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If you've decided getting an internship is the way to go, then it's time to get smart about your
options. Preparing for an internship search involves everything from crafting a targeted resume
(or resumes) and building a portfolio to exploring what type of internship experience will fit
seamlessly with your schedule and goals. It also might involve a good deal of relationship
building to make sure you're not just another name in somebody's inbox. Our interactive tools,
coaching videos and resume samples can help you figure out which industries to target and how
to market yourself to stand out from the crowd Internships offer students a period of practical
experience in the industry relating to their field of study. This experience is valuable to students
as a means of allowing them to experience how their studies are applied in the "real world", and
as work experience that can be highly attractive to potential employers on a candidate's CV.
Interns are usually university students, or university graduates who have not yet found
employment. Interns are less frequently college students (under 18) or older "career changers”.
An intern is someone who works in a temporary position for an employer that operates in an
industry they are interested in working in. Unlike conventional employment, internships have
an emphasis on training, rather than employment itself.

An internship provides a great opportunity for prospective employees to gain experience in a

particular field or industry, determine if they have an interest in a particular career, create a
network of contacts, or gain university module credits. Interns may also have the possibility of
putting themselves forward for forthcoming opportunities for paid work, during their internship.
When it comes to getting that job, you can never be too informed. This useful free eBook
covers job search trends, unusual interview questions, what hiring managers are thinking, and
more. JobTestPrep also has comprehensive information on all types of interviews.


 The project study is to be based on the functional area (such as Marketing, Finance, HRM)
that the student opted as major in third and fourth semester.
 Before commencement of project study each student is to develop a synopsis in consultation
with his/her guide in the chosen functional area covering the broad aspects on which the
data is proposed to be collected and analysis is to be conducted.
 It may be noted that the chosen functional area is not restrictive.
 If the student finds any other area interesting or otherwise, they must explore it and
comment on it in his /her report.
 Each student is required to carry out the work and submit the report individually.


 Work & gain knowledge of real time business environment.

 Explore the various functional areas and analyze how theoretical concepts taught are applied
in real life situations.
 Analyze best practices, system, processes, procedures and policies of a company/industry in
different functional areas and bring forward the deviations.
 Develop skills in report writing through data collection, data analysis, data extraction, and
presentation and draw lessons vis-à-vis firm or company.


 Internship experiences result in the improved placement of students in career positions upon
 The employment community can provide training on technical and highly specialized
equipment, thus enabling the educational institution to expend its funds on other needs.
 Internship positions can provide a source of financial aid for students who might not qualify
for other financial aid programs.
 Involvement in internship programs provides opportunities for enhanced relationships with
the community.
 Student retention often improves because of increased relevance of the education.
 The faculty benefit by having students in their classes who have had practical experience in
their fields.
 Internship programs can help colleges and universities attract corporate support.

Glass industry in India

Glass industry in India is poised to grow rapidly owing to its extensive use in the numerous
sectors. The market is driven by increasing disposable income and willingness to spend on
better living standards due to rising aesthetic sense among consumers as well as glass being
the preferred medium of packaging. The total glass industry is worth INR 180 bn in 2010
The unique attributes of glass like its optical properties, chemical durability, and recyclability
account for a range of glass products making it an integral part of the social existence. It is
being used for innumerable consumer products ranging from tableware to automotive glass,
for lighting and construction, and most importantly as packaging material food and
beverages, cosmetics, and chemicals. The ever increasing demand for container glass for both
conventional as well as new and specialty products as a result of pioneering researches ensure
the continued success of global container glass market. The global market for container glass
is projected to grow at a CAGR of approximately 7.9% for the period spanning 2011-2013.

Glass as a packaging material is being increasingly preferred by consumers inclined towards

a healthy and sustainable lifestyle. At the same time, the industry is also encouraging the use
of glass packaging due to features of better shelf life, design possibilities and recyclability.
The factors driving the global container glass market include mainly the growth in beverage,
cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industry. However, the development of plastic and PET
containers has provided a packaging alternative thus creating a challenge for the global
container glass market.

The global container glass industry is dominated by Europe and the US, where the container
glass category accounts for a sizeable amount of the overall glass market revenues. Both the
US and European regions reported an increase in container glass revenues in 2010, in
response to improving economic conditions, and rising consumer awareness about the
benefits of using glass packaging. In addition, continuous efforts on the part of the
governments to promote recycling of glass containers will lead to an unprecedented growth in
the container glass market. In the recent years, the emerging nations in the field of container
glass category, like India and other developing countries, have acquired a dominant position
posing as potential threat and as well as opportunity for the existing markets

The current landscape of the global container glass market is intensely competitive with numerous
large and regional players operating in the market, competing on the basis of price, quality, and
other marketing attributes. The leading players in the global container glass industry include Saint-
Gobain, Owens-Illinois, and Vetropack, among others.

We have predicted the future growth of the global glass container market by combining SPSS
Inc.’s data integration and analysis capabilities with our relevant findings. We employed various
significant variables that have an impact on this industry and created regression models with SPSS
to determine the future direction of the industry.
Overall, the glass container market in India has been growing at a healthy rate of over 10 per cent,
with F&B segment contributing handsomely due to prospering FMCG sector. Food packaging is
witnessing healthy volume growth due to the arrival of organized retail market. This has led to
high competition in the packaging segment, and consequently has resulted in a number of
innovations in the sector. The adoption of Narrow Neck Press & Blow (NNPB) technology in the
production of glass containers has brought a revolution in the Indian glass packaging industry. It
has resulted in decreasing the weight of the glass containers by 25-30 per cent. This technology
also offers benefits such as better control over glass distribution and increased productivity, thus
making glass packaging more cost-effective and convenient for the consumers.
All major industries create wealth but if there is one industry that plays a unique role by way of
both creation of wealth through a wide range of manufacturing activities and also by way of
preserving the wealth or value created by many, many other industries, it is packaging.
Apart from the huge value addition and employment involved in these activities, packaging has
served the Indian economy by helping preservation of the quality and lengthening the shelf life of
innumerable products – ranging from milk and biscuits, to drugs and medicines, processed and
semi-processed foods, fruits and vegetables, edible oils, electronic goods etc., besides domestic
appliances and industrial machinery and other hardware needing transportation. With water
becoming a consumer product, polymer material-based bottles are becoming a universal presence.
Packaging, as distinct from mere “packing”, plays it’s most visible and catalytic role in a modern
economy with the widespread adoption of branding of products and development of consumer
preferences. To the extent that any consumer product is packaged in a manner that meets the
criteria of safety, convenience and attractiveness, it gains market share. In the aggregate,
packaging as a sect oral activity boosts consumption and economic growth. Heightened
competition in all product sectors within the country as also the increasing need to look for export
markets have contributed to the rising demand for appropriate, and at the same time cost-effective,
packaging material and technologies.
The packaging industry’s growth has led to greater specialization and sophistication from the
point of view of health (in the case of packaged foods and medicines) and environment
friendliness of packing material. The demands on the packaging industry are challenging, given
the increasing environmental awareness among communities. The World Packaging Organizations
(WPO) slogan, “Better Quality of Life through Better Packaging”, sumps up the important place
that packaging occupies in a modern economy. To ensure that public appreciation of this role and
the policy-makers’ support to the industry are not diluted, attention should be paid to basic issues
like collection, segregation and reuse of synthetic packaging material and observation of
regulatory requirements.

Indian Packaging Industry Market:

The Indian packaging industry itself is growing at 14-15% annually. This growth rate is
expected to double in the next two years. Indian Packaging industry is USD 14 billion and
growing at more than 15% p.a. These figures indicate towards a change in the industrial and
consumer set up. However, the Indian fascination for rigid packaging remains intact. It is
estimated that more than 80% of the total packaging in India constitutes rigid packaging,
which is the oldest and the most conventional form of packaging. The remaining 20%
comprises flexible packaging.

Rigid packaging constitutes glass bottles, metal cans, aerosol cans, battery cell cans,
aluminum collapsible tubes, injection molded plastic containers made of PVC, PET, HOPE,
barrels made from HOPE, paperboards, a corrugated boxes. However, with the expanding
middle class and rising income levels, the patterns of consumption are bound to change
substantially and the demand for quality and convenience-based products will increase.
Concurrently, the increased interaction with the developed world will considerably influence
the aesthetic and quality norms of the Indian consumer and lead to better consumption
standards. This is expected to stimulate greater consumption of branded products and increase
the use of rigid and flexible packaging.

Flexible packaging contains multi-layered laminated sheets of single or a combination of

substrates such as plastic, paper or aluminum. Flexible packaging finds varied use because of
its ability to provide strength, moisture resistance, aroma retention, gloss, grease resistance,
heat retention, salability, printability and low odor. Flexible packaging has gained vast
acceptability because of the protection it offers to the product against environmental threats
like moisture, heat, and chemical reaction. More so, convenience in handling the product and
the cost benefits it provides are added advantages. Nonetheless, plastic, which is the most
commonly used substrate in flexible packaging, is facing pressure because of issues of
environmental protection and safe disposal. These issues act as a major impediment in
flexible packaging becoming an all-pervasive medium. Paper and paperboard, on the other
hand is environment friendly and also enjoy the advantages of easy handling and efficient
process implementation.
Moreover, flexible packaging mandates additional capital
requirements and technical know-how for efficient manufacturing operations.

Although substrates like plastic have gained vast acceptability, attractiveness of paper and
paperboard consumption remains. Currently, India is ranked 15th in the world for its paper
and paperboard consumption and is expected to improve its rank in the future. Paper is the
fastest growing substrate segment with a growth rate of 6-7%. The total demand for paper
currently is estimated to be around 6 mn tones, of which about 40% is consumed by the
packaging industry. If the demand for paper continues to grow at the same rate, total paper
consumption is expected to reach 9.5mn tones by 2010.

Laminated products including form-fill-seal pouches, laminated tubes and tetra packs are
growing at around 30% p.a. There are about 600-700 packaging machinery manufacturers,
95% of which are in the small and medium sector located all over India.
Germany and Italy are the latest suppliers of packaging machinery to India but focus is
now shifting on Taiwan, Korea and China.
 Indian packaging machinery imports are USD 125 million.

 Indian packaging machinery exports are rapidly growing.

 India's per capita packaging consumption is less than USD 15 against worldwide
average of nearly USD 100.
 The large growing middle class, liberalization and organized retail sector are the
catalysts to growth in packaging.
 Food and Pharma packaging are the key driving segments.

 On the packaging machinery side, while a wide range is manufactured in India, the
industry imports machinery, especially at the high end.
 Germany and Italy are the largest suppliers of packaging machinery to India but
focus is now shifting on Taiwan and China.
 The import (customs) duty for packaging machinery is 25.58% for 2007-08.

 India’s imports at 20 & 25% of its total packing machinery import indicate further
opportunities for Italian companies to explore.



A flourishing organized retail have raised the expectations that consumption of

corrugated packaging will begin to expand again as the number and volume of goods
packaged in corrugated increases. MNCs are demanding corrugated boxes of international
standards and the pattern of buying the packaging is changing.

Prices of corrugated sheet and converted boxes have remained low due to the over-
capacity, manual operations and low productivity. Besides, transport constraints and high
freight costs have meant that small to medium sized corrugated box plants are located near
the customers.

The over 4,000 corrugated boards and sheet plants are highly labor-intensive,
employing over half a million people – both directly and indirectly. The industry is
converting about 2 million tons of Kraft paper into corrugated boxes. Factories are spread out
in all parts of India, even in the remote industrially backward areas.
This present scenario is already being challenged by the sweeping changes that are
beginning to take shape. More and more in-line automatic plants are being set up, as
corrugated box makers gear up to meet the new demands for high precision boxes with
attractive graphics and large integrated production capacities.

Inline Automatic Board and Box making plants will ease out the present semi
automatic production processes. Deployment of Folder Gluers, Rotary Die cutters will be on
the increase. Use of corrugated for display/promotional packs, POPs and dispensers.
Advances in multicolor, flexi printing will facilitate in-house flexi printing and do away with
screen printing, contract printing on offset presses.

Pharmaceutical Packaging & Situation in India

Pharmaceutical packaging occupies a considerable portion of the overall drugs and

pharmaceutical market in India and is growing steadily with the same pace of the industry.
Pharmaceutical packaging consists of various types of glass, pet bottles, strip and blister
packs, injectibles, ampoules, bulk packs, etc.
The Indian pharmaceutical packaging industry is witnessing a spurt in growth. Today, the
packaging industry in India is considered a sunrise industry and its linkages are extensive and
highly employment creating. On one side, it involves manufacture (and sometimes import) of
a wide range of packing material - paper, paperboard, cardboard, a range of polymer products
including rigid and flexible packaging material, aluminum foil, tin an good old wood and
steel. Other backward linkages of packaging including printing labeling and binding
/adhesive tapes etc. Of course machinery for making / processing these products and for
packing / packaging is another segment closely linked to this industry. Growth will follow
upward trends in global medication consumption, which will expand at a strong pace as aging
demographic patterns lead to an increasing number of diseases and disorders.
Pharmaceuticals will assume an expanding role in worldwide health care delivery based on
new product introductions and economical advantages over other forms of patient treatment.
Besides upward trends in medication consumption, the adoption of stricter regulations and
standards governing the production, storage, distribution and labeling of pharmaceuticals will
boost global growth opportunities for packaging products and accessories. Historically,
pharmaceutical packaging requirements focused exclusively on preserving the quality of
enclosed medication. These requirements are now being extended to cover such criteria as the
prevention of product tampering and counterfeiting, the assurance of product dispensing
accuracy and the promotion of patient compliance with product dosage schedules.

As most of the consumers, you actually take a decision on which product to buy when we are
in the supermarket before the shelves. It is important that the packaging let you having a
truthful and instant appreciation of the product inside, while at same time jumping off the
shelf, speaking to you, providing instant convincing information about the quality of the
product. The packaging has therefore the prime tasks to be appealing, while being functional
and reliable.

Unlike other materials, glass adds a touch of class to the products contained inside while
guaranteeing the highest level of protection and longer shelf life. You can easily sense the
elegance and the beauty of a bottle of Champaign, of a wine glass or flacon of perfume.

No other packaging material matches the shelf impact of glass. The clarity, shape, and feel of
glass containers contribute to the premium image of products ranging from fine perfumes to
liquor to gourmet foods and beverages.

Packaging industry serves the following purposes in India:

1. Containment: Most products must be contained before they can be moved from one place
to another. To function successfully, the package must contain the product. This containment
function of packaging makes a huge contribution to protecting the environment. Faulty
packaging (or under packaging) can lead to spillages a result in major losses and serious
2. Protection and Preservation: Packaging plays a vital role in protecting products as they
go from the manufacturer to the consumer. Packaging is designed to ensure that the product
reaches the consumer in good condition. The product is protected during transport and
distribution; from climatic effects (heat and cold, moisture, vapor, drying atmospheres); from
hazardous substances and contaminants; from infestation.
3. Supplementary Product Protection: Packaging can also provide supplementary product
protection. This may be achieved by forms of cushioning such as shredded papers, sheets of
corrugated paperboard, foamed plastic or wrappings. Packaging therefore contributes to food
safety, quality and nutrition. Packaging technology has made major contributions to
advancing food science and food safety and reduction of food spoilage.
4. Communication: ‘A package must protect what it sells and sell what it protects’. Modern
methods of consumer marketing would fail were it not for the messages communicated on the
package. The information provided on packaging allows the consumer to make informed
decisions on the product’s purchase and use.
5. Convenience: Packaging plays an important role in allowing products to respond to the
demands and needs of modern consumers. Frozen food packs, microwavable containers, wine
cardboard casks, easy-open beverage and food cans and aseptic cartons are good examples of
convenience packaging. These types of packaging reflect the demand for convenience and
quick food preparation in a way that guarantees freshness. Light weight medical devices are
packaged in peel-open, pre-sterilized containers designed for easy use in operating rooms,
patient’s rooms, or laboratories. In the administration of drugs, unit-dose packaging, solid and
liquid, in small containers allows sealed, unused drugs to be returned to stock. Medical
packaging also reduces the risk of accidental overdose or improper use by children (child
resistant closures).
6. Environmental Aspects: Packaging reduces the amount of waste going to landfill.
Without the benefit of packaging to preserve food, a higher proportion of food would become
spoiled and consequently consigned to garbage collection for land disposal. When the food is
packaged, the unwanted portions such as skins, outer leaves and trimmings, remain at the
processing point where they can be economically recovered and used in the manufacture of
valuable byproducts.
7. Reduction of Pilferage: Packaging of a wide variety of products sold from self-service
counters is designed to reduce stealing. The product may be sold in a blister package sealed
to a large paperboard backing. The large card makes the package more difficult to conceal
and steal. Other examples of security packages are lock-on caps and tamperproof closures.
8. Marketing Trends: Marketing trends are placing increasing emphasis on the look, sales
appeal and quality of retail packaging. Packaging helps sell products by providing product
differentiation and presentation, greater brand awareness and convenience. The continuously
changing demands of consumers will require higher quality graphics and promotional links
between graphics and advertising to support brand identities, plus the ability to reflect current
consumer trends and images.

Factors Affecting Growth of Packaging Industry in India


Modern technology is now an integral part of nation's society today with high-end
package usage increasing rapidly. As consumerism is rising, rural India is also slowly
changing into more of an urban society. The liberalization of the Indian economy, coupled
with globalization and the influx of the multi-nationals, has improved the quality of all types
of primary and secondary packaging. Also industrialization and expected emergence of the
organized retail industry is fuelling the growth of packaging industry.

1. Increasing Health Consciousness

As people are becoming more health conscious, there is a growing trend towards well packed,
branded products rather than the loose and unpackaged formats. Today even a common man
is conscious about the food intake he consumes in day-to-day life.

2. Low Purchasing Power resulting in Purchase of Small Packets

India being a growing country, purchasing power capacity of Indian consumers is lower; the
consumer goods come in small, affordable packages. Apart from the normal products packed
in flexible packaging, the use of flexible in India includes some novel applications not usually
seen in the developed world. Products like toothpaste, toothpowder, and fairness creams in
laminated pouches are highly innovative and are not used elsewhere. Another typical example
of such applications is tobacco and betel nut-based intoxicants and mouth fresheners catering
to unique Indian taste.

3. Indian Economy Experiencing Good Growth Prospects

The Indian economy is growing at a promising rate, with growth of outputs in agriculture,
industry and tertiary sectors. Overall economic growth has proved to be beneficial for the
consumer goods market, with more and more products becoming affordable to a larger
section of the population.

Changing Food Habits amongst Indians

Changing lifestyles and lesser time to spend in kitchens are resulting in more incidence of
eating away from homes resulting in explosive growth of restaurants and fast food outlets all
over the country. Indians are trying out newer cuisines and also purchasing similar food items
for their homes. Therefore, the review period has seen new products like pasta, soups, and
noodles being launched in India, fuelling the growth of packaging industry in India.

4. Personal health consciousness amongst Indians:

With growing awareness towards contagious diseases like AIDS and other STDs, awareness
towards usage of contraceptives and disposables syringes have increased the demand for
packaging required for the same.

5. Rural Marketing Pushing Demand for Sachets

India comprises of a big rural market and there has been growing focus on rural marketing,
whereby manufacturers are introducing low-priced goods in smaller pack sizes. Low priced
sachets have proved to be extremely popular in smaller towns and villages, where people do
not prefer to buy larger packs due to financial constraints.

Global Glass Market

The global market for glass packaging is thriving on the back of the increasing consumer
demand for pure, green, and sustainable food and beverage packaging. Glass the fact that
glass containers are chemically inert and pure, and thus safer to be used, their popularity and
demand is notably high among consumers. Further, the perception of glass containers as
having a high quality or premium image compared to plastic and metal containers facilitates
Its key property of being chemically inert and transparent makes glass the most suitable
medium of packaging of liquor, pharmaceutical/life saving drugs and food items. Recyclable
is another major advantage of glass which makes a preferred choice for packaging. In
addition to the above benefits of glass, factors like increasing demand from emerging markets
of India and China, rising cosmetic sales, changing lifestyle, increasing per capita is also
driving for the growth of the industry and as well as the country wealth increases.

Unlike plastic, cans, and multi layered cartons, glass containers do not need a petroleum-
based plastic layer or other chemical additive to preserve the taste of foods and beverages,
avoid corrosion or decrease gas permeability. Glass does not deteriorate, corrode, stain or
fade, so products inside glass container remain as fresh and pure as they were bottled.

Major Centers

The Indian glass processing industry is clustered in six geographical locations that fall near
the six industries or metropolitan cities. It is very interesting to note that there are certain
areas as big as Italy where you won't find a single glass processing unit. These areas are
dependent on the glass processors in the six clusters to cater to their processed glass plants.
Can you believe a state having a population of 230 million (yes that's million) does not have a
single processing unit?

The processing clusters are located in and around the following cities :New Delhi. The
national capital has some of the biggest and most reputable glass processors in the country.
GSC Glass, Gold Plus (which recently announced setting up a float line), Mico Glass, and
Gulati glass are some of the glass processors in the region, and all are located in a belt of
100km in the capital region. GSC and Gold Plus glass stand out among the processors in the
capital region; in fact, GSC glass could be termed the most advanced and largest glass
processor in the country. Incidentally GSC was the first glass processor in the country when it
started to process glass in 1994.Mumbai. The country's financial capital, as it is dubbed, has
some of the very best names in the processing industry. Sejal Glass, Fishta Glass, and Viral
Glass are a few of the outstanding names in the region. The processing industry in this region
is benefiting from the boom in construction activities that has been going on for quite some
time. Other than these two major industry clusters. The remaining clusters are in and around
the cities of Chennai, Hyderabad and Bangalore, and in the eastern coast of the country in
Kolkata. One prime reason these clusters formed in these particular regions is the spate of
construction that has been happening in these cities over the last five years. If you travel to
any of these cities today, you will see how the skyline is changing. Overnight, new structures
are rising, and you will see endless facades of glass also rising. Looking at this one would
guess that this is the region where every glass processor would want to be, so what is the
reason that a value-added glass industry in the country is not booming?

Low demand drivers

Consumer awareness. Perhaps, the most important reason for low volume of value added
glasses can be attributed to consumers. As glass has gained increased popularity in the last
fifteen years, most consumers in India are not aware of type of value-added glass and their
respective advantages. Consumers are not aware of the availability of various types of glass
and what benefits each one gives. Most customers have the perception that glass is something
that is transparent and very fragile. Fragmented nature of the industry. It is no secret that the
glass processing industry in India is much disorganized. Because of the fragmented nature of
the industry, glass processors, whole sellers, glaziers, and all other participants are short-term
driven. Almost no effort has been put into customer service, reducing costs, or systematically
developing markets. spiraling Costs. The glass industry is also weighed down by the spiraling
cost of manufacturing. Energy costs are increasing, as are those of raw materials and
infrastructure. The regulatory framework of building codes for safety and energy also needs
to keep pace with industry growth and new glass uses. In case value-added glass has to make
inroads in India at a scale and pace comparison to European countries, then prices will have
to come down and in a hurry. Lack of knowledge among architects. It may seem strange that
many architects are not aware of the type of value-added glass available, and many turn to
glass processors to suggest a type of glass for a particular application. Because glass is a
relatively new product in building applications, those who use are still learning about
applications and benefits of various types of glass. Price sensitivity of Indian consumers.
Despite robust economic growth during the last decade, Indian consumers and the Indian
market are very price sensitive. With a price differential between basic flat glass and value-
added glass, consumers would rather opt for the basic glass type. Low penetration in the
residential sector. Use of value-added glass has gained popularity in commercial buildings to
a large extent, but residential buildings, which are a major source of demand for these glass
types, are not using much of thee products. Value-added glass is finding application in only a
minuscule number of residential units. Lack of codes. Another dire problem facing the value-
added glass industry is back of any codes for the products. There are no government
guidelines for the use of any particular type of glass. There was an initiative by one of the
state governments to make the use of tempered glass mandatory in commercial buildings, but
it has yet to see the light of the day. A drive to adopt a ruling similar to that of Germany's for
use of low E glass in windows can drive demand for value added glass in India.

An overriding theme for glass packaging is that of reduced growth opportunities in mature
regions and mature product categories. Fast-developing economies in Asia Pacific, Latin
America and Middle East and Africa regions, meanwhile, are pivotal in supporting current
and forecast global volume sales growth for glass.

As disposable incomes increases amongst these dynamic economies and the retail
infrastructure continues to develop, a subsequent rise in consumption of packaged food and
beverages drives growth of glass.

The very first glass known to stone age people which was used for making weapons and decorative
objects, was obsidian, black volcanic glass. The earliest known man made glass are date back to
around 3500bc, with finds in Egypt and eastern Mesopotamia. Discovery of glassblowing around
1st century be was a major breakthrough in glass making.


The history of glassmaking can be traced back to 3000 be in Mesopotamia. Glass appears to have
been produced as far back as 1500 bc by the egyptians and perhaps the phoenicians. Glass uses and
manufacturing developments have gone through an interesting evolution throughout human history,
influenced by many cultures including those in africa, china and europe.


The beginning of stained glass windows dates back in ancient times. Both the Egyptians and the
Romans manufactured small colored glass objects. Stained glass became art form sometime in the
fourth century when Christian began to build elaborate churches to celebrate their religion.

Glass blowing history

Glassblowing was invented during the 1st century bc by the glassmakers of Syria. This
revolutionary technique made glass production easier and quickly. As it became well known,
different cultures, religious, and regions adapted it for unique purposes and glass blowing quickly
became a favorite glass made method.


The earliest known manmade glass is in the form of egyptian beads and date back to 3100 bc. The
first glass was produced probably in egypt in 1500bc. Technique of glass blowing was introduced
in the babylon area in 1ad.
Glass was first made in the ancient world, but little is known about man’s first efforts to make
glass. Amulets and solid beads were made in Mesopotamia as far back as 2500BC. Later, glass
making was further developed in Egypt around 1500BC.
People had used naturally occurring glass, especially obsidian (the volcanic glass) before they
learned how to make glass. Obsidian was used for production of knives, arrowheads, jewelry and

The ancient Roman historian Pliny suggested that Phoenician merchants had made the first glass in
the region of Syria around 5000BC. But according to the archaeological evidence, the first man
made glass was in Eastern Mesopotamia and Egypt around 3500BC and the first glass vessels were
made about 1500BC in Egypt and Mesopotamia. For the next 300 years, the glass industry was
increased rapidly and then declined. In Mesopotamia it was revived in the 700BC and in Egypt in
the 500’s BC. For the next 500 years, Egypt, Syria and the other countries along the eastern coast of
the Mediterranean Sea were centers for glass manufacturing.

In the beginning it was very hard and slow to manufacture glass. Glass melting furnaces were
small and the heat they produced was hardly enough to melt glass. But in the 1st century BC,
Syrian craftsmen invented the blow pipe. This revolutionary discovery made glass production
easier, faster and cheaper. Glass production flourished in the Roman Empire and spread from Italy
to all countries under its rule. In 1000 AD the Egyptian city of Alexandria was the most important
center of glass manufacture. Throughout Europe the miraculous art of making stained glass on
churches and cathedrals across the continent reached its height in the finest Chatres and
Conterbury cathedral windowsproduced in the 13th and 14th centuries.
Blue Perfume Flask with a White Trail, Roman, A.D. 1–100, glass, 4 3/4 in. high

2,000 years ago for eating and drinking.

The ancient Greeks, Romans, and Etruscans stored ink, food, cosmetics, and perfumed oil in glass

They used glass tableware and played with glass game pieces. They looked into glass mirrors, lit
the night with glass lamps, and gazed through glass windows. The wealthy decorated their homes
with glass mosaics, inlays, and statuettes.

Perfume was precious and merited fine containers such as this one. A glassmaker inflated this
vessel and then wound a white trail around the blue glass body to create an elegant pattern.

Core-Formed Glass
White Perfume Flask with Purple Zigzags, Greek, 600–300 B.C.E., glass, 5 3/16 in. high (The J.
Paul Getty Museum)

Core forming was one of the earliest glassmaking techniques. Glassmakers shaped the body of the
vessel around a core of ceramic-like material, wound colored trails of hot glass around it, and added
handles and a rim. They then let the vessel cool and removed the core. Most early core-formed
containers were small flasks for perfumed oil, such as this one, which is only about five inches
tall. The coloration of the container shown here indicates that it was meant to imitate marble.
Amber Bowl with White Ridges, Roman, 1–100 C.E., glass 4 1/16 in. diameter (The J. Paul Getty

Cast Glass

Casting is a technique of pouring hot glass into a mold. After the glass cools, glassmakers use
various grinding and cutting techniques to refine the vessel's form and decoration. Decorative
patterns are sometimes cut into the sides with a cutting wheel.

Bowls were the most common cast vessels. Pendants, inlays, and other small objects were also
created using this technique.
The bowl above has two layers of different colors. Much of the white overlayer was removed
through grinding, leaving ridges of white over the amber underlayer.

Mosaic Glass

Mosaic glass vessels are among the most colorful ancient containers. They were formed by fusing
numerous slices or ribbons (lengths) of cane in molds until they melted together into a swirl of
colors, as seen on this blue and white bowl.

Multicolored canes and figural compositions for plaques and beads were made by layering different
colors and manipulating them into designs. Roman mosaic glass later inspired Venetian
glassmakers to create millefiori (Italian for "thousand flowers").
This pixies, a lidded cosmetics or jewelry box, is made from marbled glass, a variant of mosaic
glass. The Roman glassmaker created a swirling pattern (similar to agate) by melting multiple
colors of glass together

Free-Blown Glass

In the environs of Jerusalem, in about 50 B.C.E., glassmakers discovered they could inflate glass
into a bubble at the end of a tube. This new glassblowing technique allowed glassmakers to produce
vessels so quickly and cheaply that glass containers began to replace clay ones for household use.
Blue Splash ware Cup, Roman, 1–100 C.E, glass, 4 13/16 inches high x 5 11/16 inches in diameter
(The J. Paul Getty Museum)

Blown-glass vessels were decorated using a variety of techniques—pinching, pressing, pulling,

painting, applying trails (threads of glass), and rolling in colored glass chips before reinflating (to
create splash ware). Glass with cut decoration was made to imitate hard-to-cut rock crystal and is
often colorless. Painted glass is very rare, and the pigment has often worn away.

The splash ware cup above was a luxury item that was probably used in a wealthy home. It was
decorated by rolling hot blue glass into glass chips of other colors. glass vessels are rare, and none
have survived with their pigments intact.





From the earliest recorded history, humans have been fascinated by reflections. Narcissus was
supposedly bewitched by his own reflection in a pool of water, and magic powers are ascribed to
mirrors in fairy tales. Mirrors have advanced from reflective pools and polished metal surfaces to
clear glass handheld and bathroom mirrors. They have been used in interior decoration since the
17th century and reflective surfaces on cars and in hotel lobbies are still popular in modern design.
Mirrors are used for practical purposes as well: examining our appearance, examining what is
behind us on the road, building skyscrapers, and making scientific research instruments, such as
microscopes and lasers.
The nature of modern mirrors is not fundamentally different from a pool of water. When light
strikes any surface, some of it will be reflected. Mirrors are simply smooth surfaces with shiny,
dark backgrounds that reflect very well. Water reflects well, glass reflects poorly, and polished
metal reflects extremely well. The degree of reflectivity—how much light bounces off of a
surface—and the diffusivity of a surface—what direction light bounces off of a surface—may be
altered. These alterations are merely refinements, however. In general, all reflective surfaces, and
hence, all mirrors, are really the same in character.

Man-made mirrors have been in existence since ancient times. The first mirrors were often sheets of
polished metal and were used almost exclusively by the ruling classes. Appearance often reflected,
and in some cases determined, position and power in society, so the demand for looking glasses
was high, as was the demand for the improvement of mirror-making techniques. Silvering—the
process of coating the back of a glass sheet with melted silver—became the most popular method
for making mirrors in the 1600s. The glass used in these early mirrors was often warped, creating a
ripple in the image. In some severe cases, the images these mirrors reflected were similar to those
we'd see in a fun-house mirror today. Modern glassmaking and metallurgical techniques make it
easy to produce sheets of glass that are very flat and uniformly coated on the back, improving
image clarity tremendously. Still, the quality of a mirror depends on the time and materials
expended to make it. A handheld purse mirror may reflect a distorted image, while a good
bathroom mirror will probably have no noticeable distortions. Scientific mirrors are designed with
virtually no imperfections or distorting qualities whatsoever.

Materials technology drastically affects the quality of a mirror. Light reflects best from surfaces
that are non-diffusive, that is, smooth and opaque, rather than transparent. Any flaw in this
arrangement will detract from the effectiveness of the mirror. Innovations in mirror making have
been directed towards flattening the glass used and applying metal coatings of uniform thickness,
because light traveling through different thicknesses of glass over different parts of a mirror results
in a distorted image. It is due to these irregularities that some mirrors make you look thinner and
some fatter than normal. If the metal backing on a mirror is scratched or thin in spots, the
brightness of the reflection will also be uneven. If the coating is very thin, it may be possible to see
through the mirror. This is how one-way mirrors are made. Non-opaque coating is layered over the
thin, metal backing and only one side of the mirror (the reflecting side) is lit. This allows a viewer
on the other side, in a darkened room, to see through.

Glass, the main component of mirrors, is a poor reflector. It reflects only about 4 percent of the
light which strikes it. It does, however, possess the property of uniformity, particularly when
polished. This means that the glass contains very few pits after polishing and will form an effective
base for a reflective layer of metal. When the metal layer is deposited, the surface is very even, with
no bumps or wells. Glass is also considered a good material for mirrors because it can be molded
into various shapes for specialty mirrors. Glass sheets are made from silica, which can be mined or
refined from sand. Glass made from natural crystals of silica is known as fused quartz. There are
also synthetic glasses, which are referred to as synthetic fused silica. The silica, or quartz, is melted
to high temperatures, and poured or rolled out into sheets.

A few other types of glass are used for high-quality scientific grade mirrors. These usually contain
some other chemical component to strengthen the glass or make it resistant to certain
environmental extremes. Pyrex, for example, is a borosilicate glass—a glass composed of silica and
boron—that is used when mirrors must withstand high temperatures.

In some cases, a plastic substrate will do as well as a glass one. In particular, mirrors on children's
toys are often made this way, so they don't break as easily. Plastic polymers are manufactured from
petroleum and other organic chemicals. They can be injection molded into any desired shape,
including flat sheets and circles, and can be opaque or transparent as the design requires.

These base materials must be coated to make a mirror. Metallic coatings are the most common. A
variety of metals, such as silver, gold, and chrome, are appropriate for this application. Silver was
the most popular mirror backing one hundred years ago, leading to the coinage of the term
"silvering." Old silver-backed mirrors often have dark lines behind the glass, however, because the
material was coated very thinly and unevenly, causing it to flake off, scratch or tarnish. More
recently, before 1940, mirror manufacturers used mercury because it spread evenly over the surface
of the glass and did not tarnish. This practice was also eventually abandoned, for it posed the
problem of sealing in the toxic liquid. Today, aluminum is the most commonly used metallic
coating for mirrors.

Scientific grade mirrors are sometimes coated with other materials, like silicon oxides and silicon
nitrides, in up to hundreds of layers of, each a 10,000th of an inch thick. These types of coatings,
referred to as dielectric coatings, are used both by themselves as reflectors, and as protective
finishes on metallic coatings. They are more scratch resistant than metal. Scientific mirrors also use
silver coatings, and sometimes gold coatings as well, to reflect light of a particular color of light
more or less well.


Surface regularity is probably the most important design characteristic of mirrors. Mirrors for
household use must meet roughly the same specifications as window panes and picture frame glass.
The glass sheets used must be reasonably flat and durable. The designer need only specify the
thickness required; for example, thicker mirrors are more durable, but they are also heavier.
Scientific mirrors usually have specially designed surfaces. These surfaces must be uniformly
smooth within several lOOOths of an inch, and can be designed with a specific curvature, just
like eyeglass lenses. The design principle for these mirrors is the same as that of eyewear: a mirror
may be intended to focus light as well as reflect it.

The mirror design will also specify the type of coating to be used. Coating material is chosen based
on required durability and reflectivity and, depending on the intended purpose of the mirror, it may
be applied on the front or back surface of the mirror. Any subsequent layers of protective coatings
must also be specified at this stage. For most common mirrors, the reflective coating will be applied
on the back surface of the glass because it is less likely to be harmed there. The back side is then
frequently mounted in a
The initial step in mirror manufacture involves cutting and shaping the glass blanks. Cutting is usually
done with a saw with diamond dust embedded in the tips. Next, the blanks are put in optical grinding
machines, which use abrasiveliquid plus a grinding plate to produce a very even, smooth finish on the
blanks. The reflective material is then applied in an evaporator, which heats the metal coating until
it evaporates onto the surface of the blanks.

plastic or metal frame so as to entirely seal the coating from the air and sharp objects.

For scientific use, the color, or wavelength of light, which the mirror will reflect must be considered. For
standard visible light or ultraviolet light mirrors, aluminum coatings are common. If the mirror is to be
used with infrared light, a silver or gold coating is best. Dielectric coatings are also good in the infrared
range. Ultimately, however, the choice of coating will depend on durability as well as wavelength range,
and some reflectivity may be sacrificed for resilience. A dielectric coating, for example, is much more
scratch resistant than a metallic coating and, despite the additional cost, these coatings are often added
on top of metal to protect it. Coatings on scientific grade mirrors are usually applied on the front surface
of the glass, because light which travels through glass will always distort to a small degree. This is
undesirable in most scientific applications.


The first step in manufacturing any mirror is cutting the outline of the glass "blank" to suit the
application. If the mirror is for an automobile, for example, the glass will be cut out to fit in the
mirror mount on the car. Although some mirror manufacturers cut their own glass, others receive
glass that has already been cut into blanks. Regardless of who cuts the glass, very hard, finely
pointed blades are used to do the cutting. Diamond scribes or saws—sharp metal points or saws
with diamond dust embedded in them—are often used because the diamond will wear down the
glass before the glass wears down the diamond. The cutting method used depends entirely on the
final shape the mirror will take. In one method, the blades or scribes may be used to cut partway
through the glass; pressure can then be used to break the glass along the score line. In another
method, a machine uses a diamond saw to cut all the way through the glass by drawing the blade
back and forth or up and down multiple times, like an automated bandsaw. Cutting is usually done
before the metal coating is applied, because the coating may flake off the glass as a result of the cut.
An alternative to cutting the glass to form blanks is to mold the glass in its molten state.


These machines consist of large base plates full of depressions that hold the blanks. The blank-
filled base is placed against another metal plate with the desired surface shape: flat, convex, or
concave. A grinding compound—a gritty liquid—is spread over the glass blanks as they are rubbed
or rolled against the curved surface. The action is similar to grinding spices with a mortar and
pestle. The grit in the compound gradually wears away the glass surface until it assumes the same
shape as the grinding plate. Finer and finer grits are used until the surface is very smooth and even.

Hand grinding techniques exist as well, but they are extremely time-consuming and difficult to
control. They are only used in cases where mechanical grinding would be impossible, as is the case
with very large or unusually shaped surfaces. A commercial optical grinder can accommodate 50 to
200 blanks, which are all polished simultaneously. This is much more efficient than hand grinding.
Even specialty optics can be made mechanically in adjustable equipment.


When the glass surfaces are shaped appropriately and polished to a smooth finish, they are coated
with whatever reflective material the designer has chosen. Regardless of the coating material, it is
applied in an apparatus called an evaporator. The evaporator is a large vacuum chamber with an
upper plate for supporting the blank mirrors, and a lower crucible for melting the coating metal. It
is so called because metal is heated in the crucible to the point that it evaporates into the vacuum,
depositing a coating on the surface of the glass much like hot breath will steam a cold window.
Blanks are centered over holes in the upper plate that allow the metal vapor to reach the surface of
the glass. Metals can be heated to several hundreds or thousands of degrees (depending on the
boiling point of the metal), before they vaporize. The temperature and timing for this procedure are
controlled very precisely to achieve exactly the right thickness of metal. This method of coating
creates very uniform and highly reflective surfaces.

The shape of the holes in the upper plate will be transferred to the glass in metal, like paint through
a stencil. This effect is often used to intentionally pattern the mirror. Metal stencils, or masks, can
be applied to the surface of the glass to create one or more patterns.


Either as reflective layers or as protective layers over metal ones—are applied in much the same
way, except that gases are used instead of metal chunks. Silicon oxides and silicon nitrides are
typically used as dielectric coatings. When these gases combine in extreme heat, they react to form
a solid substance. This reaction product forms a coating just like metal does.

Several evaporation steps may be combined to make a multiple-layer coating. Clear dielectric
materials may be evaporated on top of metal or other dielectrics to change the reflective or
mechanical properties of a surface. Mirrors with silvering on the back of the glass, for instance,
often have an opaque dielectric layer applied to improve the reflectivity and keep the metal from
scratching. One-way mirrors are the exception to this procedure, in which case great care must be
taken not to damage the thin metal coating.

Finally, when the proper coatings have been applied, the finished mirror is mounted in a base or
packed carefully in a shock resistant package for shipping.

How good does a mirror have to be? Is it sufficient to have 80 percent of the light bounce off? Does
all 80 percent have to bounce in exactly the same direction? The answer is dependent on the
application. A purse mirror might only be 80 or 90 percent reflective, and might have some slight
irregularity in the thickness of the glass (like ripples on the surface of a pond). The image would be
slightly distorted in this case, but the distortion would be barely visible to the naked eye. If,
however, a mirror is to be used for a scientific application, for example in a telescope, the shape of
the surface and the reflectivity of the coating must be known to a very specific degree, to insure the
reflected light goes exactly where the telescope designer wants it, and at the right intensity. The
tolerances on the mirror will affect the cost and ease with which it can be manufactured.

Batch mirror uniformity is the first and fore-most job of quality assurance. Mirrors on the edge of a
grinding plate or evaporator chamber may not have the same surface or coating as those in the
center of the apparatus. If there is a wide range of metal thicknesses or surface flatnesses in a single
batch of mirrors, the process must be adjusted to improve uniformity.

Several methods are employed to test the integrity of a mirror. The surface quality is examined first
visually for scratches, unevenness, pits, or ripples. This can be done with the unaided eye, with a
microscope, or with an infrared photographic process designed to show differences in metal

For more stringent surface control, a profile of the mirror can be measured by running a stylus
along the surface. The position of the stylus is recorded as it is dragged across the mirror. This is
similar to the way a record player works. Like the record player, the drawback to a mechanical
stylus is that it can damage the surface it is detecting. Mirror manufacturers have come to the same
solution as the recording industry: use a laser. The laser can be used for non-destructive testing in
the same way a compact disc player reads the music from a disc without altering its surface.

In addition to these mechanical tests, mirrors may be exposed to a variety of environmental

conditions. Car mirrors, for example, are taken through extremes of cold and heat to
A typical mirror can include a metal reflective layer and one or more dielectric coatings—as protective
layers over the metal one. Dielectric coatings are applied in much the same way as metal layers, except
that gases such as silicon oxides and silicon nitrides are used instead of metal chunks.

Insure that they will withstand weather conditions, while bathroom mirrors are tested for water



The creation of mirrors begins with a single sheet of clear glass, commonly referred to as a
“lite”. The lite is placed onto the silver line and proceeds through a physical washing process.
Washing is done using pumice and deionized water with the objective to remove all
contaminants and oils that are commonly present on float glass. This cleansing process can
take up to a minute per lite and is an essential step to ensure the proper bonding of metal to
the lite. Heated deionized water rinses the glass at 40 psi and allows the lite to achieve a
temperature of 80-90 degrees Fahrenheit, which is optimum for the tinning process.


Liquefied tin is sprayed onto the surface of the cleaned lite. As silver will not adhere directly
to glass, an ultra-thin layer of tin is first applied. Tin will bond both to glass and silver. After
the tinning process, the lite is rinsed with heated deionized water, which raises the
temperature of the lite to 90-100 degrees Fahrenheit, which is optimum for the silvering


Liquefied silver is applied to the tinned lite. The silver is what gives mirrors their reflective
qualities. The liquid silver, mixed with an activator, is applied to the tinned lite at a thickness
of 70-80 milligrams per square foot. The silver hardens almost immediately upon contact with
the tin layer. The layer of silver is applied at a temperature of ~100 degrees Fahrenheit. After
the silver application, the lite is passed under a high velocity air knife to remove excess silver
and water before entering the coppering process.


A liquid copper solution consisting of copper sulfate, sulfuric acid, and iron powder is applied
to the lite at a thickness of 15-18 milligrams per square foot. The purpose of applying the
copper layer is to protect the silver layer from corrosion. The lite is rinsed, dried with
pressurized heated air ovens, and sent to the painting process.


Paint is applied to the back of the mirror to protect the plated metals. The paint is applied
using a double roll coat system, which applies two separate coats of low-lead paint to the back
of the mirror. After the protective paint layers are applied, the mirror enters the final heating


The mirror cures in the ovens as it continues down the silver line. The mirror is heated to a
temperature of 265-285 degrees Fahrenheit for ~6 minutes to properly cure. After exiting the
ovens, the mirror continues down the line to cool the mirror. Upon cooling, it is run through a
final cleaning process. Once the mirror reaches the end of the sliver line, the mirror is quality
inspected, removed from the line, and packed onto a rack for custom fabrication or


If the mirror is scheduled for custom fabrication, it is moved to appropriate fabrication
station. Custom fabrication may include cutting to pre-specified sizes (CNC cutter), beveled,
edge polishing, grooving, or safety tape backing. Upon the conclusion of fabrication, the
mirrors are packaged and shipped to our customer. Silvered Flat Glass Mirror








 Today we are living in competitive world. So every sector role is vital. At the same way in
the organization human resource role is very central.

 Every human being has the ability and potential to do remarkable things if they are
provided with opportunities and climate to understand, develop and utilize his or her

 Unfortunately, the development of people has been a neglected phenomenon in the

past and therefore, ignored by most of the organizations.
 These organizations tended to view people as mere instruments for accomplishing
organizational goals and, therefore, felt that they need to be administered or managed.
 But it is not true. In fact, complexities of modern organizations as apparent from
changing technology, increasing size of business, larger volumes of production and
greater emphasis on specialization lay stress on cutting down the costs of production,
improving the quality of product or service, enhancing market


Recruitment in Mirror precision works is a very fair and transparent process with adequate
opportunities to look for suitable candidates internally as well as from outside. Applicants are
generally invited on the basis of specific advertisements in newspapers. A committee of officers
handles the entire recruitment process comprising screening of applications, preliminary short-

listing, interviews, and final selection. All decisions of the Recruitment Committee are recorded I
respect of each candidate.

Overview of the recruitment process steps:

1) Job Position Opening – The most important process step for the successful recruitment
and selection of the good candidate. The manager and the recruitment specialist define the
profile of the position and the profile of the suitable candidate. The recruitment specialist has to

Be prepared for detailed discussions to have a good definition of the ideal job candidate.

2) Selecting recruitment source – The recruitment specialist has to decide about the
correct recruitment channels to be used and the amount of job resumes, which can be expected
to select from. This part of the recruitment process decides about the speed of the whole

3) Selecting job candidate – The process when the recruitment specialist and the manager
select the best candidates to make the offer to them. This part is usually the process step with
the biggest risk of the delay in the recruitment process.

4) Making an offer – The nicest part of the recruitment and selection process. The
recruitment specialist summarizes the requests of the manager and the wish told by the job
candidate and tries to convert the job candidate into a new hire for the organization.

Performance Management:

The Company’s performance management system is in itself a benchmark that provides ample
opportunities and motivational incentives to employees so as to reward and retain good
talent within the Company. These incentives include: performance linked incentives, good
work awards, letters of appreciation, special increments, promotions, nomination to external
training programmers in India and abroad, public felicitation, and appreciation. Some plants
have Best Employee and Employee of the Month awards

Training and Development:

The company have a new performance management system incorporates a process called
‘Competency Assessment’ and ‘Training and Developmental Needs’ wherein appraisers are
specifically called upon to identify and assess training needs of employees at specific intervals
that do not coincide with performance appraisals. This is so that training needs can be assessed
objectively. Training is imparted to take care of an individual’s career development as well as
functional and skill enhancement. Competency and development training inputs include skill
and general performance enhancement, communication skills and career development.
Functional training needs are identified and conducted by functional departments while
corporate HR organizes competency and developmental inputs.

Employee Welfare and Perquisites:

Employee welfare receives prime attention at. It has several schemes for general welfare of
employees and their families. These cover education, healthcare, retirement benefits, loans and
financial assistance, and recreation facilities

Employee Satisfaction:

 The salient points of the survey of employees are shared below:

 People are treated fairly regardless of religion and


 Mirror precision works a safe place to work.

Management is competent in running business.

 Employees feel good about what Mirror precision works

does for society. Management thinks positively.


Awards are instituted by the company in the recognition of outstanding work

performance, useful suggestions for the improvements, & contributions to
technical/academic knowledge.

Counseling services are provide to enhance employees competence & job satisfaction, to
prepare them for future responsibilities, to establish better working relationship & to cope up
with personal problems. Counseling is carried out by HRD appraisers & professional counselors.


This is ensuring that people of the right caliber are available to meet the present & future
requirements of organization. The process identifies the necessity inputs aim at imparting
technical/managerial knowledge, interpersonal skills & attitudes that will helping dealing with
the external & internal environments. Other factors to develop potential include activities such
as exposure to new functional projects.


The manager in Mirror precision works organization will prepare a succession plan to all
position under him with the guidance of Deputy managing; identify the right incumbents
with high potential for all positions, concerned HOD & unit chief shall implement the process. HR
departments shall Co-ordinate this activity. Succession planning & career planning shall be reviewed
every 6 month in the company.
It shall endeavor to uphold the dignity of individuals, by making feel proud partners in
progress, through the following measures:

 Ensure a high degree of selectivity in recruitment of employees/trainees explicitly

on Criteria of their knowledge, skills & attitudes, so as to secure super achievers &
nurture them to excel in there.
 Impact such induction, orientation & training, as to match the individual to the task
& inculcate a high sense of organizational loyalty.
 Provides facilities for all round growth of the individual by training in & outside the
organization, lateral mobility & self development through self motivation.
 Groom every individual to realize his potential in all facts while contributing to
attain higher organizational & personal goals.
 Build teams & faster team work as the primary instrument in all activities.
 Recognize worthy contributions in time & appropriately so as to maintain a high
level of employee’s motivation & morale. Appraisal & promotion shall be ethical &
 Implement equitable, scientific & objective system of rewards, incentives & control.

 Contribute towards health & welfare of employees.










Marketing deals with identifying and meeting human and social needs. One of the shortest
definitions of marketing is “meeting needs profitably”.
AMERICAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION offers the formal definition of marketing “Marketing is
an organizational function and a set of processes for creating, communicating and delivering
value to customers and for managing customer relationships in ways that benefit the
organization and its stake holders”


Marketing Management can be defined as the art and science of choosing target markets
and getting, meeting and growing customers through creating, delivering and
communicating superior customer value.

Marketing mix

Marketing mix is defined as the set of marketing tools the firm uses to pursue its
marketing objectives. McCarthy classified these tools into 4 broad groups called 4 P’s of


The following features of the products are considered before releasing a product for
sale. Quality


Legal Aspects.


The price is the simply amount a customer pays for the product. If the price outweighs the
perceived benefits for an individual, the perceived value of the offering will be low and it will be
unlikely to be adopted, but if the benefits are perceived as greater than their costs, chances of

Trial and adoption of the product is much greater.

Promotion is a communication process for informing the customer and company about the
product, which they create for sale. It covers also adoption of method for increasing sales by
motivation of customers, stockiest and retailers and sales force. Hopp national Glass Adopts
various types of sales promotion tools like discounts, gifts, other incentives, and sometimes
company sends their dealers and distributors on tour in Darjeeling, Shiliguri, Sikim etc.

Mirror precision works industry limited invites contract of advertisement to private agencies,
which look after all the functions regarding advertising. Mirror precision works uses different
modes of media vehicle to reach the people such as:
 Local newspaper
 Magazines
 Poster and wall points








 “Money makes many things happen,” goes the saying and obviously financial
management is the one of the four important areas of the management.
 The major objective of any business firm is to make profit for its proprietor, apart
from the primary objective of enhancing long-term shareholder value.
 To reach this objective, the firm purchases, organizes and manages various factors of
production, and then produces the output to sell, and all these processes require funds.
Finance is, therefore, said to be the circulatory system of the economic body of the
 Financial management is the administrative function, which relates to management of
cash and credit.
 The central feature of the financial department is the formulation of the firm’s strategy
in determining the most effective use of funds and selecting the most favorable
sources of additional funds that the firm would require in future.

Function of Financial Management:

The function and responsibility of the finance and account wings include the following:

 Analyze the financial results of all operation, report the facts to management and
make recommendations concerning future operations.
 Develop the best plans to obtain the external funds needed

 Determine the financial resource required to meet the corporation operating and
capital expenditure program.
 Establish and maintain a system of financial control governing the allocation and use
of the funds.
 Planning and forecasting

 Coordinating of other deportment


Working capital is that position of the assets of a business which are used in or related to
current operations and represented at any one time by operating cycle of such items as against
receivables, inventories of raw materials, stores, work in progress and finished goods,
merchandise, notes or bills receivables and cash. In accounting, working capital is the
difference between the inflow and outflow of funds (net cash inflow).


Working Capital Management is concerned to manage the current assets, the current
liabilities and interrelationship that exist between them. Working Capital Management
involves both setting working capital policy and carrying out that policy in day to day
operations. The goal of working capital management is to manage the firm’s current assets
and liabilities in such a way that a satisfactory level of working capital is maintained.


Investment decisions refer to selection of various assets on which funds are invested, it is
concerned with allocation or deployment of funds among various short term and long term
assets. In short it is concerned with asset mix decision.


Financing decisions also called as Capital Structure decisions are concerned with selection of
various sources of financing and their appropriate mix. It involves the study of internal and
external sources of financing. It covers both Debt (External) and Equity (Internal) sources of


The company follows the long term & short term strategy for all departments. It is the
process of establishing long term quality goals &defining the approach to meet these goals


 Cash

 Trade credit

 Credit

 Commercial banks

 Installments credits

Advance received from customers

The company is maintaining centralized cash system. All the cash and bank transaction
disbursement made through corporate office. But factory units are maintaining small petty cash
transaction, monthly once petty cash transactions reconcile with main accounts. The company
maintaining banking account in different branches:






Major function of finance department at Mirror precision works industry limited

is as Follows:
 Preparation of budget, appropriation of accounts, re-appropriations, surrenders a
 The functions relating to its entire obligation like salary to employee’s payment of
 Legal and professional charges, audit fees, vehicle etc.

 Operation and maintenance, printing and stationary expenses, charges like payment

 Interest on loan, interest on working capital loan, bank charges and other interest.

 Company is also getting income from interest through Bank Deposit, company hire

 Purchase system for purchasing material, vehicles, machineries and equipment.

 The function relating to purchases include making payment to supplier, getting the

 Discounting allowed by the supplier and takes the advantage of cash advance being
received by the customers.

 Administration of Taxes i.e. Sales Tax, purchase Tax, Income Tax etc







It is concerned with planning, organizing, controlling the flow of materials from their initial
Purchase through internal operation to the service point distribution.
Material management is a specific scientific technique concerned with planning,
Organizing, controlling flow of materials from their initial purchase to destination.

System and Advance Adopted In Material Department:

The stores are concerned with receipt issue and storage of materials at the store deportment
Receives a copy of the production order from production control department these are
maintained in chronological sequence for guide reference. The materials accounted in
receiving stores and bills are prepared thus the receiving stores prepared report. A separate
place is available to keep the rejected materials to be returned back to that particular supplier
or sub contractor.

Challenges for Material Management Department:

The major challenge that materials departments face is maintaining a consistent flow of
materials for production. There are many factors that inhibit the accuracy of inventory which
results in production shortages, premium freight, and often inventory adjustments. The major
issues that all materials departments face is incorrect bills of materials, inaccurate cycle
counts, unreported Scrap, shipping errors, receiving errors, and production reporting errors.
Materials Department have striven to determine how to manage these issues in the business
sectors of Manufacturing


Maintenance management is concerned with planning, organizing and directing the resources
in Order to control the availability and performance of the industrial plants to some specified


 Break down or corrective maintenance.

Preventive maintenance.
 Predictive maintenance.
 Routine maintenance.
Planned maintenance.

Maintenance department in industry limited worked under the control of Mr. Prudhvi, Head
Technician, and this department is concerned with maintaining the healthy condition of the
Machines and equipment of the company for regular operations. In Mirror precision works
daily, weekly, monthly maintenance activities are carried on. Maintenance Department at
Mirror precision works follows preventive, predictive such as flux meter (measuring of Light),
temperature, sound meter etc as well as some times break down maintenance too.

 Preventive and break down maintenance of machine

 Maintenance of tool
 New installation of equipment
 Keeping stock of spares
 Plant protection
 Waste disposal.



Quality is the fitness to end use. It is all pervasive. In this modern & competitive world each
& every company is training hard to introduce quality products. Mirror precision works is
one such industry whose priority is not to be number one in quantity but in quality and
reliability Mirror precision works tries to see that the quality of a product is ensured by the
total Investment of all workers. There are very skilled & smart employees who actively take
part in Quality improvement.


The Plant laboratory is certified by the State Professional Inspection Agency. The factory
functions in compliance with ISO 9000 (MNS ISO 9001:2000, MNS ISO/IEC 17025) quality
control system. It is fully equipped and capable of all chemical, physical and mechanical
testing of glass. The Plant laboratory technician is responsible for the implementation of
quality standards, Practical operation and management of the laboratory, product testing and
efficiency evaluation. Using modern computer-monitoring equipment, all stages of the
cement manufacturing process and capacity modifications are supervised by the Plant
laboratory - such as the strength and quality of the limestone and flashy used, limestone silos,
cement silos, cement crushers, raw mix Viscosity. Laboratory is fully equipped with German
technology of the highest standards. All the necessary supplies, such as chemicals and
measuring equipment, have been purchased from state-registered companies. Product
samples are taken by professional researchers who update the daily report book in order to
monitor the quality of the output and the efficiency of the operation.

Problem Identification

Problem Analysis

Problem correction

Feedback to Quality Assurance


Input from Quality Control

Data Gathering

Problem Trend Analysis

Process Identification

Process Analysis

 To evaluate batch records.

 To ensure that all necessary testing is carried out.

 To approve specifications, sampling instructions, test methods and other Quality

Control Procedure.
 To check the maintenance of the department, premises
and equipment. To ensure that the appropriate validations
are done.
 To ensure that the required initial and continuing training of his department
personnel is Carried out and adapted according to need.




SWOT Analysis explores the relationship between the environmental influences and the strategic
Capabilities of an organization compared to its competitors. The importance of SWOT is
revealed by the value of the strategies it generates. A SWOT item that generates no strategies is
not SWOT analysis is just one method of categorization and has its own weaknesses. For
example, it May tend to persuade companies to compile lists rather than think about what is
actually Important in achieving objectives. It also presents the resulting lists uncritically and
without clear Prioritization so that, for example, weak opportunities may appear to balance
strong threats. The usefulness of SWOT analysis is not limited to profit-seeking organizations.
SWOT analysis May be used in any decision-making situation when a desired end-state
(objective) has been defined. Examples include: non-profit organizations, governmental units,
and individuals. SWOT analysis may also be used in pre-crisis planning and preventive crisis
management. SWOT analysis may also be used in creating a recommendation during a viability
study survey

 Availability of raw materials
 Ever increasing market demand.
 Better quality products being manufactured as compared to competitors
 Latest technologies being used
 Labor Intensive
 Glassware industry is driven by user segment manufacturing chemicals, food etc. Thus,
this segment is highly competitive, demanding and well integrated with global trends.
 Decades of experience with many of the existing firms

 Energy cost includes power consumption and running cost of furnaces.
 Safety and environmental factors are also important factors.
 Shortage of electricity
 Low labor productivity.
 Higher taxes as compared.
 Lack of financial support for working capital requirements

 Changing customer preferences.
 Glassware serves as best option for packaging industry, especially for food products
due to inert properties of glass.
 Huge potential in the domestic market especially for kitchenware as the lifestyles are
becoming more modern
 Scope of growth in exports due to better quality being offered by domestic
manufacturers and reputation of the firms

 Cost in competitiveness
 Shortage of natural gas i.e. the main fuel for heating the furnace
 Cartelization of the three major companies supplying soda ash, thus leading costs
 Low price Chinese products available in India are causing production of some
products like chandeliers unviable.

In the light of the major findings observed above, the following suggestions have been made for
improving the quality of training practices at mirror precision works limited and for excelling the
performance of the operating staff of cement industry in general and mirror precision works in
 India has well and valuable resource, mirror precision works has to make proper
utilization of the same.
 Mirror precision works limited has to adopt new methods and strategies in its
manufacturing and marketing area & it will make some profit in short while.
 As the training programmers inspire creativity/innovation there should be at least one
training programs in a year for all groups of employees.
 Most of the employees do not get the opportunity to attend training from the external
agencies hence efforts should be made to include such employees.
 To make the current training method (i.e. lecture) a grand success, it should be backed up
 by improved methods like demonstration, role play, simulation, audio/video tapes, etc
 To combat stress at the workplace, the authorities concerned should make efforts to
include relaxation techniques as yoga, pranayama, meditation, etc. in the regular training
programs. However, it should be borne in mind that training in the above should be made
available from the competent professionals.

 In train period modern and attractive style and systems are needed “In training and
 Safety Observation Tours (SOT) conducted ones in a sixth month by all line managers.
 Conducting Behavioral Safety Training programmes for workers at plant

1. The organization study is really helps to get a clear idea about functions of the
organizations. Even the organization to function well requires the support of so many
hands. Over all study of the organization helps in knowing the interrelation between the
entire department and their role in helping the organization to attain its goals. The
understanding of each and every department gives the practical experience about all the
theoretical aspects that are studied, and where this is example like induction program
which is created positive impression
2. So, the industry Limited has huge opportunities in future. Now day’s construction and
Infrastructure industries are booming in our country. I hope this occasion will make the
Industry. Limited huge profit & transform the position of mirror precision works in a top
level in Packaging and Glass industry.
3. The organizational study of mirror precision works has helped me to get the deep insight of
all the functional departments and their unique role in fulfilling the organizational goals.
It also helped me in experiencing the practicality of the theoretical knowledge that is a
part of our curriculum

1. Quality system manual of meher
2. ISO9000 manual 1998
3. Company record Making brochures and manuals
4. News papers – industrial manual, Business line, Financial daily
5. Search magazines
6. Electrical india
7. Industrial development.