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Journal of the Mathematics Council of the Alberta Teachers’ Association

Volume 51, Number 1 December 2013


Guidelines for Manuscripts
delta-K is a professional journal for mathematics teachers in Alberta. It is published twice a year to
• promote the professional development of mathematics educators, and
• stimulate thinking, explore new ideas and offer various viewpoints.
Submissions are requested that have a classroom as well as a scholarly focus. They may include
• personal explorations of significant classroom experiences;
• descriptions of innovative classroom and school practices;
• reviews or evaluations of instructional and curricular methods, programs or materials;
• discussions of trends, issues or policies;
• a specific focus on technology in the classroom; or
• a focus on the curriculum, professional and assessment standards of the NCTM.

Suggestions for Writers


1. delta-K is a refereed journal. Manuscripts submitted to delta-K should be original material. Articles currently
under consideration by other journals will not be reviewed.
2. If a manuscript is accepted for publication, its author(s) will agree to transfer copyright to the Mathematics
Council of the Alberta Teachers’ Association for the republication, representation and distribution of the
original and derivative material.
3. All manuscripts should be typewritten and properly referenced. All pages should be numbered.
4. The author’s name and full address should be provided on a separate page. If an article has more than one
author, the contact author must be clearly identified. Authors should avoid all other references that may
reveal their identities to the reviewers.
5. All manuscripts should be submitted electronically, using Microsoft Word format.
6. Pictures or illustrations should be clearly labelled and placed where you want them to appear in the article.
A caption and photo credit should accompany each photograph.
7. References should be formatted consistently using The Chicago Manual of Style’s author-date system or
the American Psychological Association (APA) style manual.
8. If any student sample work is included, please provide a release letter from the student’s parent/guardian
allowing publication in the journal.
9. Articles are normally 8–10 pages in length.
10. Letters to the editor or reviews of curriculum materials are welcome.
11. Send manuscripts and inquiries to the editor: Gladys Sterenberg, 195 Sheep River Cove, Okotoks, AB,
T1S 2L4; e-mail gsterenberg@mtroyal.ca.

MCATA Mission Statement


Providing leadership to encourage the continuing enhancement
of teaching, learning and understanding mathematics.
Volume 51, Number 1 December 2013

CONTENTS
FROM YOUR COUNCIL
From the Editor’s Desk 2 Gladys Sterenberg
Meet Your MCATA Executive 3
READER’S RESPONSE
Teacher Observation to Evaluate Mathematics Achievement 4 Marlow Ediger
PROBLEM AND SOLUTION
A Northern Lights Circle Problem 7 Gregory V Akulov
STUDENT CORNER
A Solution to “A Northern Lights Circle Problem” 8 Dennis Situ
FEATURE ARTICLES
Numeracy 10 Peter Liljedahl and Minnie Liu
The Pros and Cons of Contests 13 Karl Dilcher
Problem Solving 15 Srinivasa Swaminathan
Understanding Studying and Studying Understanding 16 Jennifer Hyndman
TEACHING IDEAS
I’ve Got Problems: Chapter 1 of Sally Strange: And How She
Learned to Stop Worrying and Love Grade 7 Math 18 Nico Rowinsky
The Exploration of Patterns 21 Chelsey Bonnett
Alberta High School Mathematics Competition 2012/13 25
Edmonton Junior High Math Contest 2013 30
Calgary Junior High School Mathematics Contest 2013 35
BOOK REVIEW
Exploring the Math and Art Connection: Teaching and Learning
Between the Lines, by Daniel Jarvis and Irene Naested 39 Roberta La Haye

Copyright © 2013 by The Alberta Teachers’ Association (ATA), 11010 142 Street NW, Edmonton, AB T5N 2R1. Permission to use or
to reproduce any part of this publication for classroom purposes, except for articles published with permission of the author and noted as
“not for reproduction,” is hereby granted. delta-K is published by the ATA for the Mathematics Council (MCATA). EDITOR: Gladys ­Sterenberg,
195 Sheep River Cove, Okotoks, AB T1S 2L4; e-mail gsterenberg@mtroyal.ca. EDITORIAL AND ­PRODUCTION SERVICES:
Document Production staff, ATA. Opinions expressed herein are not necessarily those of MCATA or of the ATA. Address correspondence
regarding this publication to the editor. delta-K is indexed in CBCA Education. ISSN 0319-8367
Individual copies of this journal can be ordered at the following prices: 1 to 4 copies, $7.50 each; 5 to 10 c­ opies, $5.00 each; more than
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Personal information regarding any person named in this document is for the sole purpose of professional consultation between mem-
of TheVolume
delta-K,
bers 51, Number
Alberta Teachers’ 1, December 2013
Association. 1
From Your Council___________________________________

From the Editor’s Desk


Gladys Sterenberg

As I write this, I am preparing to begin the new school year. At Mount Royal University, our BEd program
is rolling out its third year, which involves practicum experiences in Calgary and area schools. Today, I heard
news of schools that remain closed because of flood damage incurred in June. These are challenging times for
many school boards, parents, teachers and children, who are experiencing a high level of uncertainty while
trying to restore routine in uprooted contexts. By the time you read this, our community will have coped with
this upheaval in school access, but right now it seems overwhelming.
The situation in Alberta this summer has reminded me of how important the mathematical processes are for
our communities. In particular, I have witnessed neighbours and friends responding in compassionate ways to
those who have been severely impacted by the floods. Problem solving and making connections have been at
the forefront of these responses.
The US National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) states,
Instructional programs from prekindergarten through grade 12 should enable all students to—
•  Build new mathematical knowledge through problem solving
•  Solve problems that arise in mathematics and in other contexts
•  Apply and adapt a variety of appropriate strategies to solve problems
•  Monitor and reflect on the process of mathematical problem solving . . .
•  Recognize and use connections among mathematical ideas
•  Understand how mathematical ideas interconnect and build on one another to produce a coherent whole
•  Recognize and apply mathematics in contexts outside of mathematics.1
This issue of delta-K provides a glimpse into how this might look in a classroom. As professionals, we are
constantly engaged in problem-solving processes when we reason about what students know mathematically.
Marlow Ediger reminds us of the importance of observation in this process, and Chelsey Bonnett and Jennifer
Hyndman share their experiences of observing students in their own classrooms. Srinivasa Swaminathan pres-
ents research around problem solving, and a problem to be used in the classroom is provided by Gregory Akulov,
along with a student response from Dennis Situ. Other problems are presented in the math contests, and Karl
Dilcher prompts us to consider how we might use these in our classrooms. Connections between literature, art
and math are presented by Nico Rowinsky and Roberta La Haye. Included also is a content piece, by Peter
Liljedahl and Minnie Liu, on how numeracy is connected to various contexts in the mathematics curriculum.
Editing this issue of delta-K has been an experience of connections across the teaching profession. Mathemat-
ics Council (MCATA) members have forwarded articles they have read in various publications, editors of other
math education journals have sent articles they think should be reprinted, education course instructors have
encouraged their students to submit copies of stellar assignments to be crafted into articles, and various people
involved in math contests across our province have sent problems and solutions from past contests.
I hope that the spirit of making connections with other math teachers continues and that you find inspiration
for making connections and problem solving in your own classroom. Enjoy.

Note
1. See www.nctm.org/standards/content.aspx?id=322.

2 delta-K, Volume 51, Number 1, December 2013


Meet Your MCATA Executive

Back row (l–r): Gladys Sterenberg, Rod Lowry, Donna Chanasyk, Daryl Chichak, Mark Mercer,
Carmen Wasylynuik, Carol Henderson, Lisa Everitt
Front row (l–r): Kris Reid, Tancy Lazar, Robert Wong, Marj Farris, Debbie Duvall, Indy Lagu,
John Scammell
Missing: Karen Bouwman, David Martin, Alicia Burdess, Olive Chapman

delta-K, Volume 51, Number 1, December 2013 3


Reader’s Response__________________________________

Teacher Observation to Evaluate


Mathematics Achievement
Marlow Ediger

There are a plethora of assessment techniques that • Does the student’s learning style favour individual
can be used in evaluating student achievement in or cooperative endeavours?
mathematics. Each method has its pros and cons; • Does the student reflect on past mathematical
however, some methods do a more comprehensive experiences?
job than others. Assignments in mathematics should make provi-
Too frequently, mandated tests are the focus in the sions for individual differences. Students have differ-
educational literature on evaluation. Mandated tests ent ability and interest levels, and they need to make
are given once a year and then in selected grade levels. sequential progress. The teacher may notice that a
Also, feedback from these tests does not provide sequence is not working when students fail to make
information on specific errors made by learners (to continuous progress. Assignments should be clear
be used for remedial purposes). The most frequently and relevant, and adequate prerequisite information
used assessment procedure should be teacher observa- must precede each new process being emphasized.
tion. Teacher observation can be used continuously There is a zone of proximal development (Vygotsky
in the classroom, and the teacher can immediately 1986) for each student; thus, a student may have a
diagnose and remedy difficulties faced by students. current achievement level in adding negative num-
How might teacher observation of students help in bers, for example, and the ensuing learnings require
mathematics teaching and learning? multiplication of negative numbers. With small steps
and meaningful experiences, the teacher can help the
Assessing Mathematical learner bridge the gap.
Vygotsky (1986) stresses the importance of stu-
Progress dents mediating experiences through language, such
Teachers of mathematics must have a good knowl- as discussions in large or small groups. This might,
edge of the subject matter, as well as of teaching too, involve peer-mediated discussion groups. Teacher
methodology, to do quality work in observing learner observation of student participation in discussions
progress. These matters need to be uppermost in the should include the following considerations (Ediger
teacher’s mind when observing. The teacher should and Rao 2001):
consider the following questions about student • Meaningful mathematical learnings are being
behaviour: developed.
• Is the student on task and engaged in learning? • All are participating, but no one is dominating the
• Does the learner show interest in mathematics activity.
(rather than being bored)? • Ideas are circulating among the participants.
• What specifically does the student not understand • Enthusiasm for learning is in evidence.
in an ongoing activity? • Ideas are being expressed with clarity.
• How might this student best understand how to • In-depth discussions are being stressed.
remedy the deficiency? • Optimal achievement is a focal point for each
• What do individual learners need as background student.
information in order to attach meaning to the ensu- What might a mathematics teacher observe specifi-
ing learning experience? cally about “meaningful mathematical learnings”?

4 delta-K, Volume 51, Number 1, December 2013


What is accomplished must make sense to the student. • Student self-evaluation of his or her progress, using
Thus, if a student is unable to come up with the criteria agreed upon by the student and the
correct answer to a set of three two-place numerals teacher
with carrying, what might be some possibilities for The portfolios should be viewed and discussed in
error? The teacher needs to evaluate if the learner parent–teacher conferences. Coming up with agreed-
understands the concept of addition. The student may upon ways of helping a student achieve should be a
even need to use markers to show the sum of two goal of the conference. The home and the school need
addends. A place value chart with ones and tens col- to work together for the good of the learner. Indepen-
umns might well help the learner to attach meaning dent evaluators may also assess portfolio contents for
to adding two- and then three-digit numerals. If the purposes of noting student progress and ensuring
meaning is lacking for the student, then it is very teacher accountability.
difficult to proceed to more complex learnings, such In assessing the portfolio, the following questions
as regrouping from the ones to the tens column. Un- should be considered:
derstanding place value is very important here. Prob-
lems might even arise in terms of writing numerals • How might the teacher guide the learner in attain-
legibly for ease of comprehension. Once student ing as optimally as possible?
understanding is in evidence, the use of technology • Which objectives need to be stressed specifically?
(such as handheld calculators/computers) can truly • What kinds of learning opportunities will help the
make subject-matter learnings interesting and chal- student achieve these objectives?
lenging (Ediger 2006a). • What should be done to help the student reflect on
his or her progress and monitor himself or herself
adequately?
Keeping Anecdotal Records • How can the student be motivated more thoroughly
to develop an inward desire to learn?
and Using Student Portfolios • How might the student become more conscientious
Teacher observations may and should be re- about careful proofreading?
corded. Unless a careful system of record-keeping Portfolios provide feedback to the teacher on how
is involved, observations can be forgotten or modi- to help students overcome selected problems and
fied. Each record should contain vital data and be continuously progress in mathematics. Decisions may
written clearly. The observer can then review pat- then be made about large group, small group and
terns of student behaviour in mathematics. By re- individual student endeavours. The teacher must use
cording specific errors, the teacher can diagnose and the feedback wisely in order to provide for individual
remediate students’ difficulties in the sequence. For differences among learners (see National Council of
example, if a student has problems with reducing Teachers of Mathematics 1989).
fractions to lowest terms, he or she may not be able
to understand factoring. Or in dividing fractions, the
learner may not attach meaning to the process of Improving the Classroom
inverting the divisor and then emphasizing the op-
eration of multiplication. Environment
Portfolios can be an excellent way for students to The classroom environment is highly significant
demonstrate their progress over time, in ongoing les- in improving mathematical achievement. Through
sons and units of study. The contents (chosen by the observation, the teacher can determine what environ-
student with teacher guidance) should be a representa- mental factors are hindering student achievement and
tive sampling of the learner’s completed work in progress. For example, when students are distracted
mathematics. The time period can be a semester or from attending to a lesson, their sequential learnings
the entire school year. A student’s portfolio can are disrupted and they lose out on specific and major
contain the following items, among others (Ediger ideas. On-task behaviour is very important.
2006b): Sometimes students are rude about points pre-
• Student solutions to problems from the textbook sented in a discussion. This hinders the free flow of
• Completed worksheets ideas. Rules for discussions should be set up, such as
• Student drawings of geometrical figures all students should participate but no one should
• Graphs, charts and tables of data from ongoing dominate, interrupting others should be avoided,
lessons and units of study respect for others and their ideas should be demon-
• Printout of the student’s test results strated, and active participation is important.

delta-K, Volume 51, Number 1, December 2013 5


Steen (2007, 12) writes the following: The basics should be taught in problem-solving
Experience shows that many students fail to master experiences. However, with some students, essential
important mathematical topics. What’s missing content may be taught more systematically. The psy-
from traditional instruction is sufficient emphasis chology of learning must be stressed in teaching and
on three important ingredients: communication, learning situations. This includes making learnings
connections, and contexts. interesting and meaningful, as well as purposeful.
  Colleges expect students to communicate ef- The learning style of the individual student should
fectively with people from different backgrounds also be considered. Thus, students should learn in
and with different expertise and to synthesize skills cooperative settings, as well as individually. The
from multiple areas. Employers expect the same student must be guided to make connections between
things. They emphasize that formal knowledge is what is acquired in the school setting and what is
not, by itself, sufficient to deal with today’s chal- needed in society, in order to establish relevance.
lenges. Instead of looking primarily for technical All these strategies can be facilitated and assessed
through teacher observation.
skills, today’s business leaders talk more about
teamwork and adaptability. Interviewers examine
candidates’ ability to synthesize information, make References
sound assumptions, capitalize on ambiguity, and Ediger, M. 2006a. “Writing in the Mathematics Curriculum.”
explain their reasoning. They seek graduates who Journal of Instructional Psychology 33, no 2 (June): 120–23.
can interpret data as well as calculate with it and ———. 2006b. “Testing Versus Portfolios to Assess Achieve-
who can communicate effectively about quantita- ment.” OASCD Journal 13, no 1: 31–32.
tive topics. Ediger, M, and D B Rao. 2001. Teaching Mathematics Success-
  To meet these demands of college and work, fully. New Delhi, India: Discovery.
K–12 students need extensive practice expressing National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). 1989.
verbally the quantitative meanings of both prob- Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathemat-
ics. Reston, Va: NCTM.
lems and solutions. They need to be able to write
Steen, L A. 2007. “How Mathematics Counts.” Educational
fluently in complete sentences and coherent para- Leadership 65, no 3 (November): 8–14.
graphs; to explain the meaning of data, tables,
Vygotsky, L S. 1986. Thought and Language. Rev ed. Cambridge,
graphs, and formulas; and to express the relation- Mass: MIT Press.
ships among the different representations.

In Closing Marlow Ediger graduated from Emporia State Uni-


versity, in Kansas, with baccalaureate and master’s
The demands of today’s workplace require in- degrees, and from the University of Denver with a
creased proficiency in mathematics, which means that doctorate degree. He was a public school teacher,
mathematics achievement in the elementary, middle school administrator and private school teacher on
school and high school years is essential. Mathemat- the West Bank of the Jordan River. After 30 years with
ics teachers need to help each student achieve opti- Truman State University, in Missouri, he retired as
mally, and strategies must be developed to guide professor emeritus of education. He continues to write
learner progress. for educational publications.

6 delta-K, Volume 51, Number 1, December 2013


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constantatrate,6:50 itAMis, easy
7:05
A1A2 = A2A3 and B1B2 = B2B3. (1)
espectively. Since they are moving at a constant rate, it is easy
A A = A A and
.2 km A1B1, d km A2B2 and 1.6 km A B B = B B . (1)
d 3B3 chords are redrawn (1) so
1 2 2 3 1 2 2 3

.2 A 1A2 = A2A3 and B1B2 = B2B3.


d km
A3km A1B1,(1)
B3, then willAremain
2B2 andtrue. 1.6 km A3B3 chords are redrawn so
d
.2
A3km A1AB11,A
B3, then (1)
= A2A23Band
d2 km
will remain 2 and B1B 2 =km
1.6
true.
B2BA 3. 3B3 chords are redrawn (1) so
.2
A3km A1B1,(1)
B3, then d kmwillAremain
2B2 andtrue. 1.6 km A3B3 chords are redrawn so
A3B3, then (1) will remain true.
delta-K, Volume 51, Number 1, December 2013 7

d
d d
d d
correlated Thewith reindeertime;can rather, it is the of
bestraight-line
thought angle formed
asdistance
hands onby the radii
a clock,
between which attached
them doesto
move both
atnot reindeer
a constant
change ra
at
Dennis Situ The reindeer can be thought of as hands on a clock, which move at a constant rate: each
minute, the minute must hand moves 6° and the hour
find the angles before we move any further. hand moves 0.5°. However, the
The following minute, isstraight-line
atheGrademinute 9 student’s
hand
distance moves solution6° and to the
Gregory hour Akulov’s
hand moves “A0.5°. Northern However, Light theCircle
At 6:50, wethem
between have does not change
a diagram as at showna constant (Figure pace. 1),Therefor
with O
Problem”straight-lineon page must ???????.
distance
find the angles between themwe
before does move not any change at a constant pace. Therefore, we
further.
bisector of thefurther. line connecting Dasher (D ) and Dancer I
Editor’s note: must When find
At the heangles
6:50, considers
we have beforeaone we possible
diagram move case
as anyshown below,(Figure Dennis1), withrounds OA sin drawn (36.87)
as the = 0.6 and
perpend
Student Corner_____________________________________
sin (53.13) At =6:50, 0.8. we haveofathe
Actually,
bisector diagram
sinline(36.87)
hypotenuse
as shown
connecting> 0.6 and
side)
(Figure
Dashersin (53.13)
(D
property,
1),I)withand<OA
the
0.8.drawn
Dancer
two
(DIIas
triangles shown
the perpendicular
). Because of the RHS
are
bisector of thenote line connecting is also Dasher the
the(D angle ) and bisector
Dancer of
(DIID).reindeer
I
OD
Because
II
. Weofalso havemeans a right
arethe RHS (right
I
First of all, we hypotenuse
must side)the
that property,
distances two
between triangles theshown
two are congruent. notThisdirectly
hypotenuse side) property, known.
the two of DTherefore,
triangles shown wehave can use
are congruent. trigonometry Thistriangle to find the
withistime; also the angleitbisector tomeans that
withOA
IODII. We also a right-angled tw
correlated rather, is the angle formed by the radii attached both reindee
is also the known.angleTherefore,
bisector ofwe We
D ODI
have
can
II . We
use sin alsoα =have
trigonometry 0.6, asoright-angled
α find
to = 36.87°,the whichLabel
triangle
angles. means
withangletwo that
sides
D an
IOA

A Solution to “A Northern Lights


The reindeer can be thought of as hands on a clock, which move at a constantI rate: each
minute, We
known.We
thehave minute
Therefore,
hand
we
have sin α = 0.6,We
moves
can use
so αnowtrigonometry
= 36.87°,
6° andwhich
examine
the hour
to
whichthe
hand
find the
casethat
means
moves
angles.
at 7:20, Label
anglewhere
0.5°.
angle
D OD we
I II
IIHowever, the
D OA
draw a sim
= 73.74°. as α.
sin α = 0.6, so α = 36.87°, means that angle D OD = 73.74°.
Circle Problem”
I
We now examine the OB caseas atthe7:20, new where we draw a similar
perpendicular bisector. diagram
Angle(FigureDIOB is 2),to
b
straight-line We nowOB distance
examine between
the case them does
at 7:20, where not change
we draw at a constant
a similar diagram pace. Therefore,
(Figure we
as the new perpendicular bisector. Angle D I OB is to be labelled I β.2),II but with
We have sin β = 0.8, so β = 53.13°. Now, D OD = 106.26
must find OBthe as the angles
Wenew have before
sin β =we
perpendicular 0.8,move
so any
bisector.
β = 53.13°. further.
Angle Now, DID OBI is IIto be labelled β.
OD = 106.26°.
In order to find the distance d at 7:05, we must find the
At 6:50, We we havehave a
sin diagram
β
In order Dennis= 0.8, so as
β
to find theSitu shown
= 53.13°. (Figure
Now, D
distance d at 7:05, we must
I1), with
OD II
= OAfind
106.26°. drawn as the perpendicular
the average angle, as 7:05 is t
average time between 6:50 and 7:30. Theasaverage angle
bisectorIn oforder
the average
line
to findconnecting
the distance
time betweenDasherd 6:50 (D
at 7:05, and
I
)weand
7:30. mustDancer
Thefind (D average
the
average
II
).angle
Because isangle, of the
given by RHS
7:05 (right
is the
73.74 + 106.26
hypotenuse average side) time betweenthe
property, 6:50two and triangles
7:30. The average shown
73.74 + 106.26 angle
are is given byThis means that
congruent. = 90°.OA
73.74 + 106.26 = 90°. 2
2
The following is a is also 9the angle bisector of D OD . 7:05,
Wethe also have a right-angled atriangle with angle.
two sides
I II
Grade student’s At solution
7:05, the to radii ofAt At
the7:05,reindeer theradiiradii
2 of the
form aofright
the
=
reindeerreindeer
90°.
angle. form The form
right
diagram a right
angle. is given below The
Gregory Akulov’s “A known. At
Northern Therefore,
Lights
7:05,3). Circle
the radii we can
Prob-
of the usereindeer
trigonometry
The diagram
3). form is to find
given
a right below
angle. theThe angles.
(Figure 3).
diagram Label anglebelow
is given
IOA as α.
D (Figure
Although situ.docx
we could -1 use trigonometry
lem” on page 7. II to find the
We have3).sin α = 0.6, so αwe= could 36.87°, which
Although means
we could that angle D I
OD d,=the 73.74°.
Editor’s note: When he considers oneAlthough possible case use
length trigonometry
d, the easiest way isuse
to find trigonometry
the
to simply length
use Pythagoras’ to find way
easiest the length
is to si
We now
below, Dennis rounds sin (36.87) = 0.6 and sinexamine
Although use wethe case
could
Pythagoras’ at
use 7:20, use
theorem where
trigonometry
theorem Pythagoras’
toto we
find
findto draw
find
that
that the a
theorem
𝑑𝑑 = similar
length
√1 2 + 1to2d,=diagram
the
find√2. easiest
that (Figure
𝑑𝑑way
= √1 is22),
to+ but =wit
simply
1 2 √2.
Corner (53.13) = 0.8. Actually, OB as sinthe use
(36.87) Pythagoras’
new At >perpendicular
7:05,
0.6 and theorem
thesindistance to find
bisector.
At
dAtis7:05, that
7:05,
√2 km. Angle
the
𝑑𝑑 = D OB is
distance
√1
the distance
2 + 1d2 is
I
d isto√2.
= bekm.
√2 km.labelled β.
n to “A Northern
(53.13)Light
< 0.8.CircleWe Problem”haveAtsin 7:05, =the
β Figure
0.8, 1so β =d 53.13°.
distance is √2 km. Figure
Now,1 DIODII = 106.26°.
Figure 1 Figure 1
tu First of all, we must Innote
order that to thefind
distances distance d at 7:05, we must find the average angle, as 7:05 is the
the between
ing is a Gradethe two reindeer
9 student’s are not to
solution directly
average Gregory correlated
time Akulov’s
between with “A time;
6:50 Northern
and 7:30. Light
TheCircle average angle is given by
rather, it is the angle formed by the radii attached to
on page ???????.
both reindeer. The reindeer can be thought of as hands
73.74 + 106.26
= 90°.
ote: When he considers
on a clock,one possible
which move case below, Dennis
at a constant rate: each rounds
min- sin (36.87) = 0.6 2 and
Atmoves
7:05, the radii Figure 2
ute,sin
) = 0.8. Actually, the(36.87)
minute >hand 0.6 and sin6° and
(53.13) the<of hour thehand
0.8. reindeer form a right angle. The diagram is given below (Figure
Figure 2
moves 0.5°. However, 3).thebetween
straight-line distance be-
l, we must note thatthem
tween the does
distances
not change at a theconstanttwo reindeer
pace. are not directly
d with time; rather,
Therefore,it iswethe Although
angle
must find formed
the anglesby we could
the radii
before use
we move trigonometry
attached to both to findreindeer. the length d, the easiest way is to simply
any further.
eer can be thought of as hands useonPythagoras’
a clock, which theorem moveto at find that 𝑑𝑑 =
a constant rate:√12each + 12 = √2.
At 6:50, we have At a diagram
7:05, the as distance
shown (Figure √21),km.
d is 0.5°.
he minute hand withmoves
OA drawn 6° and
as thethe hour
perpendicular handbisectormoves of the However, the
Figure 1
ine distance between themDasher
line connecting does(D notI
change
) and Dancerat(Da ).constant
II
Because pace. Therefore, we
of the RHS (right hypotenuse
the angles before we move any further. side) property, the two
triangles shown are congruent. This means that OA
we have a diagram
is also as
theshown (Figure
angle bisector of 1),
DIOD withII
. We OA also drawn
have aas the perpendicular
Figure 2
f the line connecting
right-angled Dasher
triangle(Dwith
I ) and twoDancersides known. (D ). There-
II Because of the RHS (right
fore, wethe
se side) property, cantwo
use trigonometry
triangles shown to find the areangles.
congruent. Label This means that OA
angle DIOA as α. Figure 2
e angle bisector We of D IODII. We also have a right-angled triangle with two sides
have sin α = 0.6, so α = 36.87°, which means
herefore, we that
canangle DIODII = 73.74°.to find the angles. Label angle DIOA as α.
use trigonometry
sin α = 0.6, so αWe now examine the case at 7:20, where weI draw
= 36.87°, which means that angle D ODII = 73.74°.
a similar diagram (Figure 2), but with OB as the new
examine the case at 7:20, bisector.
perpendicular where Anglewe draw DIOBaissimilar to be labelled diagram β. (Figure 2), but with
new perpendicular
We have sin β = 0.8,
bisector. Angle so βD=OB I 53.13°.is toNow, be labelled
D OD β.
I II

= 106.26°.
sin β = 0.8, so βIn= order
53.13°. Now, D OD = 106.26°.
I II
to find the distance d at 7:05, we must find
o find the distance d atangle,
the average 7:05,aswe7:05 mustis thefind average thetime average between angle, as 7:05 is the
ime between 6:506:50and
and7:30.7:30.The
Theaverage
average angleangle is given is by given by
73.74 + 106.26
= 90°.
2
he radii of the reindeer form a right angle. The diagram is given below (Figure
8 delta-K, Volume 51, Number 1, December 2013
we could use trigonometry to find the length d, the easiest way is to simply
agoras’ theorem to find that 𝑑𝑑 = √12 + 12 = √2.
he distance d is √2 km.
Figure 3 Figure 3
Dennis Situ is a Grade 9 student at Vernon Barford
Junior High School, in Edmonton.

Dennis Situ is a Grade 9 student at Vernon Barford Junior


High School, in Edmonton.

delta-K, Volume 51, Number 1, December 2013 9


Feature Articles_____________________________________

Numeracy
Peter Liljedahl and Minnie Liu

Over the last 10 years, numeracy—or mathematical without the mathematical skills to cope with what life
literacy, as it is often called—has become more and and work will demand of them. In reaction to this,
more prominent, showing up in curriculum documents we may want to increase the amount of mathematics
and special government initiatives around the world being taught, to lengthen the period of compulsory
and in western Canada. In our local context, numeracy mathematics, to increase or deepen the mathematics
(or mathematical literacy) is featured in the Alberta content in our curriculum, or to raise the standards in
program of studies in the front matter of every math mathematics. On deeper reflection, however, it be-
curriculum document from kindergarten to Grade 12: comes evident that many of our best students—those
Students are curious, active learners with individual taking mathematics beyond the compulsory level and
interests, abilities and needs. They come to class- achieving the highest marks—are just as ill-equipped
rooms with varying knowledge, life experiences to put their mathematics education to use in life and
and backgrounds. A key component in successfully work.
developing numeracy is making connections to This realization led to the rise of the numeracy
these backgrounds and experiences. (Alberta Edu- movement—a movement designed to foster the skills
cation 2007, 1) the world is thirsting for in its graduates. The move-
Students are curious, active learners with indi- ment is driven by the principle that what is lacking is
vidual interests, abilities, needs and career goals. not more mathematics, or deeper mathematics, or
They come to school with varying knowledge, life greater fluency with mathematics but, rather, a greater
experiences, expectations and backgrounds. A key flexibility with mathematics—a flexibility to use the
component in developing mathematical literacy mathematics we know to tackle the ever-changing
in students is making connections to these back- and shifting landscape of life.
grounds, experiences, goals and aspirations. Efforts to intensify attention to the traditional
(Alberta Education 2008, 1) mathematics curriculum do not necessarily lead to
Students need to explore mathematics through increased competency with quantitative data and
solving problems in order to continue developing numbers. While perhaps surprising to many in the
personal strategies and mathematical literacy. public, this conclusion follows from a simple rec-
(Alberta Education 2008, 2) ognition—that is, unlike mathematics, numeracy
Students will develop the following mathematic does not so much lead upwards in an ascending
competencies in the context of solving everyday pursuit of abstraction as it moves outward toward
problems. Students will . . . apply mathematical an ever richer engagement with life’s diverse con-
literacy to everyday situations. (Alberta Education texts and situations. (Orrill 2001, xviii)
2006a, 4; 2006b, 4) Numeracy is not mathematics. It is something dif-
So, what is this thing called numeracy? Clearly, it ferent. Instead of diving deeper into the formal and
is related to, but somehow different from, mathemat- abstract world of mathematics, learning more math-
ics. To answer this question, we need to first under- ematics and becoming more fluent with mathematics,
stand where the numeracy movement is coming from. numeracy fosters the understanding and application
of our mathematical knowledge in a quantitative
sense. Unlike the field of mathematics, which con-
Numeracy Movement tinues to expand, the mathematics needed by a numer-
Around the world it has long been recognized that ate individual is relatively finite. That is, numeracy isn’t
students are completing their compulsory education about being able to flexibly use all of mathematics to

10 delta-K, Volume 51, Number 1, December 2013


deal with “life’s diverse contexts and situations” (Or- willing to use the tools to resolve the situation at hand.
rill 2001, xviii); rather, it’s about being able to flexibly As such, numeracy is also a disposition—a willing-
draw on that subset of mathematics that is most useful ness to engage with the day’s problems through the
in dealing with these diverse contexts and situations. use of mathematical tools.
Mathematical literacy is an individual’s capacity
Numeracy as a Toolkit to identify and understand the role that mathemat-
ics plays in the world, to make well-founded judg-
Numeracy can be seen as a toolkit of mathematical ments, and to engage in mathematics in ways that
skills: meet the needs of that individual’s current and
[Numeracy] empowers people by giving them tools future life as a constructive, concerned and reflec-
to think for themselves, to ask intelligent questions tive citizen. (Organisation for Economic Co-oper-
of experts, and to confront authority confidently. ation and Development 1999)
These are skills required to thrive in the modern [Numeracy is] an aggregate of skills, knowledge,
world. (Quantitative Literacy Design Team 2001, 2) beliefs, dispositions, habits of mind, communica-
[A numerate person is able to use] mathematics to tion capabilities, and problem solving skills that
make decisions and solve problems in everyday people need in order to engage effectively in
life. For individuals who have acquired this habit, quantitative situations arising in life and work.
mathematics is not something done only in math- (International Life Skills Survey 2000)
ematics class but a powerful tool for living, as A handyman is not handy because he has tools; he
useful and ingrained as reading and speaking. is handy because he is willing to get his hands dirty
(Quantitative Literacy Design Team 2001, 8) using them. Likewise, a numerate individual has to
What the skills are that populate this toolkit is be willing to engage in the work—willing to, when
debatable . . . and contextual. In mathematics, the the situation calls for it, pull out his tools and use
toolkit would contain all mathematics learned. In them.
numeracy, however, the toolkit contains only those
skills that are mastered and that are useful across a Numeracy as Stepping Up
wide variety of contexts. So, while a formula for an
arithmetic sequence may be the most efficient way Thus, a numerate person is someone who is both
to solve a problem, multiplication (or repeated addi- willing and able to get the job done. This person
tion) may be the more accessible way to solve it. That knows the tools in his or her toolkit, has the confi-
is, the formula for arithmetic series is like a specialty dence that he or she can get the job done, and is
tool that, for most people, lies forgotten in a bottom willing to engage in the problems that he or she en-
drawer somewhere. Multiplication, on the other hand, counters in work and life.
is the well-worn, well-used, familiar tool that is easily This has implications for what it is we expect from
found near the top of the toolkit. It may not be as our students in the context of numeracy. Is the student
elegant or as impressive as the formula for arithmetic who uses multiplication to solve a real-life problem
series, but it is comfortable, reliable and easily more numerate than the one who uses repeated addi-
accessible. tion? Both students are exhibiting all the qualities of
This is not to say that we should have a small a numerate person implied in the sections above. They
toolkit. We want to continue to expand our toolkit, to are both willing to get the job done. They are both
add new tools to our repertoire of familiar mathemati- using tools comfortable and familiar to them. The
cal skills that we can use to deal with our ever-­ main difference between them is the efficiency of
expanding set of experiences. But the acquisition of their strategies, but not necessarily their choice of
a new tool should come out of necessity and be strategy, for the second student may not have multi-
grounded in the specificity of our experiences. And plication as a tool readily available to choose from.
it should be immediately and repeatedly useful to us. In mathematics we are concerned very much with the
Otherwise it runs the risk of getting lost in the bottom choice of strategy, as evolving and abstracting strategy
of a drawer somewhere. is what moves the mathematics curriculum forward.
In numeracy, however, we are much more concerned
with stepping up and getting the job done with what-
Numeracy as a Disposition ever tools are available to us.
But having a toolkit full of well-worn and familiar Numeracy is getting the job done with the tools
tools is not enough. A numerate person must also be you have. (Liljedahl 2010)

delta-K, Volume 51, Number 1, December 2013 11


Bibliography Orrill, R. 2001. “Mathematics, Numeracy, and Democracy.”
In Mathematics and Democracy: The Case for Quan-
Alberta Education. 2006a. Knowledge and Employability Math- titative ­Literacy, ed L A Steen, xiii–xx. Princeton, NJ:
ematics Grades 8 and 9. Edmonton, Alta: Alberta Education. Woodrow ­Wilson National Fellowship Foundation. Also
available at www.maa.org/sites/default/files/pdf/QL/MathAnd
———. 2006b. Knowledge and Employability Mathematics
Democracy.pdf (accessed October 30, 2013).
10-4, 20-4. Edmonton, Alta: Alberta Education. Also available
at www.education.alberta.ca/media/645686/math10_06.pdf Quantitative Literacy Design Team. 2001. “The Case for Quan-
(accessed October 30, 2013). titative Literacy.” In Mathematics and Democracy: The Case
for Quantitative Literacy, ed L A Steen, 1–22. Princeton,
———. 2007. Mathematics Kindergarten to Grade 9. Edmonton,
NJ: Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation.
Alta: Alberta Education. Also available at http://education
Also ­available at www.maa.org/sites/default/files/pdf/QL/
.alberta.ca/media/645594/kto9math.pdf (accessed October 30,
MathAndDemocracy.pdf (accessed October 30, 2013).
2013).
———. 2008. Mathematics Grades 10–12. Edmonton, Alta:
­Alberta Education. Also available at http://education.alberta This is an adapted version of an article from Vector
.ca/media/655889/math10to12.pdf (accessed October 30, (the journal of the British Columbia Association of
2013). Mathematics Teachers), Summer 2013.
De Lange, J. 2003. “Mathematics for Literacy.” In Quantitative
Literacy: Why Numeracy Matters for Schools and Colleges,
ed B Madison and L Steen, 75–89. Princeton, NJ: National
Council on Education and the Disciplines. Also available
Peter Liljedahl is an associate professor of mathemat-
at www.maa.org/sites/default/files/pdf/QL/WhyNumeracy ics education in the Faculty of Education, Simon
Matters.pdf (accessed October 30, 2013). Fraser University, Vancouver. He is a former high school
Hold Fast Consultants. 2004. “Numeracy and Mathematical mathematics teacher who has kept his research inter-
Literacy.” In WNCP Mathematics Research Project: Final ests and activities close to the classroom. He consults
Report, 57–95. Prepared for the Western and Northern Ca- regularly with teachers, schools, school districts, and
nadian Protocol. Victoria, BC: Hold Fast Consultants. Also ministries of education in BC and Alberta on issues
available at www.wncp.ca/media/39083/final_report.pdf
(accessed October 30, 2013). of teaching and learning, assessment, and numeracy.
International Life Skills Survey (ILSS). 2000. Policy Research Minnie Liu is a PhD student in mathematics education
Initiative. Statistics Canada. Quoted in Quantitative Literacy at Simon Fraser University. She completed her MSc
Design Team 2001, 7.
in mathematics education in 2010. She is also a
Liljedahl, P. 2010. “Numeracy Tasks FOR and AS Assessment.” practising secondary school teacher with the Vancou-
Presentation at the Grade 12 Mathematics Examinations
Specifications meeting, Victoria, BC, August.
ver school district. Her research interests are nu-
meracy and modelling, and the use of numeracy tasks
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
(OECD). 1999. Measuring Student Knowledge and Skills: to promote students’ understanding of mathematics
A New Framework for Assessment. Paris: OECD. Quoted in and mathematical thinking and to enhance their
De Lange 2003, 76. mathematics education experiences.

12 delta-K, Volume 51, Number 1, December 2013


The Pros and Cons of Contests
Karl Dilcher

Mathematical contests and competitions have long by doing; this is the premise of Phillips’s book, and this
been among the main components of the Canadian is what we tell our students as we give them homework
Mathematical Society’s educational initiatives. In- and practice problems. But do we learn better and faster
deed, the second entry under Education on the CMS by doing mathematics fast and under time pressure?
website (http://cms.math.ca) is about competitions, This ambiguity was also the topic of a brief article,
and the introduction to those extensive and well-­ “Pros and Cons of Math Competitions,” by Richard
organized pages states that “competitions are an Rusczyk,2 founder of the very interesting and engag-
important part of learning mathematics and a fun ing web resource Art of Problem Solving. Referring
activity for students of all ages.” It then goes on to to competitions for middle school and high school
describe the CMS’s support for competitions. The students in the United States, Rusczyk writes,
society has a Mathematical Competitions Committee, The most immediate value of these math contests
and at least four more of the 14 standing committees is obvious—they pique students’ interest in math-
are partly or indirectly involved with competitions. ematics and encourage them to value intellectual
Over the years I have also been involved with pursuits. Kids love games, and many will turn just
competitions, both within the CMS and at Dalhousie. about any activity into a contest, or in other words,
As a member and then chair of the Endowment Grants something to get good at. Math contests thus in-
Committee, I played a role in the awarding of grants spire them to become good at mathematics just
to several excellent proposals involving local, regional like sports encourage physical fitness. Eventually,
and national competitions. In my own department, students put aside the games. By then, hopefully
before I became chair, I was involved for many years an interest in the underlying activity has developed.
in organizing training sessions for the Putnam and
the Science Atlantic (then called APICS) competi- These are indeed very strong and convincing argu-
tions. I supervised the Putnams and organized travel ments in favour of math competitions. But Rusczyk goes
and accommodation to the APICS competitions. I on to caution that there are some pitfalls. In particular,
even designed a (now discontinued) problem-solving he warns against what he calls “curricular contests”
course featuring competition-type problems, aimed and contests that greatly emphasize speed or memo-
at preparing students for various contests. rization. Contests need to be well designed, he argues,
Before I go on, let me state my unambiguous sup- and should help students develop the ability to think
port for problem solving as a mathematical activity. about and solve complex problems. Rusczyk men-
It was perhaps not such a coincidence that my col- tions two further pitfalls, namely extending children
league and office neighbour Swami (S Swaminathan) beyond their abilities, with the danger of the experi-
independently chose a topic quite similar to what I ence going from humbling and challenging to humili-
was going to write about.1 We both have similar ating and discouraging. Finally, he cautions against
mathematical tastes, and our approaches to mathemat- burnout, with the danger of students not just turning
ics are largely problem-based. Along with many other against competitions, but against math in general.
mathematicians, we take delight in beautiful prob- I’m giving so much space to Rusczyk’s article
lems, and usually even more delight in our efforts to because it puts into words my own ambiguous feel-
solve them. For us mathematicians the word problem ings about math competitions, both as someone in-
has a positive connotation, which is certainly not the volved in them as an educator and minor administ­
case in everyday nonmathematical usage of the word. rator, and as a participant in a different era (the early
In fact, it is difficult to convince a nonmathematician ’70s) and a different country. I myself was always
(or, to be fair, a nonscientist) that a problem can actu- attracted to mathematics because it was, and remains,
ally be beautiful. one of the least competitive endeavours around.
It is also true that “mathematics is not a spectator I could (and still can) be slow, very slow, and get away
sport” (the title of a book by George M Phillips [2005]). with it. Anything competitive has always turned me
But is it a sport, in the competitive sense? You learn off, and I instinctively stayed away from “hot topics.”

delta-K, Volume 51, Number 1, December 2013 13


Partly for this reason, I must dispute one argument Notes
that Rusczyk brings forward in favour of math com-
1. See “Problem Solving,” by Srinivasa Swaminathan, on
petitions: “For better or worse, much of life is com- page 15.
petition, be it for jobs or resources or whatever.” No,
2. www.artofproblemsolving.com/Resources/articles
it doesn’t have to be that way. Collaboration is always .php?page=pc_competitions&
better in all spheres of life and society. So, by all
means, let’s build on children’s love of games and
competitions. But let’s be mindful of the pitfalls and References
dangers of instilling too much of a sense of competi- Phillips, G M. 2005. Mathematics Is Not a Spectator Sport. New
tion in children. York: Springer.
What does this mean for the CMS and the wider Tao, T. 2006. Solving Mathematical Problems: A Personal Per-
mathematical community? In spite of my words of spective. New York: Oxford University Press.
caution, I believe we are doing all right; many of the
competitions are collaborative, and there are Math Reprinted with permission from CMS Notes, the
Camps, Math Circles, Math Leagues, and other less newsletter of the Canadian Mathematical Society, 45,
competitive and more collaborative initiatives. So, in no 2 (March/April 2013), pp 1, 6, http://cms.math.ca/
most parts of the country, there are programs for the notes/v45/n2/Notesv45n2.pdf. Minor changes have
slow kids, as well as for the fiercely competitive, and been made to fit ATA style.
everyone in between. In any case, I hope that most
will be able to say, as Terence Tao (2006) did at the
beginning of his Solving Mathematical Problems: A Karl Dilcher is professor and chair of the Department
Personal Perspective, “But I just like mathematics of Mathematics and Statistics at Dalhousie Univer-
because it’s fun.” sity, in Halifax.

14 delta-K, Volume 51, Number 1, December 2013


Problem Solving
Srinivasa Swaminathan

The teaching of undergraduate and graduate courses Selecting proposals poses a more challenging task
in mathematics involves routine exposition of standard to the editors than the selection of solutions; the editors
topics illustrated by solved problems from the texts. seek to have a diversity of high-quality proposals in
Weekly assignments are generally based on exercises geometry, analysis, number theory, etc, rising above
from textbooks. Generally, mathematics is studied not the level of unimaginative textbook exercises. Elegant
for its own sake, but because the ultimate object is proposals attract a wide range of would-be solvers.
merely to pass an examination or to acquire the mini- The criteria for elegance can be summarized in the
mum knowledge necessary for dealing with some other ABCDs of elegance as follows: A for accuracy, B for
subject of study. In such a situation, how much of problem- brevity, C for clarity and D for display of insight, in-
solving ability is acquired by students is doubtful; just genuity, originality and generalization, if possible.
propose a problem outside the normal curriculum— Periodically, collections of proposed and solved
one would find that most students are unable to solve problems from well-known journals are published.
it. However, there are gifted students in almost every Thus, The Otto Dunkel Memorial Problem Book (Eves
class. Problem-solving sessions are held to train such and Starke 1957) was published by the Mathematical
students so that they can compete in the annual Putnam Association of America on the occasion of the 50th
and similar exams; they learn to apply previously anniversary of the American Mathematical Monthly,
acquired knowledge to new and unfamiliar situations. which contains a popular section on problems. The
Problems can be classified under different headings: most recent such collection is A Mathematical Orchard
mechanical or drill problems; those that require un- (Krusemeyer, Gilbert and Larson 2012), from the
derstanding of the concepts; those that require prob- Mathematical Association of America, which contains
lem-solving skills or original thinking; those that re- 208 challenging, original problems with carefully
quire research or library work; and, finally, those that worked, detailed solutions. One can spend hours
are group projects, requiring group participation. browsing through this book, thinking about and trying
The importance of problem solving in the learning to solve problems before looking at the solutions. As
process and also in the growth and development of I was thinking about problem 62 of the book—which is
mathematics has been recognized and emphasized by to find the fifth digit (the ten thousands digit) from the end
many prominent authors (for example, George Pólya’s of the number 5 raised to the power of 5, which is raised
[1945] How to Solve It). New branches of mathematics to the power of 5, . . . up to five times!—the idea for
have arisen from the search for solutions of challenging writing this editorial occurred to me! [Answer: 0.]
problems. Noteworthy examples are the successful attack
on the brachistochrone problem by the Bernouilli broth-
ers and the role played by their solution in the evolution
References
Eves, H, and E P Starke. 1957. The Otto Dunkel Memorial Prob-
of the calculus of variations. Mathematical theory of lem Book. Supplement to American Mathematical Monthly 64,
probability arose from the investigations by Pacioli, no 7. Menasha, Wisc: Mathematical Association of America.
Cardan, Tartaglia, Pascal and Fermat. Topology and graph Krusemeyer, M I, G T Gilbert and L C Larson. 2012. A Math-
theory had their origin in Euler’s analysis of a problem ematical Orchard: Problems and Solutions. Washington, DC:
about crossing bridges. The fact that in some fields Mathematical Association of America.
(algebraic) the resolution into prime factors is not unique Pólya, G. 1945. How to Solve It. Princeton, NJ: Princeton
as it is in common arithmetic led Dedekind to restore ­University Press.
this highly desirable uniqueness by the invention of
ideals, an important concept in algebraic geometry. Reprinted with permission from CMS Notes 45, no 2
Many mathematical journals contain problem (March/April 2013), p 2, http://cms.math.ca/notes/
sections inviting readers to submit solutions. From v45/n2/Notesv45n2.pdf. Minor changes have been
these solutions, the editors select what they consider made to fit ATA style.
to be the “best” solution, which they publish along
with other interesting solutions, if any. Solutions of Srinivasa Swaminathan is a professor emeritus in the
difficult and challenging problems may lead to inter- Department of Mathematics and Statistics at Dalhou-
esting further investigations of the devices employed. sie University, in Halifax.

delta-K, Volume 51, Number 1, December 2013 15


Understanding Studying and
Studying Understanding
Jennifer Hyndman

Every mathematician recognizes that adding frac- musical structure? Does that person have a better
tions of polynomials is the same as adding integer understanding of music than Gary or I? Or just a dif-
fractions—one first factors each fraction as much as ferent understanding? Does this person enjoy music
possible, finds a least common denominator, rewrites more or less because they instinctively hear (and
the fractions with that denominator, and then adds cannot ignore) the underlying structure of every piece
the numerators. What is actually happening in our of music they hear?
understanding of this? We are able to see the pattern As I believe (at least I think I do) that more knowl-
for adding and are able to move this pattern from a edge increases understanding and enjoyment, I have
simple situation to a more complex situation. been giving one-on-one sessions and running study
My first-year calculus students make mistakes in skills workshops on how to learn mathematics for
adding fractions of polynomials. When I show them several years. The workshops were developed and
a pattern of adding fractions of integers that mimics initially run with my colleague, Vivian Fayowski, the
their incorrect polynomial addition rule, their body coordinator of the University of Northern British
language response is one of total understanding of Columbia’s (UNBC) Academic Success Centre. For
the integer situation. one year, they were also part of a UNBC Early Alert
What is it that they actually understand about ad- research project with Dan Ryan, Kerry Reimer and
dition of fractions of integers? They can find a prime Peter MacMillan. The focus of these workshops has
factorization of an integer. They can find common been, in essence, to explore how to organize mathe-
factors of two integers. They can find a least common matical information and how to internalize and ar-
multiple of two integers. They can multiply integers. ticulate mathematics.
They can add integers. However, I doubt that the The most common response to the question of how
students could articulate this list of actions as part of a student studies is that they “do” problems. Initially,
their understanding of how to add fractions. What I they are unable to articulate what they mean by “do-
am not sure of is whether this negatively influences ing” a problem. Several minutes of prompting eventu-
their ability to add fractions of integers or whether ally yields words like write, read, copy, draw, type,
this affects their ability to transfer their understanding speak, hear, listen and rewrite. Is their inability to
to adding fractions of polynomials. describe their own actions relevant to their difficulties
I continually observe how people collect knowl- in learning mathematics? I think so. However, I also
edge and compare it to how my students learn math- believe one needs to be able to articulate what one is
ematics. Gary, a member of my family, has over a doing and then internalize it so it is nonverbal.
thousand CDs and listens to music 18 hours a day, I am part of my own observations of learning. As
yet he cannot always identify the time signature of a a student in dance classes, I am continually being
song. He will happily ask me what the time signature challenged by learning new styles of dance and new
is. With a little thought, I can tell him. He knows the choreography. Not long ago I suffered the misfortune
history of every artist on every CD while I might not of not being able to figure out exactly where I was
be able to name the band. Which one of us has a better supposed to be while on stage in a group number.
understanding of music? Which student has a better This was unusual for me and, to prevent it from hap-
understanding of mathematics? The student who can pening again, I thought long and hard about what had
describe the process of adding fractions or the student happened. I certainly knew the choreography thor-
who can do the process? What about the student who oughly as I had been talking the group through the
can both add fractions and describe the process? Most steps to help us practise. This talking turned out to
of us would agree that this latter student has the best be the problem. I had “learned” the choreography as
understanding of the three students. What about the if it included speaking. When I walked on stage and
music listener who can identify the artist and the had to smile instead of talking, I was literally lost.

16 delta-K, Volume 51, Number 1, December 2013


On the verbal, visual and kinesthetic scales of learning techniques for studying the material. Here is an il-
I am highly kinesthetic, very visual and almost non- lustration of the second idea: discuss the definition
verbal. Speaking the steps had interfered with my of continuity and then discuss techniques for memo-
own ability to reproduce the steps without speaking. rizing a definition, such as writing it out several times,
What are our students actually learning when they reading it out loud, reading it silently, and reciting it
study mathematics or when they study any subject? from memory with your eyes closed versus with your
What do we actually test for in a midterm or an exam? eyes open. An exam question could be as simple as
Are our students self-aware enough to realize which “List three techniques for memorizing a definition”
study methods work for them and which don’t? Do or as self-reflective as “What study technique works
they even know more than one study method? best for you when you try to memorize the definition
While thinking about this article, I asked my family of continuity?”
how they studied in university and how they learned Of course, at least in my opinion, learning is an
to study. The actions they described all fit under my activity that spirals. One initially learns a very rudi-
umbrella of things to do to study. What was more mentary approximation of a concept and then rethinks
interesting were their comments on how they learned and refines the approximation until, with focused
to study. David C’s first reaction was that he had no attention, one understands the same thing as others
memory of ever receiving specific instruction, and do. Where does studying study skills fit in this spiral?
then he said he might have had some in high school It cannot be too early, but it must be early enough to
English. David H’s comment was that it was like be useful. When I work with students, I often come
learning to be a parent; you just do it. David H’s son to the conclusion that they have to be ready to hear
thinks his college course on time management is a what I have to say about study skills (or any subject)
waste of time as he is learning nothing new. When I before they can actually take in the knowledge.
work with students who are failing courses, they Returning to learning how to add fractions of
frequently and proudly admit they spent very little polynomials, the spiral of knowledge for this starts
time on the courses and think that they will fix their with the spiral for adding fractions of integers, layers
grades by “spending more time studying.” However, on the language of polynomials, and then repeats the
when asked what they will do in this additional time, original spiral another time. How could we help our
they say, “Do problems,” which brings us back to the students learn to add fractions? Test questions like
earlier-mentioned inability of students to describe “Explain the steps in adding the following fractions
what this means. of integers (polynomials)” would be preceded by
As instructors, what should we or can we do to homework questions like “Build mind maps for inte-
assist students to be more self-aware in their studying gers and for polynomials that illustrate the concepts
(without giving time-management courses that are a of adding two fractions. Discuss the similarities and
waste of time)? The lucky students, like the Davids differences.” The intrinsic patterns that mathematicians
and me, figured out effective study techniques that fit see can be brought into the light for our students.
in the time we had available. Other students do less
well than they are capable of. I think we should be Reprinted with permission from CMS Notes 45, no 1
teaching study skills as part of the ongoing education (February 2013), pp 12–13, http://cms.math.ca/notes/
of our students. v45/n1/Notesv45n1.pdf. Minor changes have been
Here are some of the things I would do if I were made to fit ATA style.
to teach the perfect course as part of the perfect uni-
versity degree. The course objectives provided to the
students would have components of both mathemati- Jennifer Hyndman is professor and chair of the
cal content and study skills. The lectures would have ­Department of Mathematics and Statistics at the
study techniques embedded in the content develop- University of Northern British Columbia, in Prince
ment. The content to be examined would include George.

delta-K, Volume 51, Number 1, December 2013 17


Teaching Ideas_____________________________________

I’ve Got Problems: Chapter 1 of


Sally Strange: And How She Learned to
Stop Worrying and Love Grade 7 Math
Nico Rowinsky

tuesday september 15th O Canada, we stand on guard for thee.


If I was given the choice between going to math I try not to stare at him too obviously,
class or going to the orthodontist for a tightening, I’d Ooooo Caaaa-na-da.
probably choose the orthodontist. But I’m only 11 as he turns into his aisle,
and I don’t get to make those choices.
Yesterday, I had the painful tightening. Today, I’m we stand on guaaaard
here. Math class. and timed perfectly,
I move through the room towards my seat and say foooor
hi to Chin as I squeeze by his chair. Before I get a reaches for his chair,
chance to sit, the bell goes, and the familiar voice of
Niles comes on the PA: “Please stand for the national theeeeeeeeeeee
anthem.” I plop my bag down in the little area be- and sits.
tween my desk and Arial’s. The noise of everyone Seemingly on his cue we all sit down.
getting up from their chairs carries on into the first “Good morning, Winona! Today is Tuesday, Sep-
few bars. tember 15th—a Day 6 on our cycle—and these are
O Canada! your morning announcements.” Niles. Where does
Our home and native land! he get the energy to be so cheery in the morning?
While some decide to stand quietly, others are still The announcements continue as I look down and
kinda moving and continue their morning chat in read the graffiti in my desk to see if there is anything
whispers. I look over to Lindsay across the room and new since Friday. I read over Gavin’s name for the
we make weird faces for a moment until Evan inter- millionth time. He left me a few messages last week.
rupts our friendly game by walking in late. One of them was simply Good game! No Hello. No
Sally. Just Good game! He’d watched me play and
With glowing hearts we see thee rise.
wanted me to know. Both Evan and Gavin are trying
I watch Lindsay’s weird face turn into a cute smile, out for the volleyball team, just like we are, and
followed by a tiny, flirty wave pointed towards Evan. they’re showing their support for the girls.
He smiles back but continues his march. He passes I pick at my teeth—the elastics are annoying and
my desk and gives me a nod. My heart skips a beat. everything feels tight in the morning—before I reach
Or does it beat twice as fast? I’m not sure. I can’t for my pencil case. Today, we’re starting something
think for a moment. It’s not even 9:05 and I’m already new because yesterday was the last of the so-called
needing some help. review.
God keep our land glorious and free! After the announcements end, Mr Rowe slowly
Oh, I’ll be fine. Evan and I are close friends. We’ve walks from his desk to the front of the room, faces
known each other since Grade 1. We like to joke the class and, with way more drama than needed,
around and tell people we’re cousins, even though, I holds up two pieces of paper. He tries to make math
don’t know, this year—something’s different. fun. He tries.

18 delta-K, Volume 51, Number 1, December 2013


I’m half listening, not ready to fully commit my Here we go. I knew it couldn’t have been that easy.
attention to my overly excited math teacher. It’s too Here comes the question only the math teacher actu-
early, my mouth feels too tight, and two pieces of ally cares about.
paper aren’t going to do it for me. Mr Rowe raises his hand slowly as he asks, “Which
Our room door is open and I see Niles in the hall, cylinder would hold the most water?” His hand clearly
walking past. He pauses for a split second and looks indicates we’re not supposed to yell this one out.
to see if I’m okay before he continues to his Grade 8 The usuals raise their hands with confidence (how
homeroom class. He’s like that. After the announce- do they know this already?), followed by a few strag-
ments, he checks in on me, every day. I’m not sure glers. Then Evan calls out, “They’re the same!”
why, but maybe it’s because it’s still September. Our math teacher looks directly at him with no
Maybe it’s because I’m in Grade 7 and he’s in Grade sign of emotion. Keeping his hand up, he slowly walks
8. Or, maybe it’s because this is his second year at over to Evan.
Winona Drive Senior School, and it’s my first. But “Someone with their hand up, please,” and he calls
most likely, it’s just what big brothers do—check on on Gloria while whispering something to Evan.
their little sisters. “The taller one holds more,” comes a shy answer
Back to the action. I missed something. I turn to from Gloria, sounding more like a question.
Chin. “What do we have to do?” “Why?” the math teacher’s favourite response to
Chin is this tall, friendly giant in our class. I would any unsuspecting student.
say fat, but that seems rude. He’s just big, I guess. “Because”—but she is not the type to just say
He’s not only friendly, he seems to pay attention just because—“because it’s bigger, taller, so it holds more.”
a little more than I do, so he’s always there when I “Good.” He leaves Evan and now moves to the
have one of my “zone-out” moments. back of the class. Most of us turn to follow him except
“Pay attention.” He tries to sound upset. “We have for Evan, who now might be regretting walking in
to make a cylinder out of this piece of paper.” late and blurting out his answer.
I grab the sheet from Chin and wrap one side onto “Anyone agree with Gloria?” More than half the
the other, making a tube. “Ta-daaaa!” I throw my hands go up.
hands up and announce to my group, “I’m a math “Anyone disagree?” No hands.
genius!” Wait. One hand. It’s Evan, back from his momen-
“Sally, do you want to share with the class?” tary mental detention.
Shoot. My hands went up just for show; now I’m “Evan.” He calls on him as if to say, “Thank you
booked. I’m totally not a math genius. for putting up your hand this time.”
“Umm, ya.” “Uhh, I think they’re both the same.”
I feel like I’m getting smaller. I hate being on the Mr Rowe nods his head, satisfied that he has our
spot. Reason number 24 to hate math. attention. “Good.” He walks back to the front of the
“I . . .” shrinking class.
“folded it like this . . .” shrinking Good? What kind of answer is “good”? That
“to make the thingy . . .” shrinking doesn’t answer anything. Which tube holds more? I
“like you said . . .” Mr Rowe looks didn’t care before, but now I want to know. The taller
at me in silence. Shrunk! tube must hold more, right? Gloria agrees. More than
And then says, “Good. Perfect.” And rolls up one half the hands in the class agree. I wait a sec to see
of his sheets, just like mine, tapes it together and what Mr Rowe is about to say.
places it on the front ledge. Standing in front of the board, he begins again.
What? I think to myself. “Good. Now here’s your challenge for today.”
“What?” Arial says, half laughing at me. Challenge? What the . . .? What happened to the
“Anyone come up with a different solution?” he asks. tubes?
I’m in shock. My short tube sits proudly on the Before he can continue, it’s Arial who asks (on
ledge, looking a little fat (not to be rude). Lindsay behalf of most of the class), “So, which cylinder holds
shoots up her hand and responds with her own solu- more, Mr Rowe?”
tion. Her butt almost leaves her seat as she shows off “Oh. Right. Ummm, I don’t know yet. We’ll have
her answer. Her tube is the same as mine, just the to figure that out. Should we have a quick discussion
longer ends coming together. before our challenge?”
“Very good, Lindsay,” he says as he turns to show- So there’s a discussion all right, but it doesn’t give
case Lindsay’s solution beside mine. us the answer, and neither does our teacher, just some
“So, the question is . . .” more questions.

delta-K, Volume 51, Number 1, December 2013 19


Oh, Mr Rowe. I guess he sets it up this way. It’s a I did most of the math myself (with a calculator),
week into school and although I haven’t figured out but Niles helped me figure out what to do. He also
any of the math yet, I think I’m beginning to figure said that I haven’t explained why. I hate “explain why”
him out a little. in math. I would like Mr Rowe to explain why we
This time it’s a “challenge,” but it’s always a dif- need to explain in math. I wrote, “Because the number
ferent word with teachers. Challenge, task, questions, is bigger,” which is right. Don’t ask me to explain
problems. Problems, really. I have a problem for you. why!
Work on these problems. Did you finish your math
problems? It all sounds so negative. I clearly have a Reprinted with permission from the Ontario Mathe-
problem with the word problem. matics Gazette 50, no 3, March 2012, pp 29–31.
Minor changes have been made to fit ATA style.
Homework:
Write an explanation as to why one tube holds
more than the other tube. Born in Uruguay, Nico Rowinsky grew up in Missis-
sauga, Ontario, and studied mathematics at the
Sally Strange 7-1 University of Toronto. His first novel, Sally Strange:
And How She Learned to Stop Worrying and Love
In class you said to find how much a tube holds: Grade 7 Math, which began as a writing assignment
Multiply the size of the circle by the height:
for a student, is a real yet sensitive look at relation-
circle × height
ships in Grade 7. The novel is available through
Leanpub at https://leanpub.com/Sally_Strange_
You also said that circle size is done in Grade 8, so you
gave us the size of both circles:
Grade_7. Nico is a middle school math teacher and
lives in Toronto with his wife, also a teacher. Follow
Short tube    Long tube
Nico on his blog (http://ynaughtmath.blogspot.ca)
circle = 62 cm2    circle = 37 cm2
and Twitter (@NicoRowinsky).
Then I measured the height:
height = 22 cm    height = 28 cm
circle × height
Short = 62 × 22 = 1,364  Long = 37 × 28 = 1,036
The short tube holds more. Because the number is
bigger.

20 delta-K, Volume 51, Number 1, December 2013


The Exploration of Patterns
Chelsey Bonnett

During my studies to become a teacher, I became The Tasks


interested in how children think about patterns. I
designed a series of tasks that would help early learn- I asked Dave to draw three different shapes. He
ing students demonstrate the following outcomes first drew a triangle and a circle. As he drew the
from Alberta’s K–9 mathematics program of studies shapes, he said their names out loud. He then said
(Alberta Education 2007, 53): “diamond” and began drawing one, but then he paused
and asked for help. I helped him finish drawing the
• Distinguish between repeating patterns and non-
diamond. See Figure 1.
repeating sequences in a given set by identifying
the part that repeats. Figure 1
• Copy a given repeating pattern, e.g., actions, sound,
colour, size, shape, orientation, and describe the
pattern.
• Extend a variety of given repeating patterns by two
more repetitions.
• Create a repeating pattern, using manipulatives,
musical instruments or actions, and describe the
pattern.
• Identify and describe a repeating pattern in the
classroom, school and outdoors; e.g., in a familiar
song, in a nursery rhyme.
The goal was to have students recognize how patterns
allow them to make predictions and justify their
reasoning when solving routine and nonroutine
problems. I then asked Dave to repeat the pattern of those
I chose to work with Dave,1 a five-year-old who three shapes. He drew them again, although not in a
attended kindergarten at a public elementary school particular sequence or size. See Figure 2.
in Slave Lake. This boy was rather bright, tended to Figure 2
catch on quickly, was already showing a great interest
in the area of science, and was enthusiastic when
approaching new tasks.
We worked together for approximately 30 min-
utes, going through the tasks I had planned. He was
able to follow my instructions without much elabora-
tion; he took his time thinking through what I had
asked of him before responding; and, as he worked,
he talked through his thinking, which is a helpful
strategy he had developed for himself but which also
helped me understand and follow his thought process.
Dave was confident in creating and extending pat-
terns with the use of colours, but he had great diffi-
culty applying the same concept to shapes and
number patterns.
What follows are my observations and reflective I asked Dave to use the manipulatives (various
notes as I learned more about Dave’s understanding shapes, in various colours and sizes) to make a pat-
of patterns. tern. He asked if he should use colours or shapes, and

delta-K, Volume 51, Number 1, December 2013 21


I allowed him to make the choice. He then created Changing manipulatives, Dave attempted to create
the pattern in Figure 3, focusing only on colours (yel- another repeating pattern (see Figure 6). When I asked
low and blue). Dave successfully made the pattern him why the end looked different from the beginning,
three times. he paused, thinking. After a moment, he responded,
“I don’t know. I just changed the pattern. Now it’s
Figure 3
not the same.”
Figure 6

Dave pulled the blocks off the end and tried again.
He said, “I just look at the beginning and know what
is next.” As he did this portion, he said each colour
To extend this task, I asked Dave if he could make aloud and ended up with the pattern in Figure 7.
a repeating pattern using three variables. Figure 4 Figure 7
shows the pattern he created: blue, yellow, red, yellow,
blue, red, yellow. I asked him if everything was in
order, and he began going through each set of three,
saying the colours. When he said “yellow” the second
time, he stopped and went through the first three
colours again before correcting himself and saying it
should be blue, yellow, red, blue (rather than blue,
yellow, red, yellow). I then showed the repeating pattern in Figure 8
(blue, blue, orange, brown, red, blue, blue, orange,
Figure 4
red, brown) to Dave, and asked him to continue it.
He first went through, saying each colour, and he
quickly recognized the mistake I had included in the
pattern. I was pleased and surprised by this.
Figure 8

My response to him was, “Can you change this to


repeat the pattern in sequence?” Figure 5 shows his
solution. He rearranged the manipulatives to demon-
strate a repeating pattern using three different colours
(blue, yellow, red).
Figure 9 shows the correction Dave made to the
Figure 5
repeating pattern (switching the red and brown blocks
at the end).
Figure 9

22 delta-K, Volume 51, Number 1, December 2013


Figure 10 shows Dave checking his work after visual, as he could identify the patterns on the wall
correcting and expanding the pattern I presented him and the one on his sweater, but he had difficulty with
with. shapes, numbers and physical/oral patterns. If I were
Figure 10 to work with Dave again, I could use the talk-aloud
and the physical motions he used to problem solve
as a way of modelling patterns using shapes and
gradually moving his thinking about patterns to in-
clude symbols, shapes, numbers, and oral and physi-
cal patterns. Working with another child his age would
be beneficial for Dave, as they could communicate
how they see and problem solve patterns in their
environment.
A modification I would make to this lesson would
be to exclude an oral or a physical pattern. I under-
estimated the amount of time it would take to perform
this task with Dave. For Dave to develop a good grasp
of patterns, I felt it necessary to have him draw a
repeating pattern once, and then build it using two
My Reflections types of manipulatives, working with each set of
My work with Dave prompted me to consider manipulatives more than once. Developing these skills
whether the ability to form patterns and to develop was crucial in order for him to move on to completing
understanding of patterns on the basis of colour or a pattern that had already been started. Because Dave
number is influenced by age or by learning style—or spent time focusing on patterns with colours, I may
perhaps by both. need additional sessions to work toward developing
When I asked Dave to identify three different patterns with shapes and numbers and oral/physical
shapes, I was surprised that he included a diamond patterns. I could work with a student of this young
(although he did need assistance drawing it the first age only so long before valuable learning stopped
time). This demonstrated to me that he had a fairly happening. Recognizing this, I pulled back and de-
good grasp of various shapes, and it makes me curious cided to include these tasks in separate lessons.
about how many other children would select diamond Dave focused on colours but lacked the ability at
as a shape without any prompting. this point to transfer his knowledge to shapes, num-
Yet, when the activity transitioned into using bers, and oral/physical patterns. Although he had little
shapes of various colours and sizes, Dave continued experience with addition and subtraction, when I
to work with colour-based patterns. This made it ap- presented (orally and in writing) the pattern of 1, 2,
parent that colours were much easier for him and were 1, 2, 1, 2, he could not recognize the pattern, only
within his identifying comfort zone, and that he would that it was “wrong,” and he gave me an answer of 3.
need to spend more time transitioning his knowledge Curious, I prompted him to explain this to me. In this
of colour patterns to be applied to shape patterns. This area he could not communicate his understanding as
could also be attributed in part to his being more clearly as he had with colour patterns and simply
comfortable with drawing the patterns than with using responded, “1 and 2 is always 3.” While this does not
manipulatives, but after one pattern with manipula- indicate any understanding of number patterns, it does
tives, he began to grasp how he could use and ma- show that Dave has great potential to understand
nipulate them. When Dave was first presented with number operations and relationships. I don’t yet know
the manipulatives, he asked if I wanted a shape or a how I can use this to develop a connection to patterns.
colour pattern. I let him make this choice as I felt it I have, however, recognized a teachable moment that
would indicate where he was more comfortable begin- I let pass by. As we wrapped up the task, Dave noticed
ning a pattern lesson. a large calendar drawn on the whiteboard in the room.
I was surprised with the strategies Dave came He made a connection to this and even wanted me to
prepared with. As problem-solving strategies, he used help him write an important event for him on the
talking aloud and crossing off on his fingers as he calendar, which I did. Not until later did it occur to
called out the colours. These strategies helped him to me that this was an opportunity to make a connection
correct his own mistakes, to correct the mistake I had to patterns, using the calendar as a medium. This
left for him to find (without letting him know it was showed me an important strategy I can use to move
there) and to extend the pattern. He seemed to be Dave’s learning forward.

delta-K, Volume 51, Number 1, December 2013 23


Note
Chelsey Bonnett is a recent graduate of the Aboriginal
1. Name has been changed. Teacher Education Program, which allowed her to earn
a BEd through the University of Alberta while working
Reference and remaining in her home community of Slave Lake,
Alberta. She has had many teachers in her life, not all
Alberta Education. 2007. The Alberta K–9 Mathematics Program in the field of education, who have inspired her to be-
of Studies with Achievement Indicators. Edmonton, Alta:
Alberta Education. Also available at http://education.alberta come a teacher. She loves learning for the sake of learn-
.ca/media/645598/kto9math_ind.pdf (accessed Septem- ing and working with children, and is thrilled to be
ber  25, 2013). embarking on her next journey in life as an educator.

24 delta-K, Volume 51, Number 1, December 2013


Alberta High School Mathematics
Competition 2012/13

The Alberta High School Mathematics Competition 7. In a test, Karla solved four-fifths of the problems
is a two-part competition taking place in November and Klaus solved 35 problems. Half of the prob-
and February of each school year. Book prizes are lems were solved by both of them. The number
awarded for Part I, and cash prizes and scholarships of problems solved by neither was a positive
for Part II. Presented here are the problems and solu- one-digit number. What was this number?
tions from the 2012/13 competition. (a) 1 or 2  (b) 3 or 4  (c) 5 or 6  (d) 7 or 8  (e) 9
AHSMC.docx - 1 of 7
8. What is the largest possible integer a such that
Part I exactly three of the following statements are true:
November 21, 2012
Alberta High School Mathematics Competition 2012/13 a < 1, a > 2, a < 3, a > 4 and a < 5?
1. Each
The day Mr Sod
Alberta Highvisited
Schoolpubs A, B, C andCompetition
Mathematics D, in is(a) 0  (b) 1 competition
a two-part (c) 2  (d) 3  (e) 4place in
taking
that order, always spending $35, $12, $40 and
November
$27 and February
at the respective of each
places. His totalschool year. Book 9.
expenditure prizes are awarded
A rectangle withfor Partlength
integer I, and and cashwidth
prizesin cm
hereupare the problems and solutions from the 2012/13 in cm,
has area 70 cm . Which of the following,
2
atand
the scholarships
pubs, from theforbeginning
Part II. Presented
of the month
cannot be the length of the perimeter of the
tocompetition.
a certain moment that month, was $1,061.
rectangle?
Which
Part Ipub would he be visiting next? (a) 34  (b) 38  (c) 74  (d) 98  (e) 142
(a) A  (b) B  (c) C  (d) D  (e) impossible total
November 21, 2012
2. Meeny, Miny 10. The positive integer n is such that between
1. Each dayand MrMoeSod were playing
visited pubstennis.
A, From
B, C and D, inn2that + 1 order,
and 2nalways
2
there arespending
exactly five$35, different
$12,
the second game on, the one who sat out the
$40 and game
preceding $27 atwould
the respective
replace the places.
loser of Histhat total expenditure at theHow
perfect squares. pubs,
many fromsuchthe n can we find?
beginning
game. of the
At the end, month
Meeny up to
played 17agames
certain andmoment that (a) 0 month,
(b) 1  was(c) 2 $1,061.
(d) 3 Which
(e) more pubthan 3
AHSMC.
would he be visiting next?
Miny played 35 games. How many games did
11. ABCD is a rectangle such that AD − AB = 15 cm.
Moe play? B(c) C(d) D(e) impossible total
(a) A(b) PQRS is a square inside ABCD whose sides are
(a) 18  (b) 26  (c) 36  (d) 52  (e) not uniquely
2. Meeny, Miny and Moe were playing tennis.
different perfect squares.parallel From How the to
second
thosesuch
many game
of on,
canthe weone
thenrectangle, withwho
find? P closest
determined to A and Q closest to
sat out the preceding game (a) 0(b)would1(c)replace
2(d) 3(e)themore
loser than
of that 3 game. At the end, Meeny APSD
B. The total area of
3. A circle of diameter r is drawn inside a circle of and BQRC is 363 cm2, while the total area of
played R.
diameter 17 For
games which andofMinythe playedis35
11. following
ABCD a games.
rectangle
pairs How suchmany
APQB andgames
that AD −did
CRSD AB Moe
= 15cm
is 1,113 play?
cm.2
PQRS
. What, in cmis a2, square
is inside A
(r,(a)
R)18(b)
is the26(c)
area of36(d) 52 whose
the smaller (e) sides
circle not uniquely
closest to determined
the area of PQRS?
are parallel to those of the rectangle, with P closest to A and Q c
3. A
half thecircle
area ofofthe
diameter rThe
larger circle? is drawn
total area ofaAPSD
inside circle
of diameter
(a)
and 900 
BQRC(b) R. For cm
1,600 
is 363 which
2(c) of thethe (d)
2,500 
, while total 3,600
area of APQB an
(a) (1, 3)  (b) (2, 4) 
following pairs (r, R) is 1,113 (c) (3, 5) 
the area (d)
of (4,
the 6)
smaller (e)
circle not uniquely
closest to determined
half the area of the larger
(e) (5, 7) cm . What, in cm , is the area of PQRS?
2 2
circle? 12. Weifeng writes down 28 consecutive numbers.
4. A(a) quadratic
(a)satisfies
900(b)f(0) 1,600(c) 2,500(d) 3,600 (e) not uniquely determined
(1, 3)(b)polynomial
(2, 4)(c) (3,f(x)5)(d) (4, 6)(e) (5, = 1,
7) If both the smallest and the largest numbers are
f(1) = 0 and f(2) = 3. What is 12.theWeifeng writes downperfect
value of f(3)? 28 consecutive
squares, whatnumbers.
is the smallest If both
numbertheshe smallest and th
4. A quadratic polynomial f(x) satisfies f(0) = 1, f(1) = 0 and f(2) = 3. What is the value of
(a) −3  (b) 1  (c) 2  (d) 10 numbers (e) noneare perfect squares,
of these writes what
down?is the smallest number she writes down?
f(3)? (a) 9  (b)uniquely
36  (c) 100  (d) 169  (e) not
5. ABCD is a square. E and (a)points
F are 9(b) on36(c) 100(d) 169
the seg- (e) not determined
(a) −3(b) 1(c) 2(d) 10(e) none of these uniquely determined
ment BC such that BE = EF13. = FCIfF the cm. The numbers a and b satisfy
= 4 positive
5. ABCD
segments AFisanda square. E and
DE intersect at G. are points
What, in cm2on, the13. segment BC such that BE = EF = FC = 4
If the positive numbers a and b satisfy
iscm. The of
the area segments AF and DE intersect at G. What, in cm2, is the area of triangle EFG?
triangle EFG?
1 1 1
(a)(a) 6  6(b)
(b) 4√3(c) 8(d)
  (c) 8  12(e)
(d) 12 none of these
(e) none of these + = ,
𝑎𝑎2 + 4𝑏𝑏 + 4 𝑏𝑏 2 + 4𝑎𝑎 + 4 8
6. For how many integers
6. For how many integers n ≥ 2 is the sum of then ≥ 2 is the sum of the
first n positive integers a prime
number?
first n positive integers a prime number? what is the maximum value of a + b?
what is the maximum value of a + b?
(a) 0  (b) 1  (c) 2  d) 3 
(a) 0(b) 1(c) 2d) 3(e) more than 3 (e) more than 3 (a) 3/2  (b) 2  (c) 5/2  (d) 4  (e) none of these
(a) 3/2(b) 2(c) 5/2(d) 4(e) none of these
7. In a test, Karla solved four-fifths of the problems and Klaus solved 35 problems. Half
14. The incircle of triangle ABC is tangent to AB and AC at F and E, respectiv
of the
delta-K, problems
Volume were1,solved
51, Number by both
December 2013 of them. The number of problems solved by 25
1, ∠A = 90° and ∠B ≠ ∠C, what is the distance from the midpoint of BC to EF?
neither was a positive one-digit number. What was this number?
(a) √2/4
(a) 1 or 2(b) 3 or 4(c) 5 or 6(d)
(b)
7 or 8(e) 9√2/2
(c) �3√2�/4 (d) √2 (e) not uniquely determined
15. At the
8. What is the largest possible beginning
integer of the
a such that year,three
exactly thereofwere more robots than androids. On th
the following
1 1 11 1 1 11 1 1 11
+ +++ = =,==, , ,
𝑎𝑎2𝑎𝑎+2𝑎𝑎2+
𝑎𝑎2+4𝑏𝑏
4𝑏𝑏 4 +4+4𝑏𝑏42𝑏𝑏+2𝑏𝑏 +
+4𝑏𝑏4𝑏𝑏
+ 2
𝑏𝑏 2+4𝑎𝑎
4𝑎𝑎 +4𝑎𝑎4𝑎𝑎
+
4 +4+4848 8 8

whatwhat
what
what
is is
the
isthe
isthe
maximum
the
maximum
maximum
maximum value
value
value
value
ofof aof +aofb?
a+a+b?+b?b?
14.
(a) (a) The
3/2(b)
(a)
(a)
3/2(b)incircle
3/2(b)
3/2(b)
2(c) 2(c)2(c)
5/2(d)
2(c) of triangle
5/2(d)
5/2(d)
5/2(d)
4(e)4(e) ABC
4(e)
none
4(e)
nonenoneisoftangent
none of these
ofthese
ofthese to AB and
these 6. The sum of the first n positive integers is
AC at F and E, respectively. If BC = 1, A = 90° [n(n + 1)]/2. Suppose n is even. Then we must
14.14.14.
The
14.
The
and The
incircle
The
Bincircle
incircle
incircle
≠ C, ofof triangle
of triangle
oftriangle
what triangle
is ABC
the ABC ABC
ABC
is is
distance tangent
istangent
istangent
tangent
fromtothe to
ABtoAB
toABand
ABandand AC
and AC
haveAC
atAC atFeither
atand
FatFand
FandE,
and
n/2 E,respectively.
E,
=respectively.
E,1respectively.
respectively.
or n + 1 = If 1.If
BC IfBC
IfBC
=BC
Both = =lead
= to
1, 1,
∠A1,∠A
1, =∠A
∠A 90°
= =90°
midpoint =90°
and
90°and
of and and
∠B
BC ∠B ≠ ∠B
∠B
to ≠ ≠∠C,
∠C,
EF? ≠∠C,what
∠C,whatwhatwhat
is is the
isthe
isthe
distance
the
distance
distance
distance from from
from
from
the thethe
nmidpoint
the
=midpoint
midpoint
2. midpoint
Suppose ofof BC
nofis
BC
ofBC
toBC
odd. to
EF?
toEF?
toEF?
Then EF?we must have either
(a) (a)
(a)(a)
(a)
√2/4√2/4 √2/4(b)
√2/4 (b)
 (b) (b)(b)
√2/2√2/2√2/2√2/2 (c)(c)(c) (c) (c)
�3√2�/4
�3√2�/4
�3√2�/4
�3√2�/4   (d)(d)(d) (d)
√2 (d)
√2 √2 √2(e)(e) not
(e)(e)
not(n
not +
uniquely
not 1)/2
uniquely
uniquely
uniquely= 1 or
determined
determined =
determined
determined
n 1. However, n = 1 is not
(e) not uniquely determined a
­ llowed by the hypothesis. The answer is (b).
15.15.15.
At15.
At the
At At
thethe
beginning
thebeginning
beginning
beginning ofof the
ofthe
ofthe
year,
the year,
year,
year,
therethere
there
there
werewere
were were
moremore
more
more
robots
robots
robots
robots
than than than
than
androids.
androids.
androids.
androids. On On On
the
On
thethe
first
the
first
first
day
firstdayday
day
7. The fraction of problems solved only by Karla
of15. At
of
each
ofeach
ofeacheach
month,
themonth,
month,
month,
beginning eacheacheacheach
robot
ofrobot
robot
the robot
made made
year, made
made seven
there seven
seven
seven
wereandroids
androids
androids
moreandroids and andandeach
and each
was each
each
android
4/5android
android
−android
1/2made =made made
3/10made seven
soseven
seven
seven
that robots.
robots.
the robots.
robots.
total number of
The The
Therobots
next
The next
next
next
day, than
day,day,
day,
each androids.
each
each
each
old oldold On
android
oldandroidthe first
android
android would wouldday
would
would ofpick
pick each
pickpick
a fight
a afight
afight
fight
with with
withwith
a new
a anew
anewnew
android,
android,
android,
android, and andand
they
andthey
they
they
would
would
would
would
problems was a multiple of 10. The fraction of
month, each robot made seven androids and each
destroy
destroy
destroy
destroy
androideacheach
each
each
other.
made other.
other.
other.
seven AtAt the
At At
the
robots.the
end
theend end
of
Theend ofthe
ofthe
nextofthe
year,
theyear,
day,year,
year,
there
each there
there
there
werewere
werewere
46,87546,875
46,875
problems 46,875million
million
million
million
solved robots
byrobots
robots
robots
Klausand and
and
15,625
wasand 15,625
at15,625
15,625
most 1 − 3/10
million
million
million
million = 7/10. Thus, the total number of problems was
old androids.
androids.
androidandroids.
androids.
would What What
What
pickWhat
was was
a fightwasthe
was the
withthe
difference
the
difference
a difference
new difference
android, between
between
between
between the the the
numbers
thenumbers
numbers
numbers ofof robots
ofrobots
ofrobots
robots
and and
and
androids
andandroids
androids
androids
at least 50. If it was 50, then 10 problems were
at atthe
atthe
at the
andbeginning
the
beginning
beginning
they beginning
would ofdestroy
ofthe
ofthe
ofthe
year?
theyear?
year?
each year? other. At the end of solved by Klaus alone, and as Karla solved 4/5
(a)(a) the
less
(a)
(a)
less year,
less
than
less
than
than there
than
1010 (b)
1010 were
(b) at
(b) (b)
at 46,875
least
atleast
atleastleast
1010 million
but
10 10
but but
less
but
less robots
less
than
less
than
than and
than
100 100
100
(c)
100
(c)
at
(c)(c)
at
least
atleast
at×least
least
100 100
50 =100
but
100
40butbut
less
but
lessless
problems,than
less
thanthan
than
1,000
the1,000
1,000
1,000 of problems
number
15,625 million androids. What was the difference
(d)(d)(d)
at(d)
at
least
atleast
atleast
least
1,0001,000
1,0001,000
but but but
less
but
less
less
than
less
than
than than
10,000
10,000
10,000
10,000(e)(e)at
(e)(e)
atleast
atleast
at solved by neither was 0. The total number of
between the numbers of robots and androids atleast
least
10,000
10,000
10,000
10,000
problems could only be as large as 70, since 35
16.16.16.
Let
16.
Let
the mbeginning
Let m
Let
andmand
mandnand n of
be nbe n
positive
be be
positive
the positive
positive
year? integers
integers
integers
integers such such
such
such
that thatthat
11
that 11
divides
1111
divides
divides
divides mm +m13n+m+13n +13n
and
13nandand13
and 13divides
1313
divides
divides mm
divides +m11n.
+m+11n.
+11n.
11n.
problems would be solved by both. In this case,
What
What
What
What
(a)isless
is
the
isthe
isthan
the
minimum
the
minimum
minimum
minimum
10  (b)value
atvaluevalue
leastvalue
of10ofmof
but m+mn?
of +m+n?
less +n?n? 100
than the number of problems solved by neither was
(a)(a) (c)
24(b)
(a)
(a)
24(b)at
24(b) least
24(b)
26(c)
26(c) 100
26(c)
26(c)
28(d) but
28(d)
28(d)
28(d) less
30(e)
30(e)
30(e) than
30(e)
34 3434 1,000  (d)
34 at least 1/5 × 70 = 14. It follows that the total number of
1,000 but less than 10,000  (e) at least 10,000 problems must be 60, of which 30 were solved
Solutions
Solutions
Solutions
Solutions
by both, 5 by Klaus alone, 3/10 × 60 = 18 prob-
1.16. Let
1.
Note
1.Note
1.Note mthat
Note
that and
that
35
that35 n+35be
12
35
+ +12 +positive
1240
12
+ +40+4027 + integers
40 +27=+27114
27
= =114 =114
andsuch
114 andand that
1,061
and1,061
1,061 11
1,061
= 9= =×9=9114
×9×114 ×114
+11435.
+ +35.
lems +35.
Thus,
35.
byThus,
Thus,
Thus,
KarlaMrMr Mr
Sod
MrSod
alone, Sod
had
Sod had
and had
spent
had
60spent
spent
−spent
30$35 $35
− $35
5$35
− 18 = 7
divides m + 13n and 13 divides m + 11n. What is
onon the
ononthethe
10th
the
10th
10th
10th
day day day
of
day
the minimum value of m + n? ofthat
of that
ofthat
month
that month
month
month at at
pubatpub
at pubA.
pub A.
The
A. A.
The The
answer
The answer
answer
answer is is
(b).
by is
(b).
is(b). (b).
neither of them. The answer is (d).
2. 2.
Since
2.Since
2. Since
(a) Since
Meeny
24  Meeny
Meeny
Meeny
(b) played
26  played
played
played
(c) 1717
28  games,
17 17
(d)games,
games,
games,
30  Miny
(e)MinyMiny
34Miny
and and and
Moe
andMoe MoeMoe
played
played
played
8. played
Noteeacheach each
each
that other
other
a other
>other
2atand
at
most
atmost
at
amost
<most
17
3 17+17117
+ +=1+118
cannot =both
1=18=1818
be true as
times,
times,
times,
times,
andandandeach
and each
each each
could
could
could
could
play playplay
play
at at most
atmost
atmost most
1818 +1817
18
+ +17 =+1735
17
= =35 games.
=3535
games.
games.
games. there
As As Miny
As are
AsMiny no
Miny
Miny integers
played
played
played
played 35between
35games,
3535
games, 2Moe
games,
games, andMoe 3.Moe
Moe Similarly,
Solutions a > 4 and a < 5 cannot both be true. Since exactly
did did
did
not
didnotnot
play
not
play
playplay
MeenyMeeny
Meeny
Meeny but butbut
played
butplayed
played
playedMiny Miny
MinyMiny
1818 times.
1818 times.
times.
times.
The TheThe
answer
The answer
answer
answer
three isofis(a).
is(a).
theis(a).
(a).
statements are true, a < 1 must be
3.1.
3.
We3.We
3. We
want
Note Wewant
want
want
that (r/R)
(r/R)
35 (r/R)toto
+(r/R)
2 2 2 2
12 be
+to40
be
toclose
be +be
close
close
27 close
to= to1/2.
114to1/2.
to1/2.
We
and1/2.We We
have
We
1,061 havehave
=have
(1/3)
9 (1/3)
(1/3)
(1/3)
< (2/4)
2 2 2 2
< <(2/4)
<(2/4)
(2/4)
< Hence,
2 2 2 2
true. (3/5)
< <(3/5)
<(3/5)
(3/5)
<the
2 2 2 2
(4/6)
< <(4/6)
<(4/6)
(4/6)
= 4/9
= =possible
2 2 2 2
largest 4/9
=4/9
and
4/9
and
and(5/7)
and (5/7)
(5/7)
value (5/7)
2 2 2 2
is a = 0,
= 25/49.
= =25/49.
=×25/49.
25/49.
114Since
Since
+SinceSince
35.25/49 25/49
25/49
Thus, 25/49
− Mr1/2
− −1/2−1/2
=1/2
Sod 1/98
= had
=1/98
=1/98
1/98
<spent
1/18
< <1/18<1/18
1/18
= 1/2
$35 = on
=1/2 =1/2
−the
1/2
4/9,
− −4/9,
−4/9,
the
4/9,the the
answer
the
answer
andanswer
answer
foris this
is
(e).
is(e).
is(e).
(e). the three statements a < 1,
value,
4. 4.
Let 10th
4.Let
4. f(x)
LetLetday
f(x)
f(x)
=f(x)=of=ax
ax 2 that
=+ax +2 month
2 bx
ax +2bx++bxc.
bx at
+ +c. pub
+c.Then
Then c.Then 1A.=1The
Then 1f(0)
=1=f(0)=answer
f(0)
=f(0)
c, 0=c,=is
= =c, (b).
0c,0f(1)
=0=f(1)
=f(1)a= +=a=ba+a+ba+cb+<band
=f(1) +c +3candcand
and
3and =<3=f(2)
=3a3f(2) 5=f(2)
=are
f(2)
4a
= =4atrue
+2b
=4a+2b and
4a+2b + +the
c.
++2b c.
We+c.Wetwo
c.We We statements
2. Since Meeny played 17 games, Miny and Moe a > 2 and a > 4 are false. The answer is (a).
played each other at most 17 + 1 = 18 times, and 9. We have 70 = 1 × 70 = 2 × 35 = 5 × 14 = 7 × 10.
each could play at most 18 + 17 = 35 games. As Thus, there are four possible shapes of the rect-
Miny played 35 games, Moe did not play Meeny angle, with respective perimeters 142 cm, 74 cm,
but played Miny 18 times. The answer is (a). 38 cm and 34 cm. The answer is (d).
3. We want (r/R)2 to be close to 1/2. We have (1/3)2 10. Solving (n + 5)2 < 2n2 < (n + 6)2 yields 50 < (n
< (2/4)2 < (3/5)2 < (4/6)2 = 4/9 and (5/7)2 = 25/49. − 5)2 and (n − 6)2 < 72. Thus, 8 ≤ n − 5 and n − 6
Since 25/49 − 1/2 = 1/98 < 1/18 = 1/2 − 4/9, the < 9 or 13 ≤ n ≤ 14. The answer is (c).
answer is (e). 11. We shade the regions APQB and CRSD, while
leaving the regions APSD and BQRC unshaded.
4. Let f(x) = ax2 + bx + c. Then 1 = f(0) = c, 0 = f(1)
Extend the sides of PQRS to the perimeter of
= a + b + c and 3 = f(2) = 4a +2b + c. We have c
ABCD, creating four rectangles at the corners,
= 1, a + b = −1 and 2a + b = 1. Hence, a = 2 and
each of which consists of two congruent triangles,
b = −3, so that f(3) = 10. The answer is (d).
one shaded and one unshaded. The difference
5. Triangles GAD and GFE are similar, with AD = between the total area A            D
3EF. Hence, the vertical A         D of the unshaded re- P         S
height of triangle EFG is gions (not counting
1/3 of the vertical height of PQRS) and the total
triangle ADG. Hence, it is area of the shaded
equal to (1/4)AB = 3 cm so G regions is 1,113 − 363
that the area of triangle = 750 cm2. The differ-
Q         R
EFG is 1/2 × 3 × 4 = 6 cm . 2
ence in the lengths of
The answer is (a). B    E   F    C AD and AB is 15 cm. B            C

26 delta-K, Volume 51, Number 1, December 2013


Hence, the side length of PQRS is 750 ÷ 15 = 15. Let the numbers of robots and androids be r and
50 cm, and the area of PQRS is 2,500 cm2. The a respectively. After one month, these numbers
answer is (c). became r + 7a and 7r − a. After another month,
12. Let the smallest and the largest numbers WeifengAHSMC.docx AHSMC.docx - 4 of 7
they- 4became
of 7 (r + 7a) + 7(7r − a) = 50r and 7(r +
writes down beAHSMC.docx n2 and m2 respectively. of 7Since theyAHSMC.docx
- 4AHSMC.docx AHSMC.docx
- 4 of
AHSMC.docx 7 7a) -−4- (7r
of 7−7a) = 50a. Hence, after a two-month
- 4- 4ofof
4 77
AHSMC.docx
AHSMC.docx period,ofthe
- 4 of
7 number of robots became 50 times
are the ends of a block of 28 consecutive numbers,AHSMC.docx - 4 of 7
have m + n = 9 and m − n = 3, whereby2 m =26 and n = 3. Thus, the smallest number the original
have m + n = 9 and(m m+ − nn)(m = 23, −whereby n) = m m− n= 6=and 27. nWe = 3.mayThus, have themAHSMC.docx
smallest number - 4 of 7 number, and the same goes for the
feng have m+ =n=++ 6=n 9==whereby
9 and m− −nbe n==33,3,=wherebywhereby m ===whereby
666number
andanswer n = 3. Thus, (e).the smallest
smallestnumber
−writes 3,down nmay 9m or 13 nn=22 ===3.169. The is and
2
ave
dreby
feng
ave mm
have
have m mm
mn
writes
+ n + =
n
n and
down
9 =
and
9 and
and
9 and
m=+m
may
m m n− −−=
3. n mn
Thus,
be n27
=
=3223,
= 3, 3,
whereby
6=whereby
and and
the
9 or−smallest
whereby 13 m
m
m
m1, Thus,
169.
= = 6 6
and
The
and thenm
answer
n =
3.
3.
3.
3.
Thus,
=smallest
= Thus,
14is (e).the
Thus,
Thus,
the
n =smallest
number
the
the smallestnumber
smallest
numberof androids. There being six two-month
number
number
number
Wefeng writes
have down may be 3 = 9 or 13 = 169. The answer is (e). periods in a year, the initial number of robots was
ngfeng
ave
Wemay 13 writes
2 m
= writes
havebe down
+ n3 =The
169. 2
=down
99and ormaymay
m −=nbe
answer
13 13.2 be We 3
169.
2= 9 or
=is3323,2(e).
2 may
=whereby
The 13
9 oranswer
have 22=
1322 =m169.
m 169.
+= is n The
6 and =
(e). 9 answer
answer
and m
n = 3. Thus, is (e).
is (e). the smallest number
− n = 3,
ng
Wefeng
ave writes
writes
have
m + n down
= down
9 and maymay
m −be nbe =3 3, = = 9 9 or
wherebyor 13 13 = =m 169.
169.
= 6 The
and answer
answer
n = 3. is
is
Thus, (e).
(e). the smallest number
46,875,000,000 ÷ 506 = 3, and the initial number
We
ng have whereby
have down may be 32 = 9 or 132 = 169. The answer is (e).
writes m = 6 and n = 3. Thus, the smallest
We
ng havehave down may
writes numberbe 3211Weifeng ==9 or 1311writes 2
= 169. downThe11answermay be 3is (e). 2
= 9 or of androids was 15,625,000,000 ÷ 506 = 1. The
have 13 = 169.
2 1 =The
8 2
𝑎𝑎2 +answer1 +4+
4𝑏𝑏
+
is 𝑏𝑏(e).+ 4𝑎𝑎
2 1 +4 answer is (a).
have 11 11 1 +4
1
1 1 1 1 1 1==
8
8
𝑎𝑎 +
= 𝑎𝑎22 + 114𝑏𝑏1 +
4𝑏𝑏 + 4+
4 + 𝑏𝑏 22 + 4𝑎𝑎
+ 𝑏𝑏 2 + 4𝑎𝑎 1 +4
1 16. Since 13 divides 6(m + 11n) = (6m + n) + 13(5n), AHSMC.d
+ = 13. We have 8
1+88==2𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 2+
1+
2 4𝑏𝑏+
4𝑏𝑏
1 +44 + + 𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏22 + + 4𝑎𝑎4𝑎𝑎
1 +
1+4 4
4𝑏𝑏 + 4 8𝑏𝑏 + 2 2
𝑎𝑎 4𝑎𝑎
++ 4𝑏𝑏4=+ 4 8 𝑎𝑎 + 4𝑏𝑏 + 4 𝑏𝑏 + 4𝑎𝑎 + 4
=𝑏𝑏 𝑎𝑎 +1 +4𝑎𝑎 1 ++4𝑏𝑏 44 + 13 divides 6m + n. Since 11 divides 6(m + 13n)
2 4𝑏𝑏 + 𝑏𝑏 + 4𝑎𝑎2 +4
= (𝑎𝑎1 −=2)𝑎𝑎222 1 + + 𝑏𝑏(𝑏𝑏2 − 1 1 1+4𝑏𝑏
= (𝑎𝑎8 − 2) 1
++4𝑎𝑎 4𝑏𝑏+
4𝑎𝑎 ++4𝑏𝑏 4+ + (𝑏𝑏 + 2)
− 4𝑎𝑎+
2) + 1 4+
4𝑏𝑏 +
4𝑎𝑎
4𝑎𝑎 = (6m + n) + 11(7n), 11 also divides 6m + n.
(𝑎𝑎8− 2)𝑎𝑎221 4𝑎𝑎+11
2 +4𝑎𝑎 4𝑏𝑏++4𝑏𝑏 4 + 𝑏𝑏(𝑏𝑏 − 2 + 2) + 4 + 4𝑎𝑎
1 1== =(𝑎𝑎(𝑎𝑎−−2) 2) 11+
2 2++4𝑎𝑎 4𝑎𝑎 1+ 4𝑏𝑏 +
+ (𝑏𝑏 − 2) + 1 4𝑏𝑏
46,875,000,0004𝑏𝑏 + 4𝑎𝑎 ÷ 50 6 = 3, and the initial number of androids was 15,625,000,000
Hence, 11 × 13 = 143 divides 6m + n, so that
= + = (𝑎𝑎+ − 2)2 1+ 4𝑎𝑎1++4𝑏𝑏 4𝑏𝑏 + (𝑏𝑏 (𝑏𝑏 − 1 2)
− 2) + + 4𝑏𝑏 +
1 4𝑏𝑏 +4𝑎𝑎4𝑎𝑎
4𝑎𝑎 + 4𝑏𝑏 (𝑎𝑎 −(𝑏𝑏 2)− 2+ 2)4𝑎𝑎
+=4𝑏𝑏 + (𝑎𝑎 +−
4𝑏𝑏 4𝑎𝑎2) (𝑏𝑏2≤ −1 4(𝑎𝑎 1+ 𝑏𝑏) + 4(𝑎𝑎The
+ 4𝑎𝑎
2) 1
+
+ 4𝑏𝑏
4𝑏𝑏 ++ (𝑏𝑏
4𝑎𝑎 −1
1+2)
2) + answer
1 4𝑏𝑏 + 4𝑎𝑎 is (a). 6m + n = 143k for some integer k. Since
= (𝑎𝑎 − 2)2≤ +4(𝑎𝑎4𝑎𝑎 1+ 4𝑏𝑏 +4(𝑎𝑎 (𝑏𝑏 − 1+ 𝑏𝑏) + 4𝑏𝑏 + 4𝑎𝑎
≤ +
4𝑎𝑎11+ 4𝑏𝑏 𝑏𝑏) + 1 𝑏𝑏) 4𝑎𝑎divides 6(m +6(m + n) = 143k + 5n = 6(24k + n) − (k + n),
16. k + n+son)that n) =+ n. Since 11
𝑏𝑏)Since
+ 4𝑏𝑏 +13 11n) = (6m + 13(5n),
k + n ≥ 6.13 divides
6(m + 6m
(𝑎𝑎 − 2) ≤+4(𝑎𝑎 𝑏𝑏) + 4(𝑎𝑎 (𝑏𝑏 − +2)
1 1 1 ≤≤1 4(𝑎𝑎1+ + 𝑏𝑏)+ + 4(𝑎𝑎1 + 𝑏𝑏) 6 divides Now
+ ≤ 4(𝑎𝑎 4(𝑎𝑎1++𝑏𝑏) 𝑏𝑏)+ 1 4(𝑎𝑎4(𝑎𝑎1+ 𝑏𝑏)
+
𝑎𝑎 + 𝑏𝑏) 4(𝑎𝑎 + 𝑏𝑏)

4(𝑎𝑎 + 𝑏𝑏) 4(𝑎𝑎 ≤+ 4(𝑎𝑎𝑏𝑏)1=+ 𝑏𝑏) + 1 4(𝑎𝑎. 1
1+ 𝑏𝑏). + 𝑏𝑏)
6(m + 13n) = (6m + n) + 11(7n), 143k +11 5nalso
= 138kdivides
+ 5(k +6m n) +≥ n. Hence,
138 + 30 = 11168.× 13 = 143 divi
≤ 4(𝑎𝑎 = + 2(𝑎𝑎
𝑏𝑏) + 1+4(𝑎𝑎 + 𝑏𝑏)
𝑏𝑏). n, so that 6m + n = 143k for some integer k. Since 6(m + n) = 143k + 5n = 6(24k +
4(𝑎𝑎 =
= 2(𝑎𝑎
𝑏𝑏) 11+4(𝑎𝑎
+ 2(𝑎𝑎
𝑏𝑏) .
+ 𝑏𝑏)
Consequently, m + n ≥ 28, and this is attained if
== 2(𝑎𝑎 1+ 𝑏𝑏).. m = 23 and n = 5. The answer is (c).
ce,
=
1
a + b ≤ 4. .This maximum =
1 value
. is 2(𝑎𝑎 1+ 𝑏𝑏).if6 and
2(𝑎𝑎
= attained + 𝑏𝑏) divides only ifk a+=nb so The kanswer
= 2.that + n ≥ 6. is Now 6(m + n) = 143k + 5n = 138k + 5(k + n) ≥ 138
ce, a + b ≤ 4. This maximum value is 2(𝑎𝑎 1+ 𝑏𝑏).if and only if a = b = 2. The answer is
= attained
a + b+≤ 𝑏𝑏)
ce, 2(𝑎𝑎 4. This maximum 2(𝑎𝑎 + value
𝑏𝑏) is attained if and only if a = b = 2. The answer
m +answern ≥ 28,is
ce, a + b ≤ 4. This Hence,
maximum a +value b ≤ 4.is =This + 𝑏𝑏).if168.
2(𝑎𝑎maximum
attained andvalue Consequently,
onlyisifattained
a = b = 2. The is and this is attained if m = 23 and n = 5. The ans
ce, a
, a +Mb be
Let + b ≤
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value
and is
if aDis=the attained
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b =point + 𝑏𝑏)
2. Thewhere if and
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and II
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if a =isbtangent
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respective Mif
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and
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B',
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√2,Let
is
C′celes and M′
triangle. bemidpoint
the respective
Hence, soBC areprojections
BB′FDand of
CC′E. B, C and
Hence,
1. MBB′ on=EF.
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and M
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and
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isLet
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BB′
tangent
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on==circle
BF/
ofto
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√2
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B,is
√2
NowBC.
tangent
andAEF
Ctangent
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Let
is
CC′is=to aCE/
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Determine
√2,Let
right so integers
pairs of (a,positive integers that
b) with
celesnd M′triangle.
be the Hence,
respective so are BB′F
projections and CC′E.
of B, CHence,Hence,
and BB′ BF/ √2 and CC′ = aCE/≤ b√2,
suchso that
celes M be triangle.
the Hence,
midpoint and soM
of BCare on BB′F
and EF. D and the
Now CC′E.
point
AEF is a M
where on=circle
BB′
the
right EF.
BF/Now √2isand
isosceles AEFCC′is=to
tangent aCE/right
BC.√2,Letso
es
ndtriangle.
spective
ons of be
M′ B,projections
Cthe Hence,
andrespective so
Mtriangle.
onof areEF. B, BB′F
CNow
projections and and AEF
M CC′E.
ofon is
B,EF.aCHence,
rightNow
and MBB′ on=EF.
AEF BF/
isHence,
aNow
√2 and
right AEF CC′ is =a CE/right √2, so
es triangle. Hence,
nd M′ be the respective projections of so are BB′F
Hence, and so 1 B, C and M on EF. Now AEF is a right so
CC′E.
are BB'F Hence, and BB′
CC'E.= BF/ √2 and CC′ = CE/ √2, 6 6
es
ce,triangle.
nd CC′E.
so are Hence, Hence,
BB′F and soCC′E.
BB′
BB' are
== BF/BF/ BB′FHence,
√2MM' and
and CC′E.
BB′
CC′
=CC'1 (BB'
1 =
= = BF/
CE/Hence,
+CE/ CC')
√2 √2, and
so BB′
so = BF/=√2
CC′
that CE/ and
√2, CC′
so = CE/√2, so �𝑎𝑎 + � �𝑏𝑏 + � = 25.
es triangle. Hence, so are BB′FMM' and= =CC′E.
2
1 (BB' Hence, + CC') BB′ = BF/√2 and CC′ = CE/√2, so 𝑏𝑏 𝑎𝑎
MM' 2 (BB' + CC')
MM' = 1 2 (BB' + CC')
MM' = 112 (BB' + CC') 2. A set S of positive integers is called perfect if any
MM' = =1 12(BB'
(BF ++CE) CC') S perfect
MM' = =1 2
1 (BB'
(BF + + 2.
CC')
CE) A set of positive integerstwo integers is called
in S have if any two
no common divisors greaterin S have no
integers
1 1 MM' = 2√2 =11
2√2 2 (BF ++CE)
(BB' CC')
' = (BB' + CC') MM' = (BB' + MM' CC') = =12 (BB'
= 2√2
(BF + CE) divisors greater than 1. than Candy 1. Candywants to build
wants to build a aperfect setofofnum-
perfect set numbers betwee
2 2 11 2 (BF ++CE)
2√2 CC')
bers between 1 and 20 inclusive, in such a way that
== 2√2 11 (BF (BD + + CE) CD)inclusive, in such a wayher that her set contains as many numbers as possible.
== 2√2 11
2√2 (BF
(BD + + CE)
CD) set contains as many numbers as possible.
1 1 === 2√2 11
2√2 (BD +
(BF
1 (BD + CD) + CD)
CE) (a) How many elements (a) willHow her set elements
many have? will her set have?
(BF + CE) = (BF + CE)==2√2 2√2 (BF
(BD + + CE) CD)
2√2 2√2 2√2
1
= 2√2
2√2
1 =(BD
BC
BC+ CD) (b) How many different such sets can she build?
(b) How many different such sets can she build?
= 2√2 = (BD BC
1 = 2√2 BC+ CD)
2√2 3. Randy plots a point3. A. Then
Randy he astarts
plots point A. drawing
Then he starts some rays starting
drawing some at A, so t
1 1 = 2√2 1 =(BD BC+ CD)
2√2
(BD + CD) = (BD + CD) = 2√2=(BD + CD) rays starting at A, so that all the angles he gets are
2√2 2√2 2√2 2√2
2√2
BC
√2 angles he gets are integral multiples of 10°. What is the largest number of ray
integral multiples of 10°. What is the largest num-
== BC √2.
==2√2 √2
BC
√24 . draw so that all the angles ber of at rays
A between
he can draw thesorays that are unequal,
all the angles atincluding
A all an
answerBCis (a). BC ===2√2 BC
√24.
4 . between nonadjacent rays? between the rays are unequal, including all angles
answer
= is (a). The answer = is (a). ==2√2 4. A
Let answer
the2√2 is (a). of robots
numbers and androids2√2 be
√24 r and a respectively. After one month, between nonadjacent rays?
Let answer is
the numbers (a). of robots 2√2 and androids be. r and 4. In a convex pentagon
a respectively. After one month, of perimeter 10, each diagonal is parallel to one of the
Let answer
the
e numbers is
numbers (a).
became of robots
r + 7a and and androids
− a. After
= √2 be r and a respectively. After one month,
and7r 4 another month, they became (r +month,
In7a) + 7(7r pentagon of perimeter 10, each diago-
B'
Let e the numbers
numbers became of robots
r + 7a and 7randroids
− a. = √2
After be . r and a respectively.
another month, they After
became one4.
(r + a convex
7a) +of7(7r
Let=eeswer theand
numbers
50r isnumbers
(a). 7(rbecame
+ 7a)of−robots
r +
(7r 7a − and
and
a) = 7randroids
50a. − a.
F
After
Hence, = be
√2 .
afterr and
4 another Find
a the sum
a Erespectively.
month,
two-month they ofbecame
period, thethe
After lengths
one(r +month,
number 7a) its diagonals.
+parallel
7(7r
=eswernumbers
50r √2
is (a).
and 7(rbecame
+ 7a) −r(7r r + 7a √2
− a) and 7r
= 50a. − a. After
Hence, = 4 another
.
after
M' a month,
two-month they became
period,
C' the (r +nal
number 7a) is+ of
7(7r to one of the sides. Find the sum of
of
numbers
= . became + = 7a and . 7r − a. After another 5. month,
Find all they
integers became (r +
r > number
s the 7a)
>month, +
tofand 7(7r
of allofquadratic polynomials of the form f(x) = x2
ots
ots
=swer
=the
50r
50r
the
and
numbers
becameis4 (a).
and
became
numbers
7(r
7(r50+
50
7a)robots
of
+times
− the
7a)robots
times
of
(7r −original
− the
(7r −original4a)
and = 50a.
a) = 50a.
and
androids
androids
Hence,
number,
Hence,
number,
4after
be
be
and r and
after
and r and
the
the
a two-month
asame
respectively.
a two-month
a same
goes
goes
respectively.
period,
for the
period,
for
After
the
the
theone
number
number
After number
one of
lengths
month, of its diagonals.
ots=swer 50r andis (a). 7(r +times
7a)r−six (7r a) = 50a.
−original Hence, after a two-month period, theintegers,
number of
numbers
roids.
ots
roids.thebecameThere
numbers
becameThere
50being
became
50being +the
of robots
times six the7a and
and7r
two-month
original
two-month
−number,
androids a. After
periods
number,
periods beand
another
andin
r and
in
athe
athe
such asame
year,
year, same that
month,
the goesb they
initial
respectively.
the goes
initial
andfornumber
the number
c are
became
After
fornumber
the of
one
number (rrobots
5. Find
of(rrobots
of
+month,
7a)all
of +rintegers
was
was
+ t = 2s,r >f(r)
7(7r s >= t1,andf(s)all=quadratic
b and f(t)poly-= c.
numbers
ots
roids.the numbers
becameThere became
50 of
times
being r +
robots
six the7a and
and
original
two-month 7r −
androids a.
number,After
periods be another
and r
in and
a the a
year, month,
respectively.
same the goes they
initial for became
After
the
number one
number
of +
robots7a)
month,
of
nomials + 7(7r
was of the form f(x) = x 2
+ bx + c such that
roids0r
numbers
roids. andbe7(r
robots and +being
r and
became 7a)
androids + 7a − a)
a−respectively.
r(7r be
and =r50a. and
7r Hence,
a.aperiods
−After after
respectively.
After one inmonth,
another ayear,
two-month
a Solutions After
month, one theyperiod,
month,
became theof(r number
+ 7a) was + of7(7r
0r andThere
roids.
numbers 7(r
There +being
became 7a) −r(7rsix
six
+ 7a
two-month
− a)
two-month
and = 50a. − Hence,
7r number, Afterafter
a.periods in a a
another year,
the initial
two-month
the initial
month, they
number
period,
number
became theof(r
robots
number
robots
b+and7a) cwas of
+are7(7r
integers, r + t = 2s, f(r) = 1, f(s) = b and
ea.0r became
rAfter
+and
7a and7(r 50
another times
+ 7r7a)−−a. the
month,
(7rAfter original
− a) another =they50a.became Hence,month, and
(r +they
after the
7a)
1. same
+same
Thebecame
a two-month7(7r goes
given for
(rperiod,
+ 7a)the
equation number
+ number
7(7r
the may
number of
be rewritten
of as ab + 36/ab + 12 = 25. Therefore,
became
0r and 50
7(rbeing times
+ 7a) −six Bthe original
− a) = 50a. Hence,
(7rtwo-month number, and
M after the
D a two-month goes for the
C period, the number of f(t) of
= c.
Hence,ds.
became
−ds.(7rThere 50
a) =being
− after times
50a. the
a two-month
Hence, original after period, periods
number,
a periods
two-month and
the number in a theyear, same
period, the
ofthethe initial
goes for
number number
the numberof robots
of of robots of
(ab) 2was
− 13ab + 36 = (ab − 4)(ab − 9) = 0.
becameThere 50 timessix thetwo-month
original number, andin athe year, same initial
goes fornumber
the number of was
umber, ds. There
s the original being
and thenumber, six two-month
same goes andfor thetheperiods
same number in
goesHence,a year,
of the
for the number initial
= 4 orof number of robots was
ds. There being six two-month
delta-K, Volume 51, periods
Number in 1, a year,
December theabinitial ab = 9. Note that a and b are positive integers with
2013 number of robots was 27
a ≤ b. If ab =
periods
six two-month in a year, periods
the initial in a numberyear, theofinitial robots number
was of robots was
have (a, b) = (1, 4) or (2, 2). If ab = 9, we have (a, b) = (1, 9) or (3,3). It is easy to v
all four are indeed solutions.
2.
maximalpowers
perfect of sets.
distinct primes. Since there are only eight primes less than 20—namely, 2, 3
3. Let n ≥ 2 be the 17
5, 7, 11, 13, and 19—our
number claim
of rays is justified.
drawn 𝑛𝑛 by 𝑛𝑛(𝑛𝑛
Randy.
− 1) Then there are
(b)Every maximal perfect set Candy�can
� build
= must have the form
2 2
𝑆𝑆 = �1, 2𝑖𝑖2 , 3𝑖𝑖3 , 5𝑖𝑖5 , 7𝑖𝑖7 , 11𝑖𝑖11 , 13𝑖𝑖13 , 17𝑖𝑖17 , 19𝑖𝑖19 �,
where each exponent is a positive integer. 𝑛𝑛 𝑛𝑛(𝑛𝑛 − 1)
Since 52 > 20, the exponent for all primes
Solutions � � =
W
pairs of rays. greaterEach than or pair
equal determines
to 5 must betwo 2Xangles
1. Since 24 ≤ 20 2adding
≤ 25 and up32 ≤ to 20 360°.
≤ 33, theHence,
exponent thefor
1. The given equation may benumber rewrittenmust Y V
ofasanglesbe 1,+ 2,between
ab 3 or 4, andtwo of the nfor
the exponent rays3 must be 1 or 2.n(n
is exactly This−yields1). The eightmeasure
different o
36/ab + 12 = 25. Therefore, pairs of rays. Each pair determines
angle is maximal clearly perfect
less thansets. 360°. Sincetwo it isangles
supposed adding to be upantointegral360°. Hence, multiple the ot
(ab)2 − 13ab + 36 = (ab − 4)(ab − 9)
3. =
Let 0.n ≥ 2 be the number of rays drawn
of the nof by Randy. Then there are
number
are at most of angles35 values betweenfor the two measures rays these
A
is exactly
angles. U n(n
Since − 1). Theare
they measure
distinct, o
Hence, ab = 4 or ab = 9. Note that a and b are
angle is clearly 5 =less 30 <than
35 <360°. 42 = Since it is𝑛𝑛supposedn ≤ −6.1)Itto is be an integral multiple o
positive integers with a ≤ b. 35. If ab Now, = 4, 6we× have 7 × 6. Hence,
� �=
𝑛𝑛(𝑛𝑛 possible for Randy to dr
(a, b) = (1, 4) or (2, 2). If ab are 9, at
=rays, most
wedetermining
have (a, 35b)values for the measures
= 30 distinct angles. Inof 2thethese 2angles.
diagram Since∠UAV
below, they are distinct,
= 60°, ∠VA
(1, 9) or (3,3). It is easy to verify 35. Now,= 610°,
that all × 5 = 30 < =3520°,
four are < 42∠YAZ = 7 × 6. Hence,
= 140° n ∠ZAU
≤ 6. It is= possible for Randy to dr
indeed solutions.
∠WAX pairs of∠XAY rays. Each pair determines two and angles 90°.
Z adding up to 360°. Hence, the total
rays,
We now determining
verify of
number that30the
anglesdistinct
30 angles
between angles.
two between
of theIn nthe rays diagram
two rays are
is exactly below,
n(n −distinct.
1). The∠UAV We= have
measure 60°, ∠VA
of such∠Wa
2. (a) Candy’s perfect set may be {1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, We now verify that the 30 angles between two rays
∠WAX
∠VAX = 10°,
= 50°,is∠VAY
angle ∠XAY
is clearly = 20°,
= 70°,
less than ∠YAZ 360°. = 140°
= 100°,
Since it isand ∠ZAU
∠UAX ==30°,
supposed to =
110°,
be 90°.
an integral = 130°, ∠ZAVth=
multiple of 10°,
13, 17, 19}. We claim that this number the are∠UAWdistinct. We have WAY VAX∠UAY = 50°,
highest possible. Now a We ∠XAZ
maximal now verifyand
are
=perfect
160° at most that
set 35 the 30
values
∠WAZ VAY =angles
for the
170°. between
measures
These
= 70°, UAW aretwo
of these
nine rays
angles.
= 100°, are distinct.
Since
different
UAX = 110°,We
they
angles are have
distinct,
distinct n(n∠WA
from− 1)
Hence,=n 150°,
must contain the element∠VAX = 35.
1, as otherwise
between 50°, Now,
adjacent∠VAY we6 × 5 == 70°,
30 UAY
rays. 30
< 35 < 42==130°,
All ∠UAW
have
7 × 6.ZAV
= 100°,
measures ∠UAX ≤ 6. It XAZ
= is possible
110°, = 160°
∠UAY for Randy
= 130°,
and to draw six
∠ZAVth =
can add 1 and obtain a larger perfectrays, determining
set. Also, WAZdistinct =angles. In theless
170°. These diagram than
are ninebelow,
180°.
different
Corresponding
∠UAV angles= 60°, ∠VAW to = 40°
a maximal perfect set cannot
∠XAZ
angles, =we
contain
160°
∠WAX have
an
and ∠WAZ
15
= 10°,
ele- ∠XAY
=20°,
otherdistinct 170°.
=angles
These
greater
from
∠YAZ =the140°
are
sixthan
and
nine 180°,
between
∠ZAU
different
=yielding
90°.
adjacent angles
rays. Alldistinct
a total from
of 30 distin
ment that is divisible by between 4.
twoLet L be
distinct Weadjacent
the
nowpoint
primes, rays.
verify thatAll
of thehave
intersection
have measures
30 measures
angles ofless
ECthan
between less
and
two thanCorresponding
DB.
180°.
rays 180°.
Let
are M be Corresponding
distinct. the
We to point∠WAY
have on theto= 30°
the
as otherwise we can replace angles, that we
element
∠VAX have = by 15
50°, other
∠VAY these
=angles
70°, 15
∠UAWangles,
greater
= we
100°, have
than∠UAX 15
180°, =other
110°, angles
yielding
∠UAY greater
a
= total
130°, of
∠ZAV 30= distinc
150°,
the two primes and obtain a larger perfect
AB such that MC is parallelthan 180°,
to AE. ThenaABLE
yielding total
and
ofdifferent
AMCE
30 distinct
are parallelograms
angles.
4. Let L ∠XAZ
be the =set.
160° and
point of ∠WAZ
intersection = 170°. These
of EC are andnineDB. Let Mangles
be distinct
the point from the sixex
Hence, each element other triangles
than 1 isbetween aDLC
positive and EABrays.
adjacent4. Let
areAll similar,
have
as are triangles
measures less than
AMC
180°.
and
Corresponding
ELD. Iton
to these
the
follows15
ABdistinct
such angles,that MC is parallel LtobeAE. the point
ThenofABLE intersection
and of EC and
AMCE areDB. parallelograms
power of a prime. Moreover, elements we have 15 Let other angles greater than 180°, yielding a total of 30 distinct angles
AHSMC.docx M be-the 6 ofpoint
7 are on the extension of AB such
are powers of distinct primes. triangles Since there EAB
4.DLCLet Land EC that
be the point are
AHSMC.docxof similar,
EL+LC
intersection
MC is as
parallelof LC
EC
to triangles
and
AE. DB.
Then DL Let AMC
ABLEM beand DLand
the point
AMCE ELD. onAB It follows
the extension
are only eight primes less than 20—namely, = = -16+of 7 = 1 + =1+ =1+ .
AB such that MC AB isare parallelograms.
AB
parallel to AE. Then AB Note
ABLEthat EA
and triangles
AMCE are DLC
CM and EC
parallelograms. Note t
2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17 and 19—our claim is
wers of distinct primes. Since there are only eight primes less than 20—namely, 2, 3, triangles DLC EC
and EAB
EAB EL+LC are
are similar,
similar, asas
LCareare triangles
trianglesDL AMC
AMC andand
DL ELD.
ELD. It AB
follows that
justified. =It follows = 1 + 2= 1 + =1+ =1+ .
that
of distinct
, 11, primes.
13, 17 and 19—our Since
(b) Every there
claimmaximal areperfect
is justified.only eight LetCandy
set xprimes
= EC/AB.can lessbuild thanABx20—namely,
Then, = 1 +AB 1/x so that 2, 3,AB x − x − 1EA = 0. Hence, CM EC
EC EL+LC LC DL DL AB
Every
3, 17 maximal
and 19—our perfect must
claim have
set Candy the
is justified. form
can build must have the form = =1+ =1+ =1+ =1+ .
𝑆𝑆 = �1, 2 𝑖𝑖2 𝑖𝑖3 𝑖𝑖5 𝑖𝑖7
, 3 , 5 , 7 , 11 Let
𝑖𝑖11
, 13 x𝑖𝑖13
=, EC/AB.
17 𝑖𝑖17
, 19 𝑖𝑖19
Then,
�, = AB
x 1 + 1/x
AB
so that x
AB EA
2 − x − 1 = 0. Hence,
CM EC
maximal perfect set Candy can build must have the form Let x = EC/AB. Then, x = 1 + 1/x so that x − x − 1
1 + √5 2
ere each exponent is where
a positive integer. Since 52 𝑖𝑖>1320, 1 + 1/x so that𝑥𝑥x2=− x − 21 = 0.. Hence,
𝑆𝑆 = �1, 2𝑖𝑖2each
, 3𝑖𝑖3 ,exponent
5𝑖𝑖5 , 7𝑖𝑖7 , 11 is 𝑖𝑖a11positive
, 13 17the
𝑖𝑖17 x
Let
, integer. exponent
, 19 =𝑖𝑖EC/AB.
Since19 �, for
Then, all
= 0. xprimes
=Hence,
ater than or equal to 55 must 2
> 20,be the1.exponent
Since 24 ≤for 202all ≤ 2primes
5 and 32greater ≤ 20 ≤ 33, the exponent for 2 1 + √5
ch exponent is a positive than or integer.
equal to 5 Since
must be 5 1.> Since
20, the 2 4 exponent for all primes
≤ 20yields
≤ 𝑥𝑥 = 1 + √5 .
st be 1, 2, 3 or 4, and the exponent for 3 must be
Similarly, 1 or 2. This eight different
han or equal to 5 must 25 andbe 321. ≤ 20 Since
≤ 33,2the 4 ≤ 20
exponent ≤ 25 and for 23we 2 ≤ have
must 20be≤ 33, the exponent for 2 𝑥𝑥 = 22 .
ximal perfect sets. Similarly, we have
1,
et 2,
n ≥3 2orbe4,the
and
numberthe1,exponent
2, 3 or 4, for
of 2.
rays
and 3the
drawn must exponent be 1Then for 2.
or 3 must
This are be
yields eight different
1 or This yieldsbyeight Randy.Similarly,
differentSimilarly,there
we have
maximal we have DB AC AD EB 1 + √5
perfect sets. perfect sets. = = = = ,
2 be the number of rays drawn 𝑛𝑛by Randy.
𝑛𝑛(𝑛𝑛 − 1) Then there are AE ED BC DC 2
3. Let n ≥ 2 be the number DB AC AD EB 1 + √5
� � = of rays drawn by Randy. DB = AC =AD = EB= 1 + ,√5
Then there are 2 2 so that
so EC
that EC+ DB
+=DB
AE +EDAC
+ =ACBC ++ADAD
= DC+ += EB
EB2= 5(1 ,++ √5).
= 5(1 ).
AE ED BC DC 2
𝑛𝑛 𝑛𝑛(𝑛𝑛 − 1) Remark: The regular pentagon A is used in the illustrative d
rs of rays. Each pair determines �two 2
�= angles adding up to 360°. Hence, the total
2 get the correct answer by treating only this special case, e
mber of angles between two of the n rays is exactly n(n − 1). The measure of such an
pairs of rays. Each pair determines two angles = (1 + √5)/4.
le is clearly less than 360°.
up Since it isHence,
supposed to be number
ays. Each pair determinesadding to two 360°. angles adding
the total upantointegral
360°. multiple of 10°, there
of Hence, the totalB are
at most 35 valuesangles for the measures
between two of of these
the n rays angles. Since they
is exactly n(n −are 5.The distinct, conditions
n(n − 1) ≤ E
of angles between two of the n rays is exactly n(n − 1). The measure
r +to
2
brdraw of
+ cM= sixsuch
1,(1) an
Now, 6 × 5 = 30 <1). 35 The
< 42 measure
= 7 × 6. Hence, of suchnan ≤ 6.angleIt is ispossible
clearly for lessRandy
clearly less than 360°.
than Since
360°. Since it isit supposed
is supposed
s, determining 30 distinct angles. In the diagram below, ∠UAV = 60°,
to
to be
be an
an integral
integral multiple
s + ∠VAW
2 of
bs + c ==b,(2) 10°,
40°,
there
multiple of 10°, there are at most 35 values for the
ost
AX35 values
= 10°, ∠XAY for=the 20°,measures
measures ∠YAZ of these = 140°of these
and ∠ZAU
angles.
angles.
Since they = 90°.Since they aret2distinct,
are distinct, + bt + c =n(n c,(3)− 1) ≤
L
6 × 5verify
now = 30 <that
35 the
<n(n 4230
−=1) 7≤×35.
angles 6. Hence,
between
Now, 6 ×n5two ≤=6. 30 It< is
rays 35 possible
are = 7 ×for
distinct.
< 42 We
6. Randy
have
r + t∠WAY=to2s.(4)
draw six
= 30°,
ermining 30 distinct angles. In isthe diagram below, = From
60°, C D
AX = 50°, ∠VAY =Hence,
70°, ∠UAW n ≤ 6. =It 100°, ∠UAX
possible = 110°,
for Randy ∠UAY to∠UAVdraw= 130°, ∠VAW
∠ZAV t(t =+ 40°,
= 150°,
(3), b) = 0 so that either t = 0 or t = −b. We consid
AZ 10°,
= 160° and= ∠WAZ
20°, six ∠YAZ
rays, determining
= 170°. = 140°
Theseand are30nine distinct = angles.
different 90°. angles In the distinct Remark:
from The regular pentagon is used in the il-
∠XAY
­diagram below, UAV = 60°, VAW = 40°,
∠ZAU CASE 1: the
lustrativet = 0.six From (4),
diagram. Many have r =may
we students 2s. Substituting
get the into (1
ween
verifyadjacent
that the rays.
30 All havebetween
angles measurestwo lessrays thanare 180°. Corresponding
distinct. We have to ∠WAY
these 15= 30°,
WAX = 10°, XAY = 20°, YAZ = 140° and Subtracting
correct answer (2) from this, we
by treating onlyhave 3s2 + bscase,
this special = 1 − b, which m
les, we
50°, ∠VAYhave=1570°, other ∠UAW
ZAU angles
= 90°. =greater
100°, ∠UAX than 180°, = 110°,yielding ∠UAY a total of that
so
= 130°, 30∠ZAV
distinct
EC +
essentially= angles.
DB150°,+ AC
proving + AD
that +
cos EB 36° = =5(1
(1 +
+ √5 ).
)/4.
+ b) = −2. Hence, 2 is divisible by s + 1, so that s = −3, −2, 0
et L be the point of intersection of EC and DB. Let M be the point on the
Remark: The extension
regular ofpentagon is used in the illustrative diagr
160° and ∠WAZ = 170°. These are nine different angles distinct from the six
such that MC is parallel to AE. Then ABLE and AMCE are parallelograms. Note that s = 1. It follows that b = −1. Hence, f(x) we may only have
adjacent rays.28 All have measures less than 180°. Corresponding get the = 0.correct
to these
delta-K, answer
15 51,
Volume by Number
treating1,only Decemberthis special
2013 case, essen
ngles DLC and EAB are similar, as are triangles AMC and ELD. Ittfollows that
we have 15 other angles greater than 180°, yielding a total= of (1C+30 √5
ASE )/4.
distinct
2: t = −b. angles.
From (4), we have r = 2s + b. Substituting in
be the point of intersection
EC EL+LC of ECLCand DB.
DLLet M DL 5.The
be the point
AB on conditions are of
the extension
= 1 + 2 . c = 1. Subtracting (2) from this, we have 3s + 5sb + 2b = 1
2 2
= =1+ =1+ =1+
AB AB EA CM r + (3s
EC br ++c2b
that MC is parallel to AE. Then ABLE and AMCE are parallelograms.
AB = 1,(1)
Note
+ 3)(s + b that
− 1) = −2. Hence, −2 is divisible by s + b −
5. The conditions are Case 2: t = −b. From (4), we have r = 2s + b. Sub-
      r2 + br + c = 1, (1) stituting into (1), we have 4s2 + 6sb + 2b2 + c = 1.
      s2 + bs + c = b, (2) Subtracting (2) from this, we have 3s2 + 5sb + 2b2
      t2 + bt + c = c, (3) = 1 − b, which may be rewritten as (3s + 2b + 3)
      r + t = 2s. (4) (s + b − 1) = −2. Hence, −2 is divisible by s + b
− 1. From r > s > t = −b, we have s + b > 0. Hence,
From (3), t(t + b) = 0 so that either t = 0 or t = −b.
s + b − 1 > −1 so that s + b − 1 = 1 or 2. If s + b
We consider these two cases separately.
− 1 = 1, we have 3s + 2b + 3 = −2 so that s =
Case 1: t = 0. From (4), we have r = 2s. Substitut- −9 and b = 11. Hence, f(x) = x2 + 11x + 30 with
ing into (1), we have 4s2 + 2bs + c = 1. Subtracting r = −7, s = −9 and t = −11. If s + b − 1 = 2, we have
(2) from this, we have 3s2 + bs = 1 − b, which may 3s + 2b + 3 = −1 so that s = −10 and b = 13. Hence,
be rewritten as (s + 1)(3s − 3 + b) = −2. Hence, 2 f(x) = x2 + 13x + 43, with r = −7, s = −10 and
is divisible by s + 1, so that s = −3, −2, 0 or 1. t = −13.
However, since s > t = 0, we may only have s = 1.
It follows that b = −1. Hence, f(x) = x2 − x − 1, with
r = 2, s = 1 and t = 0.

delta-K, Volume 51, Number 1, December 2013 29


Edmonton Junior High Math Contest 2013

Part A: Multiple Choice Solutions


1. If a stack of five dimes has a height of 6 mm, then 1. Five dimes have a height of 6 mm. Therefore,
what would be the value, in dollars, of a 1.5 m 5d = 6
high stack of dimes? d = 1.2.
(a) $1.25  (b) $12.50  (c) $125.00  (d) $125.50  Therefore, one dime has a height of 1.2 mm.
(e) $1,250.00 1.5 m = 1,500 mm
1,500 ÷ 1.2 = 1,250 dimes
2. There are about 7.06 billion people in the world, 1,250 × 0.1 = 125
and there are about 35 million people in Canada.
What percentage of the world population is in The value of 1,250 dimes is $125.00. The answer
Canada? is (c).
(a) 0.005%  (b) 0.05%  (c) 0.5%  (d) 5.0% 2.    35,000,000 ÷ 7,060,000,000 = 0.00495
(e) 5.5%    0.00495 ≈ 0.5%
The answer is (c).
3. A large soup pot is in the shape of a right circular
cylinder, and it has no lid. When filled to the top, 3.      9.42 L = 9,420 cm3
it can hold 9.42 L of soup. The height of the pot      9,420 = πr2h
is 30 cm. Approximately how many square cen-      9,420 ÷ (30π) = r2
timetres of metal are needed to make the pot?      r = 10 cm
Round the answer to the nearest whole square Find the surface area of the bottom and the lateral
centimetre. (1 L = 1,000 cm3, use π = 3.14 for all side.
your calculations) SA = πr2 + 2πrh
(a) 2,198  (b) 2,218  (c) 2,838  (d) 3,010 SA = π(10)2 + 2π(10)(30)
(e) 3,140 SA = 100π + 600π = 700π = 2,198 cm2
The answer is (a).
4. Without a protractor, determine the number of
degrees for x. Note: The diagram is not drawn to 4. The angle marked as 135° forms a supplementary
scale. pair with a 45° angle. The missing angle is
180 − (65 + 45 + 30), or 40°. The answer is (b).
x 65°
5. The regular price of the bracelet is 160 + 2(340),
or $840. The sale price with the $75 discount
is 840 − 75, or $765. The monthly payment is
30°
$765 ÷ 5 = $153. The answer is (d).
135°

Part B: Short Answer


(a) 30°  (b) 40°  (c) 45°  (d) 60°  (e) 65° 6. The number in each circle is the product of the
5. Robert wanted to buy Mandy a gold bracelet two numbers above it. What is the value of n?
while it was on sale for $160 off the regular price. 1 2
He planned to pay it off with two equal monthly 2
n
3
4        2 1
payments of $340. Instead, it went on sale for
only $75 off the regular price, and he paid for it
with five equal monthly payments. How much
was each of his monthly payments? (Assume that
there is no interest or GST.)
(a) $89  (b) $136  (c) $151  (d) $153 2        4 1
(e) $168

30 delta-K, Volume 51, Number 1, December 2013


7. The sum of eight consecutive odd integers is −32. 11. Kylee has a set of five cards numbered 1–5. Kas-
By how much does the median exceed the mini- sidy has a set of 10 cards numbered 1–10. If they
mum number? each pick one card from their deck at random,
what is the probability that the product of the two
8. What fraction of the numbers from 1 to 100, chosen numbers will be odd? Write your answer
inclusive, is prime? Express your answer in low- as a percentage.
est terms.
12. A three-digit number has the following proper-
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
ties. The hundreds digit is a composite number,
the tens digit is a prime number, and the units digit
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 is greater than 2 but less than or equal to 6. How
many such three-digit numbers are there in total?
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
13. Svitlana takes 1½ h to cycle to her friend’s house
31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 if she averages 340 m/min. How many minutes
41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 should it take her to make the same trip if she
travels at an average speed of 54 km/h in her car?
51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 Express the answer rounded to the nearest whole
61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 number of minutes.

71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80
14. Points A (−5, 5), B (5, 3) and C (−3, −3) are
vertices of a triangle. The perimeter of ∆ABC
81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 is between which two whole numbers?
91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100


y
6
9. The three dimensions in centimetres (length, 5
width and height) of a right rectangular prism are 4 EJHMC.
all natural numbers. The volume of the prism is 3 EJHMC.
770 cm3. What is the least possible sum that the 2
three numbers can have?
composite number, the tens digit is a prime number, 1 and the units digit is gre
composite
10. Twelve points are equally but number, the
less than or equal to 6. tens digit is a prime number, and the units
x
aredigit is in
gret
spaced on a circle  How many such three-digit numbers
–6  –5  –4  –3  –2  –1    0   1   2   3   4   5   6 
there
but less
with centre X. Points are labelled thantakes
or equal
sequentially
13. Svitlana 1½ htoto6.cycle
Howtomany such three-digit
her friend’s house if she numbers
averagesare 340
therem/min t
clockwise around the circle 13.using the letters
Svitlana takes 1½ hittotake
cycle toto her friend’s
–1
housetripif she averages
A–L. To the nearest degree, many
and minutes
without the should her make the–2same if she travels340 m/mi
at an av
many minutes should it take her to make the same trip
of 54 km/h in her car? Express the answer rounded to the nearest whole num
use of a protractor, calculate the measure of –3 if she travels at an ave
AFX. of 54 km/h in her car? Express the answer rounded
minutes. –4 to the nearest whole num
A minutes. –5
14. Points A (−5, 5), B (5, 3) and C (−3, −3) are vertices of a triangle. The perim
14. Points A (−5, 5), B (5, 3) and C (−3, −3) are vertices of a triangle. The perim

∆ABC is between which two whole numbers?


∆ABC is between which two whole numbers?
Solutions Solutions
Solutions
6. Start with the first 6.
twoStart
numbers
with theinfirst
thetwofirst row. in the first row.
numbers
X 6. StartDwith the first two numbers in the 1first row. 𝑛𝑛
12 𝑛𝑛 = 𝑛𝑛
𝑛𝑛 = 2
The value of the left circle in the second 2
row
The value of the left circle is2n/2.
in the second row is
The value of the left circle
Next, find the product ofn/2. in the
n and 2/3. second row is n/2.
G Next, find the product n and
ofNext, find2/3.
the product 2of n 2𝑛𝑛
and 2/3.
𝑛𝑛 × 2 = 2𝑛𝑛
𝑛𝑛 × 3 = 3
The value of the middle circle in the second3 row3 is 2n/3.
The
Findvalue of the middle
the product circle
of the last twoinnumbers
the second
in row is 2n/3.
the first row.
Find the product of the last two numbers2 in9the first row.
23 × 92 = 3
× =3
The value of the last circle in the second3row 2 is 3.
The value of the last circle in the second row is 3.
of n/2 and 2n/3.
delta-K, Volume 51, Number 1, Find the product
December 2013 31
Find the product of n/2 and 2n/3. 𝑛𝑛 2𝑛𝑛 𝑛𝑛2
𝑛𝑛 × = 2
2 × 2𝑛𝑛
3 = 𝑛𝑛3
2 is
The value of the left circle in the third row 3
3 n2/3.
The value of the left circle in the third row is n2/3.
1𝑛𝑛 = 𝑛𝑛
12 𝑛𝑛 =𝑛𝑛2
2𝑛𝑛 = 2
ue
ue of
of the
the left
left circle
circle in
in the
the second
second row
2 is
row is2n/2.
n/2.
ue
nd of the the second row is n/2.
left circleninand
nd the
the product
product ofof n and 2/3.
2/3.
nd the product of n and 2/3. 22 2𝑛𝑛
2𝑛𝑛
The value of the middle 𝑛𝑛𝑛𝑛 × =
×23 circle
=2𝑛𝑛
𝑛𝑛 × 3 = 33 in the second row 9. The following table lists some of the possible
ue is 2n/3. dimensions and the sum of the dimensions.
ue ofof the
the middle
middle
circle
circle
Find the
in the
the second
inproduct second
of the
3 row
row
last
3 isis 2n/3.
two 2n/3.
numbers in the
ueproduct
of the middle circle in the second rowfirst is 2n/3.
e product of of the
the last
first two
two numbers
numbers in in the
the first row.
Length Width Height Sum
last row. row.
product of the last two numbers22in99the first row. 1 77 10 88
× = 3
23 ×92 = 3 2 5 77 84
3× 2= 3
ue
ue ofof the
the last
last circle Thein
circle the
invalue
the of second
the last3row
second row 2 is
circle isin3. 3.
the second row is 3.
7 11 10 28
ueproduct
of the lastn/2 circle in2n/3.
theproduct
secondofrow is 3.2n/3. 5 7 22 34
e product of and
of n/2 Find
and the
2n/3. n/2 and
5 14 11 30
product of n/2 and 2n/3. 𝑛𝑛𝑛𝑛 2𝑛𝑛 2𝑛𝑛 = 𝑛𝑛𝑛𝑛22
2
×
𝑛𝑛2 ×2𝑛𝑛 =𝑛𝑛 2 11 35 48
2× 33 =2 33 2 7 55 64
ue
ue ofof the
the left
left circle in the
the third row is nnin
is
2 3 22/3.
3
circle
The invalue third
of row
the left circle /3.
the third row is n2/3.
The least sum is 28. The answer is 28.
ueproduct
of the left 2n/3
circle in the
theproduct
third row is nand22/3.
e product of of 2n/3 and and 3.
Find of 2n/3 3.
3.
product of 2n/3 and 3. 2𝑛𝑛
2𝑛𝑛 × 3 = 2𝑛𝑛
10. A

2𝑛𝑛33 × 3 = 2𝑛𝑛
× 3 = 2𝑛𝑛
ue
ue ofof the
the right
right circle
The in
circle in the
valuetheofthird 3row
the right
third rowcircleis
is 2n.2n.in the third row is
ueproduct
of the right circle
2n. in the third row is 2n.
e product of of nn2/3 and 2n.
2
2
/3 Find
and the 2n.
product of n 22/3 and 2n. product𝑛𝑛𝑛𝑛of 2 n /3 and 2n.
2
3
2 2𝑛𝑛
2𝑛𝑛33 D
2 × 2𝑛𝑛 = X
𝑛𝑛3 × 2𝑛𝑛 =2𝑛𝑛3
3 × 2𝑛𝑛 3 = 3
3 2𝑛𝑛 2𝑛𝑛3 = 99 3
2𝑛𝑛33 =94
3 = 4 F
rr n.
n. 3 4
r n. Solve for n. 33 G
𝑛𝑛𝑛𝑛 =
=3 Since there are 12 points spaced equally on the
𝑛𝑛 = 22 circle, all 12 arcs are equal. Each arc has a central
wer
wer is is 3/2,
3/2, or
or 1.5.
1.5. 2
angle of 360° ÷ 12, or 30°. AXF subtends five
wer is 3/2,oddor 1.5.The answer
== the
the first number, xx ++is
first odd number, 22 3/2,
== the
the orsecond
1.5.
second odd number, xx ++ 44 == the
odd number, theofthird
these odd
third oddand has a measure of 30° × 5, or
arcs
= xthe
+ 6first
= theodd
fourthnumber,
odd x + 2
number, = the x second
+ 8 = the oddfifth number,
odd x
number,+ 4 = xthe
+ third
10
150°.= theodd
∆AXF sixthis an isosceles triangle; therefore,
, x + 6 = the fourth
7. Letodd odd
x = number,
the first oddxxnumber,
number, + 8 = the fifth
x +fifth
2 = odd odd
the number, x +AFX
second 10 = the sixth− 150°)/2 = 15°.
= (180°
x + 6 = the fourth + 8 = the number, x + 10 = the sixth
mber, x+
mber, x+ 12
12 == the
theoddseventh
seventh
number, odd
odd x +number
number
4 = the third and
and oddxx ++number,
14
14 == the x +eighth
the eighth
6 odd
odd number.
number.
mber, x+ 12 = the =seventh odd
the fourth odd8x number +
number, 56 =andx−32
+ x
8 +
= 14
the = the
fifth eighth
odd odd
11. The number.
sample space consists of 50 ordered pairs.
8x + 56 = −32 Fifteen of these—(1, 1), (1, 3), (1, 5), (1, 7), (1,
number, x + 10 =8xthe +x sixth
56 = odd −32 number, x+ 12 =
the seventh odd number x == −11
−11
and x + 14 = the eighth
9), (3, 1), (3, 3), (3, 5), (3, 7), (3, 9), (5, 1), (5, 3),
odd number. x = −11 (5, 5),(5, 7), (5, 9)—have an odd product. The
probability is 15 ÷ 50, or 30%.
8x + 56 = −32
x = −11 12. The hundreds
EJHMC.docx - 4digit
of 7could be 4, 6, 8 or 9. The tens
digit could be 2, 3, 5 or 7. The ones digit could
The eight consecutive odd numbers are −11, −9, be 3, 4, 5 or 6. There are 4 × 4 × 4, or 64, possible
−7, −5, −3, −1, 1 and 3. The median is (−5 + −3) three-digit numbers. The answer is 64.
t consecutive odd ÷ 2,numbers
or −4. The aremedian−11, −9, exceeds−7, −5, the−3, −1, 1 and 3. The median is (−5
minimum
or −4. The median valueexceeds
of −11 by the−4minimum
− (−11) = 7.value The answer of −11 by −4 13.
is 7. Find the distance travelled.
− (−11) = 7. The
Alternative solution: Let the eight consecutive d = rt
s 7. d = (340 m/min)(90 min)
odd numbers be n − 8, n − 6, n − 4, n − 2, n, n +
ve solution: Let the eight consecutive odd
2, n + 4 and n + 6. The median is (n + n − 2)/2 = numbers be n − 8, n d− 6, n − 4, n − 2,
= n,
30,600 m, or 30.6 km
EJHMC.
+ 4 and n + 6. Thenmedian is (n + n −is2)/2
− 1. The difference (n − =1)n−−(n1.−The 8) = difference
7. is Find
(n − the
1) −time
(n −for8)the rate of 54 km/h.
54 km/h = 0.9 km/min
8. There are 25 prime numbers between 1 and 100: 𝑑𝑑
are 25 prime numbers 2, 3, 5, 7, between
11, 13, 17, 1 and 100:
19, 23, 29,2,31, 3, 37,
5, 7,41,11,43,13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 𝑡𝑡 =
𝑟𝑟
7, 53, 59, 61, 67, 71, 47,73,
53, 79, 83, 67,
59, 61, 89 71, and73, 97.79, 83, 89 and 97. 30.6 km
25 1 𝑡𝑡 =
= 0.9 km/min
100 4 𝑡𝑡 = 34 min
wer is 1/4. The answer is 1/4. The answer is 34. The answer is 34.
llowing table lists some of the possible Alternative
dimensionssolution:
and theFind
sumthe
of the
distance travelled.
ons. 32 d = rt 1, December 2013
delta-K, Volume 51, Number
d = (340 m/min)(90 min)
Length Width Height Sum d = 30,600 m, or 30.6 km
1 77 10 88
Find the time for the rate of 54 km/h.
𝑑𝑑
𝑑𝑑 𝑡𝑡 = 𝑑𝑑 𝑑𝑑
𝑡𝑡 = 𝑑𝑑 𝑡𝑡 =𝑟𝑟 𝑡𝑡 =
𝑡𝑡 =𝑟𝑟 30.6 km 𝑟𝑟 𝑟𝑟
30.6 km 𝑟𝑟 𝑡𝑡 = 30.630.6 km km
𝑡𝑡 = 30.6 km 𝑡𝑡 =0.9 𝑡𝑡 = km/min
𝑡𝑡 =0.9 km/min 𝑡𝑡 =0.9 34 km/min
0.9 km/min
min
𝑡𝑡The0.9
=14. km/min
34answer
min is 34. 𝑡𝑡 = 𝑡𝑡34=min 34 minThere are five three-digit cubes: 125, 216, 343,


y
𝑡𝑡The
= 34 The min
answer is 34.
answer is 34. 512 and 729. ADG and GHI are cubes. If ADG
Alternative solution: Find the 6 distance travelled.
distance travelled.Alternative A solution:
Alternative FindFind
solution: 5 the the
distance
distance travelled.travelled. is 125, then GHI is 512. If ADG is 512, then GHI
e distance travelled. d = rt is 216. No other combinations will work. A three- EJHMC.
d = rt 4 d = rt d = rt digit square number cannot end in 2, so eliminate
d = rt d = (340 m/min)(90 min)
d = (340 m/min)(90 min)
3 d = (340
dB = (340 m/min)(90
m/min)(90 min)
ADG: min)
125 and GHI: 512. Therefore, the value
d = (340 m/min)(90 min) 2 d = 30,600 m, or 30.6 for kmADG is 512 and the value for GHI is 216.
d = 30,600 m, the
or 30.6 km ADG dis=125, 30,600 then
d = 30,600 m,GHI or is 512.
m,30.6
or kmIf
30.6 km ADG is 512, then GHI is 216. No other combin
Find
d = 30,600 m, or time
30.6 for
km the rate 1of 54 km/h.
4 km/h. FindFind the the
timetime
for the ofwork.
raterate
for the 54 54Akm/h.
ofkm/h. three-digit x 𝑑𝑑 square number cannot5 end B C in 2, so eliminate ADG: 125 an
54 km/h.  1 EF
512. Therefore,
𝑑𝑑 –6  –5  –4  –3  –2  –1    0   1   2   3   4   5   6 𝑡𝑡=the𝑑𝑑value 𝑑𝑑 for ADG is 512 and the value for GHI is 216.
𝑡𝑡 =𝑟𝑟 𝑡𝑡 = 2 16
𝑡𝑡 = 𝑑𝑑 30.6𝑟𝑟 𝑟𝑟 There are four three-digit
𝑡𝑡 =𝑟𝑟 –1 5 B Csquare numbers that
30.6 𝑟𝑟 𝑡𝑡 = 30.630.6
𝑡𝑡 = 30.6
–2 54
𝑡𝑡 = 𝑡𝑡 = end in 1: 121, 361, 441
1 E F 841. There are four
and
𝑡𝑡 = 54 C –3 𝑡𝑡 = 0.56 54 h 54 three-digit square numbers that end in 6: 196,
𝑡𝑡 = 0.5654h –4 𝑡𝑡 = 𝑡𝑡 = 34𝑡𝑡0.56
= 0.56
min h h256, 576 and 676. If 25BC 1 6 is a prime number, it
𝑡𝑡 =
𝑡𝑡The
= 0.56
minh is 34.
34answer –5 There are four three-digit
𝑡𝑡 = 𝑡𝑡34=min 34 min square
cannot endnumbers
in 2, 5 or 6.that
ThisendgivesinCFI
1: 121, 361, 441 and 841
= 196.
𝑡𝑡The
= 34 The min
answeransweris 34. is 34.
14. four three-digit square numbers that end in 5 B6:1196, 256, 576 and 676. If 5BC is

14. 14. 1E9


The distance
The distance between
betweenAC AC is is number,
√82 + 222 2≈it 8.246.
cannotThe enddistance

in 2, 5 or 6. This AB
between gives CFI 2=+196.
2is1is√10
6 √102 +2 2
2 ≈
2 2
√8 2+ 2 2≈ 8.246. The distance
The
The
The distance
distance
distancebetween
between
between
between AC is
AC
AB √8
ABBC is 2 +
√8
isis is
√10 2 +
2 ≈ 2 28.246.
2 ≈
++2822≈= 10. The The
8.246. distance
The distancebetween
betweenAB AB is
5+B=10.198 √10 2 2+≈22 ≈
1129. However,
10.198.
√8 + 2 ≈ 8.246. The
The distance
distance between
between ABBC √6
is is
22 Ifperimeter
BE1 = 121, ≈ 8.246
then 1E9 + 10 ≈ 129 is
810.198.
BC is √62 2+28.444,2 =10.198.
10. The
The distance
The
The distance
distance
perimeter between
between
between
≈ 8.246 BC
+
√10
is
BC
10.198√6 is2++√6 28
+10 2 2+ ≈=8210.
≈ = The
10.notperimeter
The perimeter
prime. If BE1≈ 8.246
=≈361,
1 E+then
8.246910.198
+ 5B1 +=10
10.198 +≈10How-
531. ≈
n BC is √6 +28.444, which
82 28.444,
= 10. The
The isperimeter
between
perimeter ≈ 28

8.246and
8.246 + 29.
+ 10.198
10.198 + +
10 10≈ ≈
and 29. which whichis between
is between 28 and
28 and 29. 29. ever, 531 is not prime,2 either.
1 6 That leaves 441 or
and 29. Part C:
PartPart
Shortwhich
28.444,
C: Short
Answer
C: Short
is between 28 and 29.
AnswerAnswer 841 for BE1. Both give E = 4. Therefore, the value
15. The digits A, B, C, D, E, F,If G, BE1 H =and121,I, then 1E9 = 129.
not necessarily However,
allEdifferent
of digit 129
is 4. Also is that
notare
digits,
note prime.
841 won’tIfwork,
BE1 as
= 361, then 5B1
15.
, G, H and I,arranged
not The
15. digits
The
necessarily A,
digits B,
A, C,
B,
all Answer D,
C, E,
D, F,E,
differentHowever, G,
F, HG, andH
digits, are531 isTheandI, not I, necessarily
not
notfirst necessarily
prime, all
this either. different
all digits,
different
That leaves are
digits,
441 are
or is
841 notfor BE1. Both give E
Part
F, G, H and I,arranged
not C:inShort
necessarily a three-by-three configuration. two would
rows,giveABC 5B1 = 581,
and DEF, which
are three- prime.
configuration. arranged
The first intwoain aall
rows,
different configuration.
three-by-three
three-by-three
ABC and
digits, are
configuration.
DEF,
Therefore, are three-TheThe first twoEtwo
first rows, ABC
4.rows, x ABC
andand DEF, DEF,are three-
are three-
digit
e configuration. prime
15. The first
The digits numbers.
two
A, B, rows, The
C, D, E,ABC third
F, G, Hand row,
andDEF,I, not the
GHI, are
neces- value
and
three-theof16. digit
first column,
Connect isCF. Also
ADG,
Let note
arethat
represent 841
three-digit
the areawon’t work, as this wou
of triangle
rd row, GHI, digit
and prime
digit
the prime
firstnumbers.
numbers.
column, The
ADG,
digits, are5B1
third
The are row,
third GHI,
row,
three-digit
= 581, in awhich GHI,and the
and first
the
is three-digitCEF. column,
first
Usingcolumn,
CE ADG,
and ADG, are
not prime. squares. What is the value of two
EA asthree-digit
are
the three-digit
bases, the
hird row, GHI,cubes.and The
sarily
the last
all two
different
first column,columns, ADG, BEH
arranged
are and CFI,
three-are
three-digit
cubes.
BEH and CFI, are cubes. The
three-digit
by-three last
The two
configuration. columns,
lastsquares.
two The columns,
What BEH
first isBEH
two
16. Connect and
the CFI,
andCF.CFI,
rows,value
ABC are
of xare
Let three-digit
triangles squares.
three-digit
represent the
and What
CEFsquares.
area
AFEWhat
of triangleis the
have the value
isCEF.
thesame of ofCE and EA as
height.
value
Using
s, BEH and digit
CFI,
digit
E?
are
and three-digit
E?DEF,
digit squares.
E? are three-digit primethe What is the
numbers. The third value of Since the area of triangle CEF = x, then the area
16. Inrow,triangle
GHI, and ABC, the AB first =column,
25 andADG, two triangles
CA =are24. CEF and of AFE
triangle have
AFE the
=
E is a point on CA and F is a point on AB such
three- same
5x. The height.
area of Since
triangle the
BFC area of triang
and CA = 24. 16. In
16.
E isEF triangle
In
a cuts
digit point triangle
cubes. ABC,
onThe CA ABC, AB
and
last =
AB 25 =
F regions
two and
25
iscolumns,
a point
then CA
and
the on=
CA
area 24.
AB = E
24.is
such
ofareas. E a
triangle point
is a =
AFE on
point
5x − CA
on
x =
= what and
CA
4x.
5x. The The F
and is
areaFa point
is
of
arealength a on
point
triangle
of triangle AB
on
ACF such
AB= x such
+ 5x
BFC = 5x − x = 4x. The
5 and CA = 24.that E that
isEFa point ABC onABC into
CA two
and Ftwo
is ofBEH
aregions
point equal
on AB
and
such If CE =CE = 4,
6x. Let is the
= length of BF and of
(25 BF?
−BF? = length
gions of equal that CFI,
areas. cuts
EF
are ABC
cuts
three-digit
If CE =numbers into two
into
squares.
4, what between is theregions
What is
length
triangle of
the equal
of
value
of BF?
ACF of areas.
equal areas.
x + 5x = 6x.
=1,000,000 If If
Let=
CE 4,
m
m
=what
4,
= length is
what the
is
of length
the length
BFasand of
(25
m) BF?
of
− m)
17.
egions of equal How
areas.
digitHowmany
E? If CE =numbers
4, numbers
what between
is the 100
length andof BF? have
of AF. all digits
Using FB the
and same
FA and
the are
bases, the=twolength of AF. U
ween 100 and 17. How
17.
1,000,000 many many between 100 and
100 1,000,000
and 1,000,000 have all
have digits
all the
digits same
the same and are
and are
ween 100 anddivisible
1,000,000 by have3? allalldigits the andsame FA and as the arebases, the triangles two triangles
FCB andFCB FACand haveFAC the samehave the same
height, H. height, H
divisible
divisible
16. In byhave
triangle 3?
by
ABC, 3? ABdigits = 25 andthe CAsame andE are
= 24. is a 𝑚𝑚(𝐻𝐻)
18. What
pointis onthe CAlargest
and F is anumber point on whose
AB suchdigits that EFare all different Area and which ∆FCBis=not divisible
er whose digits 18.are
What
18. What
all is the largest
is the
different largest
and number
which number iswhose
not whose digits
divisible are are
digits all different
all different andof which
and which is not2 not
is
= 4𝑥𝑥
divisible
divisible
by 9? are all different and which is not divisible
ber whose digits cuts ABC into two regions of equal areas. If CE (25 − 𝑚𝑚)(𝐻𝐻)
by 9?by
= 4,9? what is the length of BF?
19. There exist two prime numbers, p and q, such that 2p +Area 3q =of99. ∆FAC
The=sum of2 p and=q 6𝑥𝑥 is
mbers, p and 19.
q,
17. There
19.
such
How There
that
manyexist 2p two
exist
+
numbers 3q prime
two
= prime
99.
between Thenumbers,
numbers,
sum
100 and of pp andp
and
1,000,000 q,
andq such
isq, suchthat 2p
that +2p3q+ = 99.
3q = The
99. Thesumsum of pof and q is q is
p and
umbers, p andalsoq,the product 2pof +oftwo = other Rewriting
prime both
numbers:
p and equations
m and n.inFind
Rewriting terms
both of H,n.weinhave
mequations
and terms of H, we have
prime numbers:
such
alsoalsothe
have
m all
and
that
product
the product
digits
n. Findthe 3qtwo
same
m of 99.
andtwo
and The
other
n. other
are sum
prime prime
divisible of
numbers:
by 3? q is
numbers: m and m and n. Find
n. Findm and n. n.12𝑥𝑥
m8𝑥𝑥and
Solutions
er prime numbers: m and n. Find m and n. = .
Solutions
Solutions
18. What is the largest number whose digits are all 𝑚𝑚 25 − 𝑚𝑚
15.This is the configuration:
15.This
different
15.This is the is configuration:
andthe which Solve for
is not divisible
configuration: by 9? m, we have Solve m = 10. for The
m, weanswer
have m is 10.The answer is 10.
= 10.
ABC
19. There
A BC exist two prime numbers, 17. The p and number
q, such A can
BACB haveC three, four, five or six digits. A
AB thatC 2p + 3q = 99. The sum of p and q is also DtheE F
D Eproduct
F If the number has D ED F E F digits, it has the form aaa, with 1 ≤ a ≤ 9. The sum of t
three
DEF of two other prime numbers: m and Gn.H I
G HFind Iaremfive andthree-digit
n. 3a, which is always G HGIdivisible
HI by 3. There are nine three-digit numbers that sat sa
There
G H I cubes: 125, 216, 343, 512 and 729. ADG andFGHI are cubes.20If
There
es: 125, 216, 343, There
512 areand five729.
are three-digit
five three-digit
ADG and condition.
cubes:cubes:
GHI 125,
are 125,216,216,
cubes. 343, 512 512
If 343, andand 729.729.ADG ADG andand GHIGHI are arecubes. If If
cubes.
ubes: 125, 216,Solutions
343, 512 and 729. ADG and GHI are cubes. If
If the number has four digits, it has the form aaaa, with 1 ≤ a ≤ 9. The sum of t
15. This is the configuration:
4a, which is divisible by 3 only when a is 3, 6 or 9. There are E three four-digit n
ABC
D E F that satisfy this condition. 4
G H I If the number has five digits,B it has the form aaaaa, with 1 ≤ aC≤ 9. The sum of

5a, which is divisible by 3 only when a is 3, 6 or 9. There are three five-digit n
delta-K, Volume 51, Number 1, that Decembersatisfy this condition.
2013 33
If the number has six digits, it has the form aaaaaa, with 1 ≤ a ≤ 9. The sum of
6a, which is always divisible by 3. There are nine six-digit numbers that satis
17. The number can have three, four, five or six 45, and the number is divisible by 9. Thus, the
digits. number cannot have 10 digits.
If the number has three digits, it has the form aaa, If the number has nine digits, then one of the 10
with 1 ≤ a ≤ 9. The sum of the digits is 3a, which digits must be missing. The sum of the digits then
is always divisible by 3. There are nine three-digit is 45 − (the missing digit). In order for this num-
numbers that satisfy this condition. ber not to be divisible by 9, the missing digit can
If the number has four digits, it has the form aaaa, be anything except 0 or 9.
with 1 ≤ a ≤ 9. The sum of the digits is 4a, which Since we are looking for the largest nine-digit
is divisible by 3 only when a is 3, 6 or 9. There number, the missing digit must be as small as
are three four-digit numbers that satisfy this possible. Therefore, it must be 1.
condition. This shows that our number has exactly the digits
If the number has five digits, it has the form 0, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. Since the largest number
aaaaa, with 1 ≤ a ≤ 9. The sum of the digits is is wanted, the digits must be decreasing. There-
5a, which is divisible by 3 only when a is 3, 6 or fore, the number is 987,654,320.
9. There are three five-digit numbers that satisfy 19.         2p + 3q = 99
this condition. 2p = 99 − 3q
If the number has six digits, it has the form 2p = 3(33 − q)
aaaaaa, with 1 ≤ a ≤ 9. The sum of the digits is The p must be divisible by 3. Since p is prime,
6a, which is always divisible by 3. There are nine p = 3.
six-digit numbers that satisfy this condition. Substitute p = 3 into the equation:
In total, there are 9 + 3 + 3 + 9 = 24 such
2(3) + 3q = 99.
numbers.
Solving for q, q = 31.
The answer is 24.
The sum of p and q is 34, which can be factored
18. Since the number has distinct digits, it has at most only two ways: 1 × 34 = 34 and 2 × 17 = 34.
10 digits. If the number has 10 digits, then its The numbers 1 and 34 are not prime, but the
digits must be exactly 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and numbers 2 and 17 are prime. Therefore, m and n
9 in some order. But then the sum of the digits is have the values of 2 and 17.

34 delta-K, Volume 51, Number 1, December 2013


Calgary Junior High School
Mathematics Contest 2013

The Calgary Junior High School Mathematics Con- 6. Mary has a large box of candies. If she gives a
test takes place every spring. The 90-minute exam is third of her candies to her mom, then a third of
primarily for Grade 9 students; however, all junior the remaining candies to her dad, and finally a
high students in Calgary and surrounding districts third of what’s left to her little sister, there will
are eligible. Participants write the exam in their own only be 16 candies in the box. How many candies
schools. School and individual prizes include tro- are in the box at the beginning?
phies, medals, a cash award to the student achieving
7. I have half a litre of solution, which is 40% acid
the highest mark, and the opportunity for the top
and the rest water. If I mix it with 2 L of solution
students (and their teacher sponsors) to attend a
that is only 10% acid, what is the percentage of
banquet at the University of Calgary. The 37th annual
acid in the mixture?
contest took place on April 24, 2013.
8. A two-digit positive integer is said to be doubly
divisible if its two digits are different and non-
Part A: Short Answer zero, and it is exactly divisible by each of its two
1. From the set {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9} all odd digits. For example, 12 is doubly divisible since
numbers are removed. How many numbers are it is divisible by 1 and 2, whereas 99 is not doubly
remaining? divisible since its digits are equal, and 90 is not
doubly divisible because it contains a zero. What
2. A bag contains red, blue and green marbles. Two-
is the largest doubly divisible positive integer?
thirds of the marbles are not red, and three-
quarters of the marbles are not blue. What fraction 9. What is the remainder when 22013 is divided by
of the marbles are not green? Express your frac- 7?
tion in lowest terms.
Answers
3. Ajooni walked 9 km at 4 km/h, and then biked
for 4 hours at 9 km/h. What was her average speed 1. 4
(in km/h) for the entire trip? 2. 7/12
4. Notice that the digits of 2013 are four consecutive 3. 36/5 = 7.2
integers (because 0, 1, 2 and 3 are consecutive 4. 1432
integers). What was the last year (before 2013) 5. 13
whose digits were four consecutive integers?
6. 54
5. A circle is inscribed in an isosceles trapezoid, as 7. 16
shown, with parallel edges of lengths 8 cm and
18 cm and sloping edges of length L cm each. 8. 48
What is L? 9. 1
8
Part B: Long Answer
1. You currently have $100 and two magic wands,
L L A and B. Wand A increases the amount of money
you have by 30%, and wand B adds $50 to the
amount of money you have. You may use each
wand exactly once, one after the other. In which
order should you use the wands to maximize the
amount of money you have? How much money
18 would you have?

delta-K, Volume 51, Number 1, December 2013 35


2. Put one of the integers 1, 2, . . ., 13 into each of Winner (or Tie)
the boxes, so that 12 of these numbers are used
once (and one number is not used at all), and so A vs B
that all four equations are true. Be sure to explain A vs C
how you found your answers. A vs D
A vs E
+   = B vs C
B vs D
–     = B vs E
C vs D
x     = C vs E
D vs E
÷   = 6. The three edges of the base of a triangular pyra-

mid (tetrahedron) each have length 6 units, and
3. On planet X, an X-monkey has two legs and one the height of the pyramid is 10. The other three
head, while an X-hypercow has three legs and (sloping) edges are equal in length. A sphere
four heads. Robert has a herd of X-monkeys and passes through all four corners of the pyramid.
X-hypercows on his farm, with a total of 87 legs What is the radius of the sphere?
and 86 heads in his herd. How many animals of
each kind does Robert have?
4. A pie is cut into a equal parts. Then one of these
parts is cut into b smaller equal parts. Finally,
one of the smaller parts is cut into c smallest
equal parts. One of the original parts, together
with a smaller part and a smallest part, makes
up exactly three-fifths of the pie. What are a, b
and c (assuming a, b and c are integers greater
than 1)?
5. In a hockey tournament, five teams participated
and each team played against each other team
exactly once. A team received 2 points for a win,
1 point for a tie and 0 points for a loss. At the Solutions
end of the tournament, the results showed that 1. If you first use wand A, the $100 becomes $130,
no two teams received the same total points, and then applying wand B produces $130 + $50
and the order of the teams (from highest point = $180. However, if you first use wand B, you
total to lowest point total) was A, B, C, D, E. obtain $150, which (after using wand A) becomes
Team B was the only team that did not lose any $150 × 1.3 = $195. So the maximum amount is
games, and team E was the only team that did $195, obtained by using wand B first, then wand A.
not win any games. How many points did each
team receive, and what was the result of each 2. One answer is
game? shown here. The 6 +   
7 = 13
fourth equation
Total Points (A ÷ B = C) is the
A
same as B × C = 9 –     =
8 1
A, which is the
B same form as the
C third equation. 3 x     =
4 12
D Neither of these
equations can use 10 ÷   
5 = 2
E the number 1 (or

36 delta-K, Volume 51, Number 1, December 2013


else there would be a repeated number), so in one Multiplying both sides by 5abc, we get the
of these two equations the smallest number must equation
be 2, and in the other the smallest number must 5bc + 5c + 5 = 3abc.
be 3. If the smallest number is 3, the only pos- Now, c is a factor of all the summands except 5,
sibility is 3 × 4 = 12. This leaves 2 × 5 = 10 as so c must divide into 5. Since 5 is prime and c is
the only possibility for the other equation (since bigger than 1, c = 5. Using this in the equation,
we cannot repeat the numbers 3 and 4). So the we obtain
last two equations must use the six numbers 3, 4,
25b + 25 + 5 = 15ab,
12, 2, 5 and 10, and there are various ways this
can happen. For example, we could have used 5 so 5b + 6 = 3ab. This tells us that b must divide
× 2 = 10 and 12 ÷ 4 = 3 instead of what we wrote into 6. Let us look at the possibilities. Trying b
above. = 2 gives 10 + 6 = 6a, which isn’t possible since
Now, the second equation (X − Y = Z) can be 6 doesn’t divide into 16. Next, try b = 3. This
written as Z + Y = X, which is the same form as gives 15 + 6 = 9a, which doesn’t work since 9
the first equation. So we need to find two equa- doesn’t divide into 21. So b = 6. Then a = 2. The
tions of the form Z + Y = X using only numbers answer is a = 2, b = 6 and c = 5.
from 1, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11 and 13. One of these equa- 5.
tions cannot use the number 1, so it must be 6 + Total Points
7 = 13. Then the only possibility for the other A 6
equation is 1 + 8 = 9. So the first two equations
B 5
must use the numbers 6, 7, 13, 1, 8 and 9 in some
order. The missing number must be 11. C 4
D 3
3. Let a be the number of X-monkeys and b the
number of X-hypercows. Since X-monkeys have E 2
two legs, they contribute 2a legs to the total.
There are 3b legs from the X-hypercows, for a Winner (or Tie)
total of 87 legs. This gives the equation A vs B B
2a + 3b = 87. A vs C A
Counting heads, we get the equation A vs D A
a + 4b = 86. A vs E A
So we can write a = 86 − 4b and substitute this
into the first equation to get
B vs C - 4 of 5
CJHSMC.docx T
B vs D T
2(86 − 4b) + 3b = 87.
B vs E T
an write a = 86 − 4b
Thenand5b substitute
= 85, so b = 17 and
this thenthe
into a =first
86 − 4equation
× 17 to get C vs D C
= 18. So the herd has 18 X-monkeys and 17
X-hypercows. 2(86 − 4b) + 3b = 87. C vs E T
= 85, so b = 17 and then a = 86 − 4 × 17 = 18. So the
Another way to proceed is to note that taking oneherd has 18 X-monkeys
D vs E and D
percows. X-monkey and one X-hypercow gives five heads
Note that if we total the points for each match,
way to proceedand five legs. Now, 85 = 5 × 17, so 17 X-monkeys
is to note that taking one X-monkey and one X-hypercow we obtain 2, gives
so the point total recorded for the
and 17 X-hypercows would give 85 heads and 85
ds and five legs. legs.
Now, 85 = 5 × 17, so 17 X-monkeys
So you need one more head and two more and 17 X-hypercows
10 games would
is 20. Since B was the only team that
did not lose a game, A lost at least one game,
heads and 85 legs. Sowhich
legs, you need oneX-monkey.
is another more head and are
So there two 18more legs, which is
X-monkeys and 17 X-hypercows. making its maximum possible score 6. Its score
X-monkey. So there are 18 X-monkeys and 17 X-hypercows. could not be 5 since 5 + 4 + 3 + 2 + 1 = 15 < 20.
the information, the size
4. From of each slice
the information, the from
size ofthe
eachfirst
slicecut
fromis 1/a of the whole
Thus, A has pie,
three wins and one loss. Since B has
the first cut is 1/a of the whole pie, the size of no losses, the game A lost must have been to B.
of each slice from the second cut is 1/ab of the whole pie, and theThen sizeBofmust
eachhave a tie in all three of its other
each slice from the second cut is 1/ab of the whole
m the third cut ispie,1/abc
andof thethe
sizewhole
of eachpie.
sliceSo wethe
from havethird cut games (otherwise, it has at least 6 points, at least
is 1/abc of the whole pie. So we have as many as A). All the teams but E won some
1 1 1 3 games, so both C and D won some game. Neither
+ + = . of them could win both games (excluding those
𝑎𝑎 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 5

ying both sides by 5abc,


delta-K, we 51,
Volume getNumber
the equation
1, December 2013 37
5bc + 5c + 5 = 3abc.
s a factor of all the summands except 5, so c must divide into 5. Since 5 is prime
bigger than 1, c = 5. Using this in the equation, we obtain
at if we total the points for each match, we triangle.
centre O Then
obtain so triangle
of2,the triangle.
the pointADO
totalDisrecorded
Let a right
be triangle. of
the midpoint This triangle
side AB, soisthat
similar toatrian
CD is me
so OD
0 games is 20. Since B was the only teamtriangle. : AD
that didThen = AD : AC
triangle
not lose = 1
ADO
a game, : 2,
A isand AO
a right
lost = 2OD. So, since AO = CO, you get OD
triangle. This triangle is similar to trian
at least
me, making its maximum possible score 6. Also,
soIts
OD : ADcould
score = ADnot : ACbe=51since
: 2, and5 + AO
4 + 3= +2OD. So, since AO = CO, you get OD
5 < 20. Thus, A has three wins and one loss.Also,Since B has no losses, the game CDA= �62 − 32 = 3√3.
st have been to B.with A and
Then B, about
B must a tieThen,
havewhich we already
in all threeknow) Then,
of its other games CD = �62 − 32 = 3√3.
because that would give a score of 5, which B 2
ise, it has at leastgot.
6 points,
Thus, C at won least
one as many
of the Then,
other as A). All
games and the
had teams but E won OA some= × 3√3 = 2√3.
3
2
so both C and D one wontie,someand Dgame.won oneNeither
game Let ofVthem
and had
be the could
one loss, win
other both
vertex ofgames
thebepyramid,
theOA 3 and S ofthe centre
pyramid,ofandtheS sphere. Then
Let V = vertex
other × 3√3 =
the2√3.
which means that
ng those with A and B, about which weSOA E had one loss
alreadyand one
know) tie in
because that would give
isbeagame
right-angled the centre
triangle, of the sphere.
if h (= and Then triangle SOA is a pyramid and
the remaining games. Thus, ELet lostVthe the other
with vertex of theand
pyramid, 10) isS the height
centre of the sphere. Then
of 5, which B got.DThus, C awon oneC.of the other games and had right-angled
one tie, and triangle,
D and if h (= 10) is the height
and had tie with radius
SOA isof the sphere, we
a right-angled getthefrom
triangle,
of and Pythagoras’
pyramid h (=r the
ifand istheorem
10)radius the that
theofheight of the
sphere, we pyramid and
e game and had one loss, which means that E had one loss and one tie in the 2 = SA2 − SO2.
OA theorem
radius ofsothe
6. Note that triangle ABC is equilateral, sphere, we get
the me- getfrom
from Pythagoras’
Pythagoras’ theorem
that that
ng games. Thus, diansE lostofthe game with D
the three sides intersect and had
Thisatbecomes a tie
the centre O with C. OA OA2 = = SA
SA2 −− SOSO.2.
2 2 2

that triangle ABCofis theequilateral,


triangle. Let D sobethe
themedians
midpoint ofofside theAB, three sides
This intersect
becomes at the 2
so that CD is a median of theThis becomes
triangle. Then tri- �2√3� = 𝑟𝑟 2 − (ℎ − 𝑟𝑟)2
O of the triangle. Let D be the midpoint of side AB, so that CD is a median of the2
angle ADO is a right triangle. andThis triangle is �2√3� = 𝑟𝑟 2 − (ℎ − 𝑟𝑟)2
Then triangle ADO is a right triangle. This triangle
similar to triangle CDA, so OD : AD = AD : AC is similar
to triangle CDA,
and AO = CO, you 12 = 2rh − h2 = 20r − 100.
AD = AD : AC = =1 1: :2,2,and and AOAO==2OD. 2OD. So,So,
sincesince AO = CO, you and get OD = (1/3)CD.
get OD = (1/3)CD. Also, Thus, 112 = 20r, and the radius of12 12the sphere
2rh − h22 is
== 2rh 5.6 −−cm.
= 20r
= 20r 100.
100.
Thus, 112 = 20r, and the radius
Thus, 112 of =the
20r,sphere
and theisradius
5.6 cm. of the sphere is
CD = �6 − 3 = 3√3.
2 2
5.6 cm.

2
OA = × 3√3 = 2√3.
3
the other vertex of the pyramid, and S the centre of the sphere. Then triangle
a right-angled triangle, and if h (= 10) is the height of the pyramid and r the
f the sphere, we get from Pythagoras’ theorem that
OA2 = SA2 − SO2.
omes
2
�2√3� = 𝑟𝑟 2 − (ℎ − 𝑟𝑟)2

12 = 2rh − h2 = 20r − 100.


12 = 20r, and the radius of the sphere is 5.6 cm.

38 delta-K, Volume 51, Number 1, December 2013


Book Review_______________________________________

Exploring the Math and Art Connection:


Teaching and Learning Between the Lines,
by Daniel Jarvis and Irene Naested
Brush Education, 2012

Reviewed by Roberta La Haye

Exploring the Math and Art Connection: Teaching


and Learning Between the Lines is a recent publica-
tion by Daniel Jarvis (Nipissing University) and Irene
Naested (Mount Royal University), two education
professors with expertise in teaching art and mathe-
matics. The book is intended as a teaching resource
for educators, especially at the elementary level. It is
built on the principles that both mathematics and
visual arts provide valuable tools with which to un-
derstand the world around us and that connecting the
two disciplines can enhance students’ appreciation
and understanding of both.
I had the pleasure of teaching a new course for
future elementary educators with Dr Naested. The
course dealt with the integration of mathematics and
the visual arts for pedagogical reasons. This book was
both a valuable resource for the course and an eye-
opener for me. As a professor of mathematics with
an interest in visual art and experience with math–art
outreach activities, I thought I had a decent under-
standing of the math–art connection. I was wrong!
Many learning experiences that I thought of as math–
art are actually math activities with crafts added on
to make mathematics more appealing. These “math
crafts” give no consideration to artistic principles
or the true value of integrated learning to both math
and art.
Chapter 1 outlines the history of the math–art con- and finishes up with a discussion about planning in-
nection and discusses a breadth of educational theo- tegrated activities. A single chapter can’t make a math
ries and strategies that support connecting the two teacher an art expert, or an art teacher a math expert.
disciplines. The intention is to show readers the value Instead, the chapter emphasizes that both disciplines
to students of exploiting these connections in the have substantial and meaningful curricula and that
classroom. there are links between them.
Chapter 2 highlights the major elements of both Chapters 3–7 get down to the nuts and bolts of
the mathematics curriculum and the art curriculum exploiting connections between the two subjects

delta-K, Volume 51, Number 1, December 2013 39


through teaching and learning experiences. The au- Overall, the book puts a little more emphasis on
thors chose not to organize the chapters using the art—probably because the authors have more com-
math or art curricula. Instead, they have organized bined experience in that discipline than in mathemat-
the topics according to the world around us. There ics. From the mathematics viewpoint, it is interesting
are chapters related to flora, fauna, the human figure, to see experts in another discipline also lamenting
architecture and designed objects. The authors also how little respect their discipline gets and how its
bring in connections to other disciplines, including goals are being watered down.
science and sociology. There are some really nice ideas in these chapters
The following are examples of the learning experi- but, for the sake of breadth and to appeal to a wider
ences outlined: audience, the book just outlines the learning experi-
• Linking grid drawings and distorted grid drawings ences. The onus is on the reader to flesh out these
to measurement and area ideas and customize them to their individual goals
• Measuring angles and using symmetry to construct in the curriculum. This is not necessarily an easy
kaleidoscope patterns task, but it has the potential to be a rewarding one.
• Making data collection a part of the artistic process I’d recommend this book to any educators who are
of realistically capturing the human figure both open to the idea of truly integrated math and art
• Problem solving with ratios to get a “life-sized” activities and willing to put in the time and effort to
depiction of a sasquatch expand their expertise and apply the ideas. It will not
be your only resource, but it is a great start.
Imagine discussing math and art topics not because
you hit that section in the textbook but because you
and your students were looking at the world around Roberta La Haye is an associate professor of math-
you and saw them there! ematics at Mount Royal University, where she teach-
Finally, in Chapter 8 the authors further discuss es courses in calculus, algebra and statistics and has
the why of curriculum integration and get into a few helped develop and run a course in general education,
specifics about how it can be achieved. They warn that as well as a course connecting mathematics and art
to do a good job of integrating mathematics and art for future educators. She has a PhD in group theory
curricula in planning learning experiences, the teacher and, in the past few years, has developed an interest
must have a good understanding of both subjects and in the ties between mathematics and art. This interest
must carefully plan the lessons. The references and has manifested itself in outreach activities to elemen-
resources at the back of the book are also an asset. tary and middle school children, as well as in research.

40 delta-K, Volume 51, Number 1, December 2013


MCATA Executive 2013/14

President Professional Development Director Dr Arthur Jorgensen Chair


Marj Farris Rod Lowry Bernadette McMechan
marjf@fvsd.ab.ca rod.lowry1@gmail.com bernadette.mcmechan@phrd.ab.ca

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Daryl Chichak Carmen Wasylynuik Kris Reid
mathguy@shaw.ca carmenbt@telus.net kris.reid@gov.ab.ca

Special Projects Director Postsecondary Mathematics


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john@aac.ab.ca Carol Henderson
2013 Conference Codirectors carol.henderson@ata.ab.ca
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Tancy Lazar Robert Wong NCTM Representative
trlazar@shaw.ca robert.wong@epsb.ca Tancy Lazar
Debbie Duvall trlazar@shaw.ca
debbie.duvall@shaw.ca Directors at Large
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Membership Director martind@rdcrd.ab.ca Representative
Daryl Chichak Alicia Burdess Maureen MacInnes
mathguy@shaw.ca aliciaburdess@gpcsd.ca macinnmj@staff.ednet.ns.ca

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Providing leadership to encourage the continuing enhancement
of teaching, learning and understanding mathematics.
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