand equally well
Posthumous a child born after the death of his father or
the book published after the death of the writer.
Hedonist a person who believes that pleasure is the most important
thing in life
Somnambulist a person who walk in sleep
Somniloquist a person who talk in sleep
Epitaph words that are written or said about a dead person,
especially words on a gravestone
Inevitable that you cannot avoid or prevent
Impracticable impossible or very difficult to do; not practical
in a particular situation
Emigrant a person who leaves their country to live in another
Immigrant a person who has come to live permanently in
a country that is not their own
Alimony the money that a court orders somebody to pay regularly
to their former wife or husband when the marriage is ended
Misogamist one who hate marriage
Edible fit or suitable to be eaten
Panacea something that will solve all the problems of a particular

Adjective + Noun
Remember this: The best way of getting a good command of adjectives is to learn to use them in
combination with nouns. And without a good command of adjectives, you won't be able to achieve a
high level of fluency - especially in serious conversations. That's why the practice you do with
"adjective + noun" combinations is extremely important from the fluency building angle. And when
you try and master adjectives by learning them in combination with nouns, you master not only
adjectives, but also those nouns. Now, pick up each word group given below and utter it ALOUD -
several times.
• an abandoned truck .• an abandoned baby . • an able swimmer. • An abnormal fear .• an abrupt
end • absolute rubbish .• absolute zero .• absolutely wrong .• an absurd idea .• an absurd story .•
accidental death .• an accidental meeting .• an accurate answer .• accurate details .• an accurate
throw .• an accurate watch .• an aching head .• an action-packed film .• active games .• an active
mind .• an actual diamond .• acute eyesight .• additional information .• an advantageous
experience .• an adventurous person .• an affectionate gesture .• an affluent neighbourhood .• an
aged relative .• aggressive behaviour .• an A-grade player .• an aimless walk .• an alarming
noise .• an alert manner .• an alien country .• an aloof character .• (in) alphabetical order .• an
alternative appointment.
• an alternative plan .• amazing stories .• an amazing success story • (have) an amazing time .• an
amusing show .• an amusing story .• ancient sorcery .• an ancient custom .• an angry look .• an
expression .• angry feelings .• an angry shout .• annoying habits .• an antique table .• an anxious
moment .• anxious parents .• an anxious time .• an anxious woman .• an apple orchard .• apple
peal. • (at) the appointed time .• an aristocratic family. • armed robbery. • artificial flowers .•
artificial roses .• artistic merit .• assorted sweets .• assorted toys .• an astonishing fact .• an
astonishing story. • an attentive family. • an attractive personality .• an attractive dress .• an
attractive garden. • an attractive guy. • an attractive house .• an audacious plan .• an authentic
copy. • an average grade .• (of) average height. • the average class .• an average family .• an
average mark. • an awesome film .• an
awful day .• awful food .• an awful job .• awful people .• an awful time. • an awkward fall. • an
awkward movement. • a bad infection .• bad luck. • (in) a bad mood .• (get) a bad name .• a bad
phase (of history) .• a bad rainstorm .• (in) a bad state .• a bad fall. • a bad famine .• a bad
accident. • a bad cold .• a bad day (at work) .• a bad disease .• a bad man .• a bad person .• a bad
queen .• a
bad thing (to do) .• bad treatment .• a bad winter .• a bad woman .• bad work .• a badly-behaved
boy.• a bad-tempered man .• a baffling crime .• a baffling question .• baggy trousers .• a bald patch
.• a bald
head .• banana skin .• a bank robber .• bare arms .• bare legs .• bargain prices .• the basic idea .•
the basic problem .• a battered suitcase .• a bearded man .• a beautiful dawn .• a beautiful beach .•
beautiful girl. • a beautiful painting .• a beautiful place .• beautiful scenery .• a beautiful view.• a
beautiful woman .• a bedside light. • a beefy man .• my best jeans .• the best route .• my best top .•
my best friend .• my best colour .• the best meat. • the best player .• a bestselling author .• in a
better temper .• a big leap .• a big meal. • a big place .• a big rip (in a dress) .• a big sofa .• a big
sofa bed .• a big tummy .• a big company .• a big flat .• a big armchair .• a big box .• a big eater .•
a big house .• a big man .• a big salary • a big trunk .• a big blaze .• a birthday party. • a birthday
present .• a bit nippy .• black hair . • a black top .• a black tunnel. • a black-haired boy.• a blank
stare .• a blazing fire .• a blocked sink .• blonde curls .• a blue line .• a blue patch .• a blue
pullover .• a blue stripe .• a blue jacket .• bluish glass .• a blundering idiot .• boiling water .• a
bomb scare .• a bony child .• a booming business .• a booming voice .• a bored expression .• a
boring task .• a boring film .• a boring programme .• a boring show .• a boring speech .• a born
musician .• a bottle opener .• the bottom score .• a brainy boy.• a brainy child .• brainy children .•
a brainy girl. • a brainy kid .• a brainy person .• a brand-new computer .• a brass ornament .• a
brave act. • a brave rescue .• breakable cups .• a brick house .• a brief interruption .• a brief
description .• a brief talk. • a brief time .• a
bright blue dress .• a bright answer .• a bright child .• a bright idea .• a bright light. • a bright
orange .• a bright smile .• a brilliant thought. • a brilliant answer .• a brilliant band .• a brilliant
game .• a brilliant light. • a brilliant scientist .• a brilliant solution .• brilliant sunlight .• a brilliant
teacher .• brilliant work .• a brisk walk .• a broad grin .• broad daylight .• a broad avenue .• a
broken link (in the chain) .• a broken doll. • a broken vase .• a broken cassette .• a bronze shield .•
brown eyes .• a bruised arm .• a brutal attack .• a brutal murder .• builder's lorry .• a building
project. • a building site .• a bulky parcel. • a bumpy journey .• a bumpy ride .• a bunged-up
nose .• a bungling idiot. •
buried treasure .• the burning sun .• a burst tyre .• a bus ride .• a bus service .• a bus shelter .• the
bus terminal. • a bushy tail. • a bustling town .• a busy port .• a busy schedule .• a busy person .• a
busy station. • a very calm temperament .• a calm sea .• a calm woman .• a capable woman .• car
manufacturing .• a car smash .• a car thief .• careful handwriting .• careful planning .• a careful
piece of work .• careless driving .• a careless girl. • careless work .• a ca' ing community .• a cash
regIster .• the castle ruins .• a celebrated artist. a central location .• (in) a central position .• the
central square .• thl central station .• a certain person .• a certain result. • (at) a certain cime .• a
winner .• a chaotic class .• a chaotic room .• a cl aritable person .• a charitable woman .• a charity
organization .• CD lrity work .• a charmmg house .• cheap pens .• a cheap shirl. • a chl'cky face .•
cheeky kids.
• a cheerful look .• a cheerful person .• a cheerful smile .• a chewy streak. • (her) chief excuse .•
the chief problem .• the chief reason .• child abuse .• childish behaviour .• a chilly day.• a chilly
morning .• a clllpped plate .• chocolate spread .• a choppy sea .• a Christmas fair .• a chubby baby:
• a chunky necklace .• a circular brooch .• a circular route .• a classic book .• a cl an wall. • clean
sheets on the bed .• clean clothes .• clean sheets .• a clean shirl. • clean water .• clear orders .•
clear evidence .• a cI ar failur .• clear glass .• clear instructions .• clear liquid .• a clear signal. •
clear writing .• a clever lawyer .• a clever plan .• a clever riddle .• a clever scheme (to make
money) .• a clever conjurer .• a clever boy.• a clever idea .• a clever liar .• a clogged drain.
• a close friend .• c10s d windows .• a close-fitting top .• the closing scene (of the film) .• a cloth
cap .• a cloudless sky: • a clumsy kid .• a clumsy throw .• a coach LOur.• coal pit .• coarse cloth .•
a cold day: • cold weather .• a cold draught .• a cold drizzle .• a college student .• a colossal
mountain .• a 'olossal tree .• colour slides .• colourful iIlustrat! ons (in a book) .• a colourful
scene .• a colour less girl. • a colourless hqUld .• a colourless face .• a comfortable settee .• a
comfortable chair.
• comfortable clothes .• a comfortable home .• a comfy chair .• a comfy sofa .• a comic actor .• a
committed social worker .• a common flower .• common land .• a communications system .•
community service .• a compact book .• a compact computer .• complete opposites .• the
complete set .• a complete tip .• a complete change .• a complete checkup .• a complete disaster. •
a complete failure .• a complete idiot. • a complete stranger .• a complete set of CDs.• a complete
set .• a complete victory .• a complicated structure .• a comprehensive description.• computer
hardware .• a computer freak .• a concerned expression .• a concise dictionary .• a confident girl. •
a confident start .•confidential information .• a considerate girl. • considerate neighbours. • a
conSIderate person .• a constant noise .• (in) constant pain .• a contemporary building .•
contemporary styles .• continuous firing .•
controlled conditions .• a convenient place (to live) .• a convenient drawer. • a convenient shop .•
a convincing example .• a cooking pan .• a cool stream .• a cool band .• cool boots .• a cool
drink .• cool friends. • a cool haircut. • a cool shirt .• cool sunglasses .• a cool wind . .• a
cooperative child .• a cooperative group .• the correct procedure .• the correct answer .• a correct
description .• the correct money. • the correct result. • a corrupt politician .• costly jewels .• costly
robes. • cosy boots .• a cosy room .• cotton thread .• a cotton bedspread .• cough mixture .• a
counterfeit coin .• a county show .• a courageous man .• (in) a courteous manner .• a cowardly
thing (to do) .• a cracked glass .• a cramped kitchen .• a crazy person .• a crazy thing (to do) .• a
creased skirt .• creative writing .• creative person .• a creepy book. • a creepy house .• creepy
stories .• a cricket ground .• criminal behaviour. • crinkly paper. • crisp biscuits .• a crooked
businessman .• a crooked branch .• a cross-country hike .• a cruel act .• a cruel joke .• a cruel
laugh .• a cruel man .• a cruel punishment .• cruel revenge .• a
crumpled collar .• a crunchy cereal. • a cunning plan .• a curious animal. • a curly hairdo .• curly
hair .• a current champIOn .• the current edition (of a magazine) .• a current phone book .• (in) his
customary seat .• a cut-out coupon. • a damaged car .• a damaging drug .• damp clothes .• a damp
towel. • a danger warning .• a dangerous neighbourhood .• a dangerous coast. • a dangerous
coastline .• a dangerous criminal. • dangerous drugs .• a dangerous road .• a daring adventure .•
daring stunts .• a daring. deed. • a dark hallway .• a dark passageway .• a dark colour .• dark
haIr .• a dark night. • a dark figure .• a dark forest. • a dark-haired man .• a dated frock .• dazzling
headlights .• a dead animal. • a dead body .• deadly poison .• deafening music .• a dear little
puppy: • her dearest
wish .• a deceitful person .• deep blue .• a deep breath .• a deep sleep. • a deep sound .• a deep
wound (on his shoulder) .• a deep voice. ~ the defeated army .• defective workmanship .• a
definite loss .• a defmlte plan .• a delicate skin .• a delicate touch .• a delicious cake .• a delivery
lorry .• demanding parents .• a dense crowd (of people) .• a dependable person .• a depressed
man .• a depressed woman .•. a depressing film .• a desolate place .• a detailed plan .• a
determmed attitude .• a determined person .• a diamond ring .• a different location .• a different
opinion .• a different result .• a different version. • a different bat .• different breeds of dog .• a
difficult task .• a difficult child .• a difficult choice .• a difficult exam .• a difficult person .• a
difficult problem .• a difficult question .• a difficult sum .• a difficult assignment. • a digital
clock .• a dignified old lady .• (in the) dim light. • a dining room .• a direct flight .• the direct
road .• a direct train. dirty marks .• dirty old jeans .• dirty feet .• dirty hands .• a dirty jacket. •
dirty linen .• a disagreeable person .• disappointed fans .• a dIsappointed player .• a disappointing
game .• a disastrous game .• a . disciplined army .• disgusting food .• disgusting meat . • a
disgusting taste .• a dishonest salesgirl. • a dishonest way (to make
money) .• a disobedient child .• disobedient puppy .• a disorganized bedroom .• a distant light .• a
distant yell. • distant lands .• a distinct scar .• a distinguished actor .• diving paraphernalia .• a
down-to-earth approach .• drab walls .• a drainage pipe .• a drama rehearsal. • the drama society .•
drawing skills .• dreadful traffic .• dreadful weather .•

Mixed materials for flow-practice

Here's a collection of specially-selected word-groups. Say each wordgroup ALOUD, applying the flow-
production techniques. Utter each word-group several times - ALOUD. Eg: people are afraid of animals =

o My back ached. The river rose. He smiled. The clouds disappeared. We played. Something fell. He agreed.
Nobody came.
o He got into the bus. She got up. He lay down on the bed. She lives in America. He lay on the ground.
o The fan turned. The clock stopped. The plane crashed. The gate opened. The door closed. The bus moved.
My legs hurt. The bell rang..
o He asked. He asked a question. I answered. I answered the question. They watched. They watched the fight.
We listened. We listened to the radio. John drank. John drank milk. Pedro ate. Pedro ate food. She forgot. She
forgot the bag. I wrote. I wrote a letter. They read. They read the letter.
o She did the typing. He did the cooking. They manufactured these tyres. We searched the whole place. We
enjoyed the weekend. She made this cake. I closed the windows. She opened the door.
o He put the books in the box. We kept the packet in a corner. She placed the plate on the table. He carried the
child on his shoulders. I laid the bed-roll on the ground. They got the man into trouble. He took the box into
the room. We followed the thief for an hour.
o He picked her up. He picked up that girl. He picked that girl up. They called him in. They called in John.
They called John in. We found out the mistake. We found the mistake out. I took them out. I took out the
books. I took the books out. You left them behind. You left behind your competitors. You left your competitors
behind. She took them below. She took below everybody: She took evetybody below. He took us in. He took in
all of us. He took all of us in.
o I noticed the bus coming. I smelt something burning. We saw the man going. She heard someone shouting.
They found the boy waiting. They Ought him hiding behind the bushes. We watched the man opening the
o She avoided ealing. W rinished writing. i\sha practised swimming. I disliked travelling by bus. Pedro
suggested going for a walle Ann enjoyed drawing pictures. They began reading. I remember meeting you there.
I like getting up early. I tried starting the car again. I can't help laughing. J lon', mind doing it.
o They wanted me to do il. J I persuaded her to take a membership. He meant you to stay Iher. Th y pressed
me to visit them. You expected us to bring it. They gOI you to apologize. Nisha wished them to stop it. Anil did
not intend you to hun them. They did not advise us to go away.
o She waited for him to come. I arranged for a mechanic to come. We longed for evetybody to be present.
o I listened to him. They looked at me. We looked after her. I waited for you. She parted with it. J longed for
her friendship. The water tasted of kerosene.
o Biju agreed to come. MaY decided to stay behind. He failed to do it. They wanted to go. I can't bear to· see
people behaving like this. Everybody began to sing. They continued to argue. I preferred to go by train. Some
of them tried to knock down the wall. She forgot to switch it off. He remembered to send her a card.
o He promised me a present. He promised a present to me. She read him a story. She read a StOlYto me. I
brought them a packet. I brought a packet to them. You sent him a letter. You sent a letter to him. We told
them the truth. We told the truth to them. They owed me some money: They owed some money to me. He gave
me a pen. He gave a pen to me. They offered her a job. They offered a job to her. She fetched him some water.
She fetched some water to him. He handed me a cheque. He handed a cheque to me. They taught him a lesson.
They taught a lesson to him. They granted him permission (to take a day off). They granted permission to him
(to take a day off). He passed her the salt. He passed the salt to her. He threw her the ball. He threw the ball to
her. I wrote him a note. I wrote a note to him. They sold him their car. They sold their car to him. He showed
me a photograph. He showed a photograph to me.
o They called him a car. They called a car for him. I booked her a ticket. I booked a ticket for her. He bought
them a Tv. He bought a TV for them. He built her a house. He built a house for her. I changed him a five-rupee
note. I changed a five-rupee note for him. They saved me some money. They saved some money for me. He
reserved her a seat. He reserved a seat for her. You spared me some trouble. You spared some trouble for me. I
found them a typist. J found a typist for them. I ordered him a large breakfast. I ordered a large breakfast for
him. We chose him a
book. We chose a book for him.
o He described his journey to me. We put the question to her. I suggested the plan to him. She mentioned it to
us. He confessed his guilt to me. They explained the whole thing to you. He admitted everything to me. You said
it to her.
o They made me Treasurer. You named me Chairman. They appointed him Auditor. We declared him our
Representative. They voted him Secretary. She named her son Ravi. They made him Manager. You called him
Ahmed. We nominated you President. They wanted to appoint you Secretary.
• They looked on him as an authority: We took him as a clerk. He treated her as his sister. We regarded him as
an expert. They used it as a lever.
• They regarded us as guilty. I counted him as dependable. You described him as innocent. I considered him as
honest. She classed them as separate.
• They drove her mad. He dyed his hair brown. He ate the cutlet hot. They proved me wrong. She wiped the
vessels clean. He painted his car blue. She kept her room tidy. I wanted to make my intention clear.
o He is a mechanic. She was their Manager. That is a mystety. That was a mistake. They are politicians. We
were their partners.
• He sounded the horn. He's like his father. She looked like her mother. She became a doctor. He became
Chairman. She turned her face back to me. He got his promotion.
• She is kind. The rice was bad. The milk is sour. She is clever. They are angry. He was pale. She was sick. I am
hungry. It was dark. We are tired. That is awful. The seat was soft. The bread is brown.
• He turned pale. She appeared sick. He looked sick. They sounded angry. We got tired. The bread became
brown. He fell sick. The milk turned sour. The milk tasted sour. The milk smelt sour. It became dark. The rice
smelt bad. She seems clever. This thing feels hard. I feel angry. I feel hungry.
• It is here. The bus is at half past three. It is under the table. The house is behind the shop. It is on the top. The
college is in front of the garden. It is at the bottom. The ground was near the house. It is at four o'clock. The
market was outside the village. The show is at midnight. His birthday is in June. The meeting is in the evening.
His seat was at the back. Her seat was in the front.
• I doubt if she can do it. I forgot if he had picked it up. She asked if I had seen it. They didn't know if you had
gone. We wondered if you would come. She will find out if it is true. He enquired if there was a vacancy. I can't
remember if I have seen him. He wanted to know if I counted on his support.
• You must tell me if you are going. Please remind me if I forget it. You must inform her if they are late. He
asked me if I was born in Bombay. She asked me if I was tired of waiting. They asked him if he wore dark
• They enquired where she was. I found out when he came. She asked why you did it. You forgot what she
called you. He didn't know which
one they wanted. We wonder who did it. I can't remember how I did it.
• I took him for his twin-brother. They took her for a fool. They mistook me for their son.
• I felt (that) I must apologize. She said (that) he was right. I hear (that) they have selected you. I wished (that)
sh wouldn't interfere. I thought (that) you would like t m. Sbe expected (that) you would be there. You believed
(thaI) sh r cogniz d your voice. You hoped (that) they wouldn't check it. We decid d (that) we'll not interrupt.
She suggested (that) we must consult a lawyer.
• They told me (that) I was not right. He convinced me (that) they were wrong. We assured them (that) we
could do it. She reminded me (that) I had not phoned them. They informed us (that) they were coming. You
satisfied me (that) I could depend on you.
• I thought (that) he was honest. I thought (that) he was an honest person. We considered (that) it was
important. We considered (that) it was an important thing. She felt (that) his decision was wrong. She felt
(that) his decision was a wrong one. They reported (that) you were very efficient. They reported (that) you
were a very efficient person. He presumed (that) it was right. He presumed (that) it was the right answer.
I found (that) he was dishonest. I found (that) he was a dishonest person. I believed (that) it was true. I
believed (that) it was the truth. She knew (that) he was guilty. She knew (that) he was the guilty person. You
guessed (that) she was clever. You guessed (that) she was a clever girl. You supposed (that) it was new. You
supposed (that) it was a new one.
• He tore his shirt. He did his best. She hurt her head. He cut his finger. We lost our way. She broke her leg. I
had my teeth out. I combed my hair.
• This cloth is 20 rupees a metre. These tickets are two rupees each. Milk is 2 rupees a litre. Oranges are six
rupees a dozen. Potatoes are five rupees a kilo. She comes here once a week. The Postman comes two times a
• Rice is sold by the kilo. Cloth is sold by the metre. Eggs are sold by the dozen.
• He hadn't a penny to spare. They hadn't a thing to eat. We hadn't a book to read. He hasn't an enemy in the
world. I haven't any time to waste. He hasn't a moment to spare.
• He caught me by the arm. I caught him by the hair. He hit her in the head. She kicked him in the stomach.
They shot him in the head. He shot me in the leg. She slapped him on the face. He patted me on the back.
• They will phone you any minute now. We can start any day now. They will come here any moment now. You
can go there any time now.
• It isn't any problem. It isn't any use. It isn't any trouble. It isn't any fun. It isn't any pleasure.
• You aren't any fatter (than you were). He isn't any thinner (than he was). She isn't any better (than she was).
They aren't any worse (than they were). It isn't an.y bigger (than it was).
• It took her two hours to get dressed. It took me a whole day to complete it. It took him a long time to come to
a decision. It took them an hour to repair it.
• He doesn't look any different. She didn't feel any different. They don't seem any different. It doesn't taste any
different. It doesn't sound any different. It doesa't appear any different.
• There is no such person. There is no such place. There is no such thing. I have no such plans. He has no such
• Our clothes are the same colour. We are the same age. Bose and Ashok are the same height. Our feet are the
same size. These rooms are the same length and width. These bottles are the same shape.
• He is good at basketball. She is clever at house-keeping. I was convinced of his innocence. They are
disappointed with the result. I am annoyed at her behaviour.
• They are difficult to please. It is difficult to please them. You are hard to convince. It is hard to convince you.
We are sorry to hear about it. It made us sorry to hear about it. I am surprised to find them there. It surprised
me to find them there. She was quick to turn back and run. She turned back and ran quickly. He is willing to
work with you. He will willingly work with you. You were wrong to report him to the police. It was wrong of
you to report him to the police. They were silly to behave like that. It was silly of them to behave like that. He is
anxious to know the result. He was unable to find where it was.
• I'm certain (that) our team will win. They were confident (that) they would get the contract. She was glad
(that) you phoned them. He is sure (that) he'll pass the exam. We are proud (that) you can do it.
• It is fortunate (that) he is here. It is surprising (that) he didn't come here. It is odd (that) she hasn't sent us a
letter yet. It is true (that) he is past fifty. It is possible (that) they were waiting for a reply.
• She is forty, but she doesn't look it. It is very expensive, but it doesn't look it. I should be thrilled, but I don't
feel it. You should be angry, but you don't look it. He is very rich, but he doesn't look it. They were very poor,
but they didn't feel it. It is the right size, but it doesn't feel It.
• It's time we bought a new one. It's time he wore glasses. It's time they repaired the road. It's time you learnt
it. It's time we paid the bill. It's time she started.
• It's years since I saw him. I haven't seen him for years. It's a long time since she worked late. She hasn't
worked late for a long time. It's days since we met. We haven't met for days. It's three months since I came
here. I haven't come here for three months. It's months since it rained. It hasn't rained for months. It's hours
since he phoned. He hasn't phoned for hours. It's a couple of days since he shaved. He hasn't shaved for a
couple of days.

o I have some cloth s to wash. You have a few questions to answer. They have a few calls to make. She has some
work to do. We have some things to do.
o I lived there by myself. She finished it by herself. He used to go to school by himself. They painted the car by
themselves. She travelled by herself. The fan started turning by itself.
o He is not such a bad fellow as you think. He is not so bad as you think. She is not such a clever girl as you
think. She is not so clever as you think. You are not such a co-operative person as I imagined. You are not so
co-operative as I imagined. That is not such an interesting book as you said. That book is not so interesting as
you said.

Frequently used polysyllabic words

Image-building word groups in use

• It's ten years now since we quarrelled. It seems so absurd to bear grudge after all that time .• After
all, he is your husband. It sounds so absurd to hear you call him "uncle" .• I like him very much. It's
no use pretending that I don't .• I suppose you are still under training .• It must be awful having to
live in such a congested house as this .• It's extraordinary how film-actors keep young .• It doesn't
sound as if he enjoys our company at all. Is that the way he behaves always? • I've often seen your
photographs in the papers. But I never thought I'd actually be meeting you .• When I play cards. I
keep talking. I never find that conversation interferes with my game .• I'm sure it'll be all right when
the doctor comes. You mustn't upset yourself .• It wouldn't have been nice to go without saying good-
bye to the host.

• It wouldn't be very nice if we didn't give him a cup of tea .• It ruins one's health when one doesn't
take any rest at all .• I can see that you are leading a happy life. You needn't tell me that .• It's
certainly nice to get out of your surroundings once in a while for a change .• I think it's very lucky
that tomo.rrow is a holiday .• I am determined that something must be done to put a stop to the
whole thing at once .• It really was nice of you to find time to come .• I thought it was splendid to
move about with these high officials .• You can't think what a comfort it would be for me to know
that he is well. • It strikes me that he is planning to make off without paying us .• I gather there has
been some little difficulty. May I help you? • It didn't seem as if I could reach here at all. The car was
breaking down every now and then .• I was delighted at the thought of seeing you again after such a
long time .• I am delighted you could come. I've been so looking forward to meeting you .• I wonder
what plans they have made to receive him .• I am not so silly as to think that just because a man and
a woman are seen together, it is necessary to believe the worst about them .• Sometimes I wonder if
he is not cheating us .• It's a mercy I didn't start earlier. If I had, I'd have got drenched in the rain.

• I quite agree that I was a little shocked at first. But I recovered soon enough .• I never knew he had
such a fine sense of humour .• I don't
feel like eating. I have an indigestion .• I can't bear to think that I'll have to live without you .• I hate
to think that I made you unhappy .• I should be a perfect fool if I didn't know that he was making
fun of me .• I think it is terribly unkind of you to say such bad things about me .• It's no good going
over all that again. I heard you the first time .• I have made up my mind to go away. You can't
persuade me to stay on .• I hate the thought that you might be unhappy .• It always makes me
uncomfortable when people thank me .• You don't know how sick I am of all these luxuries. I don't
want luxury .• I was quite certain that he was not going to come. I think it would be awfully unfair if
I didn't do this small help to you .• It's such a bore there are no newspapers to read .• I brought this
album, because I thought it might amuse you to see our old photographs .• I am so sorry you
couldn't have a second chance .• It is always interesting moving from place to place, isn't it? • I bet
they all will be jealous of you .• I don't remember that I ever told you about all these things .• I don't
like to grow old. It's hateful to grow old, isn't it? • I hope we haven't forgotten anything.

• I only feel sorry that he should have gone without saying a word to me .• I really am delighted to
make your acquaintance .• You are lucky I am not in a bad temper. Otherwise I'd have smashed your
head .• It seems to me the best thing would be for him to resign .• But I can't understand why he
didn't come to me before .• I only hope that he won't fail in the exams. I don't hope for more .• I
think you've made a mistake .• There's no reason why you shouldn't enjoy as much as you want .• I
don't think much of these politicians who run after rich people for money .• It's really great of you to
take me to all these places .• It'd be very sad if you just followed your impulses like this. Use your
head, instead .• The partners are not on talking terms. I shouldn't be surprised if they broke up the
partnership one day. • It will be fun taking them to all the important places here .• If anything
happens, she has me to turn to. It would be a comfort to her to know that .• How right you are to
realize that he is not trustworthy .• I am always happy when somebody gives me a present .• We felt
so mean having to refuse her request. • You needn't have the smallest fear that I'll make a nuisance
of myself. I want to stay here only for a few days.
• I am glad to see that everything worked out the way we had planned. • I hadn't the smallest
intention of saying anything to wound you. I'm dreadfully sorry for what I said .• You make me feel
an awful swine. The worst of it is that what you say is entirely true .• What always interests
me is the way you get out of scrape after scrape .• It is comforting to see that everything went so
smoothly .• I thought it was a pity to get out of bed, because it was such a lovely day .• I really must
go and receive him _ or he'll never forgive me .• I don't think it would do to ask him home
when we are having visitors .• I can't think where I left my pen. I looked for it everywhere .• It's a
real pleasure to me to know a nice girl like you .• We'll be delighted if you'll lunch with us .• I can
assure you that I am a good enough driver to drive this car .• It's lucky you didn't get in
that bus. It broke down on the way .• She looked as if she would burst into tears on the smallest
provocation .• I am sure it's nothing to worry about. Nothing good comes out of worrying too
much .• The great thing is not to let emotions dictate you .• I see you are quite determined to marry
that girl. When is the marriage going to be?

• It's very wonderful how he has made his way up to this position. He had nothing very much to help
him .• I always wanted to live in the countryside .• I was wondering if I could stay here tonight .• I
am growing tired of him telling me about his illness. His illness is the only subject he speaks about ..•
It isn't as if those thieves needed money. They stole the money just for someexcitement. • I feel that
it's not right to go there without an appointment .• It has been a comfort to me to talk things over
with you. I hope there's no misunderstanding .• I am glad you will be coming here on leave soon .•
It's nice of you to praise me like this .• It is wonderful being admired by others, isn't it? • It's lovely
to see you all again .• It has been nice of you to give us your advice. It has helped to make things easy
.• I think it was very funny, his going without saying good-bye to anyone .• I can't believe that I've
got back home .• I've always envied people who could write novels .• I suppose it was absurd of me to
take his consent for granted .• I really don't know what has happened to him. He hasn't come back
yet .• He hasn't seen you since he was born. You really can't expect him to recognize you .• It'll be so
much easier for me to face any problem if you are with me.

• You've been used to a certain amount of luxury, and I don't know what you'd do without money
now .• You've no idea how eagerly we've been waiting for you .• It's too bad of you to sneak away
without telling anybody like this .• It seems very difficult to get a few minutes alone
with you. You're so busy .• It's nice to see you after such a long time .• It's good to be in one's own
house. One doesn't feel like a fish out of water at least there .• It seems so unfair that this misfortune
should happen to me .• What a relief that all the work is over! • It looks as if he
is going to get that job. His interview went off very well .• It's idiotic to sacrifice your life for a slushy
sentiment. • We've been having a good time at the party until just now .• It seems to me so pathetic
that she and her sister wouldn't recognize each other .• He behaved as if he was
far superior to us .• It was a stupid risk to take. Yet he managed to slip a note into the prisoner's
pocket .• It gives me a little thrill when I think that she sacrificed her life for him. It makes me proud
to think that I have such an important person as you as my friend .• It's not just because you are
awfully pretty that I love you. It's also because I like the way you behave .

• I do think it is hateful the way you discuss my private affairs with others .• I felt sure you were
going to strike him .• I've often thought that he was a good-for-nothing fellow. I have no hesitation in
confessing it. • It's cruel of you not to give me a chance to talk with him .• If you
are kind enough to wait a moment, I'll call him .• It's tiresome to have to talk about the same thing
day after day .• I can't tell you what a pleasure it is that you could come .• I didn't dare make a
scene, because my husband would never have forgiven me .• I can't tell you how distressed I was at
the terrible scene she made before others .• I came round to ask if you could lend me some money .•
You don't know what it is to live on a very meagre income .• It distressed me to see those people
living in poverty .• I have every right to stay in this place .• He hasn't been selected to the post. What
makes it so unfair is that a man with lesser qualifications has been selected .• He is such a fool. I
can't imagine what you see in him .• You can't imagine the troubles he has gone through to raise his
children .• It's simply maddening when you want to sit alone and people won't leave you alone .• It's
a pity that you can't think of a way to get around this problem .• It's always difficult
when you live some distance away from your office, isn't it? • You had an awful time finding a new
place to stay, hadn't you?
• Please stop talking about the sacrifices you have made. I am sick of hearing them .• It makes me so
happy that you are getting on well. • I never thought I would actually get to know you in person .• It
is funny we should feel so exhausted. After all, we have only been out for a walk.
• It sounds rather funny to hear you blame her like this. You have been doing the same thing, and
you are not blaming yourself. • I wonder if you realize what it was to work under the shadow of a
scandal. • It's rather bitter to find your closest friends ignoring you .• I suppose it's difficult for the
young to realize that they would get old, too .• It wasn't your fault if you didn't care for me. I know I
wasn't a good sort. • I am dreadfully sorry I sent such a nasty letter. Once I posted it, I became
awfully uneasy. I would have given almost anything not to have posted it .• I thought it rather a relief
when the interview was over. But they again called me for another test .• You must think me a perfect
swine if you think I am going to smash up their marriage .• I am awfully sorry not to remember you,
but I am delighted to meet you .• It must be interesting living in the town, I suppose? • What is so
awful is the way he ignores us .• I thought you might like to know that the prisoners have escaped .

IDIOMS (based on birds, animals, insects, etc.)

Black sheep-bad characters, disreputable members of a family or group.

The sheep and the goats - good and bad persons.
To separate the sheep from the goats- to identify the superior members of any group
A wolf in the sheep's clothing-a wicked man who pretends to be good (hypocrite).
To count sheep - to try to get to sleep, when one is not able to do so, by pretending that one is
counting an endless number of sheep jumping over a fence.
Like a sheep to the slaughter-without seeming to realize that one is about to enter a
dangerous situation .
To rain cats and dogs-to pour down heavily
To let the cat out of the bag-to disclose a secret.
Like a cat on hot bricks- uneasy, nervous. ,
To put the cat among the pigeons-- to stir up trouble (by doing or saying sometr Ing
that is unexpected).
To enjoy a cat-nap (cat-sleep)-to enjoy a short sleep (in a chair, ete. not in bed).
To makea eat's paw of someone-to use someone as a tool.
To bell the cat -to take the leading part in any hazardous movement (to do something
that is dangerous) esp. ror the good of others.
To play cat and mouse with-to confuse someone intentionally
Cat burglar-one who enters building by climbing up walls, rainpipes, etc.
Cat call-a shrill cry expressing disapproval.
When the cat is away, the mice will play- When the person with power, control, ete.is absent,
the subordinates can do as they like
To be the cat's whiskers-to be the person or thing most highly approved of.
Not to have a cat in hell's chance - to have no chance at all.
To see which way the cat jumps-to see what other people are doing (or thinking)
before one takes one's own decision.
Not to have enough room to swing a cat-to have only a very small amount of space. {Here cat =
Dog-cheap-extremely cheap.
Dog-eared-(pages of a book)turned down like the ears of a dog.
Dog-days-period of very hot weather.
Dog-hole-wretched dwelling.
In doghouse-in disfavour(in disgrace).
Dog-tired(dog-weary)-completely worn out.
To die like a dog –to die in conditions of great shame,pain,etc.
Dog eat dog-a hard merciless pursuit of one’s intrest(in order to remain in existences or be
A dog in the manger-one who does not let others enjoys something that he does not want or does
not use himself.
Not to hsve a dog’s chance-not to have any chance.
A dog’s dinner-a mess;piece of work done badly or untidely.
A dog life-existence full of worries,unhappiness,etc.
Every dog has (its)day-every person,however unimportant,has a time in his life when he is
You cannot teach an old dog new trick-old people find it difficult to adjust themselves to the
new situations and to live in accordance with new ideas.
To throw something to the dogs-to throw it away as worthless.
To go to the dogs-to be ruined.
To help a lame dog over a stile-to help someone in difficulties.
To keep a dog and bark oneself-to have a person,of lower rank to do a job and then to do it
Top dog-person who has control,power,etc.
Love me,love my dog-if you want me as your friend,you must also accept my friends as yours.
Cow catcher-an apparatus on the front of railway engine to throw off obstacles.
A scared cow-someone or something that is highly respected.
Till the cows come home-for a long time of unforseeable duration.
A bull in a china shop-person who is rough and clumsy where skill and care are needed.
To take the bull by the horns-to meet a difficult bodly.
Bull-calf – male calf.(2) stupid fello.
Bull-headed – impetuous and obstinate.
Bullshit – centre of target (for archers, etc).
To bulldoze somebody into doing something – to force somebody to do something by using
ones strength.
Like a red rag to a bull – something that causes great annoyance or anger.
To bull into – to plunge hastily into.
John Bull – the English nation.(2) typical average Englishman.
A cock-and-bull story – a story that is so stupid that it is unlikely to be belived.
To hold ones horses – to wait a moment (not to act hastily).
Horse of a different colour – altogether different matter.
(straight) from the horses mouth – from a trustworthy source (from a first-hand source).
A willing hourse – willing, obligation worker.
Horse trading –hard bargaining.
A dark horse – one whose chances of success are not yet known.
Horses laugh – loud, coarse laugh.
To be on high horse – to be overbearing (arrogant).
To look a gift horse in the mouth – to examine a gift critically to find faults.
To fiog a dead horse – to waste ones energies
To put the cart before the horse – to do or put things in the Wrong order.
You can take a horse to water but you can t make him drink – you can ask a person do what
you want but you cannot force him to do something he dose not want to do.
To chang horses in midstream – to change one opinion in the
Middle of something (to decide to support the opposite side).
Donkey work – a drudgery .
Donkeys ears – a long time (a pun on ears ).
Can talk the hind legs off adonkey – can talk too much or for a very long time .
To make an ass of oneself – to behave stupidly so that one is Ridiculed .
Hare and hounds – a paper-chase (a game ).
Hare brained – badly thought out .
Hare-lip-fissured upperlip like that of a hare.
Hare-foot - swift of foot.
To run with the hare and hunt with the hounds-to playa double game (to be with both sides at
To raise or start a hare-to introduce an irrelevant topic.
As mad as a March hare-very mad or wild.
God's ape - born fool.
To make someone one's ape-to make a fool of somone.
White elephant-costly or troublesome possession, useless to its owner
To play the giddy goats-to play the fool.
A mare's nest-a hoax (a supposed discoverythatturnsoutto have no reality)
On shank's mare-on foot.
The grey mare is the better horse-the wife rules her husband or is abler.
Calf love (Puppylove) -love felt by a young or inexperienced person, esp. when the feelings are
very strong, but do not last very long.
To worship the golden calf-to worship wealth.
To swallow a camel- to accept asjust, correct, etc. something that is clearly not so
The last straw (that breaks the camel's back)-the final and the most serious of difficulties.
To make a monkey (out) of-to make a fool of.
To get one's monkey up - to be very angry.
Monkey business-mischievous behaviour.
To put some body's monkey up-to make him angry.
The big bad wolf-someone or something that causes fear.
To cry wolf-to raise false alarm.
A wolf in sheep's clothing - a person who appears friendly but is really an enemy.
To keep the wolf from the door-to prevent starvation.
A lone wolf-a person who is very independent (one who lives and works alone).
Lion's share- greater part
To beard the lion in his den-to defy someone in his own stronghold.
To put one's head in the lion's mouth -- to take a great risk.
A lion in the path-a great obstacle in the way.
To twist the lion's tail-to harass Great Britain.
To have bats in the belfry-to have strange ideas. (2) to be slightly mad
A bird. in hand is worth two in the bush - a certainty is not to be thrown away far a poor chance
of something better.
A bird of passage-a person who does not stay in one place for a long time.
Bird's eye view-general view {from above}. (2) a short and often hasty look at a subject.
Birds of a feather-persons of like character (having the same ideas, interests, etc.).
A jail bird·- a hardened offend
An early bird-a person who gets Out of bed early in the morning.
To give someone the bird-to express strong disapproval of a person {esp. an actor, singer or his
Like a bird- Very well, very fast
A rare bird-person or thing not met or seen very often.
To kill two birds with one stone- to fulfil two purposes with one action.
As the crow f1ies- in a straight line.
To get up with the lark-to rise very early in the morning.
To repeat parrot fashion-to repeat certain words' or ideas without really understanding
their meaning.
A bee in one's bonnet-a crazy fancy on some point (obsession).
In a bee-line- following a straight course.
To strain at a gnat-to hesitate over a trifle.
One swallow does not make a summer- it is unwise to form a judgement on the basis of a single
Swan-song-Iast work of a poet, musician, etc
All his geese are swans - he believes things to be better than they really are.
A cock of the walk - a person who has the most influence or power.
To like a fighting cock-to live comfortably.
Chicken feed-something of little value (esp. small amount of money)
To count one's chickens before they are hatched-to believe that victory, success, etc is certain
before it actually happens.
No chicken-no longer young.
Crocodile tear-pretended show of sorrow.
To stir up hornet's nest (about one's ears)·- to cause an outburst of angry feelings.
A pretty kettle of fish - a state of confusion.
To have other fish to fry - to have more important business to attend to.
There is as good fish in the sea as ever came uut of it - even if one chance, etc. has not been
seized, there will be plenty of others.
To fish in troubled waters - to try to will advantages ror oneself from a disturbed state
of affairs.
At a snail’s pace-very slowly.
A snake in the grass - a treacherous person who pretends to be a friend.
To smell a rat - to suspect that something is wrong. (That someone is trying to deceive you)
The rat race-- struggle for success in business, in one's job, etc. esp. in a large town or city.
As poor as a church mouse-very poor, having very little money.


Abscene makes the heart grow fonder-If people are parted for a time, they tend to
appreciate each other more.
Action speak ( louder than words- What one does is more important than what one says.
All is fair in love and war-All tactics are permissible when fighting for someone (i.e. love) or
against someone (i.e. war).
All is well that ends well-If the final result is good, earlier failures are forgotten
All that glitters is not gold - Appearances can be deceptive.
All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy - Without proper leisure, the worker and his work
As you makethe bed, so you must lie in it- Each person must bear the consequences
As the King, so are the subjects-People follow their leader.
An angel when pleased, a devil when indignant- There are certain strange persons who when in
good mood go out of the way to help you but when in bad mood may go to the other extreme and
try to harm your interests.
An apple a day keeps the doctor away - Good and nutritious food keeps you healthy
and happy.
An army marches on its stomach - An army needs arms as well as food.
An empty vessel makes much noise-Shallow water makes much noise. Persons having little
knowledge tend to brag and prattle.
A bad workman quarrels with his tools-One tries to cover up one's lack of skill by
putting the blame on the tools at one's disposal.
Barking dogs seldom bite - People shouting in a loud voice are usually harmless.
Beauty is only skin deep -It is the inner qualities, not the outward appearance, that show the true
nature of a person.
Beggars cannot be choosers- People in need must accept what is given.
Better late than never-It is better to do something, even if it should have been done earlier, than
not to do it at all.
Between two stools we come to the ground -If we try to attain two aims at the same time we are
bound to fall with regard to both of them.
A bird in hand is worth two in the bush -It is better to be content with what we have
than to reject it in the hope of getting something better that one may perhaps not obtain.
Birds of a feather flock together- People of similar character make friends with one
Blood is thicker than water- Relationship between the people of the samefamily is stronger than
other relationships.
A burnt child dreads the fire- Those who have suffered are wary.
The child is father of the man - The character of a fully grown person is the product of
childhood influences.
Coming events cast their shadows before- What is going to happen can be guessed
from preliminary events.
Contentment is happiness-One who is satisfied with what one has is always happy.
Cowards die many a time before their death -If a man is coward, he will be afraid of
every bad experience.
Cross the stream where it is the shallowest- Find the simplest way of doing things.
Cut your coat according to your cloth-We must adjust our expenditure to our income.
A day after the fair (To lock the stable door when the steed is stolen).- To do something, to
take any precautions when it is too late.
Don't count your chickens before they are hatched - Don't be too hopeful of your chances.
Don't cross a bridge, until you corne to it-- Don't worry about things before they happen.
A drowning man catches at a straw-A person in extreme difficulties will try every means of
escape, even though he knows that it is unlikely to be successful.
The early bird catches the worm- Early or prompt action leads to success.
Every cloud has a silver lining- Something good will always come from a difficult or
unpleasant moment of situation.
Every dog has his day- Every person, however unfortunate or unimportant, has a time
in his life when he is successful or victorious.
Every house has its skeleton-In every family there is something of which the family is
ashamed. (No one is above blemish).
Experience is the best teacher - One learns more from experience of doing something
than from any advice or training.
Example is better than precept -It is betterto do something good and set an example
for others than merely give moral instruction.
Familiarity breeds contempt-A long and close relationship, esp. between two people, causes
feelings of scorn and dislike to develop.
Fine feathers make fine birds - People judge others by just their appearance.
First come first served - The man who has arrived and finished his work first, has the best
chance of success.
Forbidden fruit is the sweetest -Forbidden things are the most attractive and exciting.
Fortune favours the brave - People who act courageously deserve and get good luck.
A good appetite needs no sauce - Hunger is the best sauce. (One en joys food when
one is very hungry).
It is never too late to mend -It is never too late to improve or change one’s behaviour, attitude,
etc., in order to lead a better life.
It is no use crying over spilt milk-If one cannot change a bad result, there is no use
making oneself unhappy about it.
It never rains but it pours- Misfortunes tend to follow each other in quick succession.
It takes two to make a quarrel- When a quarrel breaks out, two people and not only one, are at
Look before you leap- Do not act without considering the possible consequences of
the action.
Little things please little minds-People whose mental abilities are not fully developed get
satisfaction from doing childish things.
Make hay while the sun shines- Make use of the favourable opportunities when they
present themselves.
Many a little makes a mickle- Many drops make a shower.
Might is right- Power to enforce one's will, gives one the right to do so.
Money begets money- The rich become richer the poor; the poorer.
Money is the root of all evil- The desire to have riches is the cause of all crimes ane evils.
Money makes the man and mare go- You can get anything if you have money
enough to spend on it.
Necessity is the mother of invention-When one is faced with a difficult problem, one will use
one's imagination and skill in trying to deal with it.
No pains, no gains- No gain without pain. Nothing can be gained without a certain
amount of effort or discomfort.
One good turn deserves another -If a person has received help from someone, it is fair to help
him in return.
One man's meat is another man's poison - Different people Iike different thing.
One man's fault is another man's lesson-Man learns a lot from other men's experiences.
One man's loss is another man's gain - The loss incurred by one person results into gain for
someone else.
One swallow does not make a summer-It is unwise to form a general opinion on the basis of a
single event.
Out of sight, out of mind-Absent friends are soon forgotten.
Penny wise, pound foolish- Careful in small matters, careless in more important matters.
A rolling stone gathers no moss - A person who constantly changes his job, place of living, etc.
will not become successful or make much money.
Rome was not built in a day-An important task requires patience and perseverance.
Set a thief to catch a thief-Somebody experienced in crime or cunning, is the most suitiable
person to catch another person of that type.
Still waters run deep - A person who is quiet and says little has often a lot of knowledge of a
A stitch in time saves nine-One must mend a fault as soon as it is noticed. It will save
Much time, cost and trouble. (Prompt action prevents a lot of trouble later).
Strike while the iron is hot - One must act at the most favourable moment, when one is most
likely to succeed.
Too many cooks spoil the broth- A job, activity, etc. will be spoiIt or damaged if too
many people try to do it at the same time.
Trith will be out - The truth about a situation or event cannot be hidden forever.
Union is strength- United we stand (divided we fall).
When good cheer is lacking, friends are packing -When a person becomes poor, hie friends
desert him. As long as he is well-off they go to hirn for some selfish ends.
A word is enough for the wise-A wise man can understand what is m~ant by a hint alone.
You cannot have a cake and eat it - You can choose on Iy one of the two alternatives.
You cannot make an omelette without 'breaking eggs-One's purpose cannot be attained
without some sort of sacrifice.
You scratch my back, and I will scratch yours- Policy of mutual help is always advantageous.


A complete absence of law or government - Anarchy

Without name of author - Anonymous
A place where bees are kept - Apiary
A tank for fishes or water plants - Aquarium
Cessation from arms before a formal treaty is signed - Armistice
An absolute government by one man – Autocracy.
A person's life written by himself – Autobiography.
A person who does not believe in the existence of God - Atheist
One's own signature or handwriting - Autograph
Working by itself without direct and continuing human operation – Automatic.
Original or native inhabitant of a country - Aborigine
A building with rows of seats one above another, around an open space- Amphitheatre
A separating of a thing into its elements or component parts- Analysis
Anything that counteracts putrefaction- Antiseptic.
A concise statement of a principle in any science- Aphorism
A regretful acknowledgement of a fault- Apology
Offensive weapons of war- Artillery
One who is inordinately desirous of money- Avaricious
To hasten the progress or occurrence- Accelerate
Allowance due to a wife from her husband on separation- Alimony
An associate in a crime- Accomplice
The principles of taste and art- Aesthetics
A system of letters arranged in conventional order- Alphabet
One who engages in sport purely for pleasure (also one who cultivates a study or al1 for the love
of it) - Amateur
The act of speaking impiously about sacred things- Blasphemy
Study or knowledge of books, in regard to their outward form, authors, subjects, editions and
history- Bibliography
Happening or appearing once in two years- Biennial
A blinding storm of wind and snow- Blizzard
A woman of fair complexion and light coloured hair- Blonde
A narrow place in a road where traffic is apt to be congpsted- Bottleneck
To shut out from all social and commercial intercourse- Boycott
A woman with brown or dark hair and complexion- Brunette
The science of vegetable life- Botany
Able to speak two languages- Bilingual
Liable to be easily broken- Brittle
A system of Government by officials, responsible only to their departmental chiefs- Bureaucncy
Tending to believe something on little evidence- Credulous
One who eats the flesh of his own species- Cannibal
A tube for removing urine from the bladder- Catheter
A deep hollow place in rocks- Cavern
A person of of distinction or fame- Celebrity
One associated with another in the same employment- Colleague
A flesh eating animal- Carnivore
An insect with many legs- Centipede
That whch is used in common conversation- Colloquial
Preserving the memory of some person or thing- Commemoration
One who keeps company or frequently associates with another- Companion
Belonging to the same time (living in the same age) - Contemporary
Belonging or related to the body- Corporal
A preparation for the improvement of beauty esp. that of complexion-Cosmetics
Th e letters by which one claims confidence or authority among strangers-Credentials
One skilled in estimating the quality of literary or artistic work- Critic
One who makes or sells knives- Cutler
One who is disinclined to believe in goodness or selflessness- Cynic
A form dgovernment in which the supreme power is vested in the people collectively-
That which can be tamed – Domestic
Want of rain - Drought
To utter slanderous words in order to injure a man's reputation - Defame
One who owes a debt - Debtor
A series of ten years - Decade
First appearance before the public or in society - Debut
Excessive loss of water from the tissues of the body - Dehydration
Weakness of body and mind due to old age - Dotage
A large, sleeping room with many beds - Dormitory
The property which a woman brings to her husband at marriage - Dowry
A dealer in cloth and cloth goods - Draper
A bookfor making daily records - Diary
A place where milk is kept and butter and cheese are made - Dairy
An embankment to restrain water - Dam
One who pays much attention to dress - Dandy
One’s legally recognised place of residence - Domicile
The purpose or end to which any person or thing is appointed - Destiny
The process of growing worse - Deterioration
The person who investigatescases of crime or watches behaviour of suspected persons -
The identification of a disease by means of its symptoms - Diagnosis
Converstion between two or more persons - Dialogue
Removal of impurities froni the blood by a kidney machine - Dialysis
Planned or prescribed selection of food - Diet
Capable of being drawn into wires- Ductile
Any fight or struggle between two persons- Duel
The art practised by statesmen and ambassadors- Diplomacy
A cell under ground- Dungeon
That which will last for a very long time- Durable
A succession of me'mbers of any powerful family or connected group- Dynasty
Reflection of sound or other waves- Echo
A study of plants, or of animals of peoples and institutions in relation to environment-Ecology
The total or partial disappearance of a heavenly body by the interposition of another between it
and the spectator- Eclipse
A song of mourning - Elegy
The art of effective public speaking- Elocution
An unexpected occurrence, requiring immediate action- Emergency
The act of setting free from bondage or disability of any kind- Emancipation
A man who thinks only of himself- Egoist
Fit to be eaten- Edible
One who leaves one's native land to settle in another- Emigrant
(A speech) made without any preparation on the spur of the moment - Extempore
Giving and receiving - Exchange
Words inscribed on a tomb - Epitaph
A book or set of books, giving information about every branch of knowledge or on one subject,
with articles in alphabetical order- Encyclopedia
A disease that attacks great numbers in one place, at one time, and itself travels from place to
place- Epidemic
A concise and pointed or sarcastic saying - Epigram
An imaginary great circle passing round the middle of the globe and equidistant from North and
South Poles- Equator
Science of morals- Ethics
Belonging to a particular racial group- Ethnic
A short tale, not based on fact, especially one with animals in it and intended to give moral
teaching - Fable
Exact copy or reproduction of writing, printing, a picture, ete. - Facsimile
Not easily pleased with anything- Fastidious
One who believes implicitly in fate- Fatanst
The assemblage of animals of a region or period- Fauna
Response or reaction providing useful information or guidelines for further development-
The assemblage of vegetable species of a region or age- Flora
The border of a country- Frontier
A person residing in a country of which he is not a citizen- Foreigner
Disposal of the dead, with any, ceremonies or observances connected with it- Funeral
The luminous band of stars stretching across the heavens- Galaxy
The science relating-to the history and development of the earth's crust, with its successive floras
and faunas- Geology
The science of the surface oflhe-earth and its inhabitants- Geography
Death and decay of a part of the body- Gangrene
The branch of biology dealing with heredity and variation- Genetics
Mass of ice, formed by snow on mountains, moving slowly along a valley- Glacier
A medicine that kills germs- Germicide
A person who mends broken window-glasses- Glazier
A very welcome piece of good fortune- Godsend.
Extermination of a race or community by mass murder- Genocide
A store-house for grain- Granary
Living in groups or societies - Gregarious
Stone shaped like a wheel, turned on an axle, used for sharpening tools- Grindstone
Easily fooled or tricked- Gullible
Room with apparatus for physical training- Gymnasium
Frozen rain-drops falling from the sky- Hail
Art or craft needing skill with the hands- Handicraft
That which carries no salary- Honorary
(Animals) which live on herbs- Herbivorous
Killing of a human being- Homicide
Holiday taken by a newly married couple- Honeymoon
Concealment of true character or belief- Hypocrisy
Idea or suggestion put forward as a starting point for reasoning or explanation- Hypothesis
Incapable of error- Infallible
Incapable of being read- Illegible
(A trade) that is prohibited by law- Illicit
Incapable of paying debts- Insolvent
One who does not know how to read and write- Illiterate
Liable to catch fire easily- Inflammable
One who comes to a foreign land to settle there- Immigrant
The murder of infants- Infanticide
Eager to know- Inquisitive
That cannot be wounded- Invulnerable
A plan or record of a journey- Itinerary
Incapable of being seen- Invisible
Pertaining or suited to youth or young people- Juvenile
A body of persons sworn to declare the truth on evidence before them - Jury
Something given to be kept for the, sake of the giver- Keepsake
A sauce made from tomatoes, mushrooms, etc.- Ketchup
Part of the sum received paid to another by confidential agreement for favours past or future -
Large furnace or oven for burning, baking or drying - Kiln
(A person) given to continual talking - loquacious
A place for experimental work or research - laboratory
Freedom to do as one pleases - Liberty
A public written declaration of the intentions, opinions or motives of a leader, party or body -
A book, etc., as fjrst written out by hand - Manuscript
Long-distance race on foot - Marathon
Doll or puppet moved by strings on a small stage - Marionette
Connected with the sea or navigation, - Maritime
Union of a man and a woman as husband and wife - Marriage
Coming and going with the seasons - Migratory
The first speech delivered by a man - Maiden
A cinema show in the afternoon - Matinee
The intelligence with whkh one is born - Motherwit
Having an evil reputation - Notorious
Orderly account of events - Narratrive
Helping neither side in war or quarrel - Neutral
Reports of what has most recently happened - News
One who is all powerful - Omnipotent
One-who is present everywhere - Omnipresent
One who eats everything - Omnivorious
No longer in use - Obsolete
One who looks only to the bright side of things - Optimist
To shut out from society -Ostracize
Way out for water, stearn, etc. - Outlet
One who says freely what he thinks - Outspoker
That which does not allow the light to pass through it - Opaque
A person who makes or supplies eyeglasses - Optician
The art or practice of spelling words correctly - Orthography
One who looks only to the dark side of things - Pessimist
A person who helps others, esp. those who are poor or in trouble - Philanthropist
Postage-stamp collecting - Philately
Structure of wood, iron, ete. built out into the sea as a landing stage or for walking on for
pleasure- Pier
Sharp in taste and smell- Poignant
One who walks on foot -Pedestrian
A remedy for all diseases- Panacea

Born after the death of its father -Posthumous

Published after the death of its author- Posthumous
Property inherited from one's father or ancestors- Patrimony
Person who loves and is ready to die for his country- Patriot
Person who gives encouragement, moral or financial support to a person, cause, etc. - Patron
The murder of one's own father- Patricide
The science of language- Philology
Custom of having more than one husband at the same time- Polyandry
Custom of having more than one wife at the same time- Polygamy
The forbidding by-law of the manufacturealld sale of alcoholic drinks - prohibition
The treatment of children's diseases - Paediatrics
Liked by everybody - Popular
The sum paid to a man for a piece of work - Remuneration
One who is always doubting - Sceptic
One who walks in sleep - Somnambulist
One who talks in sleep - Somniloquist
One who wishes to sleep - Somnivolent
A talking to oneself - Soliloquy
An unmarried woman - Spinster
Ocurring here and there or now and then – Sporadic
A secret agent employed to watch others or to collect information - Spy
A office with no work but high pay - Sinecure
A person indifferent to pleasure or pain -- Stoic
At one and the same time - Simultaneously
Toral abstainer from all alcoholic drinks - Teetotaller
The power of reading the thoughts of others immediately - Telepathy
( To repeat) word for word - Verbatim
One who eats vegetables - Vegetarian
A man who can disguise the direction from which his voice is coming- Ventriloquist
A woman who has not married again after her husband's death- Widow
A man who has not married again after his wife's death- Widower
The science of animal life- Zoology
Line or path which turns right and left alternately at sharp angles- Zigzag


N.B.: The following list contains synonyms of a few selected words. The antonyms
are given in italics in the brackets.
Abondon--abdicate, abjure, reli.nquish, renounce, resign, surrender, vacate.(cherish, defend, hold,
keep, maintain).
Abate- assuage, decrease, diminish, lessen, reduce. (increase, intensify).
Abbreviate- abridge, condense, curtail, diminish, lessen, reduce, shorten. (amplify, enlarge,
expand, extend, lengthen).
Ability-- aptitude, capability, capacity, efficiency, skill, talent. (Inability, incapability).
Abolish-annul, cancel, destroy, eradicate,.(establish, promote, reinstate)
Absorb- assimilate, consume, engross, imbibe, occupy. (discharge,dispense, emit, expel, exude).
Abstinence- abstention, fasting, moderation, temper.ance. (indulgence).
Absurd-foolish, inconsistent, ridiculous, silly. (sensible, prudent, wise).
Abundant- ample, bountiful, copious, plentiful, profuse, teeming. (poor, scant, scarce).
Academic-bookish, erudite, formal, learned, scholarly, theoretical. (practical, simple).
Accelerate-expedite, hasten, hurry,quicken, rush, speed. (block, hinder, impede, retard, slow).
Accomplish .. achieve, attain, complete, effect, execute, fulfil. (block, defeat, fail, frustrate, spoil,
Accumulate-accrue, amass, gather, heap, hoard, store. (decrease, diminish, scatte,r waste).
Accuse-censure, incriminate, indict. (absolve, acquit, exonerate, release).
Action-activity, deed, feat. movement, performance. (inactivity, inertia, repose, rest).
Adequate- ample, enough, sufficient. (inadequate, insufficient, lacking, scant).
Admire - appreciate, approve, esteem, respect, venerate. (abhor, condemn, despise, dislike).
Adorn-beautify, bedeck, decorate, embellish, gild, ornament. (deface, disfigure, mar, spoil,
Aggregate-amount, collection, entirety, sum, total, whole. (element, ingredient, part, particular).
Agile-active, alert, flexible, nimble, quick, supple. (clumsy, heavy, inert slow, sluggish).
Agony - ache, anguish, distress, pain, suffering, torture. (comfort ease; peace, relief).
Amateur--apprentice, beginner, learner, neophyte, novice. (adept, authority, expert, master,
Ambition-aspiration, longing, goal. (contentment, indolence, resignation).
Amiable-agreeable, friendly, gracious, pleasing. (unfriendly).
Anger--fury, indignation, ire, irritation, rage, resentment, temper, wrath. (patience, peace).
Annoy-bother, disturb, irk, irritate, pester, tease, trouble, vex. (appease, soothe),
Apparent-clear, evident, manifest, obvious, plain. (doubtful, dubious, uncertain}.
Appreciate- admire, esteem, prize, regard, value. (depreciate, disparage).
Ardent-eager, earnest, fervent, intense, keen, vehement" warm, zealous. (apathetic, cool,
Assault-attack, charge, invade, storm, strike. (defend, oppose, protect).
Assist - aid, back, help, promote, support. (hamper, hinder, impede, prevent).
Attain-accomplish, achieve, acquire, gain, get, obtain, procure, reach, secure,win . (lose, miss).
Attract-allure, Charm, enchant, entice, fascinate, lure. (repel, repulse). ,
Audacity- boldness, effrontery, fearlessness, temerity. (fearfulness, humility, meekness,
Average-fair, mean, mediocre, moderate, ordinary. (classic, exceptional, extraordinary,
Avoid-avert, dodge, escape, elude, evade, .shirk, shun, ward. (approach, confront, face).
Awkward-clumsy, inept, ~ough. (adroit, handy, skilful).
Bad-evil, harmful, immoral, sinful, vile, wicked. (good, moral).
Banish-deport, dismiss, eject, exile, expel, oust. (accept, admit, welcome).
Battle-combat, conflict, contest, fight, fray, strife, struggle. (concord, peace, truce).
Beautiful-charming, comely, fair, fine, handsome, lovely, pretty. (foul, hideous, repulsive, ugly).
Begin-commence, initiate, open, originate, start. (end, finish).
Belittle-decry, depreciate, disparage, underrate. (admire, appreciate, esteem).
Bless-celebrate, delight, exhalt, extol, gladden, glorify. (curse, denounce).
Brittle- breakable, crisp, crumbling, delicate, fragile, frail. (enduring, tough, unbreakable).
Build-construct, erect, establish, found, raiSEfirear. (demolish, destroy, raze, undermine).
Calm-composed, pacific, peaceful, placid, quiet, serene, still, tranquil. (disturbed, restless,
Cancel-delete,eliminate, expunge. (ratify).
Casual-accidental, unexpected, unintentional. (expected, intended, planned, systematic).
Cheap- beggarly, common, inferior, mean. (dear, expensive, honourable, superior).
Chief-captain, commander, head, leader, master, principal, ruler. (follower, servant, subordinate).
Clever-adroit, bright, dexterous, ingenious, quick, sharp, talented. (awkward, clumsy,dull, foolish,
stupid). .
Comfort-contentment, enjoyment, relief, solace, succour. (affliction, discomfort, misery,
suffering, torment, torture)..
Complain-grumble, lament, murmer, protest, regret. (applaud, praise).
Conceit-egotism, pride, vanity. (humility, meekness, modesty).
Confirm - corroborate, substantiate. (contradict, disprove).
Confusion-chaos, commotion, disorder, jumble, tumult, turmoil. (order, peace, tranquillity).
Control-command, dominate, govern, manage, regulate, rule. (free).
Cordial-ardent, earnest, gracious, hearty, sincere, warm. (cold, formal, frigid).
Dead-deceased, departed, gone, inanimate, lifeless, spiritless. (alive, animate, living, stirring).
Decorate-adorn, beautify, deck, embellish, ornament, trim. (debase, defame, disfigure, spoil).
Definite-certain, exact, explicit, fixed, precise, specific. (ambiguous, confused, dubious,
Delay-defer, postpone. (expedite, hasten, hurry).
Deny-contradict, gainsay, refute. (accept, affirm, agree, concede, confirm).
Devoted-ardent, dedicated, earnest, falthful, loyal, true, wedded. (detached, disinclined).
Difference-disparity, dissimilarity, variety. (resemblance, similarity, agreement, harmony).
Diligent-active, assiduous, hardworking, industrious. (careless, inactive, lazy, lethargic).
Dirty-filthy, foul, grimy, muddy, soiled. (clean, neat, pure, wholesome).
Dismal-bleak, cheerless; dark, dull, gloomy, sad. (cheerful, gay, lively).
Disperse-diffuse, dispel, scatter. (assemble, collect, gather).
Distant-far, remote, removed. (close, near, nigh).
Eager - anxious, enthusiastic, impassioned, keen, yearning. (apathetic, indifference).
Efficiency-ability, capability, efficacy, potency. (inefficiency).
Elementary-basic, fundamental, primary, rudimentary, simple. (advanced, secondary) .
Eminent-celebrated, distinguished, famous, illustrious, noted, renowned. (commonplace,
Encourage-animate, cheer, embolden, impel, incite, stimulate, urge. (discourage, dispirit).
Error-blunder, fallacy; fault, mistake, slip. (correction).
Exclude- bar, expel, omit, prevent, prohibit, restrain. (include, admit).
Exffe- banishment, deportation, expatriation. (repatriation).
Faith-confidence, credence, reliance, belief, trust. (distrust).
Fat-corpulent, obese, plump, portly, rotund, stocky, stout. (lean, thin).
Fickle-capricious, changeable, restless, unstable, variable. (steadfast).
Fidelity-allegiance, devotion, faithfulness, loyalty. (disloyalty, infidelity).
Final-concluding, conclusive,. decisive, ending, last, terminal, ultimate. (initial, primary).
Forbid-ban, disallow, hinder, prohibit, proscribe, veto. (allow, permit).
Foreign- alien, distant, external, remote, strange. (homely, nativ.e).
Forlorn- abandoned, destitute, 'forsaken, friendless, helpless, miserable. (cheerfu/).
Fortunate- auspicious, favourable, happy, lucky. (unfortunate).
Foundation-base, basis, endowment, establishment, footing, groundwork.(·super-structure).
Frail-brittle, delicate, feeble, infirm, weak. (strong).
Frugal-economical, miserly, stingy, thrifty. (spendthrift, wasteful).
Gain-achieve, acquire, attain, get, obtain, realise, secure, win. (forfeit, lose..
Generous-benevolent, bountiful, charitable, hospitable, liberal. (close-fisted, miserly,
uncharitable) .
Genuine-authentic, pure, real, sincere, true, unadulterated. (counterfeit, spcrious).
Gifted-capable, clever, ingenious, intelligent, inventive, talented. (incapable, incompetent).
Goal-aim, ambition, end, object, purpose. (start).
Greedy- avaricious, covetous, gluttonous, voracious. (self-restrained, unselfish).
Grief-agony, anguish, distress, misery, regret, sadness, sorrow, suffering, trouble, woe. (cheer,
happiness, joy).
Guilty-criminal, culpable, sinful, wicked. (guiltless, innocent).
Hail-accost, address, greet, salute, welcome. (avoid).
Handsome- becoming, comely, generous, good-looking, graceful, magnanimous, plentiful.
(repulsive, ugly).
Harmony·-accord, agreement, concord, friendship, peace, unity. (disagreement, discord),
Health-- robustness, soundness, strength, vigour. (sickness, weakness).
Help-abet, aid, assist, back, promote, support. (hinder, obstruct).
Humane- benevolent, benign, charitable, gentle, kind, merciful, sympathetic, cruel,
inhuman ,merciless}.
Humiliate-abase, debase, degrade, disgrace, humble, mortify. (exalt).
Illegal-forbidden, illicit, unlawful, unlicensed. (legal).
Illustrious-brilliant, celebrated, distinguished, eminent, exalted, famous, noted, renowned, signal.
(average, ordinary, undistinguished) .
Imbibe-absorb, acquire, drink, gain, receive, suck, swallow. (eject).
Immortal-deathless, endless, eternal, everlasting, lasting, undying. (moreal, perishable).
Implement-effect, execute, fulfil. (ignore, neglect),
Imposter- cheat, deceiver, hypocrite, pretender, rogue, trickster. (gentleman).
Improvise- fabricate, imagine, invent. (prepare, rehearse),
Indict-accuse, charge, prosecute, summon. (acquit, defend);
Indespensable-essential, necessary, needed, needful, requisite. (unneccessary, useless).
Inferior- bad, lower, mean, poorer, secondary. (superior).
Instinct- Impulse, intuition, tendency. (reason).
Instructor- coach, master, pedagogue, teacher, tutor. (pupil).
Insult- abuse, injure, offend, slander. (respect). ,
Intricate-complex, complicated, difficult, obscure. (plain, simple),
Intrinsic- essential, genuine, inborn, inbred, inherent, natural. (artificial, acquired, extrinsic).
Invincible- impregnable, indomitable, unconquerahle, unyielding. (conquerable).
Irritate-anger, annoy, enrage, fret, incense, infuriate, provoke, vex. (delight, soothe).
Joy-bliss, delight, ecstasy, felicity, festivity, glee, pleasure. (grief, sorrow).
Justice-equity, fairness, honesty, justness. (injustice, partiality).
Juvenile- boyish, childish, girlish,immature, puerile, young. (adult, mature).
Kidnap-abduct, remove, seize, steal. (restore).
Kindness-affection, amiability, benevolence, charity, compassion, gentleness, humanity,
kindliness, tenderness. (cruelty, harshness, malevolence).
Knotty-complicated, difficult, intricate, puzzling. (plain, simple).
Knowledge- comprehension, education, enlightenment, instruction, learning, scholarship,
understanding, wisdom. (ignorance).
Laud-approve, celebrate, glorify, magnify, praise. (disparage, insult).
Lazy- idle, inactive, indolent, slack, slow, sluggish, supine, torpid. (active, industrious, diligent).
Learned-erudite, lettered, scholarlt, versed.(ignorant)
legend-fable,fiction, myth, narrative. (fact, history).
leisure-ease, freedom, quiet, recreation, vacation. (activity, occupation, work).
lose-deprive, drop, fill, miss, waste. (find, gain).
loyal-attached, devoted, faithful, true. (disloyai, faithless, untrue).
lucky- blessed, favoured, fortunate. (unlucky).
Majestic- august, dignified, exalted, grand, imposing, lofty, magnificent, royal, stately, sublime.
Malady- ailment, complaint, disease, illness, indisposition, sickness. (health).
Malice-animosity, animus, enmity, hatred, iII-will spite, vindictiveness. (goodwill).
Meek-calm, docile, gentle, humble, mild, patient, submissive, yielding. (arrogant, immodest,
Migratory- nomadic, roving, wandering. (settled, stationary).
Modern-fresh, latest, new, novel, recent. (ancient, obsolete, old).
Monotony- boredom, dullness, uniformity. (liveliness, variety).
Mourn-bemoan, deplore, grieve, lament, sorrow. (rejoice).
Mute-dumb, silent, speechless. (eloquent, vocal),
Nuisance-annoyance, bore, bother, offence, pest, trouble. (delight).
Nutritious- invigorating, nourishing, strengthening, wholesome. (unwhole.50me).
Obedient - compl iant, dutifu I, respectfu I, submissive, yielding. (defiant, disobedient).
Obstinate-dogged, firm, headstrong, stubborn, unyielding. (docile, polite, submissive)
Ominous- inauspicious, unpropitious. (auspicious, welcome),
Opponent-adversary, antagonist, enemy, foe, rival. (ally, friend).
Option - choice, election, preference, selection. (compulsion) .
Outlet-exit, opening, vent. (entry, inlet).
Overt-apparent, deliberate, manifest, open, plain, public. (concealed, covert, secret).
Pamper-cuddle, fondle, indulge, spoil. (ignore, neglect).
Panic - alarm, consternation, fear, fright, terror. (calmness).
Pathetic- moving, pitiable, sad, touching. {joyful, laughable}.
Paucity-deficiency, lack, rarity, shortage. (abundance, plenty, sufficiency).
Perennial- ceaseless, constant, eternal, permanent, perpetual, unceasing, undying .(temporary).
Perilous-dangerous, hazardous, risky, unsafe. (safe, secure) .
Pessimistic-dejected, depressed, downhearted, gloomy, melancholy, sad. (optimistic).
Pity-compassion, condolence, kindness, mercy, sympathy. (cruelty).
Pollution- corruption, defilement, impurity. (purification).
Postpone-adjourn, defer, delay, prorogue. (expedite, hasten).
Preface- foreword, introduction, preamble, prelude, prologue. (appendix, epilogue).
Pretty-attractive, beautiful, comely, fair, fine, handsome. (ugly),
Progeny-breed, children, descendants, lineage, posterity. (ancestors, forefathers) .
Prolong-continue, defer, extend, lengthen. (curtail, shorten).
Prosper-flourish, thrive. (decline).
Punctual- exact, precise, prompt. (late).
English Learning made easy 96

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