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Reading Section

All answer counts.

Three types of passages: exposition, narrative, or argument.


1. be familiar with the instructions and skip them immediately
2. standard outline for paragraphs

Paragraph 1. = introduction

1. hook
2. background
3. thesis statement

Paragraph 2.=

1. topic sentence
2. detail (examples, description, explanation, etc)

Paragraph 3.=

1. topic sentence
2. detail (examples, description, explanation, etc)

Paragraph 4= Body paragraph

1. Topic sentence
2. Detail (examples, description, explanation, etc)

Paragraph 5=conclusion

1. restatement/paraphrase of the thesis (optional)

2. final comment, prediction, recommendation, etc.

3.read actively: means I must think while i read due to the level of
description and explanation. / active reading is not skimming / identify
the writer’s main idea, purpose, and supporting points. think about his
questions, why the author has written the passage, how the author
supports it.

4. be prepared to infer meaning

5. Pay attention to modifying phrases and clauses (Many of the
clauses of the paragraph makes changes to the meaning of the
sentence, therefore, be careful of what you read) (for example:)
(pay attention to these modifying or qualifying expressions)
6. Pay attention to sequence, especially mixed sequence: A writer
often, but not always, explains or describes the topic in
chronological order, but pay attention to mixed sequence
7. Take basic notes for the first reading. in other words, you aim
should be to understand as much as posible about the passage
from the first reading. although you should take notes like this:
(If is 4 passages we should be warn because you don’t know what is the
score passage)


Start once the windows opened. "be careful about passage scroll”
Review button: with questions you’ve answered and you haven’t
Glossary: (blue highlighted words) only if you know a low knowledge of
the word.
Soft information about the passage is not enough.
Read for comprenhension: structure, arguments, support,
If doesn’t have a lot of descriptions , that’s is a good indicator about a
inference question. Inferred meaning without information in the
f.i. I always wear shoes indoors, and ofter use black shoes during the
Marks swims
Marks swims very well *qualifier
Only when he has a good breakfast he can swims well *clause.

Order of events.

Briefly outline notes / 4-5 words per paragraph, much than this is just
a waste of time.
Reading strategies: questions types.
(pag 26-30)
Remember to practice the general reading strategies when you read the
short passage.

Question # 1 Type 1. Fact/detail questions

Detail q. Ask about facts relates to one of the interrogative pronouns:
what, who, whom, whose, etc. even though the questions might not
always use these pronouns.
Strategy 1. Read every question carefully.
Strategy 2. Scan the passage for the key idea(s): look for a word,
phrase or clause that could be a possible paraphrase of the key ideas.
Strategy 3. Read the relevant information closely and carefully. Once
you’ve found the key idea, read the sentence and surrounding
sentences slowly. Don't skim them.
Strategy 4. Look for accurate paraphrasing in the correct answers.
Strategy 5. choose an answer based on statedbibformation, not
inference it assumptions.

Questions forms. Include interrogative pronouns such as who, whom,

what, but they may not. you can recognize them based on the
following forms or some variations:
According to the passage. X was...
According to paragraph 1, X did Y because...
According to paragraph 2, why did x do y?
Wich of the following statements about... is supported by paragraph
What does author say about...?
The author's description of x mentions which of the following?

Distracters. Incorrect answers that look correct, but they are actually

Distracters follow a certain pattern. first distracters in detail questions

usually repeat vocabulary exactly as it appears in the passage.
Repetition is a strong clue that a choice could be wrong, so, dont be
distratec by repetition, its a clue but not a clue of a distracter.

Distracter 3: answer choice rearranges stated ideas incorrectly. a

distracter can take ideas written in the passage and change their
relationship to each other. this distracter can reverse a cause and
effect relationship, reorder the sequence, interchange details, among
any other posibilities. the distracter reverses the correct cause and
effect relationship.

OVERVIEW (Fact/Detail Questions)

Strategy 4. check it out, the best to make sure, is to take the

paraphrase and does is say the same? if you say yes, it is the right

Strategy 5. exactly what is saying in the passage, not assumptions, put

the finger on the screen, if you go to an answer and if its could be true,
or anything like that, it could be a trap. we need to find the detail or
the fact that fits with the question.

Distracter 1. dont use your life experiences to give and answer, use the
passage main idea to answer,

Be careful when the multiple answer choices are related to re-arrange

sentences between the paragraphs, because is a trap!
Question Type 2: Not/Except
Questions (32-38)
Ask about factual/(objective, veridical, Antonyms: fictitious)
information from the passage; is the inverse or opposite of detail

Strategy 1. Its important to emphasize the peculiar nature of

not/except questions. the correct answer is actually not mentioned in
the passage. its not true in relation to the passage or inaccurately

Strategy 2. You must look for ideas not the exact words, since the
passage will contain restatements.

Strategy 3. Identify a key idea or set of ideas in each answer choice if

the quest. has none.

Strategy 4. Scan the passage for the key ideas.

Strategy 5. Read the relevant senteces closely. read the passage closely.
not quickly.

Strategy 6. Choose the answer with missing, altered, or contracdictory

ideas. the best choice for not/except questions is the one that does not
support or reflect the information in the passage.

Question Forms:

Which of the following is NOT mentioned?

According to paragraph 1, which of the following is NOT true of X?
All of the following are mentioned in Paragraph 1…EXCEPT…
The author makes all of the following statements about…EXCEPT…
In paragraph 2, the author mentions all of the following EXCEPT...


Distracter # 1: Answer choice accurately paraphrases the passage, using

correct but unmentioned vocabulary.

Distracter # 2: Answer choice accurately paraphrases two or more

separate ideas together.

Question Type 3. Vocabulary
Questions (pages 38-52)
OVERVIEW (Vocabulary Questions)
Specific word on the passage.

The passage is not necessary design to give you clue for your choice,
referents: pronoun, he or she, his, him, it, it doesn’t have not technical

Strategy 1. Try to relate that word with the rest of the sentence. how
the adverb/adjetive is being applied

Strategy 2. Whats the function that word is playing in the rest of the
sentence, using the tone can also figures out how is the general

Strategy 3. Do other sentences affect this word?

Strategy 4. Look for example or definitions, clause or separation,

keyword that is highlighted on the other side. i really enjoy swimming
in the water, for example using the butterfly stroke. (actions

Strategy 5. We might have a word that’s is opposite, this is a keyword,

different, opposite, but the second,

Strategy 6. Prefixes, suffix and roots helps to know the meaning of the
words, however, be suspicious about answer choice that has similar
roots, prefixes or suffix, because maybe is a trap.

Prefixes, before, perform, outperform, underperform.

Memorize the lists of common prefixes, list the common prefixes.

Suffixes, end of the root word, memorize the common suffixes.

Roots. memorize the base roots.

Strategy. 7. Quickly eliminate the wrong answer. Opposites

Strategy. 8. Read the sentence again by putting it in the original

sentence. Did it sounds right?

Strategy. 9. Referent vocabulary question. Memorize the list of personal


Strategy 10. Read the sentence before and the sentence after. Pay
attention to the pronoun’s number, gender and so on.

Strategy 12. Looking for cohesion between the sentence. f.e. phrasing,
transitions, and idiom pairs. however. Either or, either and and either
not, *no

Strategy 13. Use sentence structure to eliminate some choices.

Question Form

The word X in the passage is closest in meaning to…

In stating X, the author means that…

D.1. Deals with a synonym or related word, but its not the correct

D.2. Fits with the passage but not with the main idea of the passage or
the border context.

We have to go a little beyond, the inference answer must be true, too

close about what you read in the passage.

Strategy 1. Think about possible inferences as you read actively, most

inferences requiere overlapping information. if…then… *this has a lot of
inferences that you can make.

Strategy 2. Identify a key idea or ideas in the question.

Use the idea to research details, instead the noun, use the idea.

Strategy 3. Identify a common idea or theme in the answer choices if

the question has no clues.
Jumping into the answer choices could give us an idea of what source
is the key idea.

Strategy 4. Scan the passage for relevant information. use the outline
to save time. Identify the paragraphs that is important.

Strategy 5. Read the relevant sentences carefully; don’t skim. Active

reading. combine ideas together, because most of the inference choices
is a mix.

Strategy 6. Use. Cohesive devices to connect ideas.

Pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, transitions.

Strategy 7. Check each answer choice angainst the passage, and choose
the most logical answer.

Only one answer "must be true” not the one that might be true.

Questions forms…

The author implies that…. *must be true

implies, infers, suggest, is always *must be true
not just, could be true.


Distracter 1. Answer choice repeats vocabulary., but alters it the final

Distracter 2. Changing the scope or certainty of the idea in the passage.
Distracter 3. Answer choice us a plausible inference in another context.
*but wasn’t ever said.

Explicación Elvin.
Neither = Tampoco,

Either = Cualquiera, Either large or small,

Lets go to la sevillana or to punto rojo.

We can go either la sevillana or punto rojo.

He could have gone, el pudo haber ido

QUESTION TYPE 4. Inference Questions (55-62)

Questions Type 5. Rhetorical
function questions (pag 62-69)
Refers to the way that a writer supports the key points (main idea) in a
passage. (description, examples, definition, explanation). In order to
answer this type of question, you must recognize what kind of detail is
used in the passage and how the detail is used.
Rhetorical function refers and responds to how does the author support
an idea?


Strategy 1: Be familiar with types of detail and rhetorical function.

R.F.Q. ASK ABOUT DETAIL, SO BE AWARE of the various type of details,
and how that detail can be used.
Strategy 2. Identify a key idea in the question. As always, your outline.
identify key ideas, not words, since the ideas could be paraphrased
from the passage rather tan copied or quoted.

Strategy 3. Scan the passage for the key ideas. Use the key ideas to
locate relevant information in the passage.

Strategy 4. Read the surrounding sentences carefully, and analyze the

rhetorical function. Don’t skim the passage since you need to think
about how the detail supports the points in the passage.

Strategy 5. Be prepared to infer rhetorical function based on sequence

and meaning. Don’t always rely on cohesive devices, you should use the
logical sequence in most paragraphs, general to specific; problem to
solutions cause to effect.

Questions forms.


Distracter 1: Answer choice refers to a rhetorical function from another

part of the passage. Typical.

Distracter 2: Answer choice is the correct rhetorical function but refers

to unmentioned or unrelated ideas. This type of distracter includes the
correct rhetorical function but the object of the infinitive is not in the
passage or it’s from another part of the passage.

Distracter 3: Answer choice distorts, or alters, information from the

passage. Always read entire sentences carefully and make sure you
understand the meaning of the whole sentence, not just one or two
Distracter 4: Answer choice refers to a plausible *verosimil but
unmentioned idea. Some answers might seem possible, but they are
based on assumptions or inferences that are unsupported by the

Strategy 1: How they use the Rhetorical function.

Strategy 2: focus on the key idea, instead of one or two words, use the
outline you made in the first read. Be aware, because besides they give
you a paragraph, you’ll need the outline of the passage.

Strategy 3: Scan the passage for the key ideas, passage mapping,
outline is a good map of the argument but passage mapping is like a
sub-sequence more accurate that represent the author’s argument.

Strategy 4: when you know where to read (THE AREA) then read the
surrounding sentences carefully, and analyze the rhetorical function.
(transitional phrasing)

Strategy 5: Contextual clues, problem vs solution, facts, organization

follows a logical.


Follows this major types.

Distracter 1: Answer choice refers to a rhetorical function from another

part of the passage.

Coherence Questions (page 71-76)

Ask you to insert a new sentence into the passage.

*catch on=imponerse
*tongue=lengua,modern tongues, lengua moderna.
*hook=anzuelo, a hook for fishing.
*overall=general,global, the overall impression, he was the overall
winner, ganador absoluto.
adverb, she was third overall, quedo tercera en la clasificación
*likewise: así mismo
*furthering: fomentando
*meant: destinado, depending on context.


Strategy 1: Be familiar with basic paragraph organization and function.

Introduction—> hook, background, and thesis statement.

Body paragraph—> topic sentence, and the topic sentence is following

by detail (examples, description, explanation, etc) that supports the
topic of that paragraph.

Conclusion—> summarizes the main idea with some general comment,

recommendation, or prediction.

Strategy 2: Think about the overall sequence of ideas in the


Since the basic progression of ideas in a paragraph is from general to

specific, you must insert the new sentence in a location where it can
best fit this flow of ideas. In general, each choice comes between two
sentences, and you need to ensure that the new sentence can follow
the sentence before and procede the sentence after.
Strategy 3: Examine the vocabulary in the new sentence.
When you have yo insert the new sentence, you have to know general
or specific is the new one based on the vocabulary used.

Strategy 4: Compare the cohesive devices in the new sentence to be

inserted and in the paragraph.
Cohesive devices are words, phrases, or expressions that a writer uses
to connect ideas within a sentence, between sentences, or between
paragraphs. The correct location for the new sentence depends on the
connections between the cohesive devices in the new sentence and
those in the sentences before and after the chosen location.

Strategy 5: Identify sentences in the paragraph that cannot be

separated in order to eliminate answer choices.

Strategy 6: Check the rhetorical function of the new sentence and

those in the paragraph.

Rhetorical function, refers to the use of ideas for a particular purpose.

An idea is introduced or described generally first and then it is followed

by example
A topic is identified/name before any other detail (times, location,
function, origin, etc) is mentioned.
A problem is normally discussed before any solutions;
Instructions or the steps in a process are organized chronologically.

Strategy 7: Insert the sencente into the paragraph and check for logic
and clarity.

Question form


Distracter 1: Answer choice follows or precedes some repeated

vocabulary only.

If you just rely on a particular word or key word that is repeated, you
might be answering incorrect.

Distracter 2: Answer choice is next to the right sentence but on the

wrong side.

Overview (Coherence Questions)

Strategy 1: Be aware of the overall paragraph organization.

Strategy 2: Pay attention to the order of the organization of the ideas

in that paragraph.

Remember, general to specific and connect g to s how does the new

sentence go in?
Strategy 3: Look the sentence vocabulary, general or specific? if is
specific references in the vocabulary, using this vocabulary words will
lead us to the best fit.

Strategy 4: Take into account cohesive devices. Clues. ‘

For example, therefore, generally is before a conclusion.

Strategy 5: Identify where the sentence could possible fit in. For
example, problem —> solution.

Strategy 6: Is a definition? an explanation? then define Purpose and use

of the new sentence.

Strategy 7: Insert the sentence into the paragraph and check for logic
and clarity. Read in your mind.

Question type 7: Paraphrasing

Questions (77-85)
Paraphrasing Questions (OVERVIEW)
Strategy 1: Rephrasing.

Voice: type of verbs, are they passive or active verbs.

Word form: can change, from a noun to a verb form, difficult to

Strategy 2: Put out the most important phrases.

the coffee example, words that matter.

Ignore sentence fluff, only focus in the essential words.

Strategy 3: Identify, who the actors are, who is receiving this actions
(actors), timing, sequences, connections between, actions and effects,
the details should be very link details.

Strategy 4: Avoid obsessive rereading of the passage sentence, use

essential keywords, one or two verb words.

Strategy 5: Restatement of content, overall meaning.

Strategy 6: Verify your answer choice with original in the passage.


D1.No paraphrase quite well.

D2. Choice adds unmentioned ideas.
D3. Choice omits key information.

Drag’n drop table completion questions

Drag’n drop table summary questions (94-99)
Improve you score strategies.