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Conversion Equivalents

Fraction/Decimal/Metric/Equivalents
Fraction Decimal Metric Fraction Decimal Metric
1/64 0.0156 0.40 17/32 0.5312 13.49
1/32 0.0312 0.79 35/64 0.5468 13.89
3/64 0.0468 1.19 9/16 0.5625 14.29
1/16 0.0625 1.59 37/64 0.5781 14.68
5/64 0.0781 1.98 19/32 0.5937 15.08
3/32 0.0937 2.38 39/64 0.6093 15.48
7/64 0.1093 2.78 5/8 0.6250 15.88
1/8 0.1250 3.18 41/64 0.6406 16.27
9/64 0.1406 3.57 21/32 0.6562 16.67
5/32 0.1562 3.97 43/64 0.6718 17.06
11/64 0.1718 4.36 11/16 0.6875 17.46
3/16 0.1875 4.76 45/64 0.7031 17.86
13/64 0.2031 5.16 23/32 0.7187 18.25
7/32 0.2187 5.55 47/64 0.7343 18.65
15/64 0.2343 5.95 3/4 0.7500 19.05
1/4 0.2500 6.35 49/64 0.7656 19.45
9/32 0.2656 6.75 25/32 0.7812 19.84
19/64 0.2812 7.14 51/64 0.7968 20.24
5/16 0.2968 7.54 13/16 0.8125 20.64
21/64 0.3125 7.94 53/64 0.8281 21.03
11/32 0.3281 8.33 27/32 0.8437 21.43
23/64 0.3437 8.73 55/64 0.8593 21.83
3/8 0.3593 9.13 7/8 0.8750 22.23
25/64 0.3750 9.53 57/64 0.8906 22.62
13/32 0.3906 9.92 29/32 0.9062 23.02
27/64 0.4062 10.32 5/64 0.9218 23.41
7/16 0.4218 10.71 15/16 0.9375 23.81
29/64 0.4375 11.11 61/64 0.9531 24.21
15/32 0.4531 11.51 31/32 0.9687 24.60
31/64 0.4687 11.90 63/64 0.9843 25.00
1/2 0.4843 12.30 1 1.0000 25.40
33/64 0.5156 13.10

INCH to METRIC POUNDS to METRIC


1 inch = 25.400 millimeters 1 ounce = 28.35 grams
1 foot = 0.3048 metres 1 pound = .4536 kilograms
1 mile = 1.609 kilometers
POUNDS/INCHES to METRIC
SQ INCH to METRIC 1 pound per square inch = .0703 kilogram per square centim etre
1 sq. inch = 6.4516 sq. centimetres 1 pound per square inch = .0703 atmosphere (metric)
1 sq. foot = .0929 sq. metres
FAHRENHEIT to CELSIUS
CU. INCH to METRIC (ºF minus 32º) x .556 = ºCelsius
1 cu. inch = 16.387 cu. centimetres

IMPERIAL to METRIC
1 fluid ounce = 28.413 millitres
1 gallon = 4.546 litres
CE - RJ - PHG - 250- 09/02 - Copyright 2002 by Würth

02 0050
Fastener Identification

Phillips Slot Pozi Drive Hexagon Hex Slotted Slotted Robertson


Washer Hex Hex
Head Washer

Hex Slotted Phillips Torx


Socket Robertson Hex Head
Combo

Round Flat Pan Truss Oval Hex Flange Round Hex


Washer Washer

Fastener Comparison Chart


Inch Metric
UNC UNF Coarse Fine Extra Fine
1-64 1-72 M 2 x 0.4
3-48 3-56 M 2.5 x 0.45
4-40 4-48 M 3 x 0.5
6-32 6-40 M 3.5 x 0.6
8-32 8-36 M 4 x 0.7
10-24 10-32 M 5 x 0.8
1/4-20 1/4-28 M6 x 1
5/16-18 5/16-24 M 8 x 1.25 1.0
3/8-16 3/8-24 M 10 x 1.5 1.25 1.0
7/16-14 7-16-20 M 12 x 1.75 1.5 1.25
1/2-13 1/2-20 M 14 x 2 1.5 1.25
5/8-11 5/8-18 M 16 x 2 1.5
3/4-10 3/4-16 M 18 x 2.5 1.5
7/8-9 7/8-14 M 20 x 2.5 2.0 1.5
1-8 1-14 M 24 x 3 2.0
1-1/8-7 1-1/8-12 M 30 x 3.5 2.0
1-1/4-7 1-1/4-12 M 36 x 4
CE - RJ - PHG - 250- 09/02 - Copyright 2002 by Würth

02 0051
Metric Bolt Identification
Length (mm)

Diameter
(mm)

Thread Pitch
(mm)

Size Example M 16 x 2.0 x 60


Dia TPI Length

Identification Specification Material Proof Yeild Strength Tensile Imperial


Grade Mark Load (psi) Min (psi) Strength (psi) Equivalent

ISO R 898 Low or Median


33,000 36,000 60,000 Grade 2
Class 4.6 Steel

ISO R 898 Median


8.8 Class 4.6 Steel
85,000 92,000 120,000 Grade 5

ISO R 898 Alloy


10.9 Class 10.9 Steel
120,000 130,000 150,000 Grade 8

ISO R 898 Alloy


12.9 Class 12.9 Steel
145,000 162,000 180,000 A9, L9, etc.

Chromium 64,800 72,000 80,000 thru 304-307


A2 A 2-70
Nickel Alloy 76,900 85,500 95,000 (18.8)

Chromium 64,800 72,000 80,000 thru 316


A4 A 4-70
Nickel Alloy 76,900 85,500 95,000 (16.10)
CE - RJ - PHG - 250- 09/02 - Copyright 2002 by Würth

02 0060
Standard Bolt Identification
Length (inches)

Diameter
(inches)

No. of threads per


inch

Size Example 5/8 - 11 x 5


Dia TPI Length

Identification Specification Material Proof Yeild Strength Tensile Imperial


Grade Mark Load (psi) Min (psi) Strength (psi) Equivalent

SAE J429 Grade 2 Low or Median


33,000 36,000 60,000 Class 4.6
ASTM 8307 Steel

SAE J429 Grade 5 Medium Carbon 85,000 92,000 thru 120,000 thru
ASTM A449 Class 8.8
Steel 74,000 81,000 105,000

SAE J429 Grade 8 Medium Alloy


120,000 130,000 150,000 Class 10.9
ASTM A354 Steel

304-307 (18.8) Chromium 64,800 72,000 80,000 thru


A2
F593C ASTM 193 Nickel Alloy 76,900 85,500 95,000

F593 316 (16.10) Chromium 64,800 72,000 80,000 thru


A4
ASTM 193 Nickel Alloy 76,900 85,500 95,000
C316
CE - RJ - PHG - 250- 09/02 - Copyright 2002 by Würth

02 0061
Electrical Wire/Connector Identification
Wire Conversion Table - Bare Conductor Stud Size Chart
Gauge Dia (inches) Dia (mm) Inches mm
4/0 0.460 11.68 #0 1.52
3/0 0.410 10.41 #1 1.85
2/0 0.365 9.27 #2 2.18
1/0 0.325 8.26 #3 2.51
1 0.289 7.34 #4 2.85
2 0.258 6.55 #5 3.18
3 0.229 5.82 #6 3.50
4 0.204 5.18 #8 4.17
5 0.182 4.62
#10 4.83
6 0.162 4.11
7 0.144 3.66 #12 5.50
8 0.128 3.25 1/4 6.35
9 0.114 2.90
10 0.102 2.59 5/16 7.93
11 0.091 2.31
12 0.081 2.06
3/8 9.53
13 0.072 1.83
14 0.064 1.63
15 0.057 1.45
7/16 11.10
16 0.051 1.30
17 0.045 1.14
18 0.040 1.02 1/2 12.70
19 0.036 0.91
20 0.032 0.81
21 0.0285 0.72
22 0.0253 0.64 5/8 15.90
23 0.0226 0.57
24 0.0201 0.51

3/4 19.10

7/8 22.23

1 25.40
CE - RJ - PHG - 250- 09/02 - Copyright 2002 by Würth

02 0070
NPT/Tube Fitting Identification - Actual Sizes Shown

Pipe Thread Diameters (Outside) Tubing Diameters (Outside)


2 NPT
1-1/4 NPT 11 1/2 T.P.I. 1-1/2 NPT 5/8" 3/4" 7/8" 1"
11 1/2 T.P.I. 11 1/2 T.P.I.

3/4 NPT 1 NPT


14 T.P.I. 11 1/2 T.P.I.

3/8 NPT 1/2 NPT


18 T.P.I. 14 T.P.I.
1/8" 3/16" 1/4" 5/16" 3/8" 1/2"

1/8 NPT 1/4 NPT


27 T.P.I. 18 T.P.I.

Tube Fitting Size and Thread Standards


45° S.A.E. Flare 37° S.A.E. Flare
O.D. Tube Size O.D. Thread O.D. Thread
1/8 5/16 24 5/16 24
3/16 3/8 24 3/8 24
1/4 7/16 20 7/16 20
5/16 1/2 20 1/2 20
3/8 5/8 18 9/16 18
1/2 3/4 16 3/4 16
5/8 7/8 14 7/8 14
3/4 1-1/16 14 1-1/16 12
7/8 1-1/4 12 1-3/16 12
1 1-3/8 12 1/5/16 12
1-1/4 1-5/8 12
1-1/2 1-7/8 12
2 2-1/2 12

Wheel Weight Identification


Conversion Chart
Ounces Grams Ounces Grams
-1/4 5 +1 1/2 45
+1/4 10 +1 3/4 50
+1/2 15 -2 55
-3/4 20 +2 60
-1 25 -2 1/2 70
+1 30 +2 3/4 80
CE - RJ - PHG - 250- 09/02 - Copyright 2002 by Würth

-1 1/4 35 +3 1/4 90
-1 1/2 40

02 0071
Glossary of Terms
ACORN NUT GALVANIC CORROSION
A nut (so-called because of its shape) that has a domed top that so An accelerated degree of corrosion occurring when two different
it prevents contact with the external thread. metals are in contact with moisture, particularly sea water.

ALLOY STEEL GIMLET POINT


A mixture (or alloy) of ordinary steel added to other metals besides A threaded cone point usually having a point angle of 45-50 de-
carbon with the specific purpose of attaining certain characteristics grees.
such as higher strength. A few exceptions to this definition exist,
however, so that a chromium content above 4% is not considered HARDENED WASHERS
alloy steel and above 12% is considered stainless steel. The force under the head of a bolt or nut can exceed, at high pre-
loads, the compressive yield strength of the clamped material. If
ANAEROBIC ADHESIVE this occurs excessive embedding and deformation can result in bolt
An adhesive which hardens in the absence of air, such adhesives preload loss. To overcome this hardened washers under the bolt
are often used as a thread locking medium. head can be used to distribute the force over a wider area into the
clamped material. A more modern alternative is to use a flange
ANSI Stands for American National Standards Institute. headed nuts and bolts.

ANTI-SEIZE COMPOUND HEAT TREATMENT


An anti-seize compound is used on the threads of fasteners in some Heating often combined with cooling at controlled temperatures in
applications. The purpose of the compound depends upon the ap- order to strengthen and harden a fastener.
plication. It can prevent galling of mating surfaces such com-
pounds are frequently used with stainless steel fasteners to prevent HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT
this effect from occurring. In some applications it is used to im- Hydrogen trapped under the surface of a fastener can later cause
prove corrosion resistance to allow the parts to be subsequently ruptures. It is generally associated with carbon and alloy steels,
dis-assembled. Thirdly, it can provide a barrier to water penetra- not stainless. There may be no external signs of corrosion before a
tion since the threads are sealed by use of the compound. break occurs.

ASME IFI
Stands for American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Stands for Industrial Fasteners Institute.

ASTM ISO
Stands for American Society for Testing and Materials Stands for International Organization for Standardization.

BEARING SURFACE JAM NUT


The part of a fastener such as the washer face of a nut or under A thinner nut that is "jammed" against another nut to prevent loos-
the head of a machine screw that actually comes in contact with the ening.
part it fastens.
KEPS
CHAMFER A pre-assembled nut and washer assembly (the washer is attached
A slight rounding on the end of a fastener or the edges of a hex nut to the nut so that it won't fall off).
for ease of assembly or smoother appearance.
LOCK NUT
GALLING (also called SEIZING) A nut which provides extra resistance to vibration loosening by ei-
When two metals or fasteners stick together and cannot be easily ther providing some form of prevailing torque, or, in free spinning
loosened. In tightening fasteners, for example, pressure builds on nuts, by deforming and/or biting into mating parts when fully tight-
threads as metals rub against each other, and the passive film pre- ened.
venting corrosion on stainless may not for due to lack of oxygen.
NON-FERROUS
Metals without iron. Brass and silicon bronze are non-ferrous;
stainless is often characterized as non-ferrous, but it is not non-fer-
rous.

NYLOC NUT
A torque prevailing nut that uses a nylon patented insert to provide
a locking feature.

PITCH
The distance between two adjacent threads measured at the out-
side diameter of the threads.
CE - RJ - PHG - 250- 09/02 - Copyright 2002 by Würth

02 0080
Glossary of Terms
PREVAILING TORQUE TAP BOLT
the torque required to run a nut down a thread on certain types of Fully threaded bolt.
nuts designed to resist vibration loosening. the resistance can be
provided by a plastic insert or a noncircular head. TENSILE STRENGTH
A common measure to compare the strength of a fastener. It is the
PROPERTY CLASS load needed to pull the fastener apart.
A designation system which defines the strength of a bolt or nut.
For metric fasteners, property classes are designated by numbers TENSION WASHERS
where increasing numbers generally represent increasing tensile A general name given to spring washers, curved washers and disc
strengths. springs.

ROLL THREADING THREADLOCKER


Forming threads on a fastener by pushing or rolling dies against Can be a term used for a number of vibration resistant products
the fastener without any removal of metal. roll thread in, as op- but is now usually reserved for threadlocking adhesives.
posed to cut threading, hardens the material making the threads Specifically, a liquid anaerobic adhesive applied to nut or but
stronger. thread, once hardened it fills the inner spaces between the threads
to produce a solid plastic of a known shear strength.
SAE
Stands for Society of Automotive Engineers. UNC
Stands for Unified National Coarse
SEMS
A screw and washer assembly. A screw or bolt which has a captive UNF
washer. the washer is frequently loose on the plain shank of the Stands for Unified National Fine
fastener, the shank diameter being equal to the effective diameter
of the thread; the thread being rolled from this diameter. WASHER FACE
A circular rim on the underside of the head of a bolt or on one side
SET SCREW of a nut with the purpose of providing a flat bearing surface.
A set screw is a threaded fastener that is typically used to hold a
sleeve, collar or gear on a shaft to prevent relative motion. It is a YIELD
threaded member that normally does not have a head. Unlike The resistance to a load pulling on the middle of a fastener until
most other threaded fasteners it is basically a compression device the fastener shows permanent deformation.
normally used to generate axial thrust.
YIELD STRENGTH
SHANK The amount of pressure required to cause permanent deformity.
That portion of a bolt between the head and the threaded portion.
ZINC ELECTROPLATING
SHEAR STRENGTH Zinc electroplating is a common way to protect threaded fasteners
Measured by the push or pull against the side of a fastener until from the effects of corrosion.
the fastener breaks (for example, moving an object continually
against the side of a screw that is protruding from a wall). As a 18.8
rule of thumb, shear strength is two-thirds of tensile strength. 300 series stainless steel having approximately (not exactly) 18%
chromium and 8% nickel. Term "18.8" is used interchangeably to
SOCKET HEAD CAP SCREW characterize fasteners made of 302, 302HQ, 303, 304, 305, 384,
A screw with a round head with usually a hexagon indentation in XM7 and other variables of these grades with close chemical com-
the head for tightening purposes. Used on machine parts and is positions. there is little overall difference in corrosion resistance
typically made from high strength steel. among the 18-8 types, but slight differences in chemical composi-
tion do make certain grades more resistant than others against
STUD particular chemicals or atmospheres. "18-8" has superior corro-
A fastener which is threaded at both ends with an unthreaded sion resistance to 400 series stainless, is generally non-magnetic,
shank in between. One end (which often has a thread tolerance and is hardenable only by cold working.
which results in more thread interference) is secured into a tapped
hole the other is used with a nut.
CE - RJ - PHG - 250- 09/02 - Copyright 2002 by Würth

02 0081