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A Smoke Detection System Using Wireless Network

Dr. Hussein Abdulkadir , Eng. Nada Al-Khatib ,Eng. Osama AlShamma , Eng. Mahmood Saleh

Communications and Electronics Department /Faculty of Engineering

Philadelphia University
Amman - Jordan

The standard smoke detector is not designed for the hearing impaired. Also in case of there is no
any person in the place of the detector, no body will hear the alarm and therefore there is no fast
action. Standard smoke detectors are inadequate in all these cases. In this paper, the smoke
detector was enhanced by connecting it with a personal computer for monitoring and controlling
purposes and using the GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) to send and receive an
SMS (short message Service) from the place of the detector to the involved person. Therefore,
improve the chances for reducing the risks to life and property.

1- Introduction
Smoke detectors are devices mounted on the wall or ceiling and automatically sound a warning when
they sense smoke or other products of combustion. There are many types of smoke detector devices, they
are classified according to their principle technique of detection [1, 2]. One of the more reliable detectors
is the photoelectric smoke detector. Its response is much faster than the ionization smoke detector [3]. A
light obscuration smoke detector type is used in our system of detection, which employs a light source
and a photosensitive receiving device [4, 5].
In this paper, smoke detector system enhancement is done by connecting already available photoelectric
smoke detector circuitry to personal computer (pc) via the pc parallel port then integrating a wireless
technology into them for sending and receiving an SMS [6].

2- Photoelectric smoke detector device

The photoelectric smoke detector circuit; shown in Figure (1); consist of full wave bridge rectifier to
provide a d.c voltage of about 12V, photoelectric sensor and an operational amplifier connected as a
comparator. An adjustable reference voltage which represents the detector threshold is connected to the
non inverting input of the comparator. While the other terminal of the comparator is connected to the
output of the photoelectric sensor.

Figure (1): The photoelectric smoke detector circuit

When the smoke particles partially block the light beam, the reduction in light reaching the
photosensitive device alters its output. When the output of the photosensitive crossed by the detector
threshold the comparator output become "1", which forward biased the transistor Q1 and consequently
activate the relay. The relay circuit activates an alarm circuit and transmits a signal to the PC via a
parallel port.

3- Smoke Detector System Enhancement

Figure (2) shows the block diagram of our smoke detection system enhancement. The proposed name to
this enhanced system is a smoke detection system using wireless network.
It consists of smoke detector circuitry, PC and Mobile set (equipped with IR device) connected with the
mobile network, in order to communicate with other destination mobile user.

Smoke GSM

Figure (2): smoke detector system enhancement

On detection of smoke, the smoke detector circuit will raise an alarm signal that will activate a relay
which connected to it. This relay is connected to the pc via parallel port. The parallel port status register
address is used to read the status of the parallel port. This will allow for reading the alarm signal coming
from the smoke detector circuit.
When the alarm is read, the program sends a specified message (for example: fire alarm) to specified
mobile station through the mobile station that connected to the pc via IR.
According to the restore message that will be received from the specified mobile station; through the
mobile station that connected to the pc via IR; the extinguisher will be turn on or off.

4- System Design and Implementation

4.1. Hardware Implementation
4.1.1. Computer Connectivity
The parallel port affords a very simple technique for interfacing with external circuitry. It, as
implemented on the PC, consists of a connector with 17 signal lines and 8 ground lines. The signal lines
are divided into three groups: four Control lines, five Status lines, eight Data lines [7].
The parallel port is implemented using the SPP mode. To program the parallel port in SPP mode, three
registers are used. Only two registers are needed in the proposed wireless smoke detector system.
The port base address (I/O Base) is used to write to the data lines. This is used to turn on or off the
extinguisher according to the restore message that will be received from the specified mobile station.
The parallel port status register address is at the port base address plus one and is used to read the status
of the parallel port. This is used to read the alarm signal from the smoke detector circuit
The pin layout from the PC parallel port that is used in proposed wireless smoke detector system is
shown in table (1):
Pin number SPP Signal Register Type of Pin Description
13 Select Status Input Reading the alarm signal
2 Data Bit 0 Data Output Controlling the extinguisher
Table (1): The used Pin in proposed smoke detection system using wireless network

4.1.2. Wireless Connectivity

To connect a compatible Nokia phone to pc, Nokia PC Suite must be installed [8]. The connection
between Nokia phone and a PC is made using one of the following connection types; depending on the
devices' supported connection types; Infrared, Connection cable or Bluetooth wireless technology
In the proposed smoke detection system using wireless network, the infrared connection is used.

4.2. Software Implementation

The software that does the monitoring and control processes, runs under Microsoft Window environment
and it was written using Microsoft Visual Basic. An interactive Graphical User Interface (GUI) wad
made to monitor the state of the smoke detector and to control an output signal via SMS as shown in the
figure (2). The designed form of the GUI is divided into two sections, the first one is the sending section,
when the alarm activates the program, the message written in the text
box named 'Message' will be send to the number that written in the
text box named 'Number' automatically.
The second section contains a text box named 'Number' in which the
user writes a mobile number that is authorized to turn the extinguisher
on or off to the attached mobile by sending an SMS contains ON or
OFF. If the received message is ON, the Option button named 'ON' is
turned on automatically and transmitted to the data bit in the parallel
port to turn on the extinguisher.
The flowchart of the program is shown in figure (3).

Figure (2): The GUI interface

for monitoring and controlling
Conclusion and Future Work
This paper enhanced the standard smoke detector to save lives of people and property more and more by
connecting it with the personal computer that is considered the most available and cheap controller
nowadays and using SMS sending and receiving utilities. It is very interesting to make monitoring and
controlling the hardware process by interactive user interface in the computer.
This enhancement can be done with very low price and the needed software can be installed on a PC with
minimum hardware requirements.
Future work can be done on this proposed wireless smoke detector system, for example, making it rely on
a microcontroller instead of PC since PC should be
always online twenty four hours a day, which may lead
sometimes to software or operating systems hang up.

References Reset Alarm, parallel port data bit

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Read the status of the parallel port.
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Issue 1-3, 1 Auggust 2003 , p.416-421 . alarm, or send
No button is pressed
[3] J.R.Qualey III et al. "Response time comparisons of
ionization and photoelectric /heat detectors', 12th Yes
International Conference on Automatic Fire
Detection, 25-28 March 2001, NIST, Maryland Send a message, set alarm check box true
[4] O.V. Sulima et al ,"Low voltage
Read the restore message
AlGaAsSb/InGaAsSb/Gab avalanche photo-detector
", IEE Proceeding –Optoelectronics,Volume 151,
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[5] A.Gulinatti et al.," 35 ps time resolution at room Yes Is it ON
temperature with large area single photon avalanche
diode ", Electronics letters,Volume 41,Issue 5,3 Set parallel port
March 2005, p. 272-274 data bit and the
option button 'ON'
[6] Lee, W.C.Y., 1996, Mobile Cellular Reset Alarm, parallel port data bit
Telecommunication Systems, McGraw Hill, New
[7] Hordeski,Michael, 1995, Personal computer
interfaces, Mcgraw-Hill, N.Y
[8] Nokia web site: www.forum.nokia.com Figure (3): The flowchart of the program