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Jul 09, 2018

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Revista de matemática DELTA K. Vol 51 N°1

© All Rights Reserved

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Revista de matemática DELTA K. Vol 51 N°1

© All Rights Reserved

- My Personal Philosophy of Teaching and Learning
- final script for 21st century educator presentation v2
- A Kid’s Eye View of an Innovative Classroom
- Growth Assessment
- Number_module_TEACHER27.ppt
- disposisi matematik
- Solving Behavior Problems Together
- Strategies for Addition
- learning to teach math for social justice
- assignment 6
- adthadth
- Principles of Teaching and Learning.docx
- cover letter portfolio
- cbhs 2015
- student self assessment prompt for teaching lesson 3
- teacher on teaching
- effective teaching plan- area of parallelograms
- teachingphilosophy
- classroom observation form 2
- Professional Readings

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Guidelines for Manuscripts

delta-K is a professional journal for mathematics teachers in Alberta. It is published twice a year to

• promote the professional development of mathematics educators, and

• stimulate thinking, explore new ideas and offer various viewpoints.

Submissions are requested that have a classroom as well as a scholarly focus. They may include

• personal explorations of significant classroom experiences;

• descriptions of innovative classroom and school practices;

• reviews or evaluations of instructional and curricular methods, programs or materials;

• discussions of trends, issues or policies;

• a specific focus on technology in the classroom; or

• a focus on the curriculum, professional and assessment standards of the NCTM.

1. delta-K is a refereed journal. Manuscripts submitted to delta-K should be original material. Articles currently

under consideration by other journals will not be reviewed.

2. If a manuscript is accepted for publication, its author(s) will agree to transfer copyright to the Mathematics

Council of the Alberta Teachers’ Association for the republication, representation and distribution of the

original and derivative material.

3. All manuscripts should be typewritten and properly referenced. All pages should be numbered.

4. The author’s name and full address should be provided on a separate page. If an article has more than one

author, the contact author must be clearly identified. Authors should avoid all other references that may

reveal their identities to the reviewers.

5. All manuscripts should be submitted electronically, using Microsoft Word format.

6. Pictures or illustrations should be clearly labelled and placed where you want them to appear in the article.

A caption and photo credit should accompany each photograph.

7. References should be formatted consistently using The Chicago Manual of Style’s author-date system or

the American Psychological Association (APA) style manual.

8. If any student sample work is included, please provide a release letter from the student’s parent/guardian

allowing publication in the journal.

9. Articles are normally 8–10 pages in length.

10. Letters to the editor or reviews of curriculum materials are welcome.

11. Send manuscripts and inquiries to the editor: Gladys Sterenberg, 195 Sheep River Cove, Okotoks, AB,

T1S 2L4; e-mail gsterenberg@mtroyal.ca.

Providing leadership to encourage the continuing enhancement

of teaching, learning and understanding mathematics.

Volume 51, Number 1 December 2013

CONTENTS

FROM YOUR COUNCIL

From the Editor’s Desk 2 Gladys Sterenberg

Meet Your MCATA Executive 3

READER’S RESPONSE

Teacher Observation to Evaluate Mathematics Achievement 4 Marlow Ediger

PROBLEM AND SOLUTION

A Northern Lights Circle Problem 7 Gregory V Akulov

STUDENT CORNER

A Solution to “A Northern Lights Circle Problem” 8 Dennis Situ

FEATURE ARTICLES

Numeracy 10 Peter Liljedahl and Minnie Liu

The Pros and Cons of Contests 13 Karl Dilcher

Problem Solving 15 Srinivasa Swaminathan

Understanding Studying and Studying Understanding 16 Jennifer Hyndman

TEACHING IDEAS

I’ve Got Problems: Chapter 1 of Sally Strange: And How She

Learned to Stop Worrying and Love Grade 7 Math 18 Nico Rowinsky

The Exploration of Patterns 21 Chelsey Bonnett

Alberta High School Mathematics Competition 2012/13 25

Edmonton Junior High Math Contest 2013 30

Calgary Junior High School Mathematics Contest 2013 35

BOOK REVIEW

Exploring the Math and Art Connection: Teaching and Learning

Between the Lines, by Daniel Jarvis and Irene Naested 39 Roberta La Haye

Copyright © 2013 by The Alberta Teachers’ Association (ATA), 11010 142 Street NW, Edmonton, AB T5N 2R1. Permission to use or

to reproduce any part of this publication for classroom purposes, except for articles published with permission of the author and noted as

“not for reproduction,” is hereby granted. delta-K is published by the ATA for the Mathematics Council (MCATA). EDITOR: Gladys Sterenberg,

195 Sheep River Cove, Okotoks, AB T1S 2L4; e-mail gsterenberg@mtroyal.ca. EDITORIAL AND PRODUCTION SERVICES:

Document Production staff, ATA. Opinions expressed herein are not necessarily those of MCATA or of the ATA. Address correspondence

regarding this publication to the editor. delta-K is indexed in CBCA Education. ISSN 0319-8367

Individual copies of this journal can be ordered at the following prices: 1 to 4 copies, $7.50 each; 5 to 10 c opies, $5.00 each; more than

10 copies, $3.50 each. Please add 5 per cent shipping and handling and 5 per cent GST. Please contact Distribution at Barnett House to

place your order. In Edmonton, dial 780-447-9432; toll free in Alberta, dial 1-800-232-7208, ext 432.

Personal information regarding any person named in this document is for the sole purpose of professional consultation between mem-

of TheVolume

delta-K,

bers 51, Number

Alberta Teachers’ 1, December 2013

Association. 1

From Your Council___________________________________

Gladys Sterenberg

As I write this, I am preparing to begin the new school year. At Mount Royal University, our BEd program

is rolling out its third year, which involves practicum experiences in Calgary and area schools. Today, I heard

news of schools that remain closed because of flood damage incurred in June. These are challenging times for

many school boards, parents, teachers and children, who are experiencing a high level of uncertainty while

trying to restore routine in uprooted contexts. By the time you read this, our community will have coped with

this upheaval in school access, but right now it seems overwhelming.

The situation in Alberta this summer has reminded me of how important the mathematical processes are for

our communities. In particular, I have witnessed neighbours and friends responding in compassionate ways to

those who have been severely impacted by the floods. Problem solving and making connections have been at

the forefront of these responses.

The US National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) states,

Instructional programs from prekindergarten through grade 12 should enable all students to—

• Build new mathematical knowledge through problem solving

• Solve problems that arise in mathematics and in other contexts

• Apply and adapt a variety of appropriate strategies to solve problems

• Monitor and reflect on the process of mathematical problem solving . . .

• Recognize and use connections among mathematical ideas

• Understand how mathematical ideas interconnect and build on one another to produce a coherent whole

• Recognize and apply mathematics in contexts outside of mathematics.1

This issue of delta-K provides a glimpse into how this might look in a classroom. As professionals, we are

constantly engaged in problem-solving processes when we reason about what students know mathematically.

Marlow Ediger reminds us of the importance of observation in this process, and Chelsey Bonnett and Jennifer

Hyndman share their experiences of observing students in their own classrooms. Srinivasa Swaminathan pres-

ents research around problem solving, and a problem to be used in the classroom is provided by Gregory Akulov,

along with a student response from Dennis Situ. Other problems are presented in the math contests, and Karl

Dilcher prompts us to consider how we might use these in our classrooms. Connections between literature, art

and math are presented by Nico Rowinsky and Roberta La Haye. Included also is a content piece, by Peter

Liljedahl and Minnie Liu, on how numeracy is connected to various contexts in the mathematics curriculum.

Editing this issue of delta-K has been an experience of connections across the teaching profession. Mathemat-

ics Council (MCATA) members have forwarded articles they have read in various publications, editors of other

math education journals have sent articles they think should be reprinted, education course instructors have

encouraged their students to submit copies of stellar assignments to be crafted into articles, and various people

involved in math contests across our province have sent problems and solutions from past contests.

I hope that the spirit of making connections with other math teachers continues and that you find inspiration

for making connections and problem solving in your own classroom. Enjoy.

Note

1. See www.nctm.org/standards/content.aspx?id=322.

Meet Your MCATA Executive

Back row (l–r): Gladys Sterenberg, Rod Lowry, Donna Chanasyk, Daryl Chichak, Mark Mercer,

Carmen Wasylynuik, Carol Henderson, Lisa Everitt

Front row (l–r): Kris Reid, Tancy Lazar, Robert Wong, Marj Farris, Debbie Duvall, Indy Lagu,

John Scammell

Missing: Karen Bouwman, David Martin, Alicia Burdess, Olive Chapman

Reader’s Response__________________________________

Mathematics Achievement

Marlow Ediger

There are a plethora of assessment techniques that • Does the student’s learning style favour individual

can be used in evaluating student achievement in or cooperative endeavours?

mathematics. Each method has its pros and cons; • Does the student reflect on past mathematical

however, some methods do a more comprehensive experiences?

job than others. Assignments in mathematics should make provi-

Too frequently, mandated tests are the focus in the sions for individual differences. Students have differ-

educational literature on evaluation. Mandated tests ent ability and interest levels, and they need to make

are given once a year and then in selected grade levels. sequential progress. The teacher may notice that a

Also, feedback from these tests does not provide sequence is not working when students fail to make

information on specific errors made by learners (to continuous progress. Assignments should be clear

be used for remedial purposes). The most frequently and relevant, and adequate prerequisite information

used assessment procedure should be teacher observa- must precede each new process being emphasized.

tion. Teacher observation can be used continuously There is a zone of proximal development (Vygotsky

in the classroom, and the teacher can immediately 1986) for each student; thus, a student may have a

diagnose and remedy difficulties faced by students. current achievement level in adding negative num-

How might teacher observation of students help in bers, for example, and the ensuing learnings require

mathematics teaching and learning? multiplication of negative numbers. With small steps

and meaningful experiences, the teacher can help the

Assessing Mathematical learner bridge the gap.

Vygotsky (1986) stresses the importance of stu-

Progress dents mediating experiences through language, such

Teachers of mathematics must have a good knowl- as discussions in large or small groups. This might,

edge of the subject matter, as well as of teaching too, involve peer-mediated discussion groups. Teacher

methodology, to do quality work in observing learner observation of student participation in discussions

progress. These matters need to be uppermost in the should include the following considerations (Ediger

teacher’s mind when observing. The teacher should and Rao 2001):

consider the following questions about student • Meaningful mathematical learnings are being

behaviour: developed.

• Is the student on task and engaged in learning? • All are participating, but no one is dominating the

• Does the learner show interest in mathematics activity.

(rather than being bored)? • Ideas are circulating among the participants.

• What specifically does the student not understand • Enthusiasm for learning is in evidence.

in an ongoing activity? • Ideas are being expressed with clarity.

• How might this student best understand how to • In-depth discussions are being stressed.

remedy the deficiency? • Optimal achievement is a focal point for each

• What do individual learners need as background student.

information in order to attach meaning to the ensu- What might a mathematics teacher observe specifi-

ing learning experience? cally about “meaningful mathematical learnings”?

What is accomplished must make sense to the student. • Student self-evaluation of his or her progress, using

Thus, if a student is unable to come up with the criteria agreed upon by the student and the

correct answer to a set of three two-place numerals teacher

with carrying, what might be some possibilities for The portfolios should be viewed and discussed in

error? The teacher needs to evaluate if the learner parent–teacher conferences. Coming up with agreed-

understands the concept of addition. The student may upon ways of helping a student achieve should be a

even need to use markers to show the sum of two goal of the conference. The home and the school need

addends. A place value chart with ones and tens col- to work together for the good of the learner. Indepen-

umns might well help the learner to attach meaning dent evaluators may also assess portfolio contents for

to adding two- and then three-digit numerals. If the purposes of noting student progress and ensuring

meaning is lacking for the student, then it is very teacher accountability.

difficult to proceed to more complex learnings, such In assessing the portfolio, the following questions

as regrouping from the ones to the tens column. Un- should be considered:

derstanding place value is very important here. Prob-

lems might even arise in terms of writing numerals • How might the teacher guide the learner in attain-

legibly for ease of comprehension. Once student ing as optimally as possible?

understanding is in evidence, the use of technology • Which objectives need to be stressed specifically?

(such as handheld calculators/computers) can truly • What kinds of learning opportunities will help the

make subject-matter learnings interesting and chal- student achieve these objectives?

lenging (Ediger 2006a). • What should be done to help the student reflect on

his or her progress and monitor himself or herself

adequately?

Keeping Anecdotal Records • How can the student be motivated more thoroughly

to develop an inward desire to learn?

and Using Student Portfolios • How might the student become more conscientious

Teacher observations may and should be re- about careful proofreading?

corded. Unless a careful system of record-keeping Portfolios provide feedback to the teacher on how

is involved, observations can be forgotten or modi- to help students overcome selected problems and

fied. Each record should contain vital data and be continuously progress in mathematics. Decisions may

written clearly. The observer can then review pat- then be made about large group, small group and

terns of student behaviour in mathematics. By re- individual student endeavours. The teacher must use

cording specific errors, the teacher can diagnose and the feedback wisely in order to provide for individual

remediate students’ difficulties in the sequence. For differences among learners (see National Council of

example, if a student has problems with reducing Teachers of Mathematics 1989).

fractions to lowest terms, he or she may not be able

to understand factoring. Or in dividing fractions, the

learner may not attach meaning to the process of Improving the Classroom

inverting the divisor and then emphasizing the op-

eration of multiplication. Environment

Portfolios can be an excellent way for students to The classroom environment is highly significant

demonstrate their progress over time, in ongoing les- in improving mathematical achievement. Through

sons and units of study. The contents (chosen by the observation, the teacher can determine what environ-

student with teacher guidance) should be a representa- mental factors are hindering student achievement and

tive sampling of the learner’s completed work in progress. For example, when students are distracted

mathematics. The time period can be a semester or from attending to a lesson, their sequential learnings

the entire school year. A student’s portfolio can are disrupted and they lose out on specific and major

contain the following items, among others (Ediger ideas. On-task behaviour is very important.

2006b): Sometimes students are rude about points pre-

• Student solutions to problems from the textbook sented in a discussion. This hinders the free flow of

• Completed worksheets ideas. Rules for discussions should be set up, such as

• Student drawings of geometrical figures all students should participate but no one should

• Graphs, charts and tables of data from ongoing dominate, interrupting others should be avoided,

lessons and units of study respect for others and their ideas should be demon-

• Printout of the student’s test results strated, and active participation is important.

Steen (2007, 12) writes the following: The basics should be taught in problem-solving

Experience shows that many students fail to master experiences. However, with some students, essential

important mathematical topics. What’s missing content may be taught more systematically. The psy-

from traditional instruction is sufficient emphasis chology of learning must be stressed in teaching and

on three important ingredients: communication, learning situations. This includes making learnings

connections, and contexts. interesting and meaningful, as well as purposeful.

Colleges expect students to communicate ef- The learning style of the individual student should

fectively with people from different backgrounds also be considered. Thus, students should learn in

and with different expertise and to synthesize skills cooperative settings, as well as individually. The

from multiple areas. Employers expect the same student must be guided to make connections between

things. They emphasize that formal knowledge is what is acquired in the school setting and what is

not, by itself, sufficient to deal with today’s chal- needed in society, in order to establish relevance.

lenges. Instead of looking primarily for technical All these strategies can be facilitated and assessed

through teacher observation.

skills, today’s business leaders talk more about

teamwork and adaptability. Interviewers examine

candidates’ ability to synthesize information, make References

sound assumptions, capitalize on ambiguity, and Ediger, M. 2006a. “Writing in the Mathematics Curriculum.”

explain their reasoning. They seek graduates who Journal of Instructional Psychology 33, no 2 (June): 120–23.

can interpret data as well as calculate with it and ———. 2006b. “Testing Versus Portfolios to Assess Achieve-

who can communicate effectively about quantita- ment.” OASCD Journal 13, no 1: 31–32.

tive topics. Ediger, M, and D B Rao. 2001. Teaching Mathematics Success-

To meet these demands of college and work, fully. New Delhi, India: Discovery.

K–12 students need extensive practice expressing National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). 1989.

verbally the quantitative meanings of both prob- Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathemat-

ics. Reston, Va: NCTM.

lems and solutions. They need to be able to write

Steen, L A. 2007. “How Mathematics Counts.” Educational

fluently in complete sentences and coherent para- Leadership 65, no 3 (November): 8–14.

graphs; to explain the meaning of data, tables,

Vygotsky, L S. 1986. Thought and Language. Rev ed. Cambridge,

graphs, and formulas; and to express the relation- Mass: MIT Press.

ships among the different representations.

versity, in Kansas, with baccalaureate and master’s

The demands of today’s workplace require in- degrees, and from the University of Denver with a

creased proficiency in mathematics, which means that doctorate degree. He was a public school teacher,

mathematics achievement in the elementary, middle school administrator and private school teacher on

school and high school years is essential. Mathemat- the West Bank of the Jordan River. After 30 years with

ics teachers need to help each student achieve opti- Truman State University, in Missouri, he retired as

mally, and strategies must be developed to guide professor emeritus of education. He continues to write

learner progress. for educational publications.

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reindeer at 6:50 am, 7:05 am and 7:20 am, riculum development.

espectively. theypositions

are moving of the at areindeer

constantatrate,6:50 itAMis, easy

7:05

B1, B2 and BSince

espectively. 3 are the positions of the reindeer at 6:50 AM, 7:05

they are moving at a constant rate, it is easy

B1, B2 and BSince

espectively. 3 are the theypositions

are moving of the at areindeer

constantatrate,6:50 itAMis, easy

7:05

A1A2 = A2A3 and B1B2 = B2B3. (1)

espectively. Since they are moving at a constant rate, it is easy

A A = A A and

.2 km A1B1, d km A2B2 and 1.6 km A B B = B B . (1)

d 3B3 chords are redrawn (1) so

1 2 2 3 1 2 2 3

d km

A3km A1B1,(1)

B3, then willAremain

2B2 andtrue. 1.6 km A3B3 chords are redrawn so

d

.2

A3km A1AB11,A

B3, then (1)

= A2A23Band

d2 km

will remain 2 and B1B 2 =km

1.6

true.

B2BA 3. 3B3 chords are redrawn (1) so

.2

A3km A1B1,(1)

B3, then d kmwillAremain

2B2 andtrue. 1.6 km A3B3 chords are redrawn so

A3B3, then (1) will remain true.

delta-K, Volume 51, Number 1, December 2013 7

d

d d

d d

correlated Thewith reindeertime;can rather, it is the of

bestraight-line

thought angle formed

asdistance

hands onby the radii

a clock,

between which attached

them doesto

move both

atnot reindeer

a constant

change ra

at

Dennis Situ The reindeer can be thought of as hands on a clock, which move at a constant rate: each

minute, the minute must hand moves 6° and the hour

find the angles before we move any further. hand moves 0.5°. However, the

The following minute, isstraight-line

atheGrademinute 9 student’s

hand

distance moves solution6° and to the

Gregory hour Akulov’s

hand moves “A0.5°. Northern However, Light theCircle

At 6:50, wethem

between have does not change

a diagram as at showna constant (Figure pace. 1),Therefor

with O

Problem”straight-lineon page must ???????.

distance

find the angles between themwe

before does move not any change at a constant pace. Therefore, we

further.

bisector of thefurther. line connecting Dasher (D ) and Dancer I

Editor’s note: must When find

At the heangles

6:50, considers

we have beforeaone we possible

diagram move case

as anyshown below,(Figure Dennis1), withrounds OA sin drawn (36.87)

as the = 0.6 and

perpend

Student Corner_____________________________________

sin (53.13) At =6:50, 0.8. we haveofathe

Actually,

bisector diagram

sinline(36.87)

hypotenuse

as shown

connecting> 0.6 and

side)

(Figure

Dashersin (53.13)

(D

property,

1),I)withand<OA

the

0.8.drawn

Dancer

two

(DIIas

triangles shown

the perpendicular

). Because of the RHS

are

bisector of thenote line connecting is also Dasher the

the(D angle ) and bisector

Dancer of

(DIID).reindeer

I

OD

Because

II

. Weofalso havemeans a right

arethe RHS (right

I

First of all, we hypotenuse

must side)the

that property,

distances two

between triangles theshown

two are congruent. notThisdirectly

hypotenuse side) property, known.

the two of DTherefore,

triangles shown wehave can use

are congruent. trigonometry Thistriangle to find the

withistime; also the angleitbisector tomeans that

withOA

IODII. We also a right-angled tw

correlated rather, is the angle formed by the radii attached both reindee

is also the known.angleTherefore,

bisector ofwe We

D ODI

have

can

II . We

use sin alsoα =have

trigonometry 0.6, asoright-angled

α find

to = 36.87°,the whichLabel

triangle

angles. means

withangletwo that

sides

D an

IOA

The reindeer can be thought of as hands on a clock, which move at a constantI rate: each

minute, We

known.We

thehave minute

Therefore,

hand

we

have sin α = 0.6,We

moves

can use

so αnowtrigonometry

= 36.87°,

6° andwhich

examine

the hour

to

whichthe

hand

find the

casethat

means

moves

angles.

at 7:20, Label

anglewhere

0.5°.

angle

D OD we

I II

IIHowever, the

D OA

draw a sim

= 73.74°. as α.

sin α = 0.6, so α = 36.87°, means that angle D OD = 73.74°.

Circle Problem”

I

We now examine the OB caseas atthe7:20, new where we draw a similar

perpendicular bisector. diagram

Angle(FigureDIOB is 2),to

b

straight-line We nowOB distance

examine between

the case them does

at 7:20, where not change

we draw at a constant

a similar diagram pace. Therefore,

(Figure we

as the new perpendicular bisector. Angle D I OB is to be labelled I β.2),II but with

We have sin β = 0.8, so β = 53.13°. Now, D OD = 106.26

must find OBthe as the angles

Wenew have before

sin β =we

perpendicular 0.8,move

so any

bisector.

β = 53.13°. further.

Angle Now, DID OBI is IIto be labelled β.

OD = 106.26°.

In order to find the distance d at 7:05, we must find the

At 6:50, We we havehave a

sin diagram

β

In order Dennis= 0.8, so as

β

to find theSitu shown

= 53.13°. (Figure

Now, D

distance d at 7:05, we must

I1), with

OD II

= OAfind

106.26°. drawn as the perpendicular

the average angle, as 7:05 is t

average time between 6:50 and 7:30. Theasaverage angle

bisectorIn oforder

the average

line

to findconnecting

the distance

time betweenDasherd 6:50 (D

at 7:05, and

I

)weand

7:30. mustDancer

Thefind (D average

the

average

II

).angle

Because isangle, of the

given by RHS

7:05 (right

is the

73.74 + 106.26

hypotenuse average side) time betweenthe

property, 6:50two and triangles

7:30. The average shown

73.74 + 106.26 angle

are is given byThis means that

congruent. = 90°.OA

73.74 + 106.26 = 90°. 2

2

The following is a is also 9the angle bisector of D OD . 7:05,

Wethe also have a right-angled atriangle with angle.

two sides

I II

Grade student’s At solution

7:05, the to radii ofAt At

the7:05,reindeer theradiiradii

2 of the

form aofright

the

=

reindeerreindeer

90°.

angle. form The form

right

diagram a right

angle. is given below The

Gregory Akulov’s “A known. At

Northern Therefore,

Lights

7:05,3). Circle

the radii we can

Prob-

of the usereindeer

trigonometry

The diagram

3). form is to find

given

a right below

angle. theThe angles.

(Figure 3).

diagram Label anglebelow

is given

IOA as α.

D (Figure

Although situ.docx

we could -1 use trigonometry

lem” on page 7. II to find the

We have3).sin α = 0.6, so αwe= could 36.87°, which

Although means

we could that angle D I

OD d,=the 73.74°.

Editor’s note: When he considers oneAlthough possible case use

length trigonometry

d, the easiest way isuse

to find trigonometry

the

to simply length

use Pythagoras’ to find way

easiest the length

is to si

We now

below, Dennis rounds sin (36.87) = 0.6 and sinexamine

Although use wethe case

could

Pythagoras’ at

use 7:20, use

theorem where

trigonometry

theorem Pythagoras’

toto we

find

findto draw

find

that

that the a

theorem

𝑑𝑑 = similar

length

√1 2 + 1to2d,=diagram

the

find√2. easiest

that (Figure

𝑑𝑑way

= √1 is22),

to+ but =wit

simply

1 2 √2.

Corner (53.13) = 0.8. Actually, OB as sinthe use

(36.87) Pythagoras’

new At >perpendicular

7:05,

0.6 and theorem

thesindistance to find

bisector.

At

dAtis7:05, that

7:05,

√2 km. Angle

the

𝑑𝑑 = D OB is

distance

√1

the distance

2 + 1d2 is

I

d isto√2.

= bekm.

√2 km.labelled β.

n to “A Northern

(53.13)Light

< 0.8.CircleWe Problem”haveAtsin 7:05, =the

β Figure

0.8, 1so β =d 53.13°.

distance is √2 km. Figure

Now,1 DIODII = 106.26°.

Figure 1 Figure 1

tu First of all, we must Innote

order that to thefind

distances distance d at 7:05, we must find the average angle, as 7:05 is the

the between

ing is a Gradethe two reindeer

9 student’s are not to

solution directly

average Gregory correlated

time Akulov’s

between with “A time;

6:50 Northern

and 7:30. Light

TheCircle average angle is given by

rather, it is the angle formed by the radii attached to

on page ???????.

both reindeer. The reindeer can be thought of as hands

73.74 + 106.26

= 90°.

ote: When he considers

on a clock,one possible

which move case below, Dennis

at a constant rate: each rounds

min- sin (36.87) = 0.6 2 and

Atmoves

7:05, the radii Figure 2

ute,sin

) = 0.8. Actually, the(36.87)

minute >hand 0.6 and sin6° and

(53.13) the<of hour thehand

0.8. reindeer form a right angle. The diagram is given below (Figure

Figure 2

moves 0.5°. However, 3).thebetween

straight-line distance be-

l, we must note thatthem

tween the does

distances

not change at a theconstanttwo reindeer

pace. are not directly

d with time; rather,

Therefore,it iswethe Although

angle

must find formed

the anglesby we could

the radii

before use

we move trigonometry

attached to both to findreindeer. the length d, the easiest way is to simply

any further.

eer can be thought of as hands useonPythagoras’

a clock, which theorem moveto at find that 𝑑𝑑 =

a constant rate:√12each + 12 = √2.

At 6:50, we have At a diagram

7:05, the as distance

shown (Figure √21),km.

d is 0.5°.

he minute hand withmoves

OA drawn 6° and

as thethe hour

perpendicular handbisectormoves of the However, the

Figure 1

ine distance between themDasher

line connecting does(D notI

change

) and Dancerat(Da ).constant

II

Because pace. Therefore, we

of the RHS (right hypotenuse

the angles before we move any further. side) property, the two

triangles shown are congruent. This means that OA

we have a diagram

is also as

theshown (Figure

angle bisector of 1),

DIOD withII

. We OA also drawn

have aas the perpendicular

Figure 2

f the line connecting

right-angled Dasher

triangle(Dwith

I ) and twoDancersides known. (D ). There-

II Because of the RHS (right

fore, wethe

se side) property, cantwo

use trigonometry

triangles shown to find the areangles.

congruent. Label This means that OA

angle DIOA as α. Figure 2

e angle bisector We of D IODII. We also have a right-angled triangle with two sides

have sin α = 0.6, so α = 36.87°, which means

herefore, we that

canangle DIODII = 73.74°.to find the angles. Label angle DIOA as α.

use trigonometry

sin α = 0.6, so αWe now examine the case at 7:20, where weI draw

= 36.87°, which means that angle D ODII = 73.74°.

a similar diagram (Figure 2), but with OB as the new

examine the case at 7:20, bisector.

perpendicular where Anglewe draw DIOBaissimilar to be labelled diagram β. (Figure 2), but with

new perpendicular

We have sin β = 0.8,

bisector. Angle so βD=OB I 53.13°.is toNow, be labelled

D OD β.

I II

= 106.26°.

sin β = 0.8, so βIn= order

53.13°. Now, D OD = 106.26°.

I II

to find the distance d at 7:05, we must find

o find the distance d atangle,

the average 7:05,aswe7:05 mustis thefind average thetime average between angle, as 7:05 is the

ime between 6:506:50and

and7:30.7:30.The

Theaverage

average angleangle is given is by given by

73.74 + 106.26

= 90°.

2

he radii of the reindeer form a right angle. The diagram is given below (Figure

8 delta-K, Volume 51, Number 1, December 2013

we could use trigonometry to find the length d, the easiest way is to simply

agoras’ theorem to find that 𝑑𝑑 = √12 + 12 = √2.

he distance d is √2 km.

Figure 3 Figure 3

Dennis Situ is a Grade 9 student at Vernon Barford

Junior High School, in Edmonton.

High School, in Edmonton.

Feature Articles_____________________________________

Numeracy

Peter Liljedahl and Minnie Liu

Over the last 10 years, numeracy—or mathematical without the mathematical skills to cope with what life

literacy, as it is often called—has become more and and work will demand of them. In reaction to this,

more prominent, showing up in curriculum documents we may want to increase the amount of mathematics

and special government initiatives around the world being taught, to lengthen the period of compulsory

and in western Canada. In our local context, numeracy mathematics, to increase or deepen the mathematics

(or mathematical literacy) is featured in the Alberta content in our curriculum, or to raise the standards in

program of studies in the front matter of every math mathematics. On deeper reflection, however, it be-

curriculum document from kindergarten to Grade 12: comes evident that many of our best students—those

Students are curious, active learners with individual taking mathematics beyond the compulsory level and

interests, abilities and needs. They come to class- achieving the highest marks—are just as ill-equipped

rooms with varying knowledge, life experiences to put their mathematics education to use in life and

and backgrounds. A key component in successfully work.

developing numeracy is making connections to This realization led to the rise of the numeracy

these backgrounds and experiences. (Alberta Edu- movement—a movement designed to foster the skills

cation 2007, 1) the world is thirsting for in its graduates. The move-

Students are curious, active learners with indi- ment is driven by the principle that what is lacking is

vidual interests, abilities, needs and career goals. not more mathematics, or deeper mathematics, or

They come to school with varying knowledge, life greater fluency with mathematics but, rather, a greater

experiences, expectations and backgrounds. A key flexibility with mathematics—a flexibility to use the

component in developing mathematical literacy mathematics we know to tackle the ever-changing

in students is making connections to these back- and shifting landscape of life.

grounds, experiences, goals and aspirations. Efforts to intensify attention to the traditional

(Alberta Education 2008, 1) mathematics curriculum do not necessarily lead to

Students need to explore mathematics through increased competency with quantitative data and

solving problems in order to continue developing numbers. While perhaps surprising to many in the

personal strategies and mathematical literacy. public, this conclusion follows from a simple rec-

(Alberta Education 2008, 2) ognition—that is, unlike mathematics, numeracy

Students will develop the following mathematic does not so much lead upwards in an ascending

competencies in the context of solving everyday pursuit of abstraction as it moves outward toward

problems. Students will . . . apply mathematical an ever richer engagement with life’s diverse con-

literacy to everyday situations. (Alberta Education texts and situations. (Orrill 2001, xviii)

2006a, 4; 2006b, 4) Numeracy is not mathematics. It is something dif-

So, what is this thing called numeracy? Clearly, it ferent. Instead of diving deeper into the formal and

is related to, but somehow different from, mathemat- abstract world of mathematics, learning more math-

ics. To answer this question, we need to first under- ematics and becoming more fluent with mathematics,

stand where the numeracy movement is coming from. numeracy fosters the understanding and application

of our mathematical knowledge in a quantitative

sense. Unlike the field of mathematics, which con-

Numeracy Movement tinues to expand, the mathematics needed by a numer-

Around the world it has long been recognized that ate individual is relatively finite. That is, numeracy isn’t

students are completing their compulsory education about being able to flexibly use all of mathematics to

deal with “life’s diverse contexts and situations” (Or- willing to use the tools to resolve the situation at hand.

rill 2001, xviii); rather, it’s about being able to flexibly As such, numeracy is also a disposition—a willing-

draw on that subset of mathematics that is most useful ness to engage with the day’s problems through the

in dealing with these diverse contexts and situations. use of mathematical tools.

Mathematical literacy is an individual’s capacity

Numeracy as a Toolkit to identify and understand the role that mathemat-

ics plays in the world, to make well-founded judg-

Numeracy can be seen as a toolkit of mathematical ments, and to engage in mathematics in ways that

skills: meet the needs of that individual’s current and

[Numeracy] empowers people by giving them tools future life as a constructive, concerned and reflec-

to think for themselves, to ask intelligent questions tive citizen. (Organisation for Economic Co-oper-

of experts, and to confront authority confidently. ation and Development 1999)

These are skills required to thrive in the modern [Numeracy is] an aggregate of skills, knowledge,

world. (Quantitative Literacy Design Team 2001, 2) beliefs, dispositions, habits of mind, communica-

[A numerate person is able to use] mathematics to tion capabilities, and problem solving skills that

make decisions and solve problems in everyday people need in order to engage effectively in

life. For individuals who have acquired this habit, quantitative situations arising in life and work.

mathematics is not something done only in math- (International Life Skills Survey 2000)

ematics class but a powerful tool for living, as A handyman is not handy because he has tools; he

useful and ingrained as reading and speaking. is handy because he is willing to get his hands dirty

(Quantitative Literacy Design Team 2001, 8) using them. Likewise, a numerate individual has to

What the skills are that populate this toolkit is be willing to engage in the work—willing to, when

debatable . . . and contextual. In mathematics, the the situation calls for it, pull out his tools and use

toolkit would contain all mathematics learned. In them.

numeracy, however, the toolkit contains only those

skills that are mastered and that are useful across a Numeracy as Stepping Up

wide variety of contexts. So, while a formula for an

arithmetic sequence may be the most efficient way Thus, a numerate person is someone who is both

to solve a problem, multiplication (or repeated addi- willing and able to get the job done. This person

tion) may be the more accessible way to solve it. That knows the tools in his or her toolkit, has the confi-

is, the formula for arithmetic series is like a specialty dence that he or she can get the job done, and is

tool that, for most people, lies forgotten in a bottom willing to engage in the problems that he or she en-

drawer somewhere. Multiplication, on the other hand, counters in work and life.

is the well-worn, well-used, familiar tool that is easily This has implications for what it is we expect from

found near the top of the toolkit. It may not be as our students in the context of numeracy. Is the student

elegant or as impressive as the formula for arithmetic who uses multiplication to solve a real-life problem

series, but it is comfortable, reliable and easily more numerate than the one who uses repeated addi-

accessible. tion? Both students are exhibiting all the qualities of

This is not to say that we should have a small a numerate person implied in the sections above. They

toolkit. We want to continue to expand our toolkit, to are both willing to get the job done. They are both

add new tools to our repertoire of familiar mathemati- using tools comfortable and familiar to them. The

cal skills that we can use to deal with our ever- main difference between them is the efficiency of

expanding set of experiences. But the acquisition of their strategies, but not necessarily their choice of

a new tool should come out of necessity and be strategy, for the second student may not have multi-

grounded in the specificity of our experiences. And plication as a tool readily available to choose from.

it should be immediately and repeatedly useful to us. In mathematics we are concerned very much with the

Otherwise it runs the risk of getting lost in the bottom choice of strategy, as evolving and abstracting strategy

of a drawer somewhere. is what moves the mathematics curriculum forward.

In numeracy, however, we are much more concerned

with stepping up and getting the job done with what-

Numeracy as a Disposition ever tools are available to us.

But having a toolkit full of well-worn and familiar Numeracy is getting the job done with the tools

tools is not enough. A numerate person must also be you have. (Liljedahl 2010)

Bibliography Orrill, R. 2001. “Mathematics, Numeracy, and Democracy.”

In Mathematics and Democracy: The Case for Quan-

Alberta Education. 2006a. Knowledge and Employability Math- titative Literacy, ed L A Steen, xiii–xx. Princeton, NJ:

ematics Grades 8 and 9. Edmonton, Alta: Alberta Education. Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation. Also

available at www.maa.org/sites/default/files/pdf/QL/MathAnd

———. 2006b. Knowledge and Employability Mathematics

Democracy.pdf (accessed October 30, 2013).

10-4, 20-4. Edmonton, Alta: Alberta Education. Also available

at www.education.alberta.ca/media/645686/math10_06.pdf Quantitative Literacy Design Team. 2001. “The Case for Quan-

(accessed October 30, 2013). titative Literacy.” In Mathematics and Democracy: The Case

for Quantitative Literacy, ed L A Steen, 1–22. Princeton,

———. 2007. Mathematics Kindergarten to Grade 9. Edmonton,

NJ: Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation.

Alta: Alberta Education. Also available at http://education

Also available at www.maa.org/sites/default/files/pdf/QL/

.alberta.ca/media/645594/kto9math.pdf (accessed October 30,

MathAndDemocracy.pdf (accessed October 30, 2013).

2013).

———. 2008. Mathematics Grades 10–12. Edmonton, Alta:

Alberta Education. Also available at http://education.alberta This is an adapted version of an article from Vector

.ca/media/655889/math10to12.pdf (accessed October 30, (the journal of the British Columbia Association of

2013). Mathematics Teachers), Summer 2013.

De Lange, J. 2003. “Mathematics for Literacy.” In Quantitative

Literacy: Why Numeracy Matters for Schools and Colleges,

ed B Madison and L Steen, 75–89. Princeton, NJ: National

Council on Education and the Disciplines. Also available

Peter Liljedahl is an associate professor of mathemat-

at www.maa.org/sites/default/files/pdf/QL/WhyNumeracy ics education in the Faculty of Education, Simon

Matters.pdf (accessed October 30, 2013). Fraser University, Vancouver. He is a former high school

Hold Fast Consultants. 2004. “Numeracy and Mathematical mathematics teacher who has kept his research inter-

Literacy.” In WNCP Mathematics Research Project: Final ests and activities close to the classroom. He consults

Report, 57–95. Prepared for the Western and Northern Ca- regularly with teachers, schools, school districts, and

nadian Protocol. Victoria, BC: Hold Fast Consultants. Also ministries of education in BC and Alberta on issues

available at www.wncp.ca/media/39083/final_report.pdf

(accessed October 30, 2013). of teaching and learning, assessment, and numeracy.

International Life Skills Survey (ILSS). 2000. Policy Research Minnie Liu is a PhD student in mathematics education

Initiative. Statistics Canada. Quoted in Quantitative Literacy at Simon Fraser University. She completed her MSc

Design Team 2001, 7.

in mathematics education in 2010. She is also a

Liljedahl, P. 2010. “Numeracy Tasks FOR and AS Assessment.” practising secondary school teacher with the Vancou-

Presentation at the Grade 12 Mathematics Examinations

Specifications meeting, Victoria, BC, August.

ver school district. Her research interests are nu-

meracy and modelling, and the use of numeracy tasks

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

(OECD). 1999. Measuring Student Knowledge and Skills: to promote students’ understanding of mathematics

A New Framework for Assessment. Paris: OECD. Quoted in and mathematical thinking and to enhance their

De Lange 2003, 76. mathematics education experiences.

The Pros and Cons of Contests

Karl Dilcher

Mathematical contests and competitions have long by doing; this is the premise of Phillips’s book, and this

been among the main components of the Canadian is what we tell our students as we give them homework

Mathematical Society’s educational initiatives. In- and practice problems. But do we learn better and faster

deed, the second entry under Education on the CMS by doing mathematics fast and under time pressure?

website (http://cms.math.ca) is about competitions, This ambiguity was also the topic of a brief article,

and the introduction to those extensive and well- “Pros and Cons of Math Competitions,” by Richard

organized pages states that “competitions are an Rusczyk,2 founder of the very interesting and engag-

important part of learning mathematics and a fun ing web resource Art of Problem Solving. Referring

activity for students of all ages.” It then goes on to to competitions for middle school and high school

describe the CMS’s support for competitions. The students in the United States, Rusczyk writes,

society has a Mathematical Competitions Committee, The most immediate value of these math contests

and at least four more of the 14 standing committees is obvious—they pique students’ interest in math-

are partly or indirectly involved with competitions. ematics and encourage them to value intellectual

Over the years I have also been involved with pursuits. Kids love games, and many will turn just

competitions, both within the CMS and at Dalhousie. about any activity into a contest, or in other words,

As a member and then chair of the Endowment Grants something to get good at. Math contests thus in-

Committee, I played a role in the awarding of grants spire them to become good at mathematics just

to several excellent proposals involving local, regional like sports encourage physical fitness. Eventually,

and national competitions. In my own department, students put aside the games. By then, hopefully

before I became chair, I was involved for many years an interest in the underlying activity has developed.

in organizing training sessions for the Putnam and

the Science Atlantic (then called APICS) competi- These are indeed very strong and convincing argu-

tions. I supervised the Putnams and organized travel ments in favour of math competitions. But Rusczyk goes

and accommodation to the APICS competitions. I on to caution that there are some pitfalls. In particular,

even designed a (now discontinued) problem-solving he warns against what he calls “curricular contests”

course featuring competition-type problems, aimed and contests that greatly emphasize speed or memo-

at preparing students for various contests. rization. Contests need to be well designed, he argues,

Before I go on, let me state my unambiguous sup- and should help students develop the ability to think

port for problem solving as a mathematical activity. about and solve complex problems. Rusczyk men-

It was perhaps not such a coincidence that my col- tions two further pitfalls, namely extending children

league and office neighbour Swami (S Swaminathan) beyond their abilities, with the danger of the experi-

independently chose a topic quite similar to what I ence going from humbling and challenging to humili-

was going to write about.1 We both have similar ating and discouraging. Finally, he cautions against

mathematical tastes, and our approaches to mathemat- burnout, with the danger of students not just turning

ics are largely problem-based. Along with many other against competitions, but against math in general.

mathematicians, we take delight in beautiful prob- I’m giving so much space to Rusczyk’s article

lems, and usually even more delight in our efforts to because it puts into words my own ambiguous feel-

solve them. For us mathematicians the word problem ings about math competitions, both as someone in-

has a positive connotation, which is certainly not the volved in them as an educator and minor administ

case in everyday nonmathematical usage of the word. rator, and as a participant in a different era (the early

In fact, it is difficult to convince a nonmathematician ’70s) and a different country. I myself was always

(or, to be fair, a nonscientist) that a problem can actu- attracted to mathematics because it was, and remains,

ally be beautiful. one of the least competitive endeavours around.

It is also true that “mathematics is not a spectator I could (and still can) be slow, very slow, and get away

sport” (the title of a book by George M Phillips [2005]). with it. Anything competitive has always turned me

But is it a sport, in the competitive sense? You learn off, and I instinctively stayed away from “hot topics.”

Partly for this reason, I must dispute one argument Notes

that Rusczyk brings forward in favour of math com-

1. See “Problem Solving,” by Srinivasa Swaminathan, on

petitions: “For better or worse, much of life is com- page 15.

petition, be it for jobs or resources or whatever.” No,

2. www.artofproblemsolving.com/Resources/articles

it doesn’t have to be that way. Collaboration is always .php?page=pc_competitions&

better in all spheres of life and society. So, by all

means, let’s build on children’s love of games and

competitions. But let’s be mindful of the pitfalls and References

dangers of instilling too much of a sense of competi- Phillips, G M. 2005. Mathematics Is Not a Spectator Sport. New

tion in children. York: Springer.

What does this mean for the CMS and the wider Tao, T. 2006. Solving Mathematical Problems: A Personal Per-

mathematical community? In spite of my words of spective. New York: Oxford University Press.

caution, I believe we are doing all right; many of the

competitions are collaborative, and there are Math Reprinted with permission from CMS Notes, the

Camps, Math Circles, Math Leagues, and other less newsletter of the Canadian Mathematical Society, 45,

competitive and more collaborative initiatives. So, in no 2 (March/April 2013), pp 1, 6, http://cms.math.ca/

most parts of the country, there are programs for the notes/v45/n2/Notesv45n2.pdf. Minor changes have

slow kids, as well as for the fiercely competitive, and been made to fit ATA style.

everyone in between. In any case, I hope that most

will be able to say, as Terence Tao (2006) did at the

beginning of his Solving Mathematical Problems: A Karl Dilcher is professor and chair of the Department

Personal Perspective, “But I just like mathematics of Mathematics and Statistics at Dalhousie Univer-

because it’s fun.” sity, in Halifax.

Problem Solving

Srinivasa Swaminathan

The teaching of undergraduate and graduate courses Selecting proposals poses a more challenging task

in mathematics involves routine exposition of standard to the editors than the selection of solutions; the editors

topics illustrated by solved problems from the texts. seek to have a diversity of high-quality proposals in

Weekly assignments are generally based on exercises geometry, analysis, number theory, etc, rising above

from textbooks. Generally, mathematics is studied not the level of unimaginative textbook exercises. Elegant

for its own sake, but because the ultimate object is proposals attract a wide range of would-be solvers.

merely to pass an examination or to acquire the mini- The criteria for elegance can be summarized in the

mum knowledge necessary for dealing with some other ABCDs of elegance as follows: A for accuracy, B for

subject of study. In such a situation, how much of problem- brevity, C for clarity and D for display of insight, in-

solving ability is acquired by students is doubtful; just genuity, originality and generalization, if possible.

propose a problem outside the normal curriculum— Periodically, collections of proposed and solved

one would find that most students are unable to solve problems from well-known journals are published.

it. However, there are gifted students in almost every Thus, The Otto Dunkel Memorial Problem Book (Eves

class. Problem-solving sessions are held to train such and Starke 1957) was published by the Mathematical

students so that they can compete in the annual Putnam Association of America on the occasion of the 50th

and similar exams; they learn to apply previously anniversary of the American Mathematical Monthly,

acquired knowledge to new and unfamiliar situations. which contains a popular section on problems. The

Problems can be classified under different headings: most recent such collection is A Mathematical Orchard

mechanical or drill problems; those that require un- (Krusemeyer, Gilbert and Larson 2012), from the

derstanding of the concepts; those that require prob- Mathematical Association of America, which contains

lem-solving skills or original thinking; those that re- 208 challenging, original problems with carefully

quire research or library work; and, finally, those that worked, detailed solutions. One can spend hours

are group projects, requiring group participation. browsing through this book, thinking about and trying

The importance of problem solving in the learning to solve problems before looking at the solutions. As

process and also in the growth and development of I was thinking about problem 62 of the book—which is

mathematics has been recognized and emphasized by to find the fifth digit (the ten thousands digit) from the end

many prominent authors (for example, George Pólya’s of the number 5 raised to the power of 5, which is raised

[1945] How to Solve It). New branches of mathematics to the power of 5, . . . up to five times!—the idea for

have arisen from the search for solutions of challenging writing this editorial occurred to me! [Answer: 0.]

problems. Noteworthy examples are the successful attack

on the brachistochrone problem by the Bernouilli broth-

ers and the role played by their solution in the evolution

References

Eves, H, and E P Starke. 1957. The Otto Dunkel Memorial Prob-

of the calculus of variations. Mathematical theory of lem Book. Supplement to American Mathematical Monthly 64,

probability arose from the investigations by Pacioli, no 7. Menasha, Wisc: Mathematical Association of America.

Cardan, Tartaglia, Pascal and Fermat. Topology and graph Krusemeyer, M I, G T Gilbert and L C Larson. 2012. A Math-

theory had their origin in Euler’s analysis of a problem ematical Orchard: Problems and Solutions. Washington, DC:

about crossing bridges. The fact that in some fields Mathematical Association of America.

(algebraic) the resolution into prime factors is not unique Pólya, G. 1945. How to Solve It. Princeton, NJ: Princeton

as it is in common arithmetic led Dedekind to restore University Press.

this highly desirable uniqueness by the invention of

ideals, an important concept in algebraic geometry. Reprinted with permission from CMS Notes 45, no 2

Many mathematical journals contain problem (March/April 2013), p 2, http://cms.math.ca/notes/

sections inviting readers to submit solutions. From v45/n2/Notesv45n2.pdf. Minor changes have been

these solutions, the editors select what they consider made to fit ATA style.

to be the “best” solution, which they publish along

with other interesting solutions, if any. Solutions of Srinivasa Swaminathan is a professor emeritus in the

difficult and challenging problems may lead to inter- Department of Mathematics and Statistics at Dalhou-

esting further investigations of the devices employed. sie University, in Halifax.

Understanding Studying and

Studying Understanding

Jennifer Hyndman

Every mathematician recognizes that adding frac- musical structure? Does that person have a better

tions of polynomials is the same as adding integer understanding of music than Gary or I? Or just a dif-

fractions—one first factors each fraction as much as ferent understanding? Does this person enjoy music

possible, finds a least common denominator, rewrites more or less because they instinctively hear (and

the fractions with that denominator, and then adds cannot ignore) the underlying structure of every piece

the numerators. What is actually happening in our of music they hear?

understanding of this? We are able to see the pattern As I believe (at least I think I do) that more knowl-

for adding and are able to move this pattern from a edge increases understanding and enjoyment, I have

simple situation to a more complex situation. been giving one-on-one sessions and running study

My first-year calculus students make mistakes in skills workshops on how to learn mathematics for

adding fractions of polynomials. When I show them several years. The workshops were developed and

a pattern of adding fractions of integers that mimics initially run with my colleague, Vivian Fayowski, the

their incorrect polynomial addition rule, their body coordinator of the University of Northern British

language response is one of total understanding of Columbia’s (UNBC) Academic Success Centre. For

the integer situation. one year, they were also part of a UNBC Early Alert

What is it that they actually understand about ad- research project with Dan Ryan, Kerry Reimer and

dition of fractions of integers? They can find a prime Peter MacMillan. The focus of these workshops has

factorization of an integer. They can find common been, in essence, to explore how to organize mathe-

factors of two integers. They can find a least common matical information and how to internalize and ar-

multiple of two integers. They can multiply integers. ticulate mathematics.

They can add integers. However, I doubt that the The most common response to the question of how

students could articulate this list of actions as part of a student studies is that they “do” problems. Initially,

their understanding of how to add fractions. What I they are unable to articulate what they mean by “do-

am not sure of is whether this negatively influences ing” a problem. Several minutes of prompting eventu-

their ability to add fractions of integers or whether ally yields words like write, read, copy, draw, type,

this affects their ability to transfer their understanding speak, hear, listen and rewrite. Is their inability to

to adding fractions of polynomials. describe their own actions relevant to their difficulties

I continually observe how people collect knowl- in learning mathematics? I think so. However, I also

edge and compare it to how my students learn math- believe one needs to be able to articulate what one is

ematics. Gary, a member of my family, has over a doing and then internalize it so it is nonverbal.

thousand CDs and listens to music 18 hours a day, I am part of my own observations of learning. As

yet he cannot always identify the time signature of a a student in dance classes, I am continually being

song. He will happily ask me what the time signature challenged by learning new styles of dance and new

is. With a little thought, I can tell him. He knows the choreography. Not long ago I suffered the misfortune

history of every artist on every CD while I might not of not being able to figure out exactly where I was

be able to name the band. Which one of us has a better supposed to be while on stage in a group number.

understanding of music? Which student has a better This was unusual for me and, to prevent it from hap-

understanding of mathematics? The student who can pening again, I thought long and hard about what had

describe the process of adding fractions or the student happened. I certainly knew the choreography thor-

who can do the process? What about the student who oughly as I had been talking the group through the

can both add fractions and describe the process? Most steps to help us practise. This talking turned out to

of us would agree that this latter student has the best be the problem. I had “learned” the choreography as

understanding of the three students. What about the if it included speaking. When I walked on stage and

music listener who can identify the artist and the had to smile instead of talking, I was literally lost.

On the verbal, visual and kinesthetic scales of learning techniques for studying the material. Here is an il-

I am highly kinesthetic, very visual and almost non- lustration of the second idea: discuss the definition

verbal. Speaking the steps had interfered with my of continuity and then discuss techniques for memo-

own ability to reproduce the steps without speaking. rizing a definition, such as writing it out several times,

What are our students actually learning when they reading it out loud, reading it silently, and reciting it

study mathematics or when they study any subject? from memory with your eyes closed versus with your

What do we actually test for in a midterm or an exam? eyes open. An exam question could be as simple as

Are our students self-aware enough to realize which “List three techniques for memorizing a definition”

study methods work for them and which don’t? Do or as self-reflective as “What study technique works

they even know more than one study method? best for you when you try to memorize the definition

While thinking about this article, I asked my family of continuity?”

how they studied in university and how they learned Of course, at least in my opinion, learning is an

to study. The actions they described all fit under my activity that spirals. One initially learns a very rudi-

umbrella of things to do to study. What was more mentary approximation of a concept and then rethinks

interesting were their comments on how they learned and refines the approximation until, with focused

to study. David C’s first reaction was that he had no attention, one understands the same thing as others

memory of ever receiving specific instruction, and do. Where does studying study skills fit in this spiral?

then he said he might have had some in high school It cannot be too early, but it must be early enough to

English. David H’s comment was that it was like be useful. When I work with students, I often come

learning to be a parent; you just do it. David H’s son to the conclusion that they have to be ready to hear

thinks his college course on time management is a what I have to say about study skills (or any subject)

waste of time as he is learning nothing new. When I before they can actually take in the knowledge.

work with students who are failing courses, they Returning to learning how to add fractions of

frequently and proudly admit they spent very little polynomials, the spiral of knowledge for this starts

time on the courses and think that they will fix their with the spiral for adding fractions of integers, layers

grades by “spending more time studying.” However, on the language of polynomials, and then repeats the

when asked what they will do in this additional time, original spiral another time. How could we help our

they say, “Do problems,” which brings us back to the students learn to add fractions? Test questions like

earlier-mentioned inability of students to describe “Explain the steps in adding the following fractions

what this means. of integers (polynomials)” would be preceded by

As instructors, what should we or can we do to homework questions like “Build mind maps for inte-

assist students to be more self-aware in their studying gers and for polynomials that illustrate the concepts

(without giving time-management courses that are a of adding two fractions. Discuss the similarities and

waste of time)? The lucky students, like the Davids differences.” The intrinsic patterns that mathematicians

and me, figured out effective study techniques that fit see can be brought into the light for our students.

in the time we had available. Other students do less

well than they are capable of. I think we should be Reprinted with permission from CMS Notes 45, no 1

teaching study skills as part of the ongoing education (February 2013), pp 12–13, http://cms.math.ca/notes/

of our students. v45/n1/Notesv45n1.pdf. Minor changes have been

Here are some of the things I would do if I were made to fit ATA style.

to teach the perfect course as part of the perfect uni-

versity degree. The course objectives provided to the

students would have components of both mathemati- Jennifer Hyndman is professor and chair of the

cal content and study skills. The lectures would have Department of Mathematics and Statistics at the

study techniques embedded in the content develop- University of Northern British Columbia, in Prince

ment. The content to be examined would include George.

Teaching Ideas_____________________________________

Sally Strange: And How She Learned to

Stop Worrying and Love Grade 7 Math

Nico Rowinsky

If I was given the choice between going to math I try not to stare at him too obviously,

class or going to the orthodontist for a tightening, I’d Ooooo Caaaa-na-da.

probably choose the orthodontist. But I’m only 11 as he turns into his aisle,

and I don’t get to make those choices.

Yesterday, I had the painful tightening. Today, I’m we stand on guaaaard

here. Math class. and timed perfectly,

I move through the room towards my seat and say foooor

hi to Chin as I squeeze by his chair. Before I get a reaches for his chair,

chance to sit, the bell goes, and the familiar voice of

Niles comes on the PA: “Please stand for the national theeeeeeeeeeee

anthem.” I plop my bag down in the little area be- and sits.

tween my desk and Arial’s. The noise of everyone Seemingly on his cue we all sit down.

getting up from their chairs carries on into the first “Good morning, Winona! Today is Tuesday, Sep-

few bars. tember 15th—a Day 6 on our cycle—and these are

O Canada! your morning announcements.” Niles. Where does

Our home and native land! he get the energy to be so cheery in the morning?

While some decide to stand quietly, others are still The announcements continue as I look down and

kinda moving and continue their morning chat in read the graffiti in my desk to see if there is anything

whispers. I look over to Lindsay across the room and new since Friday. I read over Gavin’s name for the

we make weird faces for a moment until Evan inter- millionth time. He left me a few messages last week.

rupts our friendly game by walking in late. One of them was simply Good game! No Hello. No

Sally. Just Good game! He’d watched me play and

With glowing hearts we see thee rise.

wanted me to know. Both Evan and Gavin are trying

I watch Lindsay’s weird face turn into a cute smile, out for the volleyball team, just like we are, and

followed by a tiny, flirty wave pointed towards Evan. they’re showing their support for the girls.

He smiles back but continues his march. He passes I pick at my teeth—the elastics are annoying and

my desk and gives me a nod. My heart skips a beat. everything feels tight in the morning—before I reach

Or does it beat twice as fast? I’m not sure. I can’t for my pencil case. Today, we’re starting something

think for a moment. It’s not even 9:05 and I’m already new because yesterday was the last of the so-called

needing some help. review.

God keep our land glorious and free! After the announcements end, Mr Rowe slowly

Oh, I’ll be fine. Evan and I are close friends. We’ve walks from his desk to the front of the room, faces

known each other since Grade 1. We like to joke the class and, with way more drama than needed,

around and tell people we’re cousins, even though, I holds up two pieces of paper. He tries to make math

don’t know, this year—something’s different. fun. He tries.

I’m half listening, not ready to fully commit my Here we go. I knew it couldn’t have been that easy.

attention to my overly excited math teacher. It’s too Here comes the question only the math teacher actu-

early, my mouth feels too tight, and two pieces of ally cares about.

paper aren’t going to do it for me. Mr Rowe raises his hand slowly as he asks, “Which

Our room door is open and I see Niles in the hall, cylinder would hold the most water?” His hand clearly

walking past. He pauses for a split second and looks indicates we’re not supposed to yell this one out.

to see if I’m okay before he continues to his Grade 8 The usuals raise their hands with confidence (how

homeroom class. He’s like that. After the announce- do they know this already?), followed by a few strag-

ments, he checks in on me, every day. I’m not sure glers. Then Evan calls out, “They’re the same!”

why, but maybe it’s because it’s still September. Our math teacher looks directly at him with no

Maybe it’s because I’m in Grade 7 and he’s in Grade sign of emotion. Keeping his hand up, he slowly walks

8. Or, maybe it’s because this is his second year at over to Evan.

Winona Drive Senior School, and it’s my first. But “Someone with their hand up, please,” and he calls

most likely, it’s just what big brothers do—check on on Gloria while whispering something to Evan.

their little sisters. “The taller one holds more,” comes a shy answer

Back to the action. I missed something. I turn to from Gloria, sounding more like a question.

Chin. “What do we have to do?” “Why?” the math teacher’s favourite response to

Chin is this tall, friendly giant in our class. I would any unsuspecting student.

say fat, but that seems rude. He’s just big, I guess. “Because”—but she is not the type to just say

He’s not only friendly, he seems to pay attention just because—“because it’s bigger, taller, so it holds more.”

a little more than I do, so he’s always there when I “Good.” He leaves Evan and now moves to the

have one of my “zone-out” moments. back of the class. Most of us turn to follow him except

“Pay attention.” He tries to sound upset. “We have for Evan, who now might be regretting walking in

to make a cylinder out of this piece of paper.” late and blurting out his answer.

I grab the sheet from Chin and wrap one side onto “Anyone agree with Gloria?” More than half the

the other, making a tube. “Ta-daaaa!” I throw my hands go up.

hands up and announce to my group, “I’m a math “Anyone disagree?” No hands.

genius!” Wait. One hand. It’s Evan, back from his momen-

“Sally, do you want to share with the class?” tary mental detention.

Shoot. My hands went up just for show; now I’m “Evan.” He calls on him as if to say, “Thank you

booked. I’m totally not a math genius. for putting up your hand this time.”

“Umm, ya.” “Uhh, I think they’re both the same.”

I feel like I’m getting smaller. I hate being on the Mr Rowe nods his head, satisfied that he has our

spot. Reason number 24 to hate math. attention. “Good.” He walks back to the front of the

“I . . .” shrinking class.

“folded it like this . . .” shrinking Good? What kind of answer is “good”? That

“to make the thingy . . .” shrinking doesn’t answer anything. Which tube holds more? I

“like you said . . .” Mr Rowe looks didn’t care before, but now I want to know. The taller

at me in silence. Shrunk! tube must hold more, right? Gloria agrees. More than

And then says, “Good. Perfect.” And rolls up one half the hands in the class agree. I wait a sec to see

of his sheets, just like mine, tapes it together and what Mr Rowe is about to say.

places it on the front ledge. Standing in front of the board, he begins again.

What? I think to myself. “Good. Now here’s your challenge for today.”

“What?” Arial says, half laughing at me. Challenge? What the . . .? What happened to the

“Anyone come up with a different solution?” he asks. tubes?

I’m in shock. My short tube sits proudly on the Before he can continue, it’s Arial who asks (on

ledge, looking a little fat (not to be rude). Lindsay behalf of most of the class), “So, which cylinder holds

shoots up her hand and responds with her own solu- more, Mr Rowe?”

tion. Her butt almost leaves her seat as she shows off “Oh. Right. Ummm, I don’t know yet. We’ll have

her answer. Her tube is the same as mine, just the to figure that out. Should we have a quick discussion

longer ends coming together. before our challenge?”

“Very good, Lindsay,” he says as he turns to show- So there’s a discussion all right, but it doesn’t give

case Lindsay’s solution beside mine. us the answer, and neither does our teacher, just some

“So, the question is . . .” more questions.

Oh, Mr Rowe. I guess he sets it up this way. It’s a I did most of the math myself (with a calculator),

week into school and although I haven’t figured out but Niles helped me figure out what to do. He also

any of the math yet, I think I’m beginning to figure said that I haven’t explained why. I hate “explain why”

him out a little. in math. I would like Mr Rowe to explain why we

This time it’s a “challenge,” but it’s always a dif- need to explain in math. I wrote, “Because the number

ferent word with teachers. Challenge, task, questions, is bigger,” which is right. Don’t ask me to explain

problems. Problems, really. I have a problem for you. why!

Work on these problems. Did you finish your math

problems? It all sounds so negative. I clearly have a Reprinted with permission from the Ontario Mathe-

problem with the word problem. matics Gazette 50, no 3, March 2012, pp 29–31.

Minor changes have been made to fit ATA style.

Homework:

Write an explanation as to why one tube holds

more than the other tube. Born in Uruguay, Nico Rowinsky grew up in Missis-

sauga, Ontario, and studied mathematics at the

Sally Strange 7-1 University of Toronto. His first novel, Sally Strange:

And How She Learned to Stop Worrying and Love

In class you said to find how much a tube holds: Grade 7 Math, which began as a writing assignment

Multiply the size of the circle by the height:

for a student, is a real yet sensitive look at relation-

circle × height

ships in Grade 7. The novel is available through

Leanpub at https://leanpub.com/Sally_Strange_

You also said that circle size is done in Grade 8, so you

gave us the size of both circles:

Grade_7. Nico is a middle school math teacher and

lives in Toronto with his wife, also a teacher. Follow

Short tube Long tube

Nico on his blog (http://ynaughtmath.blogspot.ca)

circle = 62 cm2 circle = 37 cm2

and Twitter (@NicoRowinsky).

Then I measured the height:

height = 22 cm height = 28 cm

circle × height

Short = 62 × 22 = 1,364 Long = 37 × 28 = 1,036

The short tube holds more. Because the number is

bigger.

The Exploration of Patterns

Chelsey Bonnett

interested in how children think about patterns. I

designed a series of tasks that would help early learn- I asked Dave to draw three different shapes. He

ing students demonstrate the following outcomes first drew a triangle and a circle. As he drew the

from Alberta’s K–9 mathematics program of studies shapes, he said their names out loud. He then said

(Alberta Education 2007, 53): “diamond” and began drawing one, but then he paused

and asked for help. I helped him finish drawing the

• Distinguish between repeating patterns and non-

diamond. See Figure 1.

repeating sequences in a given set by identifying

the part that repeats. Figure 1

• Copy a given repeating pattern, e.g., actions, sound,

colour, size, shape, orientation, and describe the

pattern.

• Extend a variety of given repeating patterns by two

more repetitions.

• Create a repeating pattern, using manipulatives,

musical instruments or actions, and describe the

pattern.

• Identify and describe a repeating pattern in the

classroom, school and outdoors; e.g., in a familiar

song, in a nursery rhyme.

The goal was to have students recognize how patterns

allow them to make predictions and justify their

reasoning when solving routine and nonroutine

problems. I then asked Dave to repeat the pattern of those

I chose to work with Dave,1 a five-year-old who three shapes. He drew them again, although not in a

attended kindergarten at a public elementary school particular sequence or size. See Figure 2.

in Slave Lake. This boy was rather bright, tended to Figure 2

catch on quickly, was already showing a great interest

in the area of science, and was enthusiastic when

approaching new tasks.

We worked together for approximately 30 min-

utes, going through the tasks I had planned. He was

able to follow my instructions without much elabora-

tion; he took his time thinking through what I had

asked of him before responding; and, as he worked,

he talked through his thinking, which is a helpful

strategy he had developed for himself but which also

helped me understand and follow his thought process.

Dave was confident in creating and extending pat-

terns with the use of colours, but he had great diffi-

culty applying the same concept to shapes and

number patterns.

What follows are my observations and reflective I asked Dave to use the manipulatives (various

notes as I learned more about Dave’s understanding shapes, in various colours and sizes) to make a pat-

of patterns. tern. He asked if he should use colours or shapes, and

I allowed him to make the choice. He then created Changing manipulatives, Dave attempted to create

the pattern in Figure 3, focusing only on colours (yel- another repeating pattern (see Figure 6). When I asked

low and blue). Dave successfully made the pattern him why the end looked different from the beginning,

three times. he paused, thinking. After a moment, he responded,

“I don’t know. I just changed the pattern. Now it’s

Figure 3

not the same.”

Figure 6

Dave pulled the blocks off the end and tried again.

He said, “I just look at the beginning and know what

is next.” As he did this portion, he said each colour

To extend this task, I asked Dave if he could make aloud and ended up with the pattern in Figure 7.

a repeating pattern using three variables. Figure 4 Figure 7

shows the pattern he created: blue, yellow, red, yellow,

blue, red, yellow. I asked him if everything was in

order, and he began going through each set of three,

saying the colours. When he said “yellow” the second

time, he stopped and went through the first three

colours again before correcting himself and saying it

should be blue, yellow, red, blue (rather than blue,

yellow, red, yellow). I then showed the repeating pattern in Figure 8

(blue, blue, orange, brown, red, blue, blue, orange,

Figure 4

red, brown) to Dave, and asked him to continue it.

He first went through, saying each colour, and he

quickly recognized the mistake I had included in the

pattern. I was pleased and surprised by this.

Figure 8

repeat the pattern in sequence?” Figure 5 shows his

solution. He rearranged the manipulatives to demon-

strate a repeating pattern using three different colours

(blue, yellow, red).

Figure 9 shows the correction Dave made to the

Figure 5

repeating pattern (switching the red and brown blocks

at the end).

Figure 9

Figure 10 shows Dave checking his work after visual, as he could identify the patterns on the wall

correcting and expanding the pattern I presented him and the one on his sweater, but he had difficulty with

with. shapes, numbers and physical/oral patterns. If I were

Figure 10 to work with Dave again, I could use the talk-aloud

and the physical motions he used to problem solve

as a way of modelling patterns using shapes and

gradually moving his thinking about patterns to in-

clude symbols, shapes, numbers, and oral and physi-

cal patterns. Working with another child his age would

be beneficial for Dave, as they could communicate

how they see and problem solve patterns in their

environment.

A modification I would make to this lesson would

be to exclude an oral or a physical pattern. I under-

estimated the amount of time it would take to perform

this task with Dave. For Dave to develop a good grasp

of patterns, I felt it necessary to have him draw a

repeating pattern once, and then build it using two

My Reflections types of manipulatives, working with each set of

My work with Dave prompted me to consider manipulatives more than once. Developing these skills

whether the ability to form patterns and to develop was crucial in order for him to move on to completing

understanding of patterns on the basis of colour or a pattern that had already been started. Because Dave

number is influenced by age or by learning style—or spent time focusing on patterns with colours, I may

perhaps by both. need additional sessions to work toward developing

When I asked Dave to identify three different patterns with shapes and numbers and oral/physical

shapes, I was surprised that he included a diamond patterns. I could work with a student of this young

(although he did need assistance drawing it the first age only so long before valuable learning stopped

time). This demonstrated to me that he had a fairly happening. Recognizing this, I pulled back and de-

good grasp of various shapes, and it makes me curious cided to include these tasks in separate lessons.

about how many other children would select diamond Dave focused on colours but lacked the ability at

as a shape without any prompting. this point to transfer his knowledge to shapes, num-

Yet, when the activity transitioned into using bers, and oral/physical patterns. Although he had little

shapes of various colours and sizes, Dave continued experience with addition and subtraction, when I

to work with colour-based patterns. This made it ap- presented (orally and in writing) the pattern of 1, 2,

parent that colours were much easier for him and were 1, 2, 1, 2, he could not recognize the pattern, only

within his identifying comfort zone, and that he would that it was “wrong,” and he gave me an answer of 3.

need to spend more time transitioning his knowledge Curious, I prompted him to explain this to me. In this

of colour patterns to be applied to shape patterns. This area he could not communicate his understanding as

could also be attributed in part to his being more clearly as he had with colour patterns and simply

comfortable with drawing the patterns than with using responded, “1 and 2 is always 3.” While this does not

manipulatives, but after one pattern with manipula- indicate any understanding of number patterns, it does

tives, he began to grasp how he could use and ma- show that Dave has great potential to understand

nipulate them. When Dave was first presented with number operations and relationships. I don’t yet know

the manipulatives, he asked if I wanted a shape or a how I can use this to develop a connection to patterns.

colour pattern. I let him make this choice as I felt it I have, however, recognized a teachable moment that

would indicate where he was more comfortable begin- I let pass by. As we wrapped up the task, Dave noticed

ning a pattern lesson. a large calendar drawn on the whiteboard in the room.

I was surprised with the strategies Dave came He made a connection to this and even wanted me to

prepared with. As problem-solving strategies, he used help him write an important event for him on the

talking aloud and crossing off on his fingers as he calendar, which I did. Not until later did it occur to

called out the colours. These strategies helped him to me that this was an opportunity to make a connection

correct his own mistakes, to correct the mistake I had to patterns, using the calendar as a medium. This

left for him to find (without letting him know it was showed me an important strategy I can use to move

there) and to extend the pattern. He seemed to be Dave’s learning forward.

Note

Chelsey Bonnett is a recent graduate of the Aboriginal

1. Name has been changed. Teacher Education Program, which allowed her to earn

a BEd through the University of Alberta while working

Reference and remaining in her home community of Slave Lake,

Alberta. She has had many teachers in her life, not all

Alberta Education. 2007. The Alberta K–9 Mathematics Program in the field of education, who have inspired her to be-

of Studies with Achievement Indicators. Edmonton, Alta:

Alberta Education. Also available at http://education.alberta come a teacher. She loves learning for the sake of learn-

.ca/media/645598/kto9math_ind.pdf (accessed Septem- ing and working with children, and is thrilled to be

ber 25, 2013). embarking on her next journey in life as an educator.

Alberta High School Mathematics

Competition 2012/13

The Alberta High School Mathematics Competition 7. In a test, Karla solved four-fifths of the problems

is a two-part competition taking place in November and Klaus solved 35 problems. Half of the prob-

and February of each school year. Book prizes are lems were solved by both of them. The number

awarded for Part I, and cash prizes and scholarships of problems solved by neither was a positive

for Part II. Presented here are the problems and solu- one-digit number. What was this number?

tions from the 2012/13 competition. (a) 1 or 2 (b) 3 or 4 (c) 5 or 6 (d) 7 or 8 (e) 9

AHSMC.docx - 1 of 7

8. What is the largest possible integer a such that

Part I exactly three of the following statements are true:

November 21, 2012

Alberta High School Mathematics Competition 2012/13 a < 1, a > 2, a < 3, a > 4 and a < 5?

1. Each

The day Mr Sod

Alberta Highvisited

Schoolpubs A, B, C andCompetition

Mathematics D, in is(a) 0 (b) 1 competition

a two-part (c) 2 (d) 3 (e) 4place in

taking

that order, always spending $35, $12, $40 and

November

$27 and February

at the respective of each

places. His totalschool year. Book 9.

expenditure prizes are awarded

A rectangle withfor Partlength

integer I, and and cashwidth

prizesin cm

hereupare the problems and solutions from the 2012/13 in cm,

has area 70 cm . Which of the following,

2

atand

the scholarships

pubs, from theforbeginning

Part II. Presented

of the month

cannot be the length of the perimeter of the

tocompetition.

a certain moment that month, was $1,061.

rectangle?

Which

Part Ipub would he be visiting next? (a) 34 (b) 38 (c) 74 (d) 98 (e) 142

(a) A (b) B (c) C (d) D (e) impossible total

November 21, 2012

2. Meeny, Miny 10. The positive integer n is such that between

1. Each dayand MrMoeSod were playing

visited pubstennis.

A, From

B, C and D, inn2that + 1 order,

and 2nalways

2

there arespending

exactly five$35, different

$12,

the second game on, the one who sat out the

$40 and game

preceding $27 atwould

the respective

replace the places.

loser of Histhat total expenditure at theHow

perfect squares. pubs,

many fromsuchthe n can we find?

beginning

game. of the

At the end, month

Meeny up to

played 17agames

certain andmoment that (a) 0 month,

(b) 1 was(c) 2 $1,061.

(d) 3 Which

(e) more pubthan 3

AHSMC.

would he be visiting next?

Miny played 35 games. How many games did

11. ABCD is a rectangle such that AD − AB = 15 cm.

Moe play? B(c) C(d) D(e) impossible total

(a) A(b) PQRS is a square inside ABCD whose sides are

(a) 18 (b) 26 (c) 36 (d) 52 (e) not uniquely

2. Meeny, Miny and Moe were playing tennis.

different perfect squares.parallel From How the to

second

thosesuch

many game

of on,

canthe weone

thenrectangle, withwho

find? P closest

determined to A and Q closest to

sat out the preceding game (a) 0(b)would1(c)replace

2(d) 3(e)themore

loser than

of that 3 game. At the end, Meeny APSD

B. The total area of

3. A circle of diameter r is drawn inside a circle of and BQRC is 363 cm2, while the total area of

played R.

diameter 17 For

games which andofMinythe playedis35

11. following

ABCD a games.

rectangle

pairs How suchmany

APQB andgames

that AD −did

CRSD AB Moe

= 15cm

is 1,113 play?

cm.2

PQRS

. What, in cmis a2, square

is inside A

(r,(a)

R)18(b)

is the26(c)

area of36(d) 52 whose

the smaller (e) sides

circle not uniquely

closest to determined

the area of PQRS?

are parallel to those of the rectangle, with P closest to A and Q c

3. A

half thecircle

area ofofthe

diameter rThe

larger circle? is drawn

total area ofaAPSD

inside circle

of diameter

(a)

and 900

BQRC(b) R. For cm

1,600

is 363 which

2(c) of thethe (d)

2,500

, while total 3,600

area of APQB an

(a) (1, 3) (b) (2, 4)

following pairs (r, R) is 1,113 (c) (3, 5)

the area (d)

of (4,

the 6)

smaller (e)

circle not uniquely

closest to determined

half the area of the larger

(e) (5, 7) cm . What, in cm , is the area of PQRS?

2 2

circle? 12. Weifeng writes down 28 consecutive numbers.

4. A(a) quadratic

(a)satisfies

900(b)f(0) 1,600(c) 2,500(d) 3,600 (e) not uniquely determined

(1, 3)(b)polynomial

(2, 4)(c) (3,f(x)5)(d) (4, 6)(e) (5, = 1,

7) If both the smallest and the largest numbers are

f(1) = 0 and f(2) = 3. What is 12.theWeifeng writes downperfect

value of f(3)? 28 consecutive

squares, whatnumbers.

is the smallest If both

numbertheshe smallest and th

4. A quadratic polynomial f(x) satisfies f(0) = 1, f(1) = 0 and f(2) = 3. What is the value of

(a) −3 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 10 numbers (e) noneare perfect squares,

of these writes what

down?is the smallest number she writes down?

f(3)? (a) 9 (b)uniquely

36 (c) 100 (d) 169 (e) not

5. ABCD is a square. E and (a)points

F are 9(b) on36(c) 100(d) 169

the seg- (e) not determined

(a) −3(b) 1(c) 2(d) 10(e) none of these uniquely determined

ment BC such that BE = EF13. = FCIfF the cm. The numbers a and b satisfy

= 4 positive

5. ABCD

segments AFisanda square. E and

DE intersect at G. are points

What, in cm2on, the13. segment BC such that BE = EF = FC = 4

If the positive numbers a and b satisfy

iscm. The of

the area segments AF and DE intersect at G. What, in cm2, is the area of triangle EFG?

triangle EFG?

1 1 1

(a)(a) 6 6(b)

(b) 4√3(c) 8(d)

(c) 8 12(e)

(d) 12 none of these

(e) none of these + = ,

𝑎𝑎2 + 4𝑏𝑏 + 4 𝑏𝑏 2 + 4𝑎𝑎 + 4 8

6. For how many integers

6. For how many integers n ≥ 2 is the sum of then ≥ 2 is the sum of the

first n positive integers a prime

number?

first n positive integers a prime number? what is the maximum value of a + b?

what is the maximum value of a + b?

(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 d) 3

(a) 0(b) 1(c) 2d) 3(e) more than 3 (e) more than 3 (a) 3/2 (b) 2 (c) 5/2 (d) 4 (e) none of these

(a) 3/2(b) 2(c) 5/2(d) 4(e) none of these

7. In a test, Karla solved four-fifths of the problems and Klaus solved 35 problems. Half

14. The incircle of triangle ABC is tangent to AB and AC at F and E, respectiv

of the

delta-K, problems

Volume were1,solved

51, Number by both

December 2013 of them. The number of problems solved by 25

1, ∠A = 90° and ∠B ≠ ∠C, what is the distance from the midpoint of BC to EF?

neither was a positive one-digit number. What was this number?

(a) √2/4

(a) 1 or 2(b) 3 or 4(c) 5 or 6(d)

(b)

7 or 8(e) 9√2/2

(c) �3√2�/4 (d) √2 (e) not uniquely determined

15. At the

8. What is the largest possible beginning

integer of the

a such that year,three

exactly thereofwere more robots than androids. On th

the following

1 1 11 1 1 11 1 1 11

+ +++ = =,==, , ,

𝑎𝑎2𝑎𝑎+2𝑎𝑎2+

𝑎𝑎2+4𝑏𝑏

4𝑏𝑏 4 +4+4𝑏𝑏42𝑏𝑏+2𝑏𝑏 +

+4𝑏𝑏4𝑏𝑏

+ 2

𝑏𝑏 2+4𝑎𝑎

4𝑎𝑎 +4𝑎𝑎4𝑎𝑎

+

4 +4+4848 8 8

whatwhat

what

what

is is

the

isthe

isthe

maximum

the

maximum

maximum

maximum value

value

value

value

ofof aof +aofb?

a+a+b?+b?b?

14.

(a) (a) The

3/2(b)

(a)

(a)

3/2(b)incircle

3/2(b)

3/2(b)

2(c) 2(c)2(c)

5/2(d)

2(c) of triangle

5/2(d)

5/2(d)

5/2(d)

4(e)4(e) ABC

4(e)

none

4(e)

nonenoneisoftangent

none of these

ofthese

ofthese to AB and

these 6. The sum of the first n positive integers is

AC at F and E, respectively. If BC = 1, A = 90° [n(n + 1)]/2. Suppose n is even. Then we must

14.14.14.

The

14.

The

and The

incircle

The

Bincircle

incircle

incircle

≠ C, ofof triangle

of triangle

oftriangle

what triangle

is ABC

the ABC ABC

ABC

is is

distance tangent

istangent

istangent

tangent

fromtothe to

ABtoAB

toABand

ABandand AC

and AC

haveAC

atAC atFeither

atand

FatFand

FandE,

and

n/2 E,respectively.

E,

=respectively.

E,1respectively.

respectively.

or n + 1 = If 1.If

BC IfBC

IfBC

=BC

Both = =lead

= to

1, 1,

∠A1,∠A

1, =∠A

∠A 90°

= =90°

midpoint =90°

and

90°and

of and and

∠B

BC ∠B ≠ ∠B

∠B

to ≠ ≠∠C,

∠C,

EF? ≠∠C,what

∠C,whatwhatwhat

is is the

isthe

isthe

distance

the

distance

distance

distance from from

from

from

the thethe

nmidpoint

the

=midpoint

midpoint

2. midpoint

Suppose ofof BC

nofis

BC

ofBC

toBC

odd. to

EF?

toEF?

toEF?

Then EF?we must have either

(a) (a)

(a)(a)

(a)

√2/4√2/4 √2/4(b)

√2/4 (b)

(b) (b)(b)

√2/2√2/2√2/2√2/2 (c)(c)(c) (c) (c)

�3√2�/4

�3√2�/4

�3√2�/4

�3√2�/4 (d)(d)(d) (d)

√2 (d)

√2 √2 √2(e)(e) not

(e)(e)

not(n

not +

uniquely

not 1)/2

uniquely

uniquely

uniquely= 1 or

determined

determined =

determined

determined

n 1. However, n = 1 is not

(e) not uniquely determined a

llowed by the hypothesis. The answer is (b).

15.15.15.

At15.

At the

At At

thethe

beginning

thebeginning

beginning

beginning ofof the

ofthe

ofthe

year,

the year,

year,

year,

therethere

there

there

werewere

were were

moremore

more

more

robots

robots

robots

robots

than than than

than

androids.

androids.

androids.

androids. On On On

the

On

thethe

first

the

first

first

day

firstdayday

day

7. The fraction of problems solved only by Karla

of15. At

of

each

ofeach

ofeacheach

month,

themonth,

month,

month,

beginning eacheacheacheach

robot

ofrobot

robot

the robot

made made

year, made

made seven

there seven

seven

seven

wereandroids

androids

androids

moreandroids and andandeach

and each

was each

each

android

4/5android

android

−android

1/2made =made made

3/10made seven

soseven

seven

seven

that robots.

robots.

the robots.

robots.

total number of

The The

Therobots

next

The next

next

next

day, than

day,day,

day,

each androids.

each

each

each

old oldold On

android

oldandroidthe first

android

android would wouldday

would

would ofpick

pick each

pickpick

a fight

a afight

afight

fight

with with

withwith

a new

a anew

anewnew

android,

android,

android,

android, and andand

they

andthey

they

they

would

would

would

would

problems was a multiple of 10. The fraction of

month, each robot made seven androids and each

destroy

destroy

destroy

destroy

androideacheach

each

each

other.

made other.

other.

other.

seven AtAt the

At At

the

robots.the

end

theend end

of

Theend ofthe

ofthe

nextofthe

year,

theyear,

day,year,

year,

there

each there

there

there

werewere

werewere

46,87546,875

46,875

problems 46,875million

million

million

million

solved robots

byrobots

robots

robots

Klausand and

and

15,625

wasand 15,625

at15,625

15,625

most 1 − 3/10

million

million

million

million = 7/10. Thus, the total number of problems was

old androids.

androids.

androidandroids.

androids.

would What What

What

pickWhat

was was

a fightwasthe

was the

withthe

difference

the

difference

a difference

new difference

android, between

between

between

between the the the

numbers

thenumbers

numbers

numbers ofof robots

ofrobots

ofrobots

robots

and and

and

androids

andandroids

androids

androids

at least 50. If it was 50, then 10 problems were

at atthe

atthe

at the

andbeginning

the

beginning

beginning

they beginning

would ofdestroy

ofthe

ofthe

ofthe

year?

theyear?

year?

each year? other. At the end of solved by Klaus alone, and as Karla solved 4/5

(a)(a) the

less

(a)

(a)

less year,

less

than

less

than

than there

than

1010 (b)

1010 were

(b) at

(b) (b)

at 46,875

least

atleast

atleastleast

1010 million

but

10 10

but but

less

but

less robots

less

than

less

than

than and

than

100 100

100

(c)

100

(c)

at

(c)(c)

at

least

atleast

at×least

least

100 100

50 =100

but

100

40butbut

less

but

lessless

problems,than

less

thanthan

than

1,000

the1,000

1,000

1,000 of problems

number

15,625 million androids. What was the difference

(d)(d)(d)

at(d)

at

least

atleast

atleast

least

1,0001,000

1,0001,000

but but but

less

but

less

less

than

less

than

than than

10,000

10,000

10,000

10,000(e)(e)at

(e)(e)

atleast

atleast

at solved by neither was 0. The total number of

between the numbers of robots and androids atleast

least

10,000

10,000

10,000

10,000

problems could only be as large as 70, since 35

16.16.16.

Let

16.

Let

the mbeginning

Let m

Let

andmand

mandnand n of

be nbe n

positive

be be

positive

the positive

positive

year? integers

integers

integers

integers such such

such

such

that thatthat

11

that 11

divides

1111

divides

divides

divides mm +m13n+m+13n +13n

and

13nandand13

and 13divides

1313

divides

divides mm

divides +m11n.

+m+11n.

+11n.

11n.

problems would be solved by both. In this case,

What

What

What

What

(a)isless

is

the

isthe

isthan

the

minimum

the

minimum

minimum

minimum

10 (b)value

atvaluevalue

leastvalue

of10ofmof

but m+mn?

of +m+n?

less +n?n? 100

than the number of problems solved by neither was

(a)(a) (c)

24(b)

(a)

(a)

24(b)at

24(b) least

24(b)

26(c)

26(c) 100

26(c)

26(c)

28(d) but

28(d)

28(d)

28(d) less

30(e)

30(e)

30(e) than

30(e)

34 3434 1,000 (d)

34 at least 1/5 × 70 = 14. It follows that the total number of

1,000 but less than 10,000 (e) at least 10,000 problems must be 60, of which 30 were solved

Solutions

Solutions

Solutions

Solutions

by both, 5 by Klaus alone, 3/10 × 60 = 18 prob-

1.16. Let

1.

Note

1.Note

1.Note mthat

Note

that and

that

35

that35 n+35be

12

35

+ +12 +positive

1240

12

+ +40+4027 + integers

40 +27=+27114

27

= =114 =114

andsuch

114 andand that

1,061

and1,061

1,061 11

1,061

= 9= =×9=9114

×9×114 ×114

+11435.

+ +35.

lems +35.

Thus,

35.

byThus,

Thus,

Thus,

KarlaMrMr Mr

Sod

MrSod

alone, Sod

had

Sod had

and had

spent

had

60spent

spent

−spent

30$35 $35

− $35

5$35

− 18 = 7

divides m + 13n and 13 divides m + 11n. What is

onon the

ononthethe

10th

the

10th

10th

10th

day day day

of

day

the minimum value of m + n? ofthat

of that

ofthat

month

that month

month

month at at

pubatpub

at pubA.

pub A.

The

A. A.

The The

answer

The answer

answer

answer is is

(b).

by is

(b).

is(b). (b).

neither of them. The answer is (d).

2. 2.

Since

2.Since

2. Since

(a) Since

Meeny

24 Meeny

Meeny

Meeny

(b) played

26 played

played

played

(c) 1717

28 games,

17 17

(d)games,

games,

games,

30 Miny

(e)MinyMiny

34Miny

and and and

Moe

andMoe MoeMoe

played

played

played

8. played

Noteeacheach each

each

that other

other

a other

>other

2atand

at

most

atmost

at

amost

<most

17

3 17+17117

+ +=1+118

cannot =both

1=18=1818

be true as

times,

times,

times,

times,

andandandeach

and each

each each

could

could

could

could

play playplay

play

at at most

atmost

atmost most

1818 +1817

18

+ +17 =+1735

17

= =35 games.

=3535

games.

games.

games. there

As As Miny

As are

AsMiny no

Miny

Miny integers

played

played

played

played 35between

35games,

3535

games, 2Moe

games,

games, andMoe 3.Moe

Moe Similarly,

Solutions a > 4 and a < 5 cannot both be true. Since exactly

did did

did

not

didnotnot

play

not

play

playplay

MeenyMeeny

Meeny

Meeny but butbut

played

butplayed

played

playedMiny Miny

MinyMiny

1818 times.

1818 times.

times.

times.

The TheThe

answer

The answer

answer

answer

three isofis(a).

is(a).

theis(a).

(a).

statements are true, a < 1 must be

3.1.

3.

We3.We

3. We

want

Note Wewant

want

want

that (r/R)

(r/R)

35 (r/R)toto

+(r/R)

2 2 2 2

12 be

+to40

be

toclose

be +be

close

close

27 close

to= to1/2.

114to1/2.

to1/2.

We

and1/2.We We

have

We

1,061 havehave

=have

(1/3)

9 (1/3)

(1/3)

(1/3)

< (2/4)

2 2 2 2

< <(2/4)

<(2/4)

(2/4)

< Hence,

2 2 2 2

true. (3/5)

< <(3/5)

<(3/5)

(3/5)

<the

2 2 2 2

(4/6)

< <(4/6)

<(4/6)

(4/6)

= 4/9

= =possible

2 2 2 2

largest 4/9

=4/9

and

4/9

and

and(5/7)

and (5/7)

(5/7)

value (5/7)

2 2 2 2

is a = 0,

= 25/49.

= =25/49.

=×25/49.

25/49.

114Since

Since

+SinceSince

35.25/49 25/49

25/49

Thus, 25/49

− Mr1/2

− −1/2−1/2

=1/2

Sod 1/98

= had

=1/98

=1/98

1/98

<spent

1/18

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=1/2 =1/2

−the

1/2

4/9,

− −4/9,

−4/9,

the

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answer

the

answer

andanswer

answer

foris this

is

(e).

is(e).

is(e).

(e). the three statements a < 1,

value,

4. 4.

Let 10th

4.Let

4. f(x)

LetLetday

f(x)

f(x)

=f(x)=of=ax

ax 2 that

=+ax +2 month

2 bx

ax +2bx++bxc.

bx at

+ +c. pub

+c.Then

Then c.Then 1A.=1The

Then 1f(0)

=1=f(0)=answer

f(0)

=f(0)

c, 0=c,=is

= =c, (b).

0c,0f(1)

=0=f(1)

=f(1)a= +=a=ba+a+ba+cb+<band

=f(1) +c +3candcand

and

3and =<3=f(2)

=3a3f(2) 5=f(2)

=are

f(2)

4a

= =4atrue

+2b

=4a+2b and

4a+2b + +the

c.

++2b c.

We+c.Wetwo

c.We We statements

2. Since Meeny played 17 games, Miny and Moe a > 2 and a > 4 are false. The answer is (a).

played each other at most 17 + 1 = 18 times, and 9. We have 70 = 1 × 70 = 2 × 35 = 5 × 14 = 7 × 10.

each could play at most 18 + 17 = 35 games. As Thus, there are four possible shapes of the rect-

Miny played 35 games, Moe did not play Meeny angle, with respective perimeters 142 cm, 74 cm,

but played Miny 18 times. The answer is (a). 38 cm and 34 cm. The answer is (d).

3. We want (r/R)2 to be close to 1/2. We have (1/3)2 10. Solving (n + 5)2 < 2n2 < (n + 6)2 yields 50 < (n

< (2/4)2 < (3/5)2 < (4/6)2 = 4/9 and (5/7)2 = 25/49. − 5)2 and (n − 6)2 < 72. Thus, 8 ≤ n − 5 and n − 6

Since 25/49 − 1/2 = 1/98 < 1/18 = 1/2 − 4/9, the < 9 or 13 ≤ n ≤ 14. The answer is (c).

answer is (e). 11. We shade the regions APQB and CRSD, while

leaving the regions APSD and BQRC unshaded.

4. Let f(x) = ax2 + bx + c. Then 1 = f(0) = c, 0 = f(1)

Extend the sides of PQRS to the perimeter of

= a + b + c and 3 = f(2) = 4a +2b + c. We have c

ABCD, creating four rectangles at the corners,

= 1, a + b = −1 and 2a + b = 1. Hence, a = 2 and

each of which consists of two congruent triangles,

b = −3, so that f(3) = 10. The answer is (d).

one shaded and one unshaded. The difference

5. Triangles GAD and GFE are similar, with AD = between the total area A D

3EF. Hence, the vertical A D of the unshaded re- P S

height of triangle EFG is gions (not counting

1/3 of the vertical height of PQRS) and the total

triangle ADG. Hence, it is area of the shaded

equal to (1/4)AB = 3 cm so G regions is 1,113 − 363

that the area of triangle = 750 cm2. The differ-

Q R

EFG is 1/2 × 3 × 4 = 6 cm . 2

ence in the lengths of

The answer is (a). B E F C AD and AB is 15 cm. B C

Hence, the side length of PQRS is 750 ÷ 15 = 15. Let the numbers of robots and androids be r and

50 cm, and the area of PQRS is 2,500 cm2. The a respectively. After one month, these numbers

answer is (c). became r + 7a and 7r − a. After another month,

12. Let the smallest and the largest numbers WeifengAHSMC.docx AHSMC.docx - 4 of 7

they- 4became

of 7 (r + 7a) + 7(7r − a) = 50r and 7(r +

writes down beAHSMC.docx n2 and m2 respectively. of 7Since theyAHSMC.docx

- 4AHSMC.docx AHSMC.docx

- 4 of

AHSMC.docx 7 7a) -−4- (7r

of 7−7a) = 50a. Hence, after a two-month

- 4- 4ofof

4 77

AHSMC.docx

AHSMC.docx period,ofthe

- 4 of

7 number of robots became 50 times

are the ends of a block of 28 consecutive numbers,AHSMC.docx - 4 of 7

have m + n = 9 and m − n = 3, whereby2 m =26 and n = 3. Thus, the smallest number the original

have m + n = 9 and(m m+ − nn)(m = 23, −whereby n) = m m− n= 6=and 27. nWe = 3.mayThus, have themAHSMC.docx

smallest number - 4 of 7 number, and the same goes for the

feng have m+ =n=++ 6=n 9==whereby

9 and m− −nbe n==33,3,=wherebywhereby m ===whereby

666number

andanswer n = 3. Thus, (e).the smallest

smallestnumber

−writes 3,down nmay 9m or 13 nn=22 ===3.169. The is and

2

ave

dreby

feng

ave mm

have

have m mm

mn

writes

+ n + =

n

n and

down

9 =

and

9 and

and

9 and

m=+m

may

m m n− −−=

3. n mn

Thus,

be n27

=

=3223,

= 3, 3,

whereby

6=whereby

and and

the

9 or−smallest

whereby 13 m

m

m

m1, Thus,

169.

= = 6 6

and

The

and thenm

answer

n =

3.

3.

3.

3.

Thus,

=smallest

= Thus,

14is (e).the

Thus,

Thus,

the

n =smallest

number

the

the smallestnumber

smallest

numberof androids. There being six two-month

number

number

number

Wefeng writes

have down may be 3 = 9 or 13 = 169. The answer is (e). periods in a year, the initial number of robots was

ngfeng

ave

Wemay 13 writes

2 m

= writes

havebe down

+ n3 =The

169. 2

=down

99and ormaymay

m −=nbe

answer

13 13.2 be We 3

169.

2= 9 or

=is3323,2(e).

2 may

=whereby

The 13

9 oranswer

have 22=

1322 =m169.

m 169.

+= is n The

6 and =

(e). 9 answer

answer

and m

n = 3. Thus, is (e).

is (e). the smallest number

− n = 3,

ng

Wefeng

ave writes

writes

have

m + n down

= down

9 and maymay

m −be nbe =3 3, = = 9 9 or

wherebyor 13 13 = =m 169.

169.

= 6 The

and answer

answer

n = 3. is

is

Thus, (e).

(e). the smallest number

46,875,000,000 ÷ 506 = 3, and the initial number

We

ng have whereby

have down may be 32 = 9 or 132 = 169. The answer is (e).

writes m = 6 and n = 3. Thus, the smallest

We

ng havehave down may

writes numberbe 3211Weifeng ==9 or 1311writes 2

= 169. downThe11answermay be 3is (e). 2

= 9 or of androids was 15,625,000,000 ÷ 506 = 1. The

have 13 = 169.

2 1 =The

8 2

𝑎𝑎2 +answer1 +4+

4𝑏𝑏

+

is 𝑏𝑏(e).+ 4𝑎𝑎

2 1 +4 answer is (a).

have 11 11 1 +4

1

1 1 1 1 1 1==

8

8

𝑎𝑎 +

= 𝑎𝑎22 + 114𝑏𝑏1 +

4𝑏𝑏 + 4+

4 + 𝑏𝑏 22 + 4𝑎𝑎

+ 𝑏𝑏 2 + 4𝑎𝑎 1 +4

1 16. Since 13 divides 6(m + 11n) = (6m + n) + 13(5n), AHSMC.d

+ = 13. We have 8

1+88==2𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 2+

1+

2 4𝑏𝑏+

4𝑏𝑏

1 +44 + + 𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏22 + + 4𝑎𝑎4𝑎𝑎

1 +

1+4 4

4𝑏𝑏 + 4 8𝑏𝑏 + 2 2

𝑎𝑎 4𝑎𝑎

++ 4𝑏𝑏4=+ 4 8 𝑎𝑎 + 4𝑏𝑏 + 4 𝑏𝑏 + 4𝑎𝑎 + 4

=𝑏𝑏 𝑎𝑎 +1 +4𝑎𝑎 1 ++4𝑏𝑏 44 + 13 divides 6m + n. Since 11 divides 6(m + 13n)

2 4𝑏𝑏 + 𝑏𝑏 + 4𝑎𝑎2 +4

= (𝑎𝑎1 −=2)𝑎𝑎222 1 + + 𝑏𝑏(𝑏𝑏2 − 1 1 1+4𝑏𝑏

= (𝑎𝑎8 − 2) 1

++4𝑎𝑎 4𝑏𝑏+

4𝑎𝑎 ++4𝑏𝑏 4+ + (𝑏𝑏 + 2)

− 4𝑎𝑎+

2) + 1 4+

4𝑏𝑏 +

4𝑎𝑎

4𝑎𝑎 = (6m + n) + 11(7n), 11 also divides 6m + n.

(𝑎𝑎8− 2)𝑎𝑎221 4𝑎𝑎+11

2 +4𝑎𝑎 4𝑏𝑏++4𝑏𝑏 4 + 𝑏𝑏(𝑏𝑏 − 2 + 2) + 4 + 4𝑎𝑎

1 1== =(𝑎𝑎(𝑎𝑎−−2) 2) 11+

2 2++4𝑎𝑎 4𝑎𝑎 1+ 4𝑏𝑏 +

+ (𝑏𝑏 − 2) + 1 4𝑏𝑏

46,875,000,0004𝑏𝑏 + 4𝑎𝑎 ÷ 50 6 = 3, and the initial number of androids was 15,625,000,000

Hence, 11 × 13 = 143 divides 6m + n, so that

= + = (𝑎𝑎+ − 2)2 1+ 4𝑎𝑎1++4𝑏𝑏 4𝑏𝑏 + (𝑏𝑏 (𝑏𝑏 − 1 2)

− 2) + + 4𝑏𝑏 +

1 4𝑏𝑏 +4𝑎𝑎4𝑎𝑎

4𝑎𝑎 + 4𝑏𝑏 (𝑎𝑎 −(𝑏𝑏 2)− 2+ 2)4𝑎𝑎

+=4𝑏𝑏 + (𝑎𝑎 +−

4𝑏𝑏 4𝑎𝑎2) (𝑏𝑏2≤ −1 4(𝑎𝑎 1+ 𝑏𝑏) + 4(𝑎𝑎The

+ 4𝑎𝑎

2) 1

+

+ 4𝑏𝑏

4𝑏𝑏 ++ (𝑏𝑏

4𝑎𝑎 −1

1+2)

2) + answer

1 4𝑏𝑏 + 4𝑎𝑎 is (a). 6m + n = 143k for some integer k. Since

= (𝑎𝑎 − 2)2≤ +4(𝑎𝑎4𝑎𝑎 1+ 4𝑏𝑏 +4(𝑎𝑎 (𝑏𝑏 − 1+ 𝑏𝑏) + 4𝑏𝑏 + 4𝑎𝑎

≤ +

4𝑎𝑎11+ 4𝑏𝑏 𝑏𝑏) + 1 𝑏𝑏) 4𝑎𝑎divides 6(m +6(m + n) = 143k + 5n = 6(24k + n) − (k + n),

16. k + n+son)that n) =+ n. Since 11

𝑏𝑏)Since

+ 4𝑏𝑏 +13 11n) = (6m + 13(5n),

k + n ≥ 6.13 divides

6(m + 6m

(𝑎𝑎 − 2) ≤+4(𝑎𝑎 𝑏𝑏) + 4(𝑎𝑎 (𝑏𝑏 − +2)

1 1 1 ≤≤1 4(𝑎𝑎1+ + 𝑏𝑏)+ + 4(𝑎𝑎1 + 𝑏𝑏) 6 divides Now

+ ≤ 4(𝑎𝑎 4(𝑎𝑎1++𝑏𝑏) 𝑏𝑏)+ 1 4(𝑎𝑎4(𝑎𝑎1+ 𝑏𝑏)

+

𝑎𝑎 + 𝑏𝑏) 4(𝑎𝑎 + 𝑏𝑏)

≤

4(𝑎𝑎 + 𝑏𝑏) 4(𝑎𝑎 ≤+ 4(𝑎𝑎𝑏𝑏)1=+ 𝑏𝑏) + 1 4(𝑎𝑎. 1

1+ 𝑏𝑏). + 𝑏𝑏)

6(m + 13n) = (6m + n) + 11(7n), 143k +11 5nalso

= 138kdivides

+ 5(k +6m n) +≥ n. Hence,

138 + 30 = 11168.× 13 = 143 divi

≤ 4(𝑎𝑎 = + 2(𝑎𝑎

𝑏𝑏) + 1+4(𝑎𝑎 + 𝑏𝑏)

𝑏𝑏). n, so that 6m + n = 143k for some integer k. Since 6(m + n) = 143k + 5n = 6(24k +

4(𝑎𝑎 =

= 2(𝑎𝑎

𝑏𝑏) 11+4(𝑎𝑎

+ 2(𝑎𝑎

𝑏𝑏) .

+ 𝑏𝑏)

Consequently, m + n ≥ 28, and this is attained if

== 2(𝑎𝑎 1+ 𝑏𝑏).. m = 23 and n = 5. The answer is (c).

ce,

=

1

a + b ≤ 4. .This maximum =

1 value

. is 2(𝑎𝑎 1+ 𝑏𝑏).if6 and

2(𝑎𝑎

= attained + 𝑏𝑏) divides only ifk a+=nb so The kanswer

= 2.that + n ≥ 6. is Now 6(m + n) = 143k + 5n = 138k + 5(k + n) ≥ 138

ce, a + b ≤ 4. This maximum value is 2(𝑎𝑎 1+ 𝑏𝑏).if and only if a = b = 2. The answer is

= attained

a + b+≤ 𝑏𝑏)

ce, 2(𝑎𝑎 4. This maximum 2(𝑎𝑎 + value

𝑏𝑏) is attained if and only if a = b = 2. The answer

m +answern ≥ 28,is

ce, a + b ≤ 4. This Hence,

maximum a +value b ≤ 4.is =This + 𝑏𝑏).if168.

2(𝑎𝑎maximum

attained andvalue Consequently,

onlyisifattained

a = b = 2. The is and this is attained if m = 23 and n = 5. The ans

ce, a

, a +Mb be

Let + b ≤

≤ 4.the 4.ThisThis maximum

maximum

midpoint if and of BC only value

value

and is

if aDis=the attained

2(𝑎𝑎

attained

b =point + 𝑏𝑏)

2. Thewhere if and

ifPart

and II

answer only

only if a = b = 2.

if a =isbtangent

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theiscircle The

= 2. The Part BC. II

answer

toanswer isis

Let

,Let

Let a +M b ≤

be 4. the This maximum

midpoint of BCvalue and D is attained

the point where if and only if

the circle a =isbtangent

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BC. Letis

maximum

C′ ,isaand

Let

C′ +M be

Mb be

and ≤ 4.the

attained

M′

M′

be

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if

the

the

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14. Let

midpoint

respective

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attained

respective Mif

of

BC

BC be a and

=the

projections

value

and

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ifb andDis2.the The

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midpoint

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point ifCawhere

B,answer BC

Cwhere

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February

and

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if 2013

the

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aNow

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point AEF

to BC. Let6,is2013

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isto

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right

BC. Let

aanswer

right

C′,celes

Let a

M +M

and b

be ≤

be

M′ 4.

the

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be This

midpoint maximum

midpoint

the respective

Hence, whereof

soof BC BC

are the value

and

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and

BB′F D

circle Dis

and attained

the

the is ofpoint

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where

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where

Hence, and

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the

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BB′ = if

circle

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circle

LetBF/ a =

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B',

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and

C' 2.

tangent

AEF The

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CC′is to

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right

CE/ BC. Letso

√2,Let

is

C′celes and M′

triangle. bemidpoint

the respective

Hence, soBC areprojections

BB′FDand of

CC′E. B, C and

Hence,

1. MBB′ on=EF.

Determine BF/Now allandAEF CC′

pairs is1.

=aato

of right

CE/

positive so all b) with a ≤ b(a,such

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nd

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projections

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where

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and M

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where M

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BB′

tangent

the

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EF.

on==circle

BF/

ofto

EF.

√2

Now is

B,is

√2

NowBC.

tangent

andAEF

Ctangent

AEF

Let

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CC′is=to aCE/

BC.

right

BC.

√2,Let

Determine

√2,Let

right so integers

pairs of (a,positive integers that

b) with

celesnd M′triangle.

be the Hence,

respective so are BB′F

projections and CC′E.

of B, CHence,Hence,

and BB′ BF/ √2 and CC′ = aCE/≤ b√2,

suchso that

celes M be triangle.

the Hence,

midpoint and soM

of BCare on BB′F

and EF. D and the

Now CC′E.

point

AEF is a M

where on=circle

BB′

the

right EF.

BF/Now √2isand

isosceles AEFCC′is=to

tangent aCE/right

BC.√2,Letso

es

ndtriangle.

spective

ons of be

M′ B,projections

Cthe Hence,

andrespective so

Mtriangle.

onof areEF. B, BB′F

CNow

projections and and AEF

M CC′E.

ofon is

B,EF.aCHence,

rightNow

and MBB′ on=EF.

AEF BF/

isHence,

aNow

√2 and

right AEF CC′ is =a CE/right √2, so

es triangle. Hence,

nd M′ be the respective projections of so are BB′F

Hence, and so 1 B, C and M on EF. Now AEF is a right so

CC′E.

are BB'F Hence, and BB′

CC'E.= BF/ √2 and CC′ = CE/ √2, 6 6

es

ce,triangle.

nd CC′E.

so are Hence, Hence,

BB′F and soCC′E.

BB′

BB' are

== BF/BF/ BB′FHence,

√2MM' and

and CC′E.

BB′

CC′

=CC'1 (BB'

1 =

= = BF/

CE/Hence,

+CE/ CC')

√2 √2, and

so BB′

so = BF/=√2

CC′

that CE/ and

√2, CC′

so = CE/√2, so �𝑎𝑎 + � �𝑏𝑏 + � = 25.

es triangle. Hence, so are BB′FMM' and= =CC′E.

2

1 (BB' Hence, + CC') BB′ = BF/√2 and CC′ = CE/√2, so 𝑏𝑏 𝑎𝑎

MM' 2 (BB' + CC')

MM' = 1 2 (BB' + CC')

MM' = 112 (BB' + CC') 2. A set S of positive integers is called perfect if any

MM' = =1 12(BB'

(BF ++CE) CC') S perfect

MM' = =1 2

1 (BB'

(BF + + 2.

CC')

CE) A set of positive integerstwo integers is called

in S have if any two

no common divisors greaterin S have no

integers

1 1 MM' = 2√2 =11

2√2 2 (BF ++CE)

(BB' CC')

' = (BB' + CC') MM' = (BB' + MM' CC') = =12 (BB'

= 2√2

(BF + CE) divisors greater than 1. than Candy 1. Candywants to build

wants to build a aperfect setofofnum-

perfect set numbers betwee

2 2 11 2 (BF ++CE)

2√2 CC')

bers between 1 and 20 inclusive, in such a way that

== 2√2 11 (BF (BD + + CE) CD)inclusive, in such a wayher that her set contains as many numbers as possible.

== 2√2 11

2√2 (BF

(BD + + CE)

CD) set contains as many numbers as possible.

1 1 === 2√2 11

2√2 (BD +

(BF

1 (BD + CD) + CD)

CE) (a) How many elements (a) willHow her set elements

many have? will her set have?

(BF + CE) = (BF + CE)==2√2 2√2 (BF

(BD + + CE) CD)

2√2 2√2 2√2

1

= 2√2

2√2

1 =(BD

BC

BC+ CD) (b) How many different such sets can she build?

(b) How many different such sets can she build?

= 2√2 = (BD BC

1 = 2√2 BC+ CD)

2√2 3. Randy plots a point3. A. Then

Randy he astarts

plots point A. drawing

Then he starts some rays starting

drawing some at A, so t

1 1 = 2√2 1 =(BD BC+ CD)

2√2

(BD + CD) = (BD + CD) = 2√2=(BD + CD) rays starting at A, so that all the angles he gets are

2√2 2√2 2√2 2√2

2√2

BC

√2 angles he gets are integral multiples of 10°. What is the largest number of ray

integral multiples of 10°. What is the largest num-

== BC √2.

==2√2 √2

BC

√24 . draw so that all the angles ber of at rays

A between

he can draw thesorays that are unequal,

all the angles atincluding

A all an

answerBCis (a). BC ===2√2 BC

√24.

4 . between nonadjacent rays? between the rays are unequal, including all angles

answer

= is (a). The answer = is (a). ==2√2 4. A

Let answer

the2√2 is (a). of robots

numbers and androids2√2 be

√24 r and a respectively. After one month, between nonadjacent rays?

Let answer is

the numbers (a). of robots 2√2 and androids be. r and 4. In a convex pentagon

a respectively. After one month, of perimeter 10, each diagonal is parallel to one of the

Let answer

the

e numbers is

numbers (a).

became of robots

r + 7a and and androids

− a. After

= √2 be r and a respectively. After one month,

and7r 4 another month, they became (r +month,

In7a) + 7(7r pentagon of perimeter 10, each diago-

B'

Let e the numbers

numbers became of robots

r + 7a and 7randroids

− a. = √2

After be . r and a respectively.

another month, they After

became one4.

(r + a convex

7a) +of7(7r

Let=eeswer theand

numbers

50r isnumbers

(a). 7(rbecame

+ 7a)of−robots

r +

(7r 7a − and

and

a) = 7randroids

50a. − a.

F

After

Hence, = be

√2 .

afterr and

4 another Find

a the sum

a Erespectively.

month,

two-month they ofbecame

period, thethe

After lengths

one(r +month,

number 7a) its diagonals.

+parallel

7(7r

=eswernumbers

50r √2

is (a).

and 7(rbecame

+ 7a) −r(7r r + 7a √2

− a) and 7r

= 50a. − a. After

Hence, = 4 another

.

after

M' a month,

two-month they became

period,

C' the (r +nal

number 7a) is+ of

7(7r to one of the sides. Find the sum of

of

numbers

= . became + = 7a and . 7r − a. After another 5. month,

Find all they

integers became (r +

r > number

s the 7a)

>month, +

tofand 7(7r

of allofquadratic polynomials of the form f(x) = x2

ots

ots

=swer

=the

50r

50r

the

and

numbers

becameis4 (a).

and

became

numbers

7(r

7(r50+

50

7a)robots

of

+times

− the

7a)robots

times

of

(7r −original

− the

(7r −original4a)

and = 50a.

a) = 50a.

and

androids

androids

Hence,

number,

Hence,

number,

4after

be

be

and r and

after

and r and

the

the

a two-month

asame

respectively.

a two-month

a same

goes

goes

respectively.

period,

for the

period,

for

After

the

the

theone

number

number

After number

one of

lengths

month, of its diagonals.

ots=swer 50r andis (a). 7(r +times

7a)r−six (7r a) = 50a.

−original Hence, after a two-month period, theintegers,

number of

numbers

roids.

ots

roids.thebecameThere

numbers

becameThere

50being

became

50being +the

of robots

times six the7a and

and7r

two-month

original

two-month

−number,

androids a. After

periods

number,

periods beand

another

andin

r and

in

athe

athe

such asame

year,

year, same that

month,

the goesb they

initial

respectively.

the goes

initial

andfornumber

the number

c are

became

After

fornumber

the of

one

number (rrobots

5. Find

of(rrobots

of

+month,

7a)all

of +rintegers

was

was

+ t = 2s,r >f(r)

7(7r s >= t1,andf(s)all=quadratic

b and f(t)poly-= c.

numbers

ots

roids.the numbers

becameThere became

50 of

times

being r +

robots

six the7a and

and

original

two-month 7r −

androids a.

number,After

periods be another

and r

in and

a the a

year, month,

respectively.

same the goes they

initial for became

After

the

number one

number

of +

robots7a)

month,

of

nomials + 7(7r

was of the form f(x) = x 2

+ bx + c such that

roids0r

numbers

roids. andbe7(r

robots and +being

r and

became 7a)

androids + 7a − a)

a−respectively.

r(7r be

and =r50a. and

7r Hence,

a.aperiods

−After after

respectively.

After one inmonth,

another ayear,

two-month

a Solutions After

month, one theyperiod,

month,

became theof(r number

+ 7a) was + of7(7r

0r andThere

roids.

numbers 7(r

There +being

became 7a) −r(7rsix

six

+ 7a

two-month

− a)

two-month

and = 50a. − Hence,

7r number, Afterafter

a.periods in a a

another year,

the initial

two-month

the initial

month, they

number

period,

number

became theof(r

robots

number

robots

b+and7a) cwas of

+are7(7r

integers, r + t = 2s, f(r) = 1, f(s) = b and

ea.0r became

rAfter

+and

7a and7(r 50

another times

+ 7r7a)−−a. the

month,

(7rAfter original

− a) another =they50a.became Hence,month, and

(r +they

after the

7a)

1. same

+same

Thebecame

a two-month7(7r goes

given for

(rperiod,

+ 7a)the

equation number

+ number

7(7r

the may

number of

be rewritten

of as ab + 36/ab + 12 = 25. Therefore,

became

0r and 50

7(rbeing times

+ 7a) −six Bthe original

− a) = 50a. Hence,

(7rtwo-month number, and

M after the

D a two-month goes for the

C period, the number of f(t) of

= c.

Hence,ds.

became

−ds.(7rThere 50

a) =being

− after times

50a. the

a two-month

Hence, original after period, periods

number,

a periods

two-month and

the number in a theyear, same

period, the

ofthethe initial

goes for

number number

the numberof robots

of of robots of

(ab) 2was

− 13ab + 36 = (ab − 4)(ab − 9) = 0.

becameThere 50 timessix thetwo-month

original number, andin athe year, same initial

goes fornumber

the number of was

umber, ds. There

s the original being

and thenumber, six two-month

same goes andfor thetheperiods

same number in

goesHence,a year,

of the

for the number initial

= 4 orof number of robots was

ds. There being six two-month

delta-K, Volume 51, periods

Number in 1, a year,

December theabinitial ab = 9. Note that a and b are positive integers with

2013 number of robots was 27

a ≤ b. If ab =

periods

six two-month in a year, periods

the initial in a numberyear, theofinitial robots number

was of robots was

have (a, b) = (1, 4) or (2, 2). If ab = 9, we have (a, b) = (1, 9) or (3,3). It is easy to v

all four are indeed solutions.

2.

maximalpowers

perfect of sets.

distinct primes. Since there are only eight primes less than 20—namely, 2, 3

3. Let n ≥ 2 be the 17

5, 7, 11, 13, and 19—our

number claim

of rays is justified.

drawn 𝑛𝑛 by 𝑛𝑛(𝑛𝑛

Randy.

− 1) Then there are

(b)Every maximal perfect set Candy�can

� build

= must have the form

2 2

𝑆𝑆 = �1, 2𝑖𝑖2 , 3𝑖𝑖3 , 5𝑖𝑖5 , 7𝑖𝑖7 , 11𝑖𝑖11 , 13𝑖𝑖13 , 17𝑖𝑖17 , 19𝑖𝑖19 �,

where each exponent is a positive integer. 𝑛𝑛 𝑛𝑛(𝑛𝑛 − 1)

Since 52 > 20, the exponent for all primes

Solutions � � =

W

pairs of rays. greaterEach than or pair

equal determines

to 5 must betwo 2Xangles

1. Since 24 ≤ 20 2adding

≤ 25 and up32 ≤ to 20 360°.

≤ 33, theHence,

exponent thefor

1. The given equation may benumber rewrittenmust Y V

ofasanglesbe 1,+ 2,between

ab 3 or 4, andtwo of the nfor

the exponent rays3 must be 1 or 2.n(n

is exactly This−yields1). The eightmeasure

different o

36/ab + 12 = 25. Therefore, pairs of rays. Each pair determines

angle is maximal clearly perfect

less thansets. 360°. Sincetwo it isangles

supposed adding to be upantointegral360°. Hence, multiple the ot

(ab)2 − 13ab + 36 = (ab − 4)(ab − 9)

3. =

Let 0.n ≥ 2 be the number of rays drawn

of the nof by Randy. Then there are

number

are at most of angles35 values betweenfor the two measures rays these

A

is exactly

angles. U n(n

Since − 1). Theare

they measure

distinct, o

Hence, ab = 4 or ab = 9. Note that a and b are

angle is clearly 5 =less 30 <than

35 <360°. 42 = Since it is𝑛𝑛supposedn ≤ −6.1)Itto is be an integral multiple o

positive integers with a ≤ b. 35. If ab Now, = 4, 6we× have 7 × 6. Hence,

� �=

𝑛𝑛(𝑛𝑛 possible for Randy to dr

(a, b) = (1, 4) or (2, 2). If ab are 9, at

=rays, most

wedetermining

have (a, 35b)values for the measures

= 30 distinct angles. Inof 2thethese 2angles.

diagram Since∠UAV

below, they are distinct,

= 60°, ∠VA

(1, 9) or (3,3). It is easy to verify 35. Now,= 610°,

that all × 5 = 30 < =3520°,

four are < 42∠YAZ = 7 × 6. Hence,

= 140° n ∠ZAU

≤ 6. It is= possible for Randy to dr

indeed solutions.

∠WAX pairs of∠XAY rays. Each pair determines two and angles 90°.

Z adding up to 360°. Hence, the total

rays,

We now determining

verify of

number that30the

anglesdistinct

30 angles

between angles.

two between

of theIn nthe rays diagram

two rays are

is exactly below,

n(n −distinct.

1). The∠UAV We= have

measure 60°, ∠VA

of such∠Wa

2. (a) Candy’s perfect set may be {1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, We now verify that the 30 angles between two rays

∠WAX

∠VAX = 10°,

= 50°,is∠VAY

angle ∠XAY

is clearly = 20°,

= 70°,

less than ∠YAZ 360°. = 140°

= 100°,

Since it isand ∠ZAU

∠UAX ==30°,

supposed to =

110°,

be 90°.

an integral = 130°, ∠ZAVth=

multiple of 10°,

13, 17, 19}. We claim that this number the are∠UAWdistinct. We have WAY VAX∠UAY = 50°,

highest possible. Now a We ∠XAZ

maximal now verifyand

are

=perfect

160° at most that

set 35 the 30

values

∠WAZ VAY =angles

for the

170°. between

measures

These

= 70°, UAW aretwo

of these

nine rays

angles.

= 100°, are distinct.

Since

different

UAX = 110°,We

they

angles are have

distinct,

distinct n(n∠WA

from− 1)

Hence,=n 150°,

must contain the element∠VAX = 35.

1, as otherwise

between 50°, Now,

adjacent∠VAY we6 × 5 == 70°,

30 UAY

rays. 30

< 35 < 42==130°,

All ∠UAW

have

7 × 6.ZAV

= 100°,

measures ∠UAX ≤ 6. It XAZ

= is possible

110°, = 160°

∠UAY for Randy

= 130°,

and to draw six

∠ZAVth =

can add 1 and obtain a larger perfectrays, determining

set. Also, WAZdistinct =angles. In theless

170°. These diagram than

are ninebelow,

180°.

different

Corresponding

∠UAV angles= 60°, ∠VAW to = 40°

a maximal perfect set cannot

∠XAZ

angles, =we

contain

160°

∠WAX have

an

and ∠WAZ

15

= 10°,

ele- ∠XAY

=20°,

otherdistinct 170°.

=angles

These

greater

from

∠YAZ =the140°

are

sixthan

and

nine 180°,

between

∠ZAU

different

=yielding

90°.

adjacent angles

rays. Alldistinct

a total from

of 30 distin

ment that is divisible by between 4.

twoLet L be

distinct Weadjacent

the

nowpoint

primes, rays.

verify thatAll

of thehave

intersection

have measures

30 measures

angles ofless

ECthan

between less

and

two thanCorresponding

DB.

180°.

rays 180°.

Let

are M be Corresponding

distinct. the

We to point∠WAY

have on theto= 30°

the

as otherwise we can replace angles, that we

element

∠VAX have = by 15

50°, other

∠VAY these

=angles

70°, 15

∠UAWangles,

greater

= we

100°, have

than∠UAX 15

180°, =other

110°, angles

yielding

∠UAY greater

a

= total

130°, of

∠ZAV 30= distinc

150°,

the two primes and obtain a larger perfect

AB such that MC is parallelthan 180°,

to AE. ThenaABLE

yielding total

and

ofdifferent

AMCE

30 distinct

are parallelograms

angles.

4. Let L ∠XAZ

be the =set.

160° and

point of ∠WAZ

intersection = 170°. These

of EC are andnineDB. Let Mangles

be distinct

the point from the sixex

Hence, each element other triangles

than 1 isbetween aDLC

positive and EABrays.

adjacent4. Let

areAll similar,

have

as are triangles

measures less than

AMC

180°.

and

Corresponding

ELD. Iton

to these

the

follows15

ABdistinct

such angles,that MC is parallel LtobeAE. the point

ThenofABLE intersection

and of EC and

AMCE areDB. parallelograms

power of a prime. Moreover, elements we have 15 Let other angles greater than 180°, yielding a total of 30 distinct angles

AHSMC.docx M be-the 6 ofpoint

7 are on the extension of AB such

are powers of distinct primes. triangles Since there EAB

4.DLCLet Land EC that

be the point are

AHSMC.docxof similar,

EL+LC

intersection

MC is as

parallelof LC

EC

to triangles

and

AE. DB.

Then DL Let AMC

ABLEM beand DLand

the point

AMCE ELD. onAB It follows

the extension

are only eight primes less than 20—namely, = = -16+of 7 = 1 + =1+ =1+ .

AB such that MC AB isare parallelograms.

AB

parallel to AE. Then AB Note

ABLEthat EA

and triangles

AMCE are DLC

CM and EC

parallelograms. Note t

2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17 and 19—our claim is

wers of distinct primes. Since there are only eight primes less than 20—namely, 2, 3, triangles DLC EC

and EAB

EAB EL+LC are

are similar,

similar, asas

LCareare triangles

trianglesDL AMC

AMC andand

DL ELD.

ELD. It AB

follows that

justified. =It follows = 1 + 2= 1 + =1+ =1+ .

that

of distinct

, 11, primes.

13, 17 and 19—our Since

(b) Every there

claimmaximal areperfect

is justified.only eight LetCandy

set xprimes

= EC/AB.can lessbuild thanABx20—namely,

Then, = 1 +AB 1/x so that 2, 3,AB x − x − 1EA = 0. Hence, CM EC

EC EL+LC LC DL DL AB

Every

3, 17 maximal

and 19—our perfect must

claim have

set Candy the

is justified. form

can build must have the form = =1+ =1+ =1+ =1+ .

𝑆𝑆 = �1, 2 𝑖𝑖2 𝑖𝑖3 𝑖𝑖5 𝑖𝑖7

, 3 , 5 , 7 , 11 Let

𝑖𝑖11

, 13 x𝑖𝑖13

=, EC/AB.

17 𝑖𝑖17

, 19 𝑖𝑖19

Then,

�, = AB

x 1 + 1/x

AB

so that x

AB EA

2 − x − 1 = 0. Hence,

CM EC

maximal perfect set Candy can build must have the form Let x = EC/AB. Then, x = 1 + 1/x so that x − x − 1

1 + √5 2

ere each exponent is where

a positive integer. Since 52 𝑖𝑖>1320, 1 + 1/x so that𝑥𝑥x2=− x − 21 = 0.. Hence,

𝑆𝑆 = �1, 2𝑖𝑖2each

, 3𝑖𝑖3 ,exponent

5𝑖𝑖5 , 7𝑖𝑖7 , 11 is 𝑖𝑖a11positive

, 13 17the

𝑖𝑖17 x

Let

, integer. exponent

, 19 =𝑖𝑖EC/AB.

Since19 �, for

Then, all

= 0. xprimes

=Hence,

ater than or equal to 55 must 2

> 20,be the1.exponent

Since 24 ≤for 202all ≤ 2primes

5 and 32greater ≤ 20 ≤ 33, the exponent for 2 1 + √5

ch exponent is a positive than or integer.

equal to 5 Since

must be 5 1.> Since

20, the 2 4 exponent for all primes

≤ 20yields

≤ 𝑥𝑥 = 1 + √5 .

st be 1, 2, 3 or 4, and the exponent for 3 must be

Similarly, 1 or 2. This eight different

han or equal to 5 must 25 andbe 321. ≤ 20 Since

≤ 33,2the 4 ≤ 20

exponent ≤ 25 and for 23we 2 ≤ have

must 20be≤ 33, the exponent for 2 𝑥𝑥 = 22 .

ximal perfect sets. Similarly, we have

1,

et 2,

n ≥3 2orbe4,the

and

numberthe1,exponent

2, 3 or 4, for

of 2.

rays

and 3the

drawn must exponent be 1Then for 2.

or 3 must

This are be

yields eight different

1 or This yieldsbyeight Randy.Similarly,

differentSimilarly,there

we have

maximal we have DB AC AD EB 1 + √5

perfect sets. perfect sets. = = = = ,

2 be the number of rays drawn 𝑛𝑛by Randy.

𝑛𝑛(𝑛𝑛 − 1) Then there are AE ED BC DC 2

3. Let n ≥ 2 be the number DB AC AD EB 1 + √5

� � = of rays drawn by Randy. DB = AC =AD = EB= 1 + ,√5

Then there are 2 2 so that

so EC

that EC+ DB

+=DB

AE +EDAC

+ =ACBC ++ADAD

= DC+ += EB

EB2= 5(1 ,++ √5).

= 5(1 ).

AE ED BC DC 2

𝑛𝑛 𝑛𝑛(𝑛𝑛 − 1) Remark: The regular pentagon A is used in the illustrative d

rs of rays. Each pair determines �two 2

�= angles adding up to 360°. Hence, the total

2 get the correct answer by treating only this special case, e

mber of angles between two of the n rays is exactly n(n − 1). The measure of such an

pairs of rays. Each pair determines two angles = (1 + √5)/4.

le is clearly less than 360°.

up Since it isHence,

supposed to be number

ays. Each pair determinesadding to two 360°. angles adding

the total upantointegral

360°. multiple of 10°, there

of Hence, the totalB are

at most 35 valuesangles for the measures

between two of of these

the n rays angles. Since they

is exactly n(n −are 5.The distinct, conditions

n(n − 1) ≤ E

of angles between two of the n rays is exactly n(n − 1). The measure

r +to

2

brdraw of

+ cM= sixsuch

1,(1) an

Now, 6 × 5 = 30 <1). 35 The

< 42 measure

= 7 × 6. Hence, of suchnan ≤ 6.angleIt is ispossible

clearly for lessRandy

clearly less than 360°.

than Since

360°. Since it isit supposed

is supposed

s, determining 30 distinct angles. In the diagram below, ∠UAV = 60°,

to

to be

be an

an integral

integral multiple

s + ∠VAW

2 of

bs + c ==b,(2) 10°,

40°,

there

multiple of 10°, there are at most 35 values for the

ost

AX35 values

= 10°, ∠XAY for=the 20°,measures

measures ∠YAZ of these = 140°of these

and ∠ZAU

angles.

angles.

Since they = 90°.Since they aret2distinct,

are distinct, + bt + c =n(n c,(3)− 1) ≤

L

6 × 5verify

now = 30 <that

35 the

<n(n 4230

−=1) 7≤×35.

angles 6. Hence,

between

Now, 6 ×n5two ≤=6. 30 It< is

rays 35 possible

are = 7 ×for

distinct.

< 42 We

6. Randy

have

r + t∠WAY=to2s.(4)

draw six

= 30°,

ermining 30 distinct angles. In isthe diagram below, = From

60°, C D

AX = 50°, ∠VAY =Hence,

70°, ∠UAW n ≤ 6. =It 100°, ∠UAX

possible = 110°,

for Randy ∠UAY to∠UAVdraw= 130°, ∠VAW

∠ZAV t(t =+ 40°,

= 150°,

(3), b) = 0 so that either t = 0 or t = −b. We consid

AZ 10°,

= 160° and= ∠WAZ

20°, six ∠YAZ

rays, determining

= 170°. = 140°

Theseand are30nine distinct = angles.

different 90°. angles In the distinct Remark:

from The regular pentagon is used in the il-

∠XAY

diagram below, UAV = 60°, VAW = 40°,

∠ZAU CASE 1: the

lustrativet = 0.six From (4),

diagram. Many have r =may

we students 2s. Substituting

get the into (1

ween

verifyadjacent

that the rays.

30 All havebetween

angles measurestwo lessrays thanare 180°. Corresponding

distinct. We have to ∠WAY

these 15= 30°,

WAX = 10°, XAY = 20°, YAZ = 140° and Subtracting

correct answer (2) from this, we

by treating onlyhave 3s2 + bscase,

this special = 1 − b, which m

les, we

50°, ∠VAYhave=1570°, other ∠UAW

ZAU angles

= 90°. =greater

100°, ∠UAX than 180°, = 110°,yielding ∠UAY a total of that

so

= 130°, 30∠ZAV

distinct

EC +

essentially= angles.

DB150°,+ AC

proving + AD

that +

cos EB 36° = =5(1

(1 +

+ √5 ).

)/4.

+ b) = −2. Hence, 2 is divisible by s + 1, so that s = −3, −2, 0

et L be the point of intersection of EC and DB. Let M be the point on the

Remark: The extension

regular ofpentagon is used in the illustrative diagr

160° and ∠WAZ = 170°. These are nine different angles distinct from the six

such that MC is parallel to AE. Then ABLE and AMCE are parallelograms. Note that s = 1. It follows that b = −1. Hence, f(x) we may only have

adjacent rays.28 All have measures less than 180°. Corresponding get the = 0.correct

to these

delta-K, answer

15 51,

Volume by Number

treating1,only Decemberthis special

2013 case, essen

ngles DLC and EAB are similar, as are triangles AMC and ELD. Ittfollows that

we have 15 other angles greater than 180°, yielding a total= of (1C+30 √5

ASE )/4.

distinct

2: t = −b. angles.

From (4), we have r = 2s + b. Substituting in

be the point of intersection

EC EL+LC of ECLCand DB.

DLLet M DL 5.The

be the point

AB on conditions are of

the extension

= 1 + 2 . c = 1. Subtracting (2) from this, we have 3s + 5sb + 2b = 1

2 2

= =1+ =1+ =1+

AB AB EA CM r + (3s

EC br ++c2b

that MC is parallel to AE. Then ABLE and AMCE are parallelograms.

AB = 1,(1)

Note

+ 3)(s + b that

− 1) = −2. Hence, −2 is divisible by s + b −

5. The conditions are Case 2: t = −b. From (4), we have r = 2s + b. Sub-

r2 + br + c = 1, (1) stituting into (1), we have 4s2 + 6sb + 2b2 + c = 1.

s2 + bs + c = b, (2) Subtracting (2) from this, we have 3s2 + 5sb + 2b2

t2 + bt + c = c, (3) = 1 − b, which may be rewritten as (3s + 2b + 3)

r + t = 2s. (4) (s + b − 1) = −2. Hence, −2 is divisible by s + b

− 1. From r > s > t = −b, we have s + b > 0. Hence,

From (3), t(t + b) = 0 so that either t = 0 or t = −b.

s + b − 1 > −1 so that s + b − 1 = 1 or 2. If s + b

We consider these two cases separately.

− 1 = 1, we have 3s + 2b + 3 = −2 so that s =

Case 1: t = 0. From (4), we have r = 2s. Substitut- −9 and b = 11. Hence, f(x) = x2 + 11x + 30 with

ing into (1), we have 4s2 + 2bs + c = 1. Subtracting r = −7, s = −9 and t = −11. If s + b − 1 = 2, we have

(2) from this, we have 3s2 + bs = 1 − b, which may 3s + 2b + 3 = −1 so that s = −10 and b = 13. Hence,

be rewritten as (s + 1)(3s − 3 + b) = −2. Hence, 2 f(x) = x2 + 13x + 43, with r = −7, s = −10 and

is divisible by s + 1, so that s = −3, −2, 0 or 1. t = −13.

However, since s > t = 0, we may only have s = 1.

It follows that b = −1. Hence, f(x) = x2 − x − 1, with

r = 2, s = 1 and t = 0.

Edmonton Junior High Math Contest 2013

1. If a stack of five dimes has a height of 6 mm, then 1. Five dimes have a height of 6 mm. Therefore,

what would be the value, in dollars, of a 1.5 m 5d = 6

high stack of dimes? d = 1.2.

(a) $1.25 (b) $12.50 (c) $125.00 (d) $125.50 Therefore, one dime has a height of 1.2 mm.

(e) $1,250.00 1.5 m = 1,500 mm

1,500 ÷ 1.2 = 1,250 dimes

2. There are about 7.06 billion people in the world, 1,250 × 0.1 = 125

and there are about 35 million people in Canada.

What percentage of the world population is in The value of 1,250 dimes is $125.00. The answer

Canada? is (c).

(a) 0.005% (b) 0.05% (c) 0.5% (d) 5.0% 2. 35,000,000 ÷ 7,060,000,000 = 0.00495

(e) 5.5% 0.00495 ≈ 0.5%

The answer is (c).

3. A large soup pot is in the shape of a right circular

cylinder, and it has no lid. When filled to the top, 3. 9.42 L = 9,420 cm3

it can hold 9.42 L of soup. The height of the pot 9,420 = πr2h

is 30 cm. Approximately how many square cen- 9,420 ÷ (30π) = r2

timetres of metal are needed to make the pot? r = 10 cm

Round the answer to the nearest whole square Find the surface area of the bottom and the lateral

centimetre. (1 L = 1,000 cm3, use π = 3.14 for all side.

your calculations) SA = πr2 + 2πrh

(a) 2,198 (b) 2,218 (c) 2,838 (d) 3,010 SA = π(10)2 + 2π(10)(30)

(e) 3,140 SA = 100π + 600π = 700π = 2,198 cm2

The answer is (a).

4. Without a protractor, determine the number of

degrees for x. Note: The diagram is not drawn to 4. The angle marked as 135° forms a supplementary

scale. pair with a 45° angle. The missing angle is

180 − (65 + 45 + 30), or 40°. The answer is (b).

x 65°

5. The regular price of the bracelet is 160 + 2(340),

or $840. The sale price with the $75 discount

is 840 − 75, or $765. The monthly payment is

30°

$765 ÷ 5 = $153. The answer is (d).

135°

(a) 30° (b) 40° (c) 45° (d) 60° (e) 65° 6. The number in each circle is the product of the

5. Robert wanted to buy Mandy a gold bracelet two numbers above it. What is the value of n?

while it was on sale for $160 off the regular price. 1 2

He planned to pay it off with two equal monthly 2

n

3

4 2 1

payments of $340. Instead, it went on sale for

only $75 off the regular price, and he paid for it

with five equal monthly payments. How much

was each of his monthly payments? (Assume that

there is no interest or GST.)

(a) $89 (b) $136 (c) $151 (d) $153 2 4 1

(e) $168

7. The sum of eight consecutive odd integers is −32. 11. Kylee has a set of five cards numbered 1–5. Kas-

By how much does the median exceed the mini- sidy has a set of 10 cards numbered 1–10. If they

mum number? each pick one card from their deck at random,

what is the probability that the product of the two

8. What fraction of the numbers from 1 to 100, chosen numbers will be odd? Write your answer

inclusive, is prime? Express your answer in low- as a percentage.

est terms.

12. A three-digit number has the following proper-

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

ties. The hundreds digit is a composite number,

the tens digit is a prime number, and the units digit

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 is greater than 2 but less than or equal to 6. How

many such three-digit numbers are there in total?

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

13. Svitlana takes 1½ h to cycle to her friend’s house

31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 if she averages 340 m/min. How many minutes

41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 should it take her to make the same trip if she

travels at an average speed of 54 km/h in her car?

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 Express the answer rounded to the nearest whole

61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 number of minutes.

71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80

14. Points A (−5, 5), B (5, 3) and C (−3, −3) are

vertices of a triangle. The perimeter of ∆ABC

81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 is between which two whole numbers?

91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

y

6

9. The three dimensions in centimetres (length, 5

width and height) of a right rectangular prism are 4 EJHMC.

all natural numbers. The volume of the prism is 3 EJHMC.

770 cm3. What is the least possible sum that the 2

three numbers can have?

composite number, the tens digit is a prime number, 1 and the units digit is gre

composite

10. Twelve points are equally but number, the

less than or equal to 6. tens digit is a prime number, and the units

x

aredigit is in

gret

spaced on a circle How many such three-digit numbers

–6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

there

but less

with centre X. Points are labelled thantakes

or equal

sequentially

13. Svitlana 1½ htoto6.cycle

Howtomany such three-digit

her friend’s house if she numbers

averagesare 340

therem/min t

clockwise around the circle 13.using the letters

Svitlana takes 1½ hittotake

cycle toto her friend’s

–1

housetripif she averages

A–L. To the nearest degree, many

and minutes

without the should her make the–2same if she travels340 m/mi

at an av

many minutes should it take her to make the same trip

of 54 km/h in her car? Express the answer rounded to the nearest whole num

use of a protractor, calculate the measure of –3 if she travels at an ave

AFX. of 54 km/h in her car? Express the answer rounded

minutes. –4 to the nearest whole num

A minutes. –5

14. Points A (−5, 5), B (5, 3) and C (−3, −3) are vertices of a triangle. The perim

14. Points A (−5, 5), B (5, 3) and C (−3, −3) are vertices of a triangle. The perim

∆ABC is between which two whole numbers?

Solutions Solutions

Solutions

6. Start with the first 6.

twoStart

numbers

with theinfirst

thetwofirst row. in the first row.

numbers

X 6. StartDwith the first two numbers in the 1first row. 𝑛𝑛

12 𝑛𝑛 = 𝑛𝑛

𝑛𝑛 = 2

The value of the left circle in the second 2

row

The value of the left circle is2n/2.

in the second row is

The value of the left circle

Next, find the product ofn/2. in the

n and 2/3. second row is n/2.

G Next, find the product n and

ofNext, find2/3.

the product 2of n 2𝑛𝑛

and 2/3.

𝑛𝑛 × 2 = 2𝑛𝑛

𝑛𝑛 × 3 = 3

The value of the middle circle in the second3 row3 is 2n/3.

The

Findvalue of the middle

the product circle

of the last twoinnumbers

the second

in row is 2n/3.

the first row.

Find the product of the last two numbers2 in9the first row.

23 × 92 = 3

× =3

The value of the last circle in the second3row 2 is 3.

The value of the last circle in the second row is 3.

of n/2 and 2n/3.

delta-K, Volume 51, Number 1, Find the product

December 2013 31

Find the product of n/2 and 2n/3. 𝑛𝑛 2𝑛𝑛 𝑛𝑛2

𝑛𝑛 × = 2

2 × 2𝑛𝑛

3 = 𝑛𝑛3

2 is

The value of the left circle in the third row 3

3 n2/3.

The value of the left circle in the third row is n2/3.

1𝑛𝑛 = 𝑛𝑛

12 𝑛𝑛 =𝑛𝑛2

2𝑛𝑛 = 2

ue

ue of

of the

the left

left circle

circle in

in the

the second

second row

2 is

row is2n/2.

n/2.

ue

nd of the the second row is n/2.

left circleninand

nd the

the product

product ofof n and 2/3.

2/3.

nd the product of n and 2/3. 22 2𝑛𝑛

2𝑛𝑛

The value of the middle 𝑛𝑛𝑛𝑛 × =

×23 circle

=2𝑛𝑛

𝑛𝑛 × 3 = 33 in the second row 9. The following table lists some of the possible

ue is 2n/3. dimensions and the sum of the dimensions.

ue ofof the

the middle

middle

circle

circle

Find the

in the

the second

inproduct second

of the

3 row

row

last

3 isis 2n/3.

two 2n/3.

numbers in the

ueproduct

of the middle circle in the second rowfirst is 2n/3.

e product of of the

the last

first two

two numbers

numbers in in the

the first row.

Length Width Height Sum

last row. row.

product of the last two numbers22in99the first row. 1 77 10 88

× = 3

23 ×92 = 3 2 5 77 84

3× 2= 3

ue

ue ofof the

the last

last circle Thein

circle the

invalue

the of second

the last3row

second row 2 is

circle isin3. 3.

the second row is 3.

7 11 10 28

ueproduct

of the lastn/2 circle in2n/3.

theproduct

secondofrow is 3.2n/3. 5 7 22 34

e product of and

of n/2 Find

and the

2n/3. n/2 and

5 14 11 30

product of n/2 and 2n/3. 𝑛𝑛𝑛𝑛 2𝑛𝑛 2𝑛𝑛 = 𝑛𝑛𝑛𝑛22

2

×

𝑛𝑛2 ×2𝑛𝑛 =𝑛𝑛 2 11 35 48

2× 33 =2 33 2 7 55 64

ue

ue ofof the

the left

left circle in the

the third row is nnin

is

2 3 22/3.

3

circle

The invalue third

of row

the left circle /3.

the third row is n2/3.

The least sum is 28. The answer is 28.

ueproduct

of the left 2n/3

circle in the

theproduct

third row is nand22/3.

e product of of 2n/3 and and 3.

Find of 2n/3 3.

3.

product of 2n/3 and 3. 2𝑛𝑛

2𝑛𝑛 × 3 = 2𝑛𝑛

10. A

2𝑛𝑛33 × 3 = 2𝑛𝑛

× 3 = 2𝑛𝑛

ue

ue ofof the

the right

right circle

The in

circle in the

valuetheofthird 3row

the right

third rowcircleis

is 2n.2n.in the third row is

ueproduct

of the right circle

2n. in the third row is 2n.

e product of of nn2/3 and 2n.

2

2

/3 Find

and the 2n.

product of n 22/3 and 2n. product𝑛𝑛𝑛𝑛of 2 n /3 and 2n.

2

3

2 2𝑛𝑛

2𝑛𝑛33 D

2 × 2𝑛𝑛 = X

𝑛𝑛3 × 2𝑛𝑛 =2𝑛𝑛3

3 × 2𝑛𝑛 3 = 3

3 2𝑛𝑛 2𝑛𝑛3 = 99 3

2𝑛𝑛33 =94

3 = 4 F

rr n.

n. 3 4

r n. Solve for n. 33 G

𝑛𝑛𝑛𝑛 =

=3 Since there are 12 points spaced equally on the

𝑛𝑛 = 22 circle, all 12 arcs are equal. Each arc has a central

wer

wer is is 3/2,

3/2, or

or 1.5.

1.5. 2

angle of 360° ÷ 12, or 30°. AXF subtends five

wer is 3/2,oddor 1.5.The answer

== the

the first number, xx ++is

first odd number, 22 3/2,

== the

the orsecond

1.5.

second odd number, xx ++ 44 == the

odd number, theofthird

these odd

third oddand has a measure of 30° × 5, or

arcs

= xthe

+ 6first

= theodd

fourthnumber,

odd x + 2

number, = the x second

+ 8 = the oddfifth number,

odd x

number,+ 4 = xthe

+ third

10

150°.= theodd

∆AXF sixthis an isosceles triangle; therefore,

, x + 6 = the fourth

7. Letodd odd

x = number,

the first oddxxnumber,

number, + 8 = the fifth

x +fifth

2 = odd odd

the number, x +AFX

second 10 = the sixth− 150°)/2 = 15°.

= (180°

x + 6 = the fourth + 8 = the number, x + 10 = the sixth

mber, x+

mber, x+ 12

12 == the

theoddseventh

seventh

number, odd

odd x +number

number

4 = the third and

and oddxx ++number,

14

14 == the x +eighth

the eighth

6 odd

odd number.

number.

mber, x+ 12 = the =seventh odd

the fourth odd8x number +

number, 56 =andx−32

+ x

8 +

= 14

the = the

fifth eighth

odd odd

11. The number.

sample space consists of 50 ordered pairs.

8x + 56 = −32 Fifteen of these—(1, 1), (1, 3), (1, 5), (1, 7), (1,

number, x + 10 =8xthe +x sixth

56 = odd −32 number, x+ 12 =

the seventh odd number x == −11

−11

and x + 14 = the eighth

9), (3, 1), (3, 3), (3, 5), (3, 7), (3, 9), (5, 1), (5, 3),

odd number. x = −11 (5, 5),(5, 7), (5, 9)—have an odd product. The

probability is 15 ÷ 50, or 30%.

8x + 56 = −32

x = −11 12. The hundreds

EJHMC.docx - 4digit

of 7could be 4, 6, 8 or 9. The tens

digit could be 2, 3, 5 or 7. The ones digit could

The eight consecutive odd numbers are −11, −9, be 3, 4, 5 or 6. There are 4 × 4 × 4, or 64, possible

−7, −5, −3, −1, 1 and 3. The median is (−5 + −3) three-digit numbers. The answer is 64.

t consecutive odd ÷ 2,numbers

or −4. The aremedian−11, −9, exceeds−7, −5, the−3, −1, 1 and 3. The median is (−5

minimum

or −4. The median valueexceeds

of −11 by the−4minimum

− (−11) = 7.value The answer of −11 by −4 13.

is 7. Find the distance travelled.

− (−11) = 7. The

Alternative solution: Let the eight consecutive d = rt

s 7. d = (340 m/min)(90 min)

odd numbers be n − 8, n − 6, n − 4, n − 2, n, n +

ve solution: Let the eight consecutive odd

2, n + 4 and n + 6. The median is (n + n − 2)/2 = numbers be n − 8, n d− 6, n − 4, n − 2,

= n,

30,600 m, or 30.6 km

EJHMC.

+ 4 and n + 6. Thenmedian is (n + n −is2)/2

− 1. The difference (n − =1)n−−(n1.−The 8) = difference

7. is Find

(n − the

1) −time

(n −for8)the rate of 54 km/h.

54 km/h = 0.9 km/min

8. There are 25 prime numbers between 1 and 100: 𝑑𝑑

are 25 prime numbers 2, 3, 5, 7, between

11, 13, 17, 1 and 100:

19, 23, 29,2,31, 3, 37,

5, 7,41,11,43,13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 𝑡𝑡 =

𝑟𝑟

7, 53, 59, 61, 67, 71, 47,73,

53, 79, 83, 67,

59, 61, 89 71, and73, 97.79, 83, 89 and 97. 30.6 km

25 1 𝑡𝑡 =

= 0.9 km/min

100 4 𝑡𝑡 = 34 min

wer is 1/4. The answer is 1/4. The answer is 34. The answer is 34.

llowing table lists some of the possible Alternative

dimensionssolution:

and theFind

sumthe

of the

distance travelled.

ons. 32 d = rt 1, December 2013

delta-K, Volume 51, Number

d = (340 m/min)(90 min)

Length Width Height Sum d = 30,600 m, or 30.6 km

1 77 10 88

Find the time for the rate of 54 km/h.

𝑑𝑑

𝑑𝑑 𝑡𝑡 = 𝑑𝑑 𝑑𝑑

𝑡𝑡 = 𝑑𝑑 𝑡𝑡 =𝑟𝑟 𝑡𝑡 =

𝑡𝑡 =𝑟𝑟 30.6 km 𝑟𝑟 𝑟𝑟

30.6 km 𝑟𝑟 𝑡𝑡 = 30.630.6 km km

𝑡𝑡 = 30.6 km 𝑡𝑡 =0.9 𝑡𝑡 = km/min

𝑡𝑡 =0.9 km/min 𝑡𝑡 =0.9 34 km/min

0.9 km/min

min

𝑡𝑡The0.9

=14. km/min

34answer

min is 34. 𝑡𝑡 = 𝑡𝑡34=min 34 minThere are five three-digit cubes: 125, 216, 343,

y

𝑡𝑡The

= 34 The min

answer is 34.

answer is 34. 512 and 729. ADG and GHI are cubes. If ADG

Alternative solution: Find the 6 distance travelled.

distance travelled.Alternative A solution:

Alternative FindFind

solution: 5 the the

distance

distance travelled.travelled. is 125, then GHI is 512. If ADG is 512, then GHI

e distance travelled. d = rt is 216. No other combinations will work. A three- EJHMC.

d = rt 4 d = rt d = rt digit square number cannot end in 2, so eliminate

d = rt d = (340 m/min)(90 min)

d = (340 m/min)(90 min)

3 d = (340

dB = (340 m/min)(90

m/min)(90 min)

ADG: min)

125 and GHI: 512. Therefore, the value

d = (340 m/min)(90 min) 2 d = 30,600 m, or 30.6 for kmADG is 512 and the value for GHI is 216.

d = 30,600 m, the

or 30.6 km ADG dis=125, 30,600 then

d = 30,600 m,GHI or is 512.

m,30.6

or kmIf

30.6 km ADG is 512, then GHI is 216. No other combin

Find

d = 30,600 m, or time

30.6 for

km the rate 1of 54 km/h.

4 km/h. FindFind the the

timetime

for the ofwork.

raterate

for the 54 54Akm/h.

ofkm/h. three-digit x 𝑑𝑑 square number cannot5 end B C in 2, so eliminate ADG: 125 an

54 km/h. 1 EF

512. Therefore,

𝑑𝑑 –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 𝑡𝑡=the𝑑𝑑value 𝑑𝑑 for ADG is 512 and the value for GHI is 216.

𝑡𝑡 =𝑟𝑟 𝑡𝑡 = 2 16

𝑡𝑡 = 𝑑𝑑 30.6𝑟𝑟 𝑟𝑟 There are four three-digit

𝑡𝑡 =𝑟𝑟 –1 5 B Csquare numbers that

30.6 𝑟𝑟 𝑡𝑡 = 30.630.6

𝑡𝑡 = 30.6

–2 54

𝑡𝑡 = 𝑡𝑡 = end in 1: 121, 361, 441

1 E F 841. There are four

and

𝑡𝑡 = 54 C –3 𝑡𝑡 = 0.56 54 h 54 three-digit square numbers that end in 6: 196,

𝑡𝑡 = 0.5654h –4 𝑡𝑡 = 𝑡𝑡 = 34𝑡𝑡0.56

= 0.56

min h h256, 576 and 676. If 25BC 1 6 is a prime number, it

𝑡𝑡 =

𝑡𝑡The

= 0.56

minh is 34.

34answer –5 There are four three-digit

𝑡𝑡 = 𝑡𝑡34=min 34 min square

cannot endnumbers

in 2, 5 or 6.that

ThisendgivesinCFI

1: 121, 361, 441 and 841

= 196.

𝑡𝑡The

= 34 The min

answeransweris 34. is 34.

14. four three-digit square numbers that end in 5 B6:1196, 256, 576 and 676. If 5BC is

The distance

The distance between

betweenAC AC is is number,

√82 + 222 2≈it 8.246.

cannotThe enddistance

in 2, 5 or 6. This AB

between gives CFI 2=+196.

2is1is√10

6 √102 +2 2

2 ≈

2 2

√8 2+ 2 2≈ 8.246. The distance

The

The

The distance

distance

distancebetween

between

between

between AC is

AC

AB √8

ABBC is 2 +

√8

isis is

√10 2 +

2 ≈ 2 28.246.

2 ≈

++2822≈= 10. The The

8.246. distance

The distancebetween

betweenAB AB is

5+B=10.198 √10 2 2+≈22 ≈

1129. However,

10.198.

√8 + 2 ≈ 8.246. The

The distance

distance between

between ABBC √6

is is

22 Ifperimeter

BE1 = 121, ≈ 8.246

then 1E9 + 10 ≈ 129 is

810.198.

BC is √62 2+28.444,2 =10.198.

10. The

The distance

The

The distance

distance

perimeter between

between

between

≈ 8.246 BC

+

√10

is

BC

10.198√6 is2++√6 28

+10 2 2+ ≈=8210.

≈ = The

10.notperimeter

The perimeter

prime. If BE1≈ 8.246

=≈361,

1 E+then

8.246910.198

+ 5B1 +=10

10.198 +≈10How-

531. ≈

n BC is √6 +28.444, which

82 28.444,

= 10. The

The isperimeter

between

perimeter ≈ 28

≈

8.246and

8.246 + 29.

+ 10.198

10.198 + +

10 10≈ ≈

and 29. which whichis between

is between 28 and

28 and 29. 29. ever, 531 is not prime,2 either.

1 6 That leaves 441 or

and 29. Part C:

PartPart

Shortwhich

28.444,

C: Short

Answer

C: Short

is between 28 and 29.

AnswerAnswer 841 for BE1. Both give E = 4. Therefore, the value

15. The digits A, B, C, D, E, F,If G, BE1 H =and121,I, then 1E9 = 129.

not necessarily However,

allEdifferent

of digit 129

is 4. Also is that

notare

digits,

note prime.

841 won’tIfwork,

BE1 as

= 361, then 5B1

15.

, G, H and I,arranged

not The

15. digits

The

necessarily A,

digits B,

A, C,

B,

all Answer D,

C, E,

D, F,E,

differentHowever, G,

F, HG, andH

digits, are531 isTheandI, not I, necessarily

not

notfirst necessarily

prime, all

this either. different

all digits,

different

That leaves are

digits,

441 are

or is

841 notfor BE1. Both give E

Part

F, G, H and I,arranged

not C:inShort

necessarily a three-by-three configuration. two would

rows,giveABC 5B1 = 581,

and DEF, which

are three- prime.

configuration. arranged

The first intwoain aall

rows,

different configuration.

three-by-three

three-by-three

ABC and

digits, are

configuration.

DEF,

Therefore, are three-TheThe first twoEtwo

first rows, ABC

4.rows, x ABC

andand DEF, DEF,are three-

are three-

digit

e configuration. prime

15. The first

The digits numbers.

two

A, B, rows, The

C, D, E,ABC third

F, G, Hand row,

andDEF,I, not the

GHI, are

neces- value

and

three-theof16. digit

first column,

Connect isCF. Also

ADG,

Let note

arethat

represent 841

three-digit

the areawon’t work, as this wou

of triangle

rd row, GHI, digit

and prime

digit

the prime

firstnumbers.

numbers.

column, The

ADG,

digits, are5B1

third

The are row,

third GHI,

row,

three-digit

= 581, in awhich GHI,and the

and first

the

is three-digitCEF. column,

first

Usingcolumn,

CE ADG,

and ADG, are

not prime. squares. What is the value of two

EA asthree-digit

are

the three-digit

bases, the

hird row, GHI,cubes.and The

sarily

the last

all two

different

first column,columns, ADG, BEH

arranged

are and CFI,

three-are

three-digit

cubes.

BEH and CFI, are cubes. The

three-digit

by-three last

The two

configuration. columns,

lastsquares.

two The columns,

What BEH

first isBEH

two

16. Connect and

the CFI,

andCF.CFI,

rows,value

ABC are

of xare

Let three-digit

triangles squares.

three-digit

represent the

and What

CEFsquares.

area

AFEWhat

of triangleis the

have the value

isCEF.

thesame of ofCE and EA as

height.

value

Using

s, BEH and digit

CFI,

digit

E?

are

and three-digit

E?DEF,

digit squares.

E? are three-digit primethe What is the

numbers. The third value of Since the area of triangle CEF = x, then the area

16. Inrow,triangle

GHI, and ABC, the AB first =column,

25 andADG, two triangles

CA =are24. CEF and of AFE

triangle have

AFE the

=

E is a point on CA and F is a point on AB such

three- same

5x. The height.

area of Since

triangle the

BFC area of triang

and CA = 24. 16. In

16.

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In

a cuts

digit point triangle

cubes. ABC,

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and

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and

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24.is

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is a =

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on

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= what and

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and is

areaFa point

is

of

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point

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of triangle AB

on

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AB= x such

+ 5x

BFC = 5x − x = 4x. The

5 and CA = 24.that E that

isEFa point ABC onABC into

CA two

and Ftwo

is ofBEH

aregions

point equal

on AB

and

such If CE =CE = 4,

6x. Let is the

= length of BF and of

(25 BF?

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gions of equal that CFI,

areas. cuts

EF

are ABC

cuts

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into

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egions of equal How

areas.

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E? If CE =numbers

4, numbers

what between

is the 100

length andof BF? have

of AF. all digits

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and same

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bases, the=twolength of AF. U

ween 100 and 17. How

17.

1,000,000 many many between 100 and

100 1,000,000

and 1,000,000 have all

have digits

all the

digits same

the same and are

and are

ween 100 anddivisible

1,000,000 by have3? allalldigits the andsame FA and as the arebases, the triangles two triangles

FCB andFCB FACand haveFAC the samehave the same

height, H. height, H

divisible

divisible

16. In byhave

triangle 3?

by

ABC, 3? ABdigits = 25 andthe CAsame andE are

= 24. is a 𝑚𝑚(𝐻𝐻)

18. What

pointis onthe CAlargest

and F is anumber point on whose

AB suchdigits that EFare all different Area and which ∆FCBis=not divisible

er whose digits 18.are

What

18. What

all is the largest

is the

different largest

and number

which number iswhose

not whose digits

divisible are are

digits all different

all different andof which

and which is not2 not

is

= 4𝑥𝑥

divisible

divisible

by 9? are all different and which is not divisible

ber whose digits cuts ABC into two regions of equal areas. If CE (25 − 𝑚𝑚)(𝐻𝐻)

by 9?by

= 4,9? what is the length of BF?

19. There exist two prime numbers, p and q, such that 2p +Area 3q =of99. ∆FAC

The=sum of2 p and=q 6𝑥𝑥 is

mbers, p and 19.

q,

17. There

19.

such

How There

that

manyexist 2p two

exist

+

numbers 3q prime

two

= prime

99.

between Thenumbers,

numbers,

sum

100 and of pp andp

and

1,000,000 q,

andq such

isq, suchthat 2p

that +2p3q+ = 99.

3q = The

99. Thesumsum of pof and q is q is

p and

umbers, p andalsoq,the product 2pof +oftwo = other Rewriting

prime both

numbers:

p and equations

m and n.inFind

Rewriting terms

both of H,n.weinhave

mequations

and terms of H, we have

prime numbers:

such

alsoalsothe

have

m all

and

that

product

the product

digits

n. Findthe 3qtwo

same

m of 99.

andtwo

and The

other

n. other

are sum

prime prime

divisible of

numbers:

by 3? q is

numbers: m and m and n. Find

n. Findm and n. n.12𝑥𝑥

m8𝑥𝑥and

Solutions

er prime numbers: m and n. Find m and n. = .

Solutions

Solutions

18. What is the largest number whose digits are all 𝑚𝑚 25 − 𝑚𝑚

15.This is the configuration:

15.This

different

15.This is the is configuration:

andthe which Solve for

is not divisible

configuration: by 9? m, we have Solve m = 10. for The

m, weanswer

have m is 10.The answer is 10.

= 10.

ABC

19. There

A BC exist two prime numbers, 17. The p and number

q, such A can

BACB haveC three, four, five or six digits. A

AB thatC 2p + 3q = 99. The sum of p and q is also DtheE F

D Eproduct

F If the number has D ED F E F digits, it has the form aaa, with 1 ≤ a ≤ 9. The sum of t

three

DEF of two other prime numbers: m and Gn.H I

G HFind Iaremfive andthree-digit

n. 3a, which is always G HGIdivisible

HI by 3. There are nine three-digit numbers that sat sa

There

G H I cubes: 125, 216, 343, 512 and 729. ADG andFGHI are cubes.20If

There

es: 125, 216, 343, There

512 areand five729.

are three-digit

five three-digit

ADG and condition.

cubes:cubes:

GHI 125,

are 125,216,216,

cubes. 343, 512 512

If 343, andand 729.729.ADG ADG andand GHIGHI are arecubes. If If

cubes.

ubes: 125, 216,Solutions

343, 512 and 729. ADG and GHI are cubes. If

If the number has four digits, it has the form aaaa, with 1 ≤ a ≤ 9. The sum of t

15. This is the configuration:

4a, which is divisible by 3 only when a is 3, 6 or 9. There are E three four-digit n

ABC

D E F that satisfy this condition. 4

G H I If the number has five digits,B it has the form aaaaa, with 1 ≤ aC≤ 9. The sum of

5a, which is divisible by 3 only when a is 3, 6 or 9. There are three five-digit n

delta-K, Volume 51, Number 1, that Decembersatisfy this condition.

2013 33

If the number has six digits, it has the form aaaaaa, with 1 ≤ a ≤ 9. The sum of

6a, which is always divisible by 3. There are nine six-digit numbers that satis

17. The number can have three, four, five or six 45, and the number is divisible by 9. Thus, the

digits. number cannot have 10 digits.

If the number has three digits, it has the form aaa, If the number has nine digits, then one of the 10

with 1 ≤ a ≤ 9. The sum of the digits is 3a, which digits must be missing. The sum of the digits then

is always divisible by 3. There are nine three-digit is 45 − (the missing digit). In order for this num-

numbers that satisfy this condition. ber not to be divisible by 9, the missing digit can

If the number has four digits, it has the form aaaa, be anything except 0 or 9.

with 1 ≤ a ≤ 9. The sum of the digits is 4a, which Since we are looking for the largest nine-digit

is divisible by 3 only when a is 3, 6 or 9. There number, the missing digit must be as small as

are three four-digit numbers that satisfy this possible. Therefore, it must be 1.

condition. This shows that our number has exactly the digits

If the number has five digits, it has the form 0, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. Since the largest number

aaaaa, with 1 ≤ a ≤ 9. The sum of the digits is is wanted, the digits must be decreasing. There-

5a, which is divisible by 3 only when a is 3, 6 or fore, the number is 987,654,320.

9. There are three five-digit numbers that satisfy 19. 2p + 3q = 99

this condition. 2p = 99 − 3q

If the number has six digits, it has the form 2p = 3(33 − q)

aaaaaa, with 1 ≤ a ≤ 9. The sum of the digits is The p must be divisible by 3. Since p is prime,

6a, which is always divisible by 3. There are nine p = 3.

six-digit numbers that satisfy this condition. Substitute p = 3 into the equation:

In total, there are 9 + 3 + 3 + 9 = 24 such

2(3) + 3q = 99.

numbers.

Solving for q, q = 31.

The answer is 24.

The sum of p and q is 34, which can be factored

18. Since the number has distinct digits, it has at most only two ways: 1 × 34 = 34 and 2 × 17 = 34.

10 digits. If the number has 10 digits, then its The numbers 1 and 34 are not prime, but the

digits must be exactly 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and numbers 2 and 17 are prime. Therefore, m and n

9 in some order. But then the sum of the digits is have the values of 2 and 17.

Calgary Junior High School

Mathematics Contest 2013

The Calgary Junior High School Mathematics Con- 6. Mary has a large box of candies. If she gives a

test takes place every spring. The 90-minute exam is third of her candies to her mom, then a third of

primarily for Grade 9 students; however, all junior the remaining candies to her dad, and finally a

high students in Calgary and surrounding districts third of what’s left to her little sister, there will

are eligible. Participants write the exam in their own only be 16 candies in the box. How many candies

schools. School and individual prizes include tro- are in the box at the beginning?

phies, medals, a cash award to the student achieving

7. I have half a litre of solution, which is 40% acid

the highest mark, and the opportunity for the top

and the rest water. If I mix it with 2 L of solution

students (and their teacher sponsors) to attend a

that is only 10% acid, what is the percentage of

banquet at the University of Calgary. The 37th annual

acid in the mixture?

contest took place on April 24, 2013.

8. A two-digit positive integer is said to be doubly

divisible if its two digits are different and non-

Part A: Short Answer zero, and it is exactly divisible by each of its two

1. From the set {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9} all odd digits. For example, 12 is doubly divisible since

numbers are removed. How many numbers are it is divisible by 1 and 2, whereas 99 is not doubly

remaining? divisible since its digits are equal, and 90 is not

doubly divisible because it contains a zero. What

2. A bag contains red, blue and green marbles. Two-

is the largest doubly divisible positive integer?

thirds of the marbles are not red, and three-

quarters of the marbles are not blue. What fraction 9. What is the remainder when 22013 is divided by

of the marbles are not green? Express your frac- 7?

tion in lowest terms.

Answers

3. Ajooni walked 9 km at 4 km/h, and then biked

for 4 hours at 9 km/h. What was her average speed 1. 4

(in km/h) for the entire trip? 2. 7/12

4. Notice that the digits of 2013 are four consecutive 3. 36/5 = 7.2

integers (because 0, 1, 2 and 3 are consecutive 4. 1432

integers). What was the last year (before 2013) 5. 13

whose digits were four consecutive integers?

6. 54

5. A circle is inscribed in an isosceles trapezoid, as 7. 16

shown, with parallel edges of lengths 8 cm and

18 cm and sloping edges of length L cm each. 8. 48

What is L? 9. 1

8

Part B: Long Answer

1. You currently have $100 and two magic wands,

L L A and B. Wand A increases the amount of money

you have by 30%, and wand B adds $50 to the

amount of money you have. You may use each

wand exactly once, one after the other. In which

order should you use the wands to maximize the

amount of money you have? How much money

18 would you have?

2. Put one of the integers 1, 2, . . ., 13 into each of Winner (or Tie)

the boxes, so that 12 of these numbers are used

once (and one number is not used at all), and so A vs B

that all four equations are true. Be sure to explain A vs C

how you found your answers. A vs D

A vs E

+ = B vs C

B vs D

– = B vs E

C vs D

x = C vs E

D vs E

÷ = 6. The three edges of the base of a triangular pyra-

mid (tetrahedron) each have length 6 units, and

3. On planet X, an X-monkey has two legs and one the height of the pyramid is 10. The other three

head, while an X-hypercow has three legs and (sloping) edges are equal in length. A sphere

four heads. Robert has a herd of X-monkeys and passes through all four corners of the pyramid.

X-hypercows on his farm, with a total of 87 legs What is the radius of the sphere?

and 86 heads in his herd. How many animals of

each kind does Robert have?

4. A pie is cut into a equal parts. Then one of these

parts is cut into b smaller equal parts. Finally,

one of the smaller parts is cut into c smallest

equal parts. One of the original parts, together

with a smaller part and a smallest part, makes

up exactly three-fifths of the pie. What are a, b

and c (assuming a, b and c are integers greater

than 1)?

5. In a hockey tournament, five teams participated

and each team played against each other team

exactly once. A team received 2 points for a win,

1 point for a tie and 0 points for a loss. At the Solutions

end of the tournament, the results showed that 1. If you first use wand A, the $100 becomes $130,

no two teams received the same total points, and then applying wand B produces $130 + $50

and the order of the teams (from highest point = $180. However, if you first use wand B, you

total to lowest point total) was A, B, C, D, E. obtain $150, which (after using wand A) becomes

Team B was the only team that did not lose any $150 × 1.3 = $195. So the maximum amount is

games, and team E was the only team that did $195, obtained by using wand B first, then wand A.

not win any games. How many points did each

team receive, and what was the result of each 2. One answer is

game? shown here. The 6 +

7 = 13

fourth equation

Total Points (A ÷ B = C) is the

A

same as B × C = 9 – =

8 1

A, which is the

B same form as the

C third equation. 3 x =

4 12

D Neither of these

equations can use 10 ÷

5 = 2

E the number 1 (or

else there would be a repeated number), so in one Multiplying both sides by 5abc, we get the

of these two equations the smallest number must equation

be 2, and in the other the smallest number must 5bc + 5c + 5 = 3abc.

be 3. If the smallest number is 3, the only pos- Now, c is a factor of all the summands except 5,

sibility is 3 × 4 = 12. This leaves 2 × 5 = 10 as so c must divide into 5. Since 5 is prime and c is

the only possibility for the other equation (since bigger than 1, c = 5. Using this in the equation,

we cannot repeat the numbers 3 and 4). So the we obtain

last two equations must use the six numbers 3, 4,

25b + 25 + 5 = 15ab,

12, 2, 5 and 10, and there are various ways this

can happen. For example, we could have used 5 so 5b + 6 = 3ab. This tells us that b must divide

× 2 = 10 and 12 ÷ 4 = 3 instead of what we wrote into 6. Let us look at the possibilities. Trying b

above. = 2 gives 10 + 6 = 6a, which isn’t possible since

Now, the second equation (X − Y = Z) can be 6 doesn’t divide into 16. Next, try b = 3. This

written as Z + Y = X, which is the same form as gives 15 + 6 = 9a, which doesn’t work since 9

the first equation. So we need to find two equa- doesn’t divide into 21. So b = 6. Then a = 2. The

tions of the form Z + Y = X using only numbers answer is a = 2, b = 6 and c = 5.

from 1, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11 and 13. One of these equa- 5.

tions cannot use the number 1, so it must be 6 + Total Points

7 = 13. Then the only possibility for the other A 6

equation is 1 + 8 = 9. So the first two equations

B 5

must use the numbers 6, 7, 13, 1, 8 and 9 in some

order. The missing number must be 11. C 4

D 3

3. Let a be the number of X-monkeys and b the

number of X-hypercows. Since X-monkeys have E 2

two legs, they contribute 2a legs to the total.

There are 3b legs from the X-hypercows, for a Winner (or Tie)

total of 87 legs. This gives the equation A vs B B

2a + 3b = 87. A vs C A

Counting heads, we get the equation A vs D A

a + 4b = 86. A vs E A

So we can write a = 86 − 4b and substitute this

into the first equation to get

B vs C - 4 of 5

CJHSMC.docx T

B vs D T

2(86 − 4b) + 3b = 87.

B vs E T

an write a = 86 − 4b

Thenand5b substitute

= 85, so b = 17 and

this thenthe

into a =first

86 − 4equation

× 17 to get C vs D C

= 18. So the herd has 18 X-monkeys and 17

X-hypercows. 2(86 − 4b) + 3b = 87. C vs E T

= 85, so b = 17 and then a = 86 − 4 × 17 = 18. So the

Another way to proceed is to note that taking oneherd has 18 X-monkeys

D vs E and D

percows. X-monkey and one X-hypercow gives five heads

Note that if we total the points for each match,

way to proceedand five legs. Now, 85 = 5 × 17, so 17 X-monkeys

is to note that taking one X-monkey and one X-hypercow we obtain 2, gives

so the point total recorded for the

and 17 X-hypercows would give 85 heads and 85

ds and five legs. legs.

Now, 85 = 5 × 17, so 17 X-monkeys

So you need one more head and two more and 17 X-hypercows

10 games would

is 20. Since B was the only team that

did not lose a game, A lost at least one game,

heads and 85 legs. Sowhich

legs, you need oneX-monkey.

is another more head and are

So there two 18more legs, which is

X-monkeys and 17 X-hypercows. making its maximum possible score 6. Its score

X-monkey. So there are 18 X-monkeys and 17 X-hypercows. could not be 5 since 5 + 4 + 3 + 2 + 1 = 15 < 20.

the information, the size

4. From of each slice

the information, the from

size ofthe

eachfirst

slicecut

fromis 1/a of the whole

Thus, A has pie,

three wins and one loss. Since B has

the first cut is 1/a of the whole pie, the size of no losses, the game A lost must have been to B.

of each slice from the second cut is 1/ab of the whole pie, and theThen sizeBofmust

eachhave a tie in all three of its other

each slice from the second cut is 1/ab of the whole

m the third cut ispie,1/abc

andof thethe

sizewhole

of eachpie.

sliceSo wethe

from havethird cut games (otherwise, it has at least 6 points, at least

is 1/abc of the whole pie. So we have as many as A). All the teams but E won some

1 1 1 3 games, so both C and D won some game. Neither

+ + = . of them could win both games (excluding those

𝑎𝑎 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 5

delta-K, we 51,

Volume getNumber

the equation

1, December 2013 37

5bc + 5c + 5 = 3abc.

s a factor of all the summands except 5, so c must divide into 5. Since 5 is prime

bigger than 1, c = 5. Using this in the equation, we obtain

at if we total the points for each match, we triangle.

centre O Then

obtain so triangle

of2,the triangle.

the pointADO

totalDisrecorded

Let a right

be triangle. of

the midpoint This triangle

side AB, soisthat

similar toatrian

CD is me

so OD

0 games is 20. Since B was the only teamtriangle. : AD

that didThen = AD : AC

triangle

not lose = 1

ADO

a game, : 2,

A isand AO

a right

lost = 2OD. So, since AO = CO, you get OD

triangle. This triangle is similar to trian

at least

me, making its maximum possible score 6. Also,

soIts

OD : ADcould

score = ADnot : ACbe=51since

: 2, and5 + AO

4 + 3= +2OD. So, since AO = CO, you get OD

5 < 20. Thus, A has three wins and one loss.Also,Since B has no losses, the game CDA= �62 − 32 = 3√3.

st have been to B.with A and

Then B, about

B must a tieThen,

havewhich we already

in all threeknow) Then,

of its other games CD = �62 − 32 = 3√3.

because that would give a score of 5, which B 2

ise, it has at leastgot.

6 points,

Thus, C at won least

one as many

of the Then,

other as A). All

games and the

had teams but E won OA some= × 3√3 = 2√3.

3

2

so both C and D one wontie,someand Dgame.won oneNeither

game Let ofVthem

and had

be the could

one loss, win

other both

vertex ofgames

thebepyramid,

theOA 3 and S ofthe centre

pyramid,ofandtheS sphere. Then

Let V = vertex

other × 3√3 =

the2√3.

which means that

ng those with A and B, about which weSOA E had one loss

alreadyand one

know) tie in

because that would give

isbeagame

right-angled the centre

triangle, of the sphere.

if h (= and Then triangle SOA is a pyramid and

the remaining games. Thus, ELet lostVthe the other

with vertex of theand

pyramid, 10) isS the height

centre of the sphere. Then

of 5, which B got.DThus, C awon oneC.of the other games and had right-angled

one tie, and triangle,

D and if h (= 10) is the height

and had tie with radius

SOA isof the sphere, we

a right-angled getthefrom

triangle,

of and Pythagoras’

pyramid h (=r the

ifand istheorem

10)radius the that

theofheight of the

sphere, we pyramid and

e game and had one loss, which means that E had one loss and one tie in the 2 = SA2 − SO2.

OA theorem

radius ofsothe

6. Note that triangle ABC is equilateral, sphere, we get

the me- getfrom

from Pythagoras’

Pythagoras’ theorem

that that

ng games. Thus, diansE lostofthe game with D

the three sides intersect and had

Thisatbecomes a tie

the centre O with C. OA OA2 = = SA

SA2 −− SOSO.2.

2 2 2

triangle. Let D sobethe

themedians

midpoint ofofside theAB, three sides

This intersect

becomes at the 2

so that CD is a median of theThis becomes

triangle. Then tri- �2√3� = 𝑟𝑟 2 − (ℎ − 𝑟𝑟)2

O of the triangle. Let D be the midpoint of side AB, so that CD is a median of the2

angle ADO is a right triangle. andThis triangle is �2√3� = 𝑟𝑟 2 − (ℎ − 𝑟𝑟)2

Then triangle ADO is a right triangle. This triangle

similar to triangle CDA, so OD : AD = AD : AC is similar

to triangle CDA,

and AO = CO, you 12 = 2rh − h2 = 20r − 100.

AD = AD : AC = =1 1: :2,2,and and AOAO==2OD. 2OD. So,So,

sincesince AO = CO, you and get OD = (1/3)CD.

get OD = (1/3)CD. Also, Thus, 112 = 20r, and the radius of12 12the sphere

2rh − h22 is

== 2rh 5.6 −−cm.

= 20r

= 20r 100.

100.

Thus, 112 = 20r, and the radius

Thus, 112 of =the

20r,sphere

and theisradius

5.6 cm. of the sphere is

CD = �6 − 3 = 3√3.

2 2

5.6 cm.

2

OA = × 3√3 = 2√3.

3

the other vertex of the pyramid, and S the centre of the sphere. Then triangle

a right-angled triangle, and if h (= 10) is the height of the pyramid and r the

f the sphere, we get from Pythagoras’ theorem that

OA2 = SA2 − SO2.

omes

2

�2√3� = 𝑟𝑟 2 − (ℎ − 𝑟𝑟)2

12 = 20r, and the radius of the sphere is 5.6 cm.

Book Review_______________________________________

Teaching and Learning Between the Lines,

by Daniel Jarvis and Irene Naested

Brush Education, 2012

and Learning Between the Lines is a recent publica-

tion by Daniel Jarvis (Nipissing University) and Irene

Naested (Mount Royal University), two education

professors with expertise in teaching art and mathe-

matics. The book is intended as a teaching resource

for educators, especially at the elementary level. It is

built on the principles that both mathematics and

visual arts provide valuable tools with which to un-

derstand the world around us and that connecting the

two disciplines can enhance students’ appreciation

and understanding of both.

I had the pleasure of teaching a new course for

future elementary educators with Dr Naested. The

course dealt with the integration of mathematics and

the visual arts for pedagogical reasons. This book was

both a valuable resource for the course and an eye-

opener for me. As a professor of mathematics with

an interest in visual art and experience with math–art

outreach activities, I thought I had a decent under-

standing of the math–art connection. I was wrong!

Many learning experiences that I thought of as math–

art are actually math activities with crafts added on

to make mathematics more appealing. These “math

crafts” give no consideration to artistic principles

or the true value of integrated learning to both math

and art.

Chapter 1 outlines the history of the math–art con- and finishes up with a discussion about planning in-

nection and discusses a breadth of educational theo- tegrated activities. A single chapter can’t make a math

ries and strategies that support connecting the two teacher an art expert, or an art teacher a math expert.

disciplines. The intention is to show readers the value Instead, the chapter emphasizes that both disciplines

to students of exploiting these connections in the have substantial and meaningful curricula and that

classroom. there are links between them.

Chapter 2 highlights the major elements of both Chapters 3–7 get down to the nuts and bolts of

the mathematics curriculum and the art curriculum exploiting connections between the two subjects

through teaching and learning experiences. The au- Overall, the book puts a little more emphasis on

thors chose not to organize the chapters using the art—probably because the authors have more com-

math or art curricula. Instead, they have organized bined experience in that discipline than in mathemat-

the topics according to the world around us. There ics. From the mathematics viewpoint, it is interesting

are chapters related to flora, fauna, the human figure, to see experts in another discipline also lamenting

architecture and designed objects. The authors also how little respect their discipline gets and how its

bring in connections to other disciplines, including goals are being watered down.

science and sociology. There are some really nice ideas in these chapters

The following are examples of the learning experi- but, for the sake of breadth and to appeal to a wider

ences outlined: audience, the book just outlines the learning experi-

• Linking grid drawings and distorted grid drawings ences. The onus is on the reader to flesh out these

to measurement and area ideas and customize them to their individual goals

• Measuring angles and using symmetry to construct in the curriculum. This is not necessarily an easy

kaleidoscope patterns task, but it has the potential to be a rewarding one.

• Making data collection a part of the artistic process I’d recommend this book to any educators who are

of realistically capturing the human figure both open to the idea of truly integrated math and art

• Problem solving with ratios to get a “life-sized” activities and willing to put in the time and effort to

depiction of a sasquatch expand their expertise and apply the ideas. It will not

be your only resource, but it is a great start.

Imagine discussing math and art topics not because

you hit that section in the textbook but because you

and your students were looking at the world around Roberta La Haye is an associate professor of math-

you and saw them there! ematics at Mount Royal University, where she teach-

Finally, in Chapter 8 the authors further discuss es courses in calculus, algebra and statistics and has

the why of curriculum integration and get into a few helped develop and run a course in general education,

specifics about how it can be achieved. They warn that as well as a course connecting mathematics and art

to do a good job of integrating mathematics and art for future educators. She has a PhD in group theory

curricula in planning learning experiences, the teacher and, in the past few years, has developed an interest

must have a good understanding of both subjects and in the ties between mathematics and art. This interest

must carefully plan the lessons. The references and has manifested itself in outreach activities to elemen-

resources at the back of the book are also an asset. tary and middle school children, as well as in research.

MCATA Executive 2013/14

Marj Farris Rod Lowry Bernadette McMechan

marjf@fvsd.ab.ca rod.lowry1@gmail.com bernadette.mcmechan@phrd.ab.ca

Daryl Chichak Carmen Wasylynuik Kris Reid

mathguy@shaw.ca carmenbt@telus.net kris.reid@gov.ab.ca

Vice-Presidents

Debbie Duvall Representative

Tancy Lazar

debbie.duvall@shaw.ca Indy Lagu

trlazar@shaw.ca

ilagu@mtroyal.ca

Rod Lowry Newsletter Editor

rod.lowry1@gmail.com Karen Bouwman Faculty of Education Representative

karenkars8@hotmail.com Olive Chapman

Secretary chapman@ucalgary.ca

Donna Chanasyk Journal Editor

donnajc@telus.net Gladys Sterenberg ATA Staff Advisor

gsterenberg@mtroyal.ca Lisa Everitt

Treasurer lisa.everitt@ata.ab.ca

Publications Director

Mark Mercer

John Scammell PEC Liaison

mmercer@gmail.com

john@aac.ab.ca Carol Henderson

2013 Conference Codirectors carol.henderson@ata.ab.ca

Webmaster

Tancy Lazar Robert Wong NCTM Representative

trlazar@shaw.ca robert.wong@epsb.ca Tancy Lazar

Debbie Duvall trlazar@shaw.ca

debbie.duvall@shaw.ca Directors at Large

David Martin NCTM Affiliate Services Committee

Membership Director martind@rdcrd.ab.ca Representative

Daryl Chichak Alicia Burdess Maureen MacInnes

mathguy@shaw.ca aliciaburdess@gpcsd.ca macinnmj@staff.ednet.ns.ca

Providing leadership to encourage the continuing enhancement

of teaching, learning and understanding mathematics.

ISSN 0319-8367

Barnett House

11010 142 Street NW

Edmonton AB T5N 2R1

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