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Interpretation of Dual | Rohan Byanjankar | 1

Primal LPP
Min Cost = 0.85x + 0.4y
Subject to constraints,
2𝑥 + 1𝑦 ≥ 8 (S1) (V1)
6𝑥 + 𝑦 ≥ 12 (S2) (V2)
𝑥 + 3𝑦 ≥ 9 (S3) (V3)
𝑥, 𝑦 ≥ 0
Where x and y denotes units of Food A and Food B respectively.
The dual problem of above LPP is:
Max Benefit = 8A + 12B + 9C
Subject to constraints,
2A + 6B + C ≤ 0.85 (P1)
A + B + 3C ≤ 0.4 (P2)
A, B, C ≥ 0
Where A, B, and C represents shadow price of Protein, Carbohydrate, and Fat respectively.
Also, S1, S2, and S3 are the surplus variable and P1, and P2 are the slack variables. Further,
V1, V2, and V3 represents very large numbers which have been assumed as 10000.
The standard form of primal LPP is:
Min Cost = 0.85x + 0.4y + 0S1 + 0S2 + 0S3 + 10000(V1 + V2 + V3)
Subject to constraints,
2𝑥 + 1𝑦 − 𝑆1 + 0𝑆2 + 0𝑆3 + 𝑉1 + 0𝑉2 + 0𝑉3 ≥ 8
6𝑥 + 𝑦 + 0𝑆1 − 0𝑆2 + 0𝑆3 + 0𝑉1 + 𝑉2 + 0𝑉3 ≥ 12
𝑥 + 3𝑦 + 0𝑆1 + 0𝑆2 − 0𝑆3 + 0𝑉1 + 0𝑉2 + 𝑉3 ≥ 9
𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑆1, 𝑆2, 𝑆3, 𝑉1, 𝑉2, 𝑉3 ≥ 0
The standard form of dual LPP is:
Max Benefit = 8A + 12B + 9C + 0P1 + 0P2
Subject to constraints,
2A + 6B + C + P1 + 0P2 ≤ 0.85
A + B + 3C + 0P1 + P2 ≤ 0.4
A, B, C, P1, P2 ≥ 0
Interpretation of Dual | Rohan Byanjankar | 2

Solution of Primal LPP (Using Big M Method)

Number Cj 0.85 0.4 0 0 0 10000 10000 10000
of Mini
Iteration CB BV x y s1 s2 s3 v1 v2 v3 RHS
ratio
10000 V1 2 1 -1 0 0 1 0 0 8 4
10000 V2 6 1 0 -1 0 0 1 0 12 2
1 10000 V3 1 3 0 0 -1 0 0 1 9 9
Zj 90000 50000 -10000 -10000 -10000 10000 10000 10000 290000
Cj-Zj -89999.2 -49999.6 10000 10000 10000 0 0 0
10000 V1 0 0.666667 -1 0.333333 0 1 - 0 4 6
0.85 x 1 0.166667 0 -0.16667 0 0 - 0 2 12
2 10000 V3 0 2.833333 0 0.166667 -1 0 - 1 7 2.470588
Zj 0.85 35000.14 -10000 4999.858 -10000 10000 - 10000 110001.7
Cj-Zj 0 -34999.7 10000 -4999.86 10000 0 - 0
10000 V1 0 0 -1 0.294118 0.235294 1 - - 2.352941
0.85 x 1 0 0 -0.17647 0.058824 0 - - 1.588235
3 0.4 y 0 1 0 0.058824 -0.35294 0 - - 2.470588
Zj 0.85 0.4 -10000 2941.05 2352.85 10000 - - 23531.75
Cj-Zj 0 0 10000 -2941.05 -2352.85 0 - -
0 S2 0 0 -3.4 1 0.8 - - - 8 10
0.85 x 1 0 -0.6 0 0.2 - - - 3 15
4 0.4 y 0 1 0.2 0 -0.4 - - - 2
Zj 0.85 0.4 -0.43 0 0.01 - - - 3.35
Cj-Zj 0 0 0.43 0 -0.01 - - -
0 s3 0 0 -4.25 1.25 1 - - - 10
0.85 x 1 0 0.25 -0.25 0 - - - 1
5 0.4 y 0 1 -1.5 0.5 0 - - - 6
Zj 0.85 0.4 -0.3875 -0.0125 0 - - - 3.25
Cj-Zj 0 0 0.3875 0.0125 0 - - -
Since, Cj-Zj is free of negative numbers, the optimal solution is Min Cost = 3.25 at (x, y, s3) = (1, 6, 10).
Interpretation of Dual | Rohan Byanjankar | 3

Solution of Dual LPP

Number of Cj 8 12 9 0 0
Iteration CB BV A B C P1 P2 RHS Mini ratio
0 P1 2 6 1 1 0 0.85 0.141667
0 P2 1 1 3 0 1 0.4 0.4
1
Zj 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cj-Zj 8 12 9 0 0
12 B 0.333333 1 0.166667 0.166667 0 0.141667 0.85
0 P2 0.666667 0 2.833333 -0.16667 1 0.258333 0.091176
2
Zj 4 12 2 2 0 1.7
Cj-Zj 4 0 7 -2 0
12 B 0.294118 1 0 0.176471 -0.05882 0.126471 0.43
9 C 0.235294 0 1 -0.05882 0.352941 0.091176 0.3875
3
Zj 5.647059 12 9 1.588235 2.470588 2.338235
Cj-Zj 2.352941 0 0 -1.58824 -2.47059
12 B 0 1 -1.25 0.25 -0.5 0.0125
8 A 1 0 4.25 -0.25 1.5 0.3875
4
Zj 8 12 19 1 6 3.25
Cj-Zj 0 0 -10 -1 -6
Since, Cj-Zj is free of positive numbers, the optimal solution is Max Benefit = 3.25 at (A, B, C) = (0.3875, 0.0125, 0).
Interpretation of solution

The dual solution reveals that 1 unit of protein cost Rs. 0.3875, 1 unit of carbohydrate cost Rs. 0.0125, and 1 unit of fat cost Rs. 0. It means one
extra unit of protein and carbohydrate produces 0.3875, and 0.0125 extra benefit respectively while fat does not generate any extra benefit per
additional unit consumed. From primal, we obtained that a person consumes extra 10 unit of Fat and from dual we confirmed the shadow price of
Fat is nil. Therefore, extra 10 units of Fat consumed is worthless.